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Sample records for 3d constrained triangulation

  1. Hex-dominant mesh generation using 3D constrained triangulation

    SciTech Connect

    OWEN,STEVEN J.

    2000-05-30

    A method for decomposing a volume with a prescribed quadrilateral surface mesh, into a hexahedral-dominated mesh is proposed. With this method, known as Hex-Morphing (H-Morph), an initial tetrahedral mesh is provided. Tetrahedral are transformed and combined starting from the boundary and working towards the interior of the volume. The quadrilateral faces of the hexahedra are treated as internal surfaces, which can be recovered using constrained triangulation techniques. Implementation details of the edge and face recovery process are included. Examples and performance of the H-Morph algorithm are also presented.

  2. 3D Laser Triangulation for Plant Phenotyping in Challenging Environments

    PubMed Central

    Kjaer, Katrine Heinsvig; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2015-01-01

    To increase the understanding of how the plant phenotype is formed by genotype and environmental interactions, simple and robust high-throughput plant phenotyping methods should be developed and considered. This would not only broaden the application range of phenotyping in the plant research community, but also increase the ability for researchers to study plants in their natural environments. By studying plants in their natural environment in high temporal resolution, more knowledge on how multiple stresses interact in defining the plant phenotype could lead to a better understanding of the interaction between plant responses and epigenetic regulation. In the present paper, we evaluate a commercial 3D NIR-laser scanner (PlantEye, Phenospex B.V., Herleen, The Netherlands) to track daily changes in plant growth with high precision in challenging environments. Firstly, we demonstrate that the NIR laser beam of the scanner does not affect plant photosynthetic performance. Secondly, we demonstrate that it is possible to estimate phenotypic variation amongst the growth pattern of ten genotypes of Brassica napus L. (rapeseed), using a simple linear correlation between scanned parameters and destructive growth measurements. Our results demonstrate the high potential of 3D laser triangulation for simple measurements of phenotypic variation in challenging environments and in a high temporal resolution. PMID:26066990

  3. Triangulation Based 3D Laser Imaging for Fracture Orientation Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mah, J.; Claire, S.; Steve, M.

    2009-05-01

    Laser imaging has recently been identified as a potential tool for rock mass characterization. This contribution focuses on the application of triangulation based, short-range laser imaging to determine fracture orientation and surface texture. This technology measures the distance to the target by triangulating the projected and reflected laser beams, and also records the reflection intensity. In this study, we acquired 3D laser images of rock faces using the Laser Camera System (LCS), a portable instrument developed by Neptec Design Group (Ottawa, Canada). The LCS uses an infrared laser beam and is immune to the lighting conditions. The maximum image resolution is 1024 x 1024 volumetric image elements. Depth resolution is 0.5 mm at 5 m. An above ground field trial was conducted at a blocky road cut with well defined joint sets (Kingston, Ontario). An underground field trial was conducted at the Inco 175 Ore body (Sudbury, Ontario) where images were acquired in the dark and the joint set features were more subtle. At each site, from a distance of 3 m away from the rock face, a grid of six images (approximately 1.6 m by 1.6 m) was acquired at maximum resolution with 20% overlap between adjacent images. This corresponds to a density of 40 image elements per square centimeter. Polyworks, a high density 3D visualization software tool, was used to align and merge the images into a single digital triangular mesh. The conventional method of determining fracture orientations is by manual measurement using a compass. In order to be accepted as a substitute for this method, the LCS should be capable of performing at least to the capabilities of manual measurements. To compare fracture orientation estimates derived from the 3D laser images to manual measurements, 160 inclinometer readings were taken at the above ground site. Three prominent joint sets (strike/dip: 236/09, 321/89, 325/01) were identified by plotting the joint poles on a stereonet. Underground, two main joint

  4. Onomatopoeia characters extraction from comic images using constrained Delaunay triangulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiangping; Shoji, Kenji; Mori, Hiroshi; Toyama, Fubito

    2014-02-01

    A method for extracting onomatopoeia characters from comic images was developed based on stroke width feature of characters, since they nearly have a constant stroke width in a number of cases. An image was segmented with a constrained Delaunay triangulation. Connected component grouping was performed based on the triangles generated by the constrained Delaunay triangulation. Stroke width calculation of the connected components was conducted based on the altitude of the triangles generated with the constrained Delaunay triangulation. The experimental results proved the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. Calibration Methods for a 3D Triangulation Based Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Ulrike; Böhnke, Kay

    A sensor in a camera takes a gray level image (1536 x 512 pixels), which is reflected by a reference body. The reference body is illuminated by a linear laser line. This gray level image can be used for a 3D calibration. The following paper describes how a calibration program calculates the calibration factors. The calibration factors serve to determine the size of an unknown reference body.

  6. Computing 2D constrained delaunay triangulation using the GPU.

    PubMed

    Qi, Meng; Cao, Thanh-Tung; Tan, Tiow-Seng

    2013-05-01

    We propose the first graphics processing unit (GPU) solution to compute the 2D constrained Delaunay triangulation (CDT) of a planar straight line graph (PSLG) consisting of points and edges. There are many existing CPU algorithms to solve the CDT problem in computational geometry, yet there has been no prior approach to solve this problem efficiently using the parallel computing power of the GPU. For the special case of the CDT problem where the PSLG consists of just points, which is simply the normal Delaunay triangulation (DT) problem, a hybrid approach using the GPU together with the CPU to partially speed up the computation has already been presented in the literature. Our work, on the other hand, accelerates the entire computation on the GPU. Our implementation using the CUDA programming model on NVIDIA GPUs is numerically robust, and runs up to an order of magnitude faster than the best sequential implementations on the CPU. This result is reflected in our experiment with both randomly generated PSLGs and real-world GIS data having millions of points and edges. PMID:23492377

  7. Performance Analysis of a Low-Cost Triangulation-Based 3d Camera: Microsoft Kinect System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    . K. Chow, J. C.; Ang, K. D.; Lichti, D. D.; Teskey, W. F.

    2012-07-01

    Recent technological advancements have made active imaging sensors popular for 3D modelling and motion tracking. The 3D coordinates of signalised targets are traditionally estimated by matching conjugate points in overlapping images. Current 3D cameras can acquire point clouds at video frame rates from a single exposure station. In the area of 3D cameras, Microsoft and PrimeSense have collaborated and developed an active 3D camera based on the triangulation principle, known as the Kinect system. This off-the-shelf system costs less than 150 USD and has drawn a lot of attention from the robotics, computer vision, and photogrammetry disciplines. In this paper, the prospect of using the Kinect system for precise engineering applications was evaluated. The geometric quality of the Kinect system as a function of the scene (i.e. variation of depth, ambient light conditions, incidence angle, and object reflectivity) and the sensor (i.e. warm-up time and distance averaging) were analysed quantitatively. This system's potential in human body measurements was tested against a laser scanner and 3D range camera. A new calibration model for simultaneously determining the exterior orientation parameters, interior orientation parameters, boresight angles, leverarm, and object space features parameters was developed and the effectiveness of this calibration approach was explored.

  8. Spectral triangulation: a 3D method for locating single-walled carbon nanotubes in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Wei; Bachilo, Sergei M; Vu, Michael; Beckingham, Kathleen M; Bruce Weisman, R

    2016-05-21

    Nanomaterials with luminescence in the short-wave infrared (SWIR) region are of special interest for biological research and medical diagnostics because of favorable tissue transparency and low autofluorescence backgrounds in that region. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) show well-known sharp SWIR spectral signatures and therefore have potential for noninvasive detection and imaging of cancer tumours, when linked to selective targeting agents such as antibodies. However, such applications face the challenge of sensitively detecting and localizing the source of SWIR emission from inside tissues. A new method, called spectral triangulation, is presented for three dimensional (3D) localization using sparse optical measurements made at the specimen surface. Structurally unsorted SWCNT samples emitting over a range of wavelengths are excited inside tissue phantoms by an LED matrix. The resulting SWIR emission is sampled at points on the surface by a scanning fibre optic probe leading to an InGaAs spectrometer or a spectrally filtered InGaAs avalanche photodiode detector. Because of water absorption, attenuation of the SWCNT fluorescence in tissues is strongly wavelength-dependent. We therefore gauge the SWCNT-probe distance by analysing differential changes in the measured SWCNT emission spectra. SWCNT fluorescence can be clearly detected through at least 20 mm of tissue phantom, and the 3D locations of embedded SWCNT test samples are found with sub-millimeter accuracy at depths up to 10 mm. Our method can also distinguish and locate two embedded SWCNT sources at distinct positions. PMID:27140495

  9. Spectral triangulation: a 3D method for locating single-walled carbon nanotubes in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ching-Wei; Bachilo, Sergei M.; Vu, Michael; Beckingham, Kathleen M.; Bruce Weisman, R.

    2016-05-01

    Nanomaterials with luminescence in the short-wave infrared (SWIR) region are of special interest for biological research and medical diagnostics because of favorable tissue transparency and low autofluorescence backgrounds in that region. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) show well-known sharp SWIR spectral signatures and therefore have potential for noninvasive detection and imaging of cancer tumours, when linked to selective targeting agents such as antibodies. However, such applications face the challenge of sensitively detecting and localizing the source of SWIR emission from inside tissues. A new method, called spectral triangulation, is presented for three dimensional (3D) localization using sparse optical measurements made at the specimen surface. Structurally unsorted SWCNT samples emitting over a range of wavelengths are excited inside tissue phantoms by an LED matrix. The resulting SWIR emission is sampled at points on the surface by a scanning fibre optic probe leading to an InGaAs spectrometer or a spectrally filtered InGaAs avalanche photodiode detector. Because of water absorption, attenuation of the SWCNT fluorescence in tissues is strongly wavelength-dependent. We therefore gauge the SWCNT-probe distance by analysing differential changes in the measured SWCNT emission spectra. SWCNT fluorescence can be clearly detected through at least 20 mm of tissue phantom, and the 3D locations of embedded SWCNT test samples are found with sub-millimeter accuracy at depths up to 10 mm. Our method can also distinguish and locate two embedded SWCNT sources at distinct positions.Nanomaterials with luminescence in the short-wave infrared (SWIR) region are of special interest for biological research and medical diagnostics because of favorable tissue transparency and low autofluorescence backgrounds in that region. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) show well-known sharp SWIR spectral signatures and therefore have potential for noninvasive detection and

  10. Bound constrained bundle adjustment for reliable 3D reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yuanzheng; Meng, De; Seibel, Eric J

    2015-04-20

    Bundle adjustment (BA) is a common estimation algorithm that is widely used in machine vision as the last step in a feature-based three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction algorithm. BA is essentially a non-convex non-linear least-square problem that can simultaneously solve the 3D coordinates of all the feature points describing the scene geometry, as well as the parameters of the camera. The conventional BA takes a parameter either as a fixed value or as an unconstrained variable based on whether the parameter is known or not. In cases where the known parameters are inaccurate but constrained in a range, conventional BA results in an incorrect 3D reconstruction by using these parameters as fixed values. On the other hand, these inaccurate parameters can be treated as unknown variables, but this does not exploit the knowledge of the constraints, and the resulting reconstruction can be erroneous since the BA optimization halts at a dramatically incorrect local minimum due to its non-convexity. In many practical 3D reconstruction applications, unknown variables with range constraints are usually available, such as a measurement with a range of uncertainty or a bounded estimate. Thus to better utilize these pre-known, constrained, but inaccurate parameters, a bound constrained bundle adjustment (BCBA) algorithm is proposed, developed and tested in this study. A scanning fiber endoscope (the camera) is used to capture a sequence of images above a surgery phantom (the object) of known geometry. 3D virtual models are reconstructed based on these images and then compared with the ground truth. The experimental results demonstrate BCBA can achieve a more reliable, rapid, and accurate 3D reconstruction than conventional bundle adjustment. PMID:25969115

  11. Bound constrained bundle adjustment for reliable 3D reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Yuanzheng; Meng, De; Seibel, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Bundle adjustment (BA) is a common estimation algorithm that is widely used in machine vision as the last step in a feature-based three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction algorithm. BA is essentially a non-convex non-linear least-square problem that can simultaneously solve the 3D coordinates of all the feature points describing the scene geometry, as well as the parameters of the camera. The conventional BA takes a parameter either as a fixed value or as an unconstrained variable based on whether the parameter is known or not. In cases where the known parameters are inaccurate but constrained in a range, conventional BA results in an incorrect 3D reconstruction by using these parameters as fixed values. On the other hand, these inaccurate parameters can be treated as unknown variables, but this does not exploit the knowledge of the constraints, and the resulting reconstruction can be erroneous since the BA optimization halts at a dramatically incorrect local minimum due to its non-convexity. In many practical 3D reconstruction applications, unknown variables with range constraints are usually available, such as a measurement with a range of uncertainty or a bounded estimate. Thus to better utilize these pre-known, constrained, but inaccurate parameters, a bound constrained bundle adjustment (BCBA) algorithm is proposed, developed and tested in this study. A scanning fiber endoscope (the camera) is used to capture a sequence of images above a surgery phantom (the object) of known geometry. 3D virtual models are reconstructed based on these images and then compared with the ground truth. The experimental results demonstrate BCBA can achieve a more reliable, rapid, and accurate 3D reconstruction than conventional bundle adjustment. PMID:25969115

  12. Improved EEG source localization employing 3D sensing by "Flying Triangulation"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettl, Svenja; Rampp, Stefan; Fouladi-Movahed, Sarah; Dalal, Sarang S.; Willomitzer, Florian; Arold, Oliver; Stefan, Hermann; Häusler, Gerd

    2013-04-01

    With electroencephalography (EEG), a person's brain activity can be monitored over time and sources of activity localized. With this information, brain regions showing pathological activity, such as epileptic spikes, can be delineated. In cases of severe drug-resistant epilepsy, surgical resection of these brain regions may be the only treatment option. This requires a precise localization of the responsible seizure generators. They can be reconstructed from EEG data when the electrode positions are known. The standard method employs a "digitization pen" and has severe drawbacks: It is time consuming, the result is user-dependent, and the patient has to hold still. We present a novel method which overcomes these drawbacks. It is based on the optical "Flying Triangulation" (FlyTri) sensor which allows a motion-robust acquisition of precise 3D data. To compare the two methods, the electrode positions were determined with each method for a real-sized head model with EEG electrodes and their deviation to the ground-truth data calculated. The standard deviation for the current method was 3.39 mm while it was 0.98 mm for the new method. The influence of these results on the final EEG source localization was investigated by simulating EEG data. The digitization pen result deviates substantially from the true source location and time series. In contrast, the FlyTri result agrees with the original information. Our findings suggest that FlyTri might become a valuable tool in the field of medical brain research, because of its improved precision and contactless handling. Future applications might include co-registration of multimodal information.

  13. Flying triangulation - A motion-robust optical 3D sensor for the real-time shape acquisition of complex objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willomitzer, Florian; Ettl, Svenja; Arold, Oliver; Häusler, Gerd

    2013-05-01

    The three-dimensional shape acquisition of objects has become more and more important in the last years. Up to now, there are several well-established methods which already yield impressive results. However, even under quite common conditions like object movement or a complex shaping, most methods become unsatisfying. Thus, the 3D shape acquisition is still a difficult and non-trivial task. We present our measurement principle "Flying Triangulation" which enables a motion-robust 3D acquisition of complex-shaped object surfaces by a freely movable handheld sensor. Since "Flying Triangulation" is scalable, a whole sensor-zoo for different object sizes is presented. Concluding, an overview of current and future fields of investigation is given.

  14. Reconstruction, Quantification, and Visualization of Forest Canopy Based on 3d Triangulations of Airborne Laser Scanning Point Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vauhkonen, J.

    2015-03-01

    Reconstruction of three-dimensional (3D) forest canopy is described and quantified using airborne laser scanning (ALS) data with densities of 0.6-0.8 points m-2 and field measurements aggregated at resolutions of 400-900 m2. The reconstruction was based on computational geometry, topological connectivity, and numerical optimization. More precisely, triangulations and their filtrations, i.e. ordered sets of simplices belonging to the triangulations, based on the point data were analyzed. Triangulating the ALS point data corresponds to subdividing the underlying space of the points into weighted simplicial complexes with weights quantifying the (empty) space delimited by the points. Reconstructing the canopy volume populated by biomass will thus likely require filtering to exclude that volume from canopy voids. The approaches applied for this purpose were (i) to optimize the degree of filtration with respect to the field measurements, and (ii) to predict this degree by means of analyzing the persistent homology of the obtained triangulations, which is applied for the first time for vegetation point clouds. When derived from optimized filtrations, the total tetrahedral volume had a high degree of determination (R2) with the stem volume considered, both alone (R2=0.65) and together with other predictors (R2=0.78). When derived by analyzing the topological persistence of the point data and without any field input, the R2 were lower, but the predictions still showed a correlation with the field-measured stem volumes. Finally, producing realistic visualizations of a forested landscape using the persistent homology approach is demonstrated.

  15. 3D constrained inversion of geophysical and geological information applying Spatial Mutually Constrained Inversion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, O. F.; Ploug, C.; Mendoza, J. A.; Martínez, K.

    2009-05-01

    The need for increaseding accuracy and reduced ambiguities in the inversion results has resulted in focus on the development of more advanced inversion methods of geophysical data. Over the past few years more advanced inversion techniques have been developed to improve the results. Real 3D-inversion is time consuming and therefore often not the best solution in a cost-efficient perspective. This has motivated the development of 3D constrained inversions, where 1D-models are constrained in 3D, also known as a Spatial Constrained Inversion (SCI). Moreover, inversion of several different data types in one inversion has been developed, known as Mutually Constrained Inversion (MCI). In this paper a presentation of a Spatial Mutually Constrained Inversion method (SMCI) is given. This method allows 1D-inversion applied to different geophysical datasets and geological information constrained in 3D. Application of two or more types of geophysical methods in the inversion has proved to reduce the equivalence problem and to increase the resolution in the inversion results. The use of geological information from borehole data or digital geological models can be integrated in the inversion. In the SMCI, a 1D inversion code is used to model soundings that are constrained in three dimensions according to their relative position in space. This solution enhances the accuracy of the inversion and produces distinct layers thicknesses and resistivities. It is very efficient in the mapping of a layered geology but still also capable of mapping layer discontinuities that are, in many cases, related to fracturing and faulting or due to valley fills. Geological information may be included in the inversion directly or used only to form a starting model for the individual soundings in the inversion. In order to show the effectiveness of the method, examples are presented from both synthetic data and real data. The examples include DC-soundings as well as land-based and airborne TEM

  16. 3D polygonal representation of dense point clouds by triangulation, segmentation, and texture projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajbakhsh, Touraj

    2010-02-01

    A basic concern of computer graphic is the modeling and realistic representation of three-dimensional objects. In this paper we present our reconstruction framework which determines a polygonal surface from a set of dense points such those typically obtained from laser scanners. We deploy the concept of adaptive blobs to achieve a first volumetric representation of the object. In the next step we estimate a coarse surface using the marching cubes method. We propose to deploy a depth-first search segmentation algorithm traversing a graph representation of the obtained polygonal mesh in order to identify all connected components. A so called supervised triangulation maps the coarse surfaces onto the dense point cloud. We optimize the mesh topology using edge exchange operations. For photo-realistic visualization of objects we finally synthesize optimal low-loss textures from available scene captures of different projections. We evaluate our framework on artificial data as well as real sensed data.

  17. 3D geometrical inspection of complex geometry parts using a novel laser triangulation sensor and a robot.

    PubMed

    Brosed, Francisco Javier; Aguilar, Juan José; Guillomía, David; Santolaria, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses different non contact 3D measuring strategies and presents a model for measuring complex geometry parts, manipulated through a robot arm, using a novel vision system consisting of a laser triangulation sensor and a motorized linear stage. First, the geometric model incorporating an automatic simple module for long term stability improvement will be outlined in the article. The new method used in the automatic module allows the sensor set up, including the motorized linear stage, for the scanning avoiding external measurement devices. In the measurement model the robot is just a positioning of parts with high repeatability. Its position and orientation data are not used for the measurement and therefore it is not directly "coupled" as an active component in the model. The function of the robot is to present the various surfaces of the workpiece along the measurement range of the vision system, which is responsible for the measurement. Thus, the whole system is not affected by the robot own errors following a trajectory, except those due to the lack of static repeatability. For the indirect link between the vision system and the robot, the original model developed needs only one first piece measuring as a "zero" or master piece, known by its accurate measurement using, for example, a Coordinate Measurement Machine. The strategy proposed presents a different approach to traditional laser triangulation systems on board the robot in order to improve the measurement accuracy, and several important cues for self-recalibration are explored using only a master piece. Experimental results are also presented to demonstrate the technique and the final 3D measurement accuracy. PMID:22346569

  18. 3D Geometrical Inspection of Complex Geometry Parts Using a Novel Laser Triangulation Sensor and a Robot

    PubMed Central

    Brosed, Francisco Javier; Aguilar, Juan José; Guillomía, David; Santolaria, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses different non contact 3D measuring strategies and presents a model for measuring complex geometry parts, manipulated through a robot arm, using a novel vision system consisting of a laser triangulation sensor and a motorized linear stage. First, the geometric model incorporating an automatic simple module for long term stability improvement will be outlined in the article. The new method used in the automatic module allows the sensor set up, including the motorized linear stage, for the scanning avoiding external measurement devices. In the measurement model the robot is just a positioning of parts with high repeatability. Its position and orientation data are not used for the measurement and therefore it is not directly “coupled” as an active component in the model. The function of the robot is to present the various surfaces of the workpiece along the measurement range of the vision system, which is responsible for the measurement. Thus, the whole system is not affected by the robot own errors following a trajectory, except those due to the lack of static repeatability. For the indirect link between the vision system and the robot, the original model developed needs only one first piece measuring as a “zero” or master piece, known by its accurate measurement using, for example, a Coordinate Measurement Machine. The strategy proposed presents a different approach to traditional laser triangulation systems on board the robot in order to improve the measurement accuracy, and several important cues for self-recalibration are explored using only a master piece. Experimental results are also presented to demonstrate the technique and the final 3D measurement accuracy. PMID:22346569

  19. Geometry of structures within crystalline bedrock constrained in 3D and their relevance for present day water infiltration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneeberger, Raphael; de la Varga, Miguel; Florian Wellmann, J.; Kober, Florian; Berger, Alfons; Herwegh, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Fluid circulation in crystalline rocks is of key importance when exploring crystalline basement in light of, for example, deep-seated geothermal energy projects or selection of sites for nuclear waste repositories. Due to their enhanced permeability, fluid circulation within crystalline bedrock is mainly controlled by fault zones, which may originate from ductile mylonites but show a strong brittle overprint. In order to better constrain 3D flow paths, a well-founded knowledge on the 3D nature of the fault zone pattern is indispensable. We attempt to constrain the geometry of a complex 3D fault zone pattern in a case study of the Grimsel Test Site (GTS, central Switzerland). The constraints are based on mapping of both the surface as well as the GTS underground tunnel system, offering a unique opportunity to test the 3D model and associated uncertainties. We investigate the effect of increasing geoinformation on the quality and accuracy of the 3D model by using: (i) remote sensing surface data only, (ii) field surface mapping in combination with (i), and (iii) underground data combined with (i) and (ii). This approach allows for defining different steps in 3D geological modelling of a specific area, including a measure of the remaining uncertainty after each step. We obtain a best-estimate model by fitting results between surface and underground data by using a combination of field data and orientation obtained by Delaunay triangulation. We incorporate novel approaches to uncertainty analysis of fault orientations and investigate different fault planes showing the possible variation range of the structures investigated.

  20. 2D inverse modeling for potential fields on rugged observation surface using constrained Delaunay triangulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuang; Hu, Xiangyun; Xi, Yufei; Liu, Tianyou

    2015-03-01

    The regular grid discretization is prevalent in the inverse modeling for gravity and magnetic data. However, this subdivision strategy performs lower precision to represent the rugged observation surface. To deal with this problem, we evaluate a non-structured discretization method in which the subsurface with rolling terrain is divided into numbers of Delaunay triangular cells and each mesh has the uniform physical property distributions. The gravity and magnetic anomalies of a complex-shaped anomalous body are represented as the summaries of the single anomaly produced by each triangle field source. When inverting for the potential field data, we specify a minimization objective function composed of data constraints and then use the preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm to iteratively solve the matrix minimization equations, where the preconditioner is determined by the distances between triangular cells and surface observers. We test our method using synthetic data; all tests return favorable results. In the case studies involving the gravity and magnetic anomalies of the Mengku and Pobei deposits in Xinjiang, northwest China, the inferred magnetite orebodies and ultrabasic rocks distributions are verified by the additional drilling and geological information. The discretization of constrained Delaunay triangulation provides an useful approach of computing and inverting the potential field data on the situations of undulate topography and complicated objects.

  1. Necking and failure of constrained 3D microtissues induced by cellular tension

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hailong; Svoronos, Alexander A.; Boudou, Thomas; Sakar, Mahmut Selman; Schell, Jacquelyn Youssef; Morgan, Jeffrey R.; Chen, Christopher S.; Shenoy, Vivek B.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we report a fundamental morphological instability of constrained 3D microtissues induced by positive chemomechanical feedback between actomyosin-driven contraction and the mechanical stresses arising from the constraints. Using a 3D model for mechanotransduction we find that perturbations in the shape of contractile tissues grow in an unstable manner leading to formation of “necks” that lead to the failure of the tissue by narrowing and subsequent elongation. The magnitude of the instability is shown to be determined by the level of active contractile strain, the stiffness of the extracellular matrix, and the components of the tissue that act in parallel with the active component and the stiffness of the boundaries that constrain the tissue. A phase diagram that demarcates stable and unstable behavior of 3D tissues as a function of these material parameters is derived. The predictions of our model are verified by analyzing the necking and failure of normal human fibroblast tissue constrained in a loop-ended dog-bone geometry and cardiac microtissues constrained between microcantilevers. By analyzing the time evolution of the morphology of the constrained tissues we have quantitatively determined the chemomechanical coupling parameters that characterize the generation of active stresses in these tissues. More generally, the analytical and numerical methods we have developed provide a quantitative framework to study how contractility can influence tissue morphology in complex 3D environments such as morphogenesis and organogenesis. PMID:24324149

  2. Rate-constrained 3D surface estimation from noise-corrupted multiview depth videos.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenxiu; Cheung, Gene; Chou, Philip A; Florencio, Dinei; Zhang, Cha; Au, Oscar C

    2014-07-01

    Transmitting compactly represented geometry of a dynamic 3D scene from a sender can enable a multitude of imaging functionalities at a receiver, such as synthesis of virtual images at freely chosen viewpoints via depth-image-based rendering. While depth maps—projections of 3D geometry onto 2D image planes at chosen camera viewpoints-can nowadays be readily captured by inexpensive depth sensors, they are often corrupted by non-negligible acquisition noise. Given depth maps need to be denoised and compressed at the encoder for efficient network transmission to the decoder, in this paper, we consider the denoising and compression problems jointly, arguing that doing so will result in a better overall performance than the alternative of solving the two problems separately in two stages. Specifically, we formulate a rate-constrained estimation problem, where given a set of observed noise-corrupted depth maps, the most probable (maximum a posteriori (MAP)) 3D surface is sought within a search space of surfaces with representation size no larger than a prespecified rate constraint. Our rate-constrained MAP solution reduces to the conventional unconstrained MAP 3D surface reconstruction solution if the rate constraint is loose. To solve our posed rate-constrained estimation problem, we propose an iterative algorithm, where in each iteration the structure (object boundaries) and the texture (surfaces within the object boundaries) of the depth maps are optimized alternately. Using the MVC codec for compression of multiview depth video and MPEG free viewpoint video sequences as input, experimental results show that rate-constrained estimated 3D surfaces computed by our algorithm can reduce coding rate of depth maps by up to 32% compared with unconstrained estimated surfaces for the same quality of synthesized virtual views at the decoder. PMID:24876124

  3. 3D Geological Model of Nihe ore deposit Constrained by Gravity and Magnetic Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Guang; Yan, Jiayong; Lv, Qingtan; Zhao, Jinhua

    2016-04-01

    observed data, and then adjust the model until a satisfactory accuracy of errors is achieved. It is hope that this work can provide reference for similar work in other areas. this study shows that the research of geologic constrained 3D gravity and magnetic modeling has potential value in the aspects of deep mineral exploration and mineral reserves estimation.

  4. Delaunay-Object-Dynamics: cell mechanics with a 3D kinetic and dynamic weighted Delaunay-triangulation.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Hermann, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Mathematical methods in Biology are of increasing relevance for understanding the control and the dynamics of biological systems with medical relevance. In particular, agent-based methods turn more and more important because of fast increasing computational power which makes even large systems accessible. An overview of different mathematical methods used in Theoretical Biology is provided and a novel agent-based method for cell mechanics based on Delaunay-triangulations and Voronoi-tessellations is explained in more detail: The Delaunay-Object-Dynamics method. It is claimed that the model combines physically realistic cell mechanics with a reasonable computational load. The power of the approach is illustrated with two examples, avascular tumor growth and genesis of lymphoid tissue in a cell-flow equilibrium. PMID:18023735

  5. Constraining 3D Process Sedimentological Models to Geophysical Data Using Image Quilting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahmasebi, P.; Da Pra, A.; Pontiggia, M.; Caers, J.

    2014-12-01

    3D process geological models, whether for carbonate or sedimentological systems, have been proposed for modeling realistic subsurface heterogeneity. The problem with such forward process models is that they are not constrained to any subsurface data whether to wells or geophysical surveys. We propose a new method for realistic geological modeling of complex heterogeneity by hybridizing 3D process modeling of geological deposition with conditioning by means of a novel multiple-point geostatistics (MPS) technique termed image quilting (IQ). Image quilting is a pattern-based techniques that stiches together patterns extracted from training images to generate stochastic realizations that look like the training image. In this paper, we illustrate how 3D process model realizations can be used as training images in image quilting. To constrain the realization to seismic data we first interpret each facies in the geophysical data. These interpretation, while overly smooth and not reflecting finer scale variation are used as auxiliary variables in the generation of the image quilting realizations. To condition to well data, we first perform a kriging of the well data to generate a kriging map and kriging variance. The kriging map is used as additional auxiliary variable while the kriging variance is used as a weight given to the kriging derived auxiliary variable. We present an application to a giant offshore reservoir. Starting from seismic advanced attribute analysis and sedimentological interpretation, we build the 3D sedimentological process based model and use it as non-stationary training image for conditional image quilting.

  6. 3D automatic liver segmentation using feature-constrained Mahalanobis distance in CT images.

    PubMed

    Salman Al-Shaikhli, Saif Dawood; Yang, Michael Ying; Rosenhahn, Bodo

    2016-08-01

    Automatic 3D liver segmentation is a fundamental step in the liver disease diagnosis and surgery planning. This paper presents a novel fully automatic algorithm for 3D liver segmentation in clinical 3D computed tomography (CT) images. Based on image features, we propose a new Mahalanobis distance cost function using an active shape model (ASM). We call our method MD-ASM. Unlike the standard active shape model (ST-ASM), the proposed method introduces a new feature-constrained Mahalanobis distance cost function to measure the distance between the generated shape during the iterative step and the mean shape model. The proposed Mahalanobis distance function is learned from a public database of liver segmentation challenge (MICCAI-SLiver07). As a refinement step, we propose the use of a 3D graph-cut segmentation. Foreground and background labels are automatically selected using texture features of the learned Mahalanobis distance. Quantitatively, the proposed method is evaluated using two clinical 3D CT scan databases (MICCAI-SLiver07 and MIDAS). The evaluation of the MICCAI-SLiver07 database is obtained by the challenge organizers using five different metric scores. The experimental results demonstrate the availability of the proposed method by achieving an accurate liver segmentation compared to the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:26501155

  7. An unstaggered constrained transport method for the 3D ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helzel, Christiane; Rossmanith, James A.; Taetz, Bertram

    2011-05-01

    Numerical methods for solving the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations in more than one space dimension must either confront the challenge of controlling errors in the discrete divergence of the magnetic field, or else be faced with nonlinear numerical instabilities. One approach for controlling the discrete divergence is through a so-called constrained transport method, which is based on first predicting a magnetic field through a standard finite volume solver, and then correcting this field through the appropriate use of a magnetic vector potential. In this work we develop a constrained transport method for the 3D ideal MHD equations that is based on a high-resolution wave propagation scheme. Our proposed scheme is the 3D extension of the 2D scheme developed by Rossmanith [J.A. Rossmanith, An unstaggered, high-resolution constrained transport method for magnetohydrodynamic flows, SIAM J. Sci. Comput. 28 (2006) 1766], and is based on the high-resolution wave propagation method of Langseth and LeVeque [J.O. Langseth, R.J. LeVeque, A wave propagation method for threedimensional hyperbolic conservation laws, J. Comput. Phys. 165 (2000) 126]. In particular, in our extension we take great care to maintain the three most important properties of the 2D scheme: (1) all quantities, including all components of the magnetic field and magnetic potential, are treated as cell-centered; (2) we develop a high-resolution wave propagation scheme for evolving the magnetic potential; and (3) we develop a wave limiting approach that is applied during the vector potential evolution, which controls unphysical oscillations in the magnetic field. One of the key numerical difficulties that is novel to 3D is that the transport equation that must be solved for the magnetic vector potential is only weakly hyperbolic. In presenting our numerical algorithm we describe how to numerically handle this problem of weak hyperbolicity, as well as how to choose an appropriate gauge condition. The

  8. 3D unconstrained and geologically constrained stochastic inversion of airborne vertical gravity gradient data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchikaya, Euloge Budet; Chouteau, Michel; Keating, Pierre; Shamsipour, Pejman

    2016-02-01

    We present an inversion tool for airborne gravity gradient data that yields a 3D density model using stochastic methods i.e. cokriging and conditional simulation. This method uses geostatistical properties of the measured gravity gradient to estimate a 3D density model whose gravity response fits the measured gravity gradient anomaly. Linearity between gravity gradient data and density allows estimation of the model (density) covariance using observed data, i.e. we adjust iteratively the density covariance matrix by fitting experimental and theoretical gravity gradient covariance matrices. Inversion can be constrained by including densities known at some locations. In addition we can explore various reasonable solutions that honour both the estimated density covariance model and the gravity gradient data using geostatistical simulation. The proposed method is first tested with two synthetic datasets generated from a sharp-boundary model and a smooth stochastic model respectively. The results show the method to be capable of retrieving models compatible with the true models; it also allows the integration of complex a priori information. The technique is then applied to gravity gradient survey data collected for the Geological Survey of Canada in the area of McFaulds Lake (Ontario, Canada) using the Falcon airborne gravity system. Unconstrained inversion returns a density model that is geologically plausible and the computed response exactly fits the observed gravity gradient anomaly.

  9. Statistical 3D Prostate Imaging Atlas Construction via Anatomically Constrained Registration

    PubMed Central

    Rusu, Mirabela; Bloch, B. Nicolas; Jaffe, Carl C.; Rofsky, Neil M.; Genega, Elizabeth M.; Feleppa, Ernest; Lenkinski, Robert E.; Madabhushi, Anant

    2013-01-01

    Statistical imaging atlases allow for integration of information from multiple patient studies collected across different image scales and modalities, such as multi-parametric (MP) MRI and histology, providing population statistics regarding a specific pathology within a single canonical representation. Such atlases are particularly valuable in the identification and validation of meaningful imaging signatures for disease characterization in vivo within a population. Despite the high incidence of prostate cancer, an imaging atlas focused on different anatomic structures of the prostate, i.e. an anatomic atlas, has yet to be constructed. In this work we introduce a novel framework for MRI atlas construction that uses an iterative, anatomically constrained registration (AnCoR) scheme to enable the proper alignment of the prostate (Pr) and central gland (CG) boundaries. Our current implementation uses endorectal, 1.5T or 3T, T2-weighted MRI from 51 patients with biopsy confirmed cancer; however, the prostate atlas is seamlessly extensible to include additional MRI parameters. In our cohort, radical prostatectomy is performed following MP-MR image acquisition; thus ground truth annotations for prostate cancer are available from the histological specimens. Once mapped onto MP-MRI through elastic registration of histological slices to corresponding T2-w MRI slices, the annotations are utilized by the AnCoR framework to characterize the 3D statistical distribution of cancer per anatomic structure. Such distributions are useful for guiding biopsies toward regions of higher cancer likelihood and understanding imaging profiles for disease extent in vivo. We evaluate our approach via the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) for different anatomic structures (delineated by expert radiologists): Pr, CG and peripheral zone (PZ). The AnCoR-based atlas had a CG DSC of 90.36%, and Pr DSC of 89.37%. Moreover, we evaluated the deviation of anatomic landmarks, the urethra and

  10. A 3-D density model of Greece constrained by gravity and seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makris, Jannis; Papoulia, Joanna; Yegorova, Tamara

    2013-07-01

    A 3-D density model of Greece was developed by gravity modelling constrained by 2-D seismic profiles. Densities were defined from seismic velocities using the Nafe & Drake and Birch empirical functions for the sediments, crust and upper mantle. Sediments in the North Aegean are 6 km thick, and are deposited in transtensional basins developing by dextral strike slip motion of the North Anatolian Fault. The Cyclades, central Aegean Sea, are free of sediments. South of Crete, in the Libyan Sea, sediments are approximately 11 km thick. At the western Hellenides sediments of up to 8 km thickness have been accumulated in basins formed by crustal bending and southwestwards thrusting of the Hellenic napes. At a deeper crustal level variations of crustal type and thickness cause density variations explaining large part of the observed gravity field. The North Aegean domain is characterized by a 24-km-thick continental crust, including sediments, whereas the western Cyclades, in central Aegean area, have a slightly thickened crust of 26 km. Crustal thicknesses vary between 16 km in the deep Ionian and Cretan Seas to 40 km in the western Hellenides. In western Crete crust is 30-32 km thick, thinning eastwards to only 26 km. The deep Ionian basin, the Mediterranean Ridge, as well as most of the Libyan Sea are underlain by oceanic crust. In western Turkey the crust thickens from 30 km along the coast to 34 km to the interior. A third deeper level of density variations occurs in the upper mantle. Subduction of the oceanic lithosphere below the Aegean continental domain destabilizes the thermal field, uplifting the isotherms by convection and conduction below the Aegean Sea. Consequently, volume expansion of the upper mantle and lithological changes reduce its density and depress the gravity intensity. This low density-velocity upper mantle extends from the Sporades islands in the North Aegean to the Cretan Sea, occupying the space between the cold subducted Ionian oceanic

  11. Statistical 3D prostate imaging atlas construction via anatomically constrained registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusu, Mirabela; Bloch, B. Nicolas; Jaffe, Carl C.; Rofsky, Neil M.; Genega, Elizabeth M.; Feleppa, Ernest; Lenkinski, Robert E.; Madabhushi, Anant

    2013-03-01

    Statistical imaging atlases allow for integration of information from multiple patient studies collected across different image scales and modalities, such as multi-parametric (MP) MRI and histology, providing population statistics regarding a specific pathology within a single canonical representation. Such atlases are particularly valuable in the identification and validation of meaningful imaging signatures for disease characterization in vivo within a population. Despite the high incidence of prostate cancer, an imaging atlas focused on different anatomic structures of the prostate, i.e. an anatomic atlas, has yet to be constructed. In this work we introduce a novel framework for MRI atlas construction that uses an iterative, anatomically constrained registration (AnCoR) scheme to enable the proper alignment of the prostate (Pr) and central gland (CG) boundaries. Our current implementation uses endorectal, 1.5T or 3T, T2-weighted MRI from 51 patients with biopsy confirmed cancer; however, the prostate atlas is seamlessly extensible to include additional MRI parameters. In our cohort, radical prostatectomy is performed following MP-MR image acquisition; thus ground truth annotations for prostate cancer are available from the histological specimens. Once mapped onto MP-MRI through elastic registration of histological slices to corresponding T2-w MRI slices, the annotations are utilized by the AnCoR framework to characterize the 3D statistical distribution of cancer per anatomic structure. Such distributions are useful for guiding biopsies toward regions of higher cancer likelihood and understanding imaging profiles for disease extent in vivo. We evaluate our approach via the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) for different anatomic structures (delineated by expert radiologists): Pr, CG and peripheral zone (PZ). The AnCoR-based atlas had a CG DSC of 90.36%, and Pr DSC of 89.37%. Moreover, we evaluated the deviation of anatomic landmarks, the urethra and

  12. The lithospheric-scale 3D structural configuration of the North Alpine Foreland Basin constrained by gravity modelling and the calculation of the 3D load distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przybycin, Anna M.; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Schneider, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The North Alpine Foreland Basin is situated in the northern front of the European Alps and extends over parts of France, Switzerland, Germany and Austria. It formed as a wedge shaped depression since the Tertiary in consequence of the Euro - Adriatic continental collision and the Alpine orogeny. The basin is filled with clastic sediments, the Molasse, originating from erosional processes of the Alps and underlain by Mesozoic sedimentary successions and a Paleozoic crystalline crust. For our study we have focused on the German part of the basin. To investigate the deep structure, the isostatic state and the load distribution of this region we have constructed a 3D structural model of the basin and the Alpine area using available depth and thickness maps, regional scale 3D structural models as well as seismic and well data for the sedimentary part. The crust (from the top Paleozoic down to the Moho (Grad et al. 2008)) has been considered as two-parted with a lighter upper crust and a denser lower crust; the partition has been calculated following the approach of isostatic equilibrium of Pratt (1855). By implementing a seismic Lithosphere-Asthenosphere-Boundary (LAB) (Tesauro 2009) the crustal scale model has been extended to the lithospheric-scale. The layer geometry and the assigned bulk densities of this starting model have been constrained by means of 3D gravity modelling (BGI, 2012). Afterwards the 3D load distribution has been calculated using a 3D finite element method. Our results show that the North Alpine Foreland Basin is not isostatically balanced and that the configuration of the crystalline crust strongly controls the gravity field in this area. Furthermore, our results show that the basin area is influenced by varying lateral load differences down to a depth of more than 150 km what allows a first order statement of the required compensating horizontal stress needed to prevent gravitational collapse of the system. BGI (2012). The International

  13. Automatic 3D kidney segmentation based on shape constrained GC-OAAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xinjian; Summers, Ronald M.; Yao, Jianhua

    2011-03-01

    The kidney can be classified into three main tissue types: renal cortex, renal medulla and renal pelvis (or collecting system). Dysfunction of different renal tissue types may cause different kidney diseases. Therefore, accurate and efficient segmentation of kidney into different tissue types plays a very important role in clinical research. In this paper, we propose an automatic 3D kidney segmentation method which segments the kidney into the three different tissue types: renal cortex, medulla and pelvis. The proposed method synergistically combines active appearance model (AAM), live wire (LW) and graph cut (GC) methods, GC-OAAM for short. Our method consists of two main steps. First, a pseudo 3D segmentation method is employed for kidney initialization in which the segmentation is performed slice-by-slice via a multi-object oriented active appearance model (OAAM) method. An improved iterative model refinement algorithm is proposed for the AAM optimization, which synergistically combines the AAM and LW method. Multi-object strategy is applied to help the object initialization. The 3D model constraints are applied to the initialization result. Second, the object shape information generated from the initialization step is integrated into the GC cost computation. A multi-label GC method is used to segment the kidney into cortex, medulla and pelvis. The proposed method was tested on 19 clinical arterial phase CT data sets. The preliminary results showed the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed method.

  14. Reconstruction for 3D PET Based on Total Variation Constrained Direct Fourier Method

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Haiqing; Chen, Zhi; Zhang, Heye; Loong Wong, Kelvin Kian; Chen, Yunmei; Liu, Huafeng

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a total variation (TV) regularized reconstruction algorithm for 3D positron emission tomography (PET). The proposed method first employs the Fourier rebinning algorithm (FORE), rebinning the 3D data into a stack of ordinary 2D data sets as sinogram data. Then, the resulted 2D sinogram are ready to be reconstructed by conventional 2D reconstruction algorithms. Given the locally piece-wise constant nature of PET images, we introduce the total variation (TV) based reconstruction schemes. More specifically, we formulate the 2D PET reconstruction problem as an optimization problem, whose objective function consists of TV norm of the reconstructed image and the data fidelity term measuring the consistency between the reconstructed image and sinogram. To solve the resulting minimization problem, we apply an efficient methods called the Bregman operator splitting algorithm with variable step size (BOSVS). Experiments based on Monte Carlo simulated data and real data are conducted as validations. The experiment results show that the proposed method produces higher accuracy than conventional direct Fourier (DF) (bias in BOSVS is 70% of ones in DF, variance of BOSVS is 80% of ones in DF). PMID:26398232

  15. PDE constrained optimization of electrical defibrillation in a 3D ventricular slice geometry.

    PubMed

    Chamakuri, Nagaiah; Kunisch, Karl; Plank, Gernot

    2016-04-01

    A computational study of an optimal control approach for cardiac defibrillation in a 3D geometry is presented. The cardiac bioelectric activity at the tissue and bath volumes is modeled by the bidomain model equations. The model includes intramural fiber rotation, axially symmetric around the fiber direction, and anisotropic conductivity coefficients, which are extracted from a histological image. The dynamics of the ionic currents are based on the regularized Mitchell-Schaeffer model. The controls enter in the form of electrodes, which are placed at the boundary of the bath volume with the goal of dampening undesired arrhythmias. The numerical optimization is based on Newton techniques. We demonstrated the parallel architecture environment for the computation of potentials on multidomains and for the higher order optimization techniques. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26249168

  16. 3D pulse EPR imaging from sparse-view projections via constrained, total variation minimization

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Zhiwei; Redler, Gage; Epel, Boris; Halpern, Howard

    2016-01-01

    Tumors and tumor portions with low oxygen concentrations (pO2) have been shown to be resistant to radiation therapy. As such, radiation therapy efficacy may be enhanced if delivered radiation dose is tailored based on the spatial distribution of pO2 within the tumor. A technique for accurate imaging of tumor oxygenation is critically important to guide radiation treatment that accounts for the effects of local pO2. Electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) has been considered one of the leading methods for quantitatively imaging pO2 within tumors in vivo. However, current EPRI techniques require relatively long imaging times. Reducing the number of projections can considerably reduce the imaging time. Conventional image reconstruction algorithms, such as filtered back projection (FBP), may produce severe artifacts in images reconstructed from sparse-view projections. This can lower the utility of these reconstructed images. In this work, an optimization based image reconstruction algorithm using constrained, total variation (TV) minimization, subject to data consistency, is developed and evaluated. The algorithm was evaluated using simulated phantom, physical phantom and pre-clinical EPRI data. The TV algorithm is compared with FBP using subjective and objective metrics. The results demonstrate the merits of the proposed reconstruction algorithm. PMID:26225440

  17. A 3-D constrained mixture model for mechanically mediated vascular growth and remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Wan, William; Hansen, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to the widely applied approach to model soft tissue remodeling employing the concept of volumetric growth, microstructurally motivated models are capable of capturing many of the underlying mechanisms of growth and remodeling; i.e., the production, removal, and remodeling of individual constituents at different rates and to different extents. A 3-dimensional constrained mixture computational framework has been developed for vascular growth and remodeling, considering new, microstructurally motivated kinematics and constitutive equations and new stress and muscle activation mediated evolution equations. Our computational results for alterations in flow and pressure, using reasonable physiological values for rates of constituent growth and turnover, concur with findings in the literature. For example, for flow-induced remodeling, our simulations predict that, although the wall shear stress is restored completely, the circumferential stress is not restored employing realistic physiological rate parameters. Also, our simulations predict different levels of thickening on inner versus outer wall locations, as shown in numerous reports of pressure-induced remodeling. Whereas the simulations are meant to be illustrative, they serve to highlight the experimental data currently lacking to fully quantify mechanically mediated adaptations in the vasculature. PMID:20039091

  18. 3D pulse EPR imaging from sparse-view projections via constrained, total variation minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Zhiwei; Redler, Gage; Epel, Boris; Qian, Yuhua; Halpern, Howard

    2015-09-01

    Tumors and tumor portions with low oxygen concentrations (pO2) have been shown to be resistant to radiation therapy. As such, radiation therapy efficacy may be enhanced if delivered radiation dose is tailored based on the spatial distribution of pO2 within the tumor. A technique for accurate imaging of tumor oxygenation is critically important to guide radiation treatment that accounts for the effects of local pO2. Electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) has been considered one of the leading methods for quantitatively imaging pO2 within tumors in vivo. However, current EPRI techniques require relatively long imaging times. Reducing the number of projection scan considerably reduce the imaging time. Conventional image reconstruction algorithms, such as filtered back projection (FBP), may produce severe artifacts in images reconstructed from sparse-view projections. This can lower the utility of these reconstructed images. In this work, an optimization based image reconstruction algorithm using constrained, total variation (TV) minimization, subject to data consistency, is developed and evaluated. The algorithm was evaluated using simulated phantom, physical phantom and pre-clinical EPRI data. The TV algorithm is compared with FBP using subjective and objective metrics. The results demonstrate the merits of the proposed reconstruction algorithm.

  19. Development of Kinematic 3D Laser Scanning System for Indoor Mapping and As-Built BIM Using Constrained SLAM

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jaehoon; Yoon, Sanghyun; Ju, Sungha; Heo, Joon

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest and use of indoor mapping is driving a demand for improved data-acquisition facility, efficiency and productivity in the era of the Building Information Model (BIM). The conventional static laser scanning method suffers from some limitations on its operability in complex indoor environments, due to the presence of occlusions. Full scanning of indoor spaces without loss of information requires that surveyors change the scanner position many times, which incurs extra work for registration of each scanned point cloud. Alternatively, a kinematic 3D laser scanning system, proposed herein, uses line-feature-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technique for continuous mapping. Moreover, to reduce the uncertainty of line-feature extraction, we incorporated constrained adjustment based on an assumption made with respect to typical indoor environments: that the main structures are formed of parallel or orthogonal line features. The superiority of the proposed constrained adjustment is its reduction for uncertainties of the adjusted lines, leading to successful data association process. In the present study, kinematic scanning with and without constrained adjustment were comparatively evaluated in two test sites, and the results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed system. The accuracy of the 3D mapping result was additionally evaluated by comparison with the reference points acquired by a total station: the Euclidean average distance error was 0.034 m for the seminar room and 0.043 m for the corridor, which satisfied the error tolerance for point cloud acquisition (0.051 m) according to the guidelines of the General Services Administration for BIM accuracy. PMID:26501292

  20. Development of kinematic 3D laser scanning system for indoor mapping and as-built BIM using constrained SLAM.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaehoon; Yoon, Sanghyun; Ju, Sungha; Heo, Joon

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest and use of indoor mapping is driving a demand for improved data-acquisition facility, efficiency and productivity in the era of the Building Information Model (BIM). The conventional static laser scanning method suffers from some limitations on its operability in complex indoor environments, due to the presence of occlusions. Full scanning of indoor spaces without loss of information requires that surveyors change the scanner position many times, which incurs extra work for registration of each scanned point cloud. Alternatively, a kinematic 3D laser scanning system, proposed herein, uses line-feature-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technique for continuous mapping. Moreover, to reduce the uncertainty of line-feature extraction, we incorporated constrained adjustment based on an assumption made with respect to typical indoor environments: that the main structures are formed of parallel or orthogonal line features. The superiority of the proposed constrained adjustment is its reduction for uncertainties of the adjusted lines, leading to successful data association process. In the present study, kinematic scanning with and without constrained adjustment were comparatively evaluated in two test sites, and the results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed system. The accuracy of the 3D mapping result was additionally evaluated by comparison with the reference points acquired by a total station: the Euclidean average distance error was 0.034 m for the seminar room and 0.043 m for the corridor, which satisfied the error tolerance for point cloud acquisition (0.051 m) according to the guidelines of the General Services Administration for BIM accuracy. PMID:26501292

  1. Constraining the Absolute Orientation of eta Carinae's Binary Orbit: A 3-D Dynamical Model for the Broad [Fe III] Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madura, T. I.; Gull, T. R.; Owocki, S. P.; Groh, J. H.; Okazaki, A. T.; Russell, C. M. P.

    2011-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional (3-D) dynamical model for the broad [Fe III] emission observed in Eta Carinae using the Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (HST/STIS). This model is based on full 3-D Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of Eta Car's binary colliding winds. Radiative transfer codes are used to generate synthetic spectro-images of [Fe III] emission line structures at various observed orbital phases and STIS slit position angles (PAs). Through a parameter study that varies the orbital inclination i, the PA(theta) that the orbital plane projection of the line-of-sight makes with the apastron side of the semi-major axis, and the PA on the sky of the orbital axis, we are able, for the first time, to tightly constrain the absolute 3-D orientation of the binary orbit. To simultaneously reproduce the blue-shifted emission arcs observed at orbital phase 0.976, STIS slit PA = +38deg, and the temporal variations in emission seen at negative slit PAs, the binary needs to have an i approx. = 130deg to 145deg, Theta approx. = -15deg to +30deg, and an orbital axis projected on the sky at a P A approx. = 302deg to 327deg east of north. This represents a system with an orbital axis that is closely aligned with the inferred polar axis of the Homunculus nebula, in 3-D. The companion star, Eta(sub B), thus orbits clockwise on the sky and is on the observer's side of the system at apastron. This orientation has important implications for theories for the formation of the Homunculus and helps lay the groundwork for orbital modeling to determine the stellar masses.

  2. The Derivation of Fault Volumetric Properties from 3D Trace Maps Using Outcrop Constrained Discrete Fracture Network Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgetts, David; Seers, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    -deterministic, outcrop constrained discrete fracture network modeling code to derive volumetric fault intensity measures (fault area per unit volume / fault volume per unit volume). Producing per-vertex measures of volumetric intensity; our method captures the spatial variability in 3D fault density across a surveyed outcrop, enabling first order controls to be probed. We demonstrate our approach on pervasively faulted exposures of a Permian aged reservoir analogue from the Vale of Eden Basin, UK.

  3. Constraining the absolute orientation of η Carinae's binary orbit: a 3D dynamical model for the broad [Fe III] emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madura, T. I.; Gull, T. R.; Owocki, S. P.; Groh, J. H.; Okazaki, A. T.; Russell, C. M. P.

    2012-03-01

    We present a three-dimensional (3D) dynamical model for the broad [Fe III] emission observed in η Carinae using the Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). This model is based on full 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of η Car's binary colliding winds. Radiative transfer codes are used to generate synthetic spectroimages of [Fe III] emission-line structures at various observed orbital phases and STIS slit position angles (PAs). Through a parameter study that varies the orbital inclination i, the PA θ that the orbital plane projection of the line of sight makes with the apastron side of the semimajor axis and the PA on the sky of the orbital axis, we are able, for the first time, to tightly constrain the absolute 3D orientation of the binary orbit. To simultaneously reproduce the blueshifted emission arcs observed at orbital phase 0.976, STIS slit PA =+38° and the temporal variations in emission seen at negative slit PAs, the binary needs to have an i≈ 130° to 145°, θ≈-15° to +30° and an orbital axis projected on the sky at a PA ≈ 302° to 327° east of north. This represents a system with an orbital axis that is closely aligned with the inferred polar axis of the Homunculus nebula, in 3D. The companion star, ηB, thus orbits clockwise on the sky and is on the observer's side of the system at apastron. This orientation has important implications for theories for the formation of the Homunculus and helps lay the groundwork for orbital modelling to determine the stellar masses. Footnotes<label>1</label>Low- and high-ionization refer here to atomic species with ionizations potentials (IPs) below and above the IP of hydrogen, 13.6 eV.<label>2</label>Measured in degrees from north to east.<label>3</label>θ is the same as the angle φ defined in fig. 3 of O08.<label>4</label>The outer edge looks circular only because this marks the edge of the spherical computational domain of the SPH simulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.2913J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.2913J"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> imaging of soil apparent electrical conductivity from VERIS data using a 1D spatially <span class="hlt">constrained</span> inversion algorithm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jesús Moral García, Francisco; Rebollo Castillo, Francisco Javier; Monteiro Santos, Fernando</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Maps of apparent electrical conductivity of the soil are commonly used in precision agriculture to indirectly characterize some important properties like salinity, water, and clay content. Traditionally, these studies are made through an empirical relationship between apparent electrical conductivity and properties measured in soil samples collected at a few locations in the experimental area and at a few selected depths. Recently, some authors have used not the apparent conductivity values but the soil bulk conductivity (in 2D or <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) calculated from measured apparent electrical conductivity through the application of an inversion method. All the published works used data collected with electromagnetic (EM) instruments. We present a new software to invert the apparent electrical conductivity data collected with VERIS 3100 and 3150 (or the more recent version with three pairs of electrodes) using the 1D spatially <span class="hlt">constrained</span> inversion method (1D SCI). The software allows the calculation of the distribution of the bulk electrical conductivity in the survey area till a depth of 1 m. The algorithm is applied to experimental data and correlations with clay and water content have been established using soil samples collected at some boreholes. Keywords: Digital soil mapping; inversion modelling; VERIS; soil apparent electrical conductivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1213013P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1213013P"><span id="translatedtitle">Using 1-to-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> modeling approach to <span class="hlt">constrain</span> thermomechanical evolution of the Dead Sea Transform region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Petrunin, Alexey G.; Meneses Rioseco, Ernesto; Sobolev, Stephan V.</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p> (BBS) approach (Petrunin and Sobolev, Geology 2006, PEPI 2008) and estimate the present-day thickness of the brittle layer near the DST as 20-22 km. As a result of the 2.5 D modeling, we significantly narrow down the ranges of model parameters. At the final stage we check the obtained parameters using the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model of the Dead Sea basin similar to (Petrunin and Sobolev, Geology 2006) that gives good correlation with the sedimentary subsidence rate and present-day geometry of the basin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFMIN13A1819Y&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFMIN13A1819Y&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Building continental-scale <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> subsurface layers in the Digital Crust project: <span class="hlt">constrained</span> interpolation and uncertainty estimation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yulaeva, E.; Fan, Y.; Moosdorf, N.; Richard, S. M.; Bristol, S.; Peters, S. E.; Zaslavsky, I.; Ingebritsen, S.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The Digital Crust EarthCube building block creates a framework for integrating disparate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>/4D information from multiple sources into a comprehensive model of the structure and composition of the Earth's upper crust, and to demonstrate the utility of this model in several research scenarios. One of such scenarios is estimation of various crustal properties related to fluid dynamics (e.g. permeability and porosity) at each node of any arbitrary unstructured <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> grid to support continental-scale numerical models of fluid flow and transport. Starting from Macrostrat, an existing 4D database of 33,903 chronostratigraphic units, and employing GeoDeepDive, a software system for extracting structured information from unstructured documents, we construct <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> gridded fields of sediment/rock porosity, permeability and geochemistry for large sedimentary basins of North America, which will be used to improve our understanding of large-scale fluid flow, chemical weathering rates, and geochemical fluxes into the ocean. In this talk, we discuss the methods, data gaps (particularly in geologically complex terrain), and various physical and geological constraints on interpolation and uncertainty estimation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/219612','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/219612"><span id="translatedtitle">Preconditioning techniques for <span class="hlt">constrained</span> vector potential integral equations, with application to <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> magnetoquasistatic analysis of electronic packages</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kamon, M.; Phillips, J.R.</p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>In this paper techniques are presented for preconditioning equations generated by discretizing <span class="hlt">constrained</span> vector integral equations associated with magnetoquasistatic analysis. Standard preconditioning approaches often fail on these problems. The authors present a specialized preconditioning technique and prove convergence bounds independent of the constraint equations and electromagnetic excitation frequency. Computational results from analyzing several electronic packaging examples are given to demonstrate that the new preconditioning approach can sometimes reduce the number of GMRES iterations by more than an order of magnitude.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H41K..08H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H41K..08H"><span id="translatedtitle">Incorporating Sedimentological Observations, Hydrogeophysics and conceptual Knowledge to <span class="hlt">Constrain</span> <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Numerical Heterogeneity Models of Coarse Alluvial Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huber, E.; Huggenberger, P.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Accurate predictions on groundwater flow and transport behavior within fluvial and glaciofluvial sediments, but also interaction with surface water bodies, rely on knowledge of distributed aquifer properties. The complexity of the depositional and erosional processes in fluvial systems leads to highly heterogeneous distributions of hydrogeological parameters. The system dynamics, such as aggradation rates and channel mobility of alluvial systems; its influence on the preservation potential of the key depositional elements in the geological record; and its influence on the heterogeneity scales and the relevance for groundwater hydraulics is topic of the presentation. The aims of our work are to find a relation between surface morphological structures and the sedimentary structures in vertical profiles (i.e. gravel pits or GPR sections) and to derive rules for the interpretation of horizontal time-slices from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> GPR data. Based on these data we set-up conceptual models of the structures of coarse alluvial systems at different scales which can be tested by stochastic methods. Relevant depositional elements and a hierarchy or genetic relationship of such elements will be defined based on the knowledge of depositional processes in alluvial systems inferred from: field observations after major flood events; 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> GPR data; and from existing data derived from laboratory flumes. Extensive geophysical field experiments within the Tagliamento alluvial system gave new insights to the sedimentary structures developing at high flows. Owing to the fact that rivers often destroy at least part of their bed during or shortly after large floods and subsequently rebuild, it is not easy to establish a simple relationship between surface morphology and the sedimentary structures found in vertical sections of many alluvial outcrops. According to these findings we suppose that surface or near-surface structures will not catch the essence of heterogeneity of alluvial aquifers</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T11F..07S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T11F..07S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> thermo-mechanical model of the orogeny in Pamir <span class="hlt">constrained</span> by geological and geophysical observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sobolev, S. V.; Tympel, J.; Ratschbacher, L.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The Pamir-Hindu Kush orogenic belt is the result of the indentation of the western corner of the India plate into Eurasia. It has accommodated the highest strain over the shortest meridional distance of the India-Eurasia collision zone. Recent high-resolution seismic tomographic and receiver function studies confirm the presence of a south-dipping continental lithosphere, which has been traced to the depth of more than 200-300 km beneath the northern Pamir (Pamir slab). Balanced cross-section document crustal shortening associated with the corresponding frontal thrust system of a few tens of km, which is much less than the expected (>200-300 km) for intra-continental subduction zone, based on the seismically imaged length of the Pamir slab. Another unique feature of Pamir is the presence of large gneiss domes with the exhumation reaching a depth of 30-40 km.We employ the finite-element thermomechanical modelling technique SLIM<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> to simulate the evolution of the Pamir orogeny during the last 25 Myr. The technique is using advanced non-linear elasto-visco-plastic rheology with parameters based on laboratory experiments. Our <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model extends 1100 km N-S, 800 km E-W, and 300 km deep, and replicates indentation of the western half of India promontory into Eurasia. The moving modelling-window technique allows focusing at the most extensively deforming domains, and a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model setup and boundary conditions allow lateral material flow to the west, i.e. perpendicular to the direction of tectonic shortening.The model replicates major features of the lithospheric structure and geological history. For instance, we demonstrate that large part of the roll back of the Pamir slab may be caused by the delamination of the mantle lithosphere together with the lower crust, rather than classical intra-continental subduction involving thrust-imbrication of the uppermost crust. The resulting shortening at the Pamir frontal thrust system appears to be lower than 50 km in accord with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.S11B..06S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.S11B..06S"><span id="translatedtitle">Crust Uppermost Mantle Structure beneath Eastern Asia: Progress towards a Uniform, Tightly <span class="hlt">Constrained</span>, High Resolution <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shen, W.; Ritzwoller, M. H.; Zheng, Y.; Lin, F. C.; Kim, Y.; Ning, J.; Kang, D.; Feng, L.; Wiens, D. A.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>In the past decade, large and dense seismic arrays have been deployed across much of eastern Asia (e.g., the "CEArray" and the "China Array" deployed by the China Earthquake Administration (CEA), the NECESS Array deployed collaboratively by China, Japan and the US, Korean Seismic Network, KNET and other networks in Japan, and historical PASSCAL installations), which have been used to produce increasingly well resolved models of the crust and uppermost mantle at different length scales. These models, however, do not cover eastern Asia uniformly. In this presentation, we report on an effort to generate a uniform high resolution <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> model of the crust and uppermost mantle beneath eastern Asia using state-of-art surface wave and body wave inversion techniques. Highlights of this effort include: 1) We collect ambient noise cross-correlations using more than 1,800 seismic stations from multiple seismic arrays in this area and perform uniform surface wave tomography for the study area. 2) We collect P-wave receiver functions for over 1,000 stations and Rayleigh wave H/V ratio measurements for over 200 stations in this area. 3) We adopt a Bayesian Monte Carlo inversion to the Rayleigh wave dispersion maps and produce a uniform <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> model with uncertainties of the crust and uppermost mantle. 4) In the areas where receiver functions and/or Rayleigh wave H/V ratios are collected, we replace the surface wave inversion by a joint inversion of surface waves and these seismic observables. The resulting model displays a great variety and considerable richness of geological and tectonic features in the crust and in the uppermost mantle which we summarize and discuss with focus on the relationship between the observed crustal variations and tectonic/geological boundaries and lithospheric modifications associated with volcanism in Northeast China.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A43G3369T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A43G3369T"><span id="translatedtitle">Developing a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Constrained</span> Variational Analysis Method to Calculate Large Scale Forcing Data and the Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tang, S.; Zhang, M. H.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Large-scale forcing data (vertical velocities and advective tendencies) are important atmospheric fields to drive single-column models (SCM), cloud-resolving models (CRM) and large-eddy simulations (LES), but they are difficult to calculate accurately. The current 1-dimensional <span class="hlt">constrained</span> variational analysis (1D CVA) method (Zhang and Lin, 1997) used by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program is limited to represent the average of a sounding network domain. We extended the original 1D CVA algorithm into 3-dimensional along with other improvements, calculated gridded large-scale forcing data, apparent heating sources (Q1) and moisture sinks (Q2), and compared with 5 reanalyses: ERA-Interim, NCEP CFSR, MERRA, JRA55 and NARR for a mid-latitude spring cyclone case. The results from a case study for in March 3rd 2000 at the Southern Great Plain (SGP) show that reanalyses generally captured the structure of the mid-latitude cyclone, but they have serious biases in the 2nd order derivative terms (divergences and horizontal derivations) at regional scales of less than a few hundred kilometers. Our algorithm provides a set of atmospheric fields consistent with the observed constraint variables at the surface and top of the atmosphere better than reanalyses. The analyzed atmospheric fields can be used in SCM, CRM and LES to provide 3-dimensional dynamical forcing, or be used to evaluate reanalyses or model simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22102176','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22102176"><span id="translatedtitle">Object-<span class="hlt">constrained</span> meshless deformable algorithm for high speed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> nonrigid registration between CT and CBCT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chen Ting; Kim, Sung; Goyal, Sharad; Jabbour, Salma; Zhou Jinghao; Rajagopal, Gunaretnum; Haffty, Bruce; Yue Ning</p> <p>2010-01-15</p> <p>Purpose: High-speed nonrigid registration between the planning CT and the treatment CBCT data is critical for real time image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) to improve the dose distribution and to reduce the toxicity to adjacent organs. The authors propose a new fully automatic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> registration framework that integrates object-based global and seed constraints with the grayscale-based ''demons'' algorithm. Methods: Clinical objects were segmented on the planning CT images and were utilized as meshless deformable models during the nonrigid registration process. The meshless models reinforced a global constraint in addition to the grayscale difference between CT and CBCT in order to maintain the shape and the volume of geometrically complex <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects during the registration. To expedite the registration process, the framework was stratified into hierarchies, and the authors used a frequency domain formulation to diffuse the displacement between the reference and the target in each hierarchy. Also during the registration of pelvis images, they replaced the air region inside the rectum with estimated pixel values from the surrounding rectal wall and introduced an additional seed constraint to robustly track and match the seeds implanted into the prostate. The proposed registration framework and algorithm were evaluated on 15 real prostate cancer patients. For each patient, prostate gland, seminal vesicle, bladder, and rectum were first segmented by a radiation oncologist on planning CT images for radiotherapy planning purpose. The same radiation oncologist also manually delineated the tumor volumes and critical anatomical structures in the corresponding CBCT images acquired at treatment. These delineated structures on the CBCT were only used as the ground truth for the quantitative validation, while structures on the planning CT were used both as the input to the registration method and the ground truth in validation. By registering the planning CT to the CBCT, a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011PMB....56.3269W&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011PMB....56.3269W&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">A discriminative model-<span class="hlt">constrained</span> EM approach to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> MRI brain tissue classification and intensity non-uniformity correction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wels, Michael; Zheng, Yefeng; Huber, Martin; Hornegger, Joachim; Comaniciu, Dorin</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>We describe a fully automated method for tissue classification, which is the segmentation into cerebral gray matter (GM), cerebral white matter (WM), and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), and intensity non-uniformity (INU) correction in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumes. It combines supervised MRI modality-specific discriminative modeling and unsupervised statistical expectation maximization (EM) segmentation into an integrated Bayesian framework. While both the parametric observation models and the non-parametrically modeled INUs are estimated via EM during segmentation itself, a Markov random field (MRF) prior model regularizes segmentation and parameter estimation. Firstly, the regularization takes into account knowledge about spatial and appearance-related homogeneity of segments in terms of pairwise clique potentials of adjacent voxels. Secondly and more importantly, patient-specific knowledge about the global spatial distribution of brain tissue is incorporated into the segmentation process via unary clique potentials. They are based on a strong discriminative model provided by a probabilistic boosting tree (PBT) for classifying image voxels. It relies on the surrounding context and alignment-based features derived from a probabilistic anatomical atlas. The context considered is encoded by <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Haar-like features of reduced INU sensitivity. Alignment is carried out fully automatically by means of an affine registration algorithm minimizing cross-correlation. Both types of features do not immediately use the observed intensities provided by the MRI modality but instead rely on specifically transformed features, which are less sensitive to MRI artifacts. Detailed quantitative evaluations on standard phantom scans and standard real-world data show the accuracy and robustness of the proposed method. They also demonstrate relative superiority in comparison to other state-of-the-art approaches to this kind of computational task: our method achieves average</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011BSRSL..80..694M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011BSRSL..80..694M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Constraining</span> the Properties of the Eta Carinae System via <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> SPH Models of Space-Based Observations: The Absolute Orientation of the Binary Orbit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Madura, Thomas I.; Gull, Theodore R.; Owocki, Stanley P.; Okazaki, Atsuo T.; Russell, Christopher M. P.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The extremely massive (> 90 M_⊙) and luminous ( = 5 × 10^{6} L_⊙) star Eta Carinae, with its spectacular bipolar ``Homunculus'' nebula, comprises one of the most remarkable and intensely observed stellar systems in the Galaxy. However, many of its underlying physical parameters remain unknown. Multiwavelength variations observed to occur every 5.54 years are interpreted as being due to the collision of a massive wind from the primary star with the fast, less dense wind of a hot companion star in a highly elliptical (e ˜ 0.9) orbit. Using three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>) Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of the binary wind-wind collision, together with radiative transfer codes, we compute synthetic spectral images of [Fe III] emission line structures and compare them to existing Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (HST/STIS) observations. We are thus able, for the first time, to tightly <span class="hlt">constrain</span> the absolute orientation of the binary orbit on the sky. An orbit with an inclination of i ˜ 40°, an argument of periapsis ω ˜ 255°, and a projected orbital axis with a position angle of ˜ 312° east of north provides the best fit to the observations, implying that the orbital axis is closely aligned in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> space with the Homunculus symmetry axis, and that the companion star orbits clockwise on the sky relative to the primary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110023552','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110023552"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Constraining</span> the Properties of the Eta Carinae System via <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> SPH Models of Space-Based Observations: The Absolute Orientation of the Binary Orbit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Madura, Thomas I.; Gull, Theodore R.; Owocki, Stanley P.; Okazaki, Atsuo T.; Russell, Christopher M. P.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The extremely massive (> 90 Stellar Mass) and luminous (= 5 x 10(exp 6) Stellar Luminosity) star Eta Carinae, with its spectacular bipolar "Homunculus" nebula, comprises one of the most remarkable and intensely observed stellar systems in the Galaxy. However, many of its underlying physical parameters remain unknown. Multiwavelength variations observed to occur every 5.54 years are interpreted as being due to the collision of a massive wind from the primary star with the fast, less dense wind of a hot companion star in a highly elliptical (e approx. 0.9) orbit. Using three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>) Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of the binary wind-wind collision, together with radiative transfer codes, we compute synthetic spectral images of [Fe III] emission line structures and compare them to existing Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (HST/STIS) observations. We are thus able, for the first time, to tightly <span class="hlt">constrain</span> the absolute orientation of the binary orbit on the sky. An orbit with an inclination of approx. 40deg, an argument of periapsis omega approx. 255deg, and a projected orbital axis with a position angle of approx. 312deg east of north provides the best fit to the observations, implying that the orbital axis is closely aligned in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> space with the Homunculus symmetry axis, and that the companion star orbits clockwise on the sky relative to the primary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70047785','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70047785"><span id="translatedtitle">Planimetric Martian <span class="hlt">triangulations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Arthur, D.W.G.; McMacken, D.K.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Narrow-angle photographs, which have severe drawbacks for stereophotogrammetry, have advantages for simple plane <span class="hlt">triangulations</span>. Rectified narrow-angle pictures corrected for map projection effects can be combined in the map plane in relatively accurate planimetric <span class="hlt">triangulations</span>. Provided the strict precepts of least squares are not followed, these <span class="hlt">triangulations</span> can incorporate considerable overdetermination without increase in the labor of solving the equations. These plane <span class="hlt">triangulations</span> have been used successfully in the cartography of Mars and are illustrated here by a <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> of the environs of the prime Martian landing site.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992SPIE.1641...35B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992SPIE.1641...35B"><span id="translatedtitle">Two-dimensional and <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> images of thick tissue using time-<span class="hlt">constrained</span> times-of-flight and absorbance spectrophotometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Benaron, David A.; Lennox, M.; Stevenson, David K.</p> <p>1992-05-01</p> <p>Reconstructing deep-tissue images in real time using spectrophotometric data from optically diffusing thick tissues has been problematic. Continuous wave applications (e.g., pulse oximetry, regional cerebral saturation) ignore both the multiple paths traveled by the photons through the tissue and the effects of scattering, allowing scalar measurements but only under limited conditions; interferometry works poorly in thick, highly-scattering media; frequency- modulated approaches may not allow full deconvolution of scattering and absorbance; and pulsed-light techniques allow for preservation of information regarding the multiple paths taken by light through the tissue, but reconstruction is both computation intensive and limited by the relative surface area available for detection of photons. We have developed a picosecond times-of-flight and absorbance (TOFA) optical system, time-<span class="hlt">constrained</span> to measure only photons with a narrow range of path lengths and arriving within a narrow angel of the emitter-detector axis. The delay until arrival of the earliest arriving photons is a function of both the scattering and absorbance of the tissues in a direct line between the emitter and detector, reducing the influence of surrounding tissues. Measurement using a variety of emitter and detector locations produces spatial information which can be analyzed in a standard 2-D grid, or subject to computer reconstruction to produce tomographic images representing <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> structure. Using such a technique, we have been able to demonstrate the principles of tc-TOFA, detect and localize diffusive and/or absorptive objects suspended in highly scattering media (such as blood admixed with yeast), and perform simple <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> reconstructions using phantom objects. We are now attempting to obtain images in vivo. Potential future applications include use as a research tool, and as a continuous, noninvasive, nondestructive monitor in diagnostic imaging, fetal monitoring, neurologic and cardiac</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA....10828L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA....10828L"><span id="translatedtitle">Sedimentary basin analysis <span class="hlt">constrained</span> by <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> seismic and subsidence modelling: the case of the Phanerozoic evolution of the Dampier Sub-basin, North West Shelf of Australia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Langhi, L.; Borel, G. D.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>The North West Shelf of Australia has been a long term passive margin, which underwent a polyphased tectonic history associated with the disintegration of Eastern Gondwana. Several Phanerozoic sedimentary basins like the Northern Carnarvon Basin developed during the rifting phases culminating in the opening of the NeoTethys during the Late Paleozoic and the abyssal plains during the Mesozoic. In order to accurately <span class="hlt">constrain</span> the Phanerozoic evolution of the proximal part of the Dampier Sub-basin (Mermaid Nose), a thorough <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structural and stratigraphic analysis was performed on the basis of 2D/<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> seismic data. It has enabled to highlight about twenty depositional sequences from Early Permian (Late Carboniferous?) to Late Cretaceous. The cuttings description of the deepest well of the area (Roebuck-1, 2871 mRT) was (has been) interpreted on the basis of the lithological changes and 19 units were highlighted from the Kungurian Kennedy Group to the Campanian Withnell Formation. The association of the 2D/<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> seismic data and the regional Late Palaeozoic units described in the literature allows to generate a pseudo-well below Roebuck-1 total depth reaching the (Late Carboniferous?) Early Permian Lyons Group sequences. The sediments of the glacially-related Lyons Group have been interpreted on the seismic data as representing the first syntectonic infilling a half-graben. This extensional episode is linked to the NeoTethys rifting that extended up to the eastern Mediterranean area removing slivers of continents from Gondwana, known as the Cimmerian terranes. Stratigraphic, sedimentary and paleontological data provided by well and seismic analysis from the Mermaid Nose have been combined to produce subsidence curves. The subsidence modelling for the Mermaid Nose clearly emphasises the predominance of the effects of the NeoTethys rifting that took place under an ice-sheet whereas the extension coeval with the opening of the abyssal plains that occurred later and closer to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110007197','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110007197"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Constraining</span> the Properties of the Eta Carinae System via <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> SPH Models of Space-Based Observations: The Absolute Orientation of the Binary Orbit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Madura, Thomas I.; Gull, Theodore R.; Owocki, Stanley P.; Okazaki, Atsuo T.; Russell, Christopher M. P.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The extremely massive (> 90 Solar Mass) and luminous (= 5 x 10(exp 6) Solar Luminosity) star Eta Carinae, with its spectacular bipolar "Homunculus" nebula, comprises one of the most remarkable and intensely observed stellar systems in the galaxy. However, many of its underlying physical parameters remain a mystery. Multiwavelength variations observed to occur every 5.54 years are interpreted as being due to the collision of a massive wind from the primary star with the fast, less dense wind of a hot companion star in a highly elliptical (e approx. 0.9) orbit. Using three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>) Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of the binary wind-wind collision in Eta Car, together with radiative transfer codes, we compute synthetic spectral images of [Fe III] emission line structures and compare them to existing Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (HST/STIS) observations. We are thus able, for the first time, to <span class="hlt">constrain</span> the absolute orientation of the binary orbit on the sky. An orbit with an inclination of i approx. 40deg, an argument of periapsis omega approx. 255deg, and a projected orbital axis with a position angle of approx. 312deg east of north provides the best fit to the observations, implying that the orbital axis is closely aligned in 3-1) space with the Homunculus symmetry axis, and that the companion star orbits clockwise on the sky relative to the primary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/983384','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/983384"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> Made Easy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lindstrom, P</p> <p>2009-12-23</p> <p>We describe a simple and efficient algorithm for two-view <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> points from approximate 2D matches based on minimizing the L2 reprojection error. Our iterative algorithm improves on the one by Kanatani et al. by ensuring that in each iteration the epipolar constraint is satisfied. In the case where the two cameras are pointed in the same direction, the method provably converges to an optimal solution in exactly two iterations. For more general camera poses, two iterations are sufficient to achieve convergence to machine precision, which we exploit to devise a fast, non-iterative method. The resulting algorithm amounts to little more than solving a quadratic equation, and involves a fixed, small number of simple matrixvector operations and no conditional branches. We demonstrate that the method computes solutions that agree to very high precision with those of Hartley and Sturm's original polynomial method, though achieves higher numerical stability and 1-4 orders of magnitude greater speed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=triangulation&id=EJ968447','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=triangulation&id=EJ968447"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> 2.0</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Denzin, Norman K.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The author's thesis is simple and direct. Those in the mixed methods qualitative inquiry community need a new story line, one that does not confuse pragmatism for <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>, and <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> for mixed methods research (MMR). A different third way is required, one that inspires generative politics and dialogic democracy and helps shape…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFM.T41D..06L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFM.T41D..06L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Compositional Density Structure of the Upper Mantle from <span class="hlt">Constrained</span> <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Inversion of Gravity Anomaly: A Case Study of Southeast Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liang, Q.; Chen, C.; Kaban, M. K.; Thomas, M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Mantle density structure is a key for tectonics. The density variations in the upper mantle are affected by temperature and composition. Seismic tomography method has been widely applied to obtain the P- and S-wave velocity structure in the mantle, which is then used to calculate the density perturbation. However, the velocity model is mainly due to the thermal effects but not the compositional effects. A method of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> inversion of gravity anomaly developed in spherical coordinates is used to image the large-scale density structure of upper mantle in Southeast Asia. The mantle gravity anomalies used in inversion are calculated by removing the crustal effects from the observed gravity. With constraints of thermal density model from seismic tomography, the integrative density structure is estimated from gravity inversion. Consequently, we obtain the compositional density by subtracting the thermal density from the integrative structure. The result of inversion shows the anisotropic composition of subduction zones, Cratons and plates boundary in Southeast Asia. In the shallow depth, the compositional density anomalies of large scales present uniform features in oceanic and continental mantle. In depth of 75-175 km, there are differences between the thermal and the compositional variations. The density anomalies at these depths are both affected by temperature and composition of the upper mantle. Below 175-km depth, the density anomalies are dominated by the compositional variations. Furthermore, comparing with high seismicity occurred at moderate-depth (50-300 km), we found that the compositional density variations is one of the factor that inducing earthquakes. The <span class="hlt">constrained</span> inversion of mantle gravity anomaly has possibility to reveal the subduction which is not clearly seen from low-resolution tomography data, and may reveal the relation of seismicity and composition in the upper mantle. This study is supported by the Program of International Science and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/972714','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/972714"><span id="translatedtitle">CAD Tools for Creating Space-filing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Escher Tiles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Howison, Mark; Sequin, Carlo H.</p> <p>2009-04-10</p> <p>We discuss the design and implementation of CAD tools for creating decorative solids that tile 3-space in a regular, isohedral manner. Starting with the simplest case of extruded 2D tilings, we describe geometric algorithms used for maintaining boundary representations of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> tiles, including a Java implementation of an interactive <span class="hlt">constrained</span> Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> library and a mesh-cutting algorithm used in layering extruded tiles to create more intricate designs. Finally, we demonstrate a CAD tool for creating <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> tilings that are derived from cubic lattices. The design process for these <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> tiles is more <span class="hlt">constrained</span>, and hence more difficult, than in the 2D case, and it raises additional user interface issues.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040111965&hterms=Nurbs&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DNurbs','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040111965&hterms=Nurbs&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DNurbs"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> of NURBS Surfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Samareh-Abolhassani, Jamshid</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>A technique is presented for <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> of NURBS surfaces. This technique is built upon an advancing front technique combined with grid point projection. This combined approach has been successfully implemented for structured and unstructured grids.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAfES.103...71D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAfES.103...71D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> gravity modeling of a salt structure associated to the Trozza-Labaied lineament (Central Tunisia) <span class="hlt">constrained</span> by seismic and borehole data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Djebbi, M.; Gabtni, H.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Gravity and seismic are two distinctive geophysical methods which are used combined in integrated geophysical studies. The rationale behind this integration is to construct a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> gravity model for a salt structure associated to the Trozza-Labaied major tectonic deformation. The Trozza-Labaied area witnessed the occurrence of several tectonic events during the Atlassic phase resulting in the creation of various salt structures. Interpretation of the available seismic data revealed the different lithological units forming the geologic setting. Whereas the analysis of the gravity data contributed in exposing the existence of different gravity anomalies. Thus, the integrated seismic and gravity data are fundamental in constructing a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> gravity model. The resulting model provides an accurate image of the salt body extent and its geometry and determines its effect over the surrounding sedimentary deposits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4517892','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4517892"><span id="translatedtitle">Algebraic Error Based <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> and Metric of Lines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wu, Fuchao; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Guanghui; Hu, Zhanyi</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Line <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>, a classical geometric problem in computer vision, is to determine the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> coordinates of a line based on its 2D image projections from more than two views of cameras with known projection matrices. Compared to point features, line segments are more robust to matching errors, occlusions, and image uncertainties. In addition to line <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>, a better metric is needed to evaluate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> errors of line <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>. In this paper, the line <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> problem is investigated by using the Lagrange multipliers theory. The main contributions include: (i) Based on the Lagrange multipliers theory, a formula to compute the Plücker correction is provided, and from the formula, a new linear algorithm, LINa, is proposed for line <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>; (ii) two optimal algorithms, OPTa-I and OPTa-II, are proposed by minimizing the algebraic error; and (iii) two metrics on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> line space, the orthogonal metric and the quasi-Riemannian metric, are introduced for the evaluation of line <span class="hlt">triangulations</span>. Extensive experiments on synthetic data and real images are carried out to validate and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms. PMID:26218615</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CG.....61...94X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CG.....61...94X"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantifying fluid distribution and phase connectivity with a simple <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cubic pore network model <span class="hlt">constrained</span> by NMR and MICP data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xu, Chicheng; Torres-Verdín, Carlos</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>A computer algorithm is implemented to construct <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cubic pore networks that simultaneously honor nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mercury injection capillary pressure (MICP) measurements on core samples. The algorithm uses discretized pore-body size distributions from NMR and pore-throat size versus incremental pore-volume fraction information from MICP as initial inputs. Both pore-throat radius distribution and body-throat correlation are iteratively refined to match percolation-simulated primary drainage capillary pressure with MICP data. It outputs a pore-throat radius distribution which is not directly measurable with either NMR or MICP. In addition, quasi-static fluid distribution and single-phase connectivity are quantified at each capillary pressure stage. NMR measurements on desaturating core samples are simulated from the quantitative fluid distribution in a gas-displacing-water drainage process and are verified with laboratory measurements. We invoke effective medium theory to quantify the single-phase connectivity in two-phase flow by simulating percolation in equivalent sub-pore-networks that consider the remaining fluid phase as solid cementation. Primary drainage relative permeability curves quantified from fluid distribution and phase connectivity show petrophysical consistency after applying a hydrated-water saturation correction. Core measurements of tight-gas sandstone samples from the Cotton Valley formation, East Texas, are used to verify the new algorithm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10165881','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10165881"><span id="translatedtitle">Refining a <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> of a planar straight-line graph to eliminate large angles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mitchell, S.A.</p> <p>1993-05-13</p> <p><span class="hlt">Triangulations</span> without large angles have a number of applications in numerical analysis and computer graphics. In particular, the convergence of a finite element calculation depends on the largest angle of the <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>. Also, the running time of a finite element calculation is dependent on the <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> size, so having a <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> with few Steiner points is also important. Bern, Dobkin and Eppstein pose as an open problem the existence of an algorithm to <span class="hlt">triangulate</span> a planar straight-line graph (PSLG) without large angles using a polynomial number of Steiner points. We solve this problem by showing that any PSLG with {upsilon} vertices can be <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> with no angle larger than 7{pi}/8 by adding O({upsilon}{sup 2}log {upsilon}) Steiner points in O({upsilon}{sup 2} log{sup 2} {upsilon}) time. We first <span class="hlt">triangulate</span> the PSLG with an arbitrary <span class="hlt">constrained</span> <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> and then refine that <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> by adding additional vertices and edges. Some PSLGs require {Omega}({upsilon}{sup 2}) Steiner points in any <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> achieving any largest angle bound less than {pi}. Hence the number of Steiner points added by our algorithm is within a log {upsilon} factor of worst case optimal. We note that our refinement algorithm works on arbitrary <span class="hlt">triangulations</span>: Given any <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>, we show how to refine it so that no angle is larger than 7{pi}/8. Our construction adds O(nm+nplog m) vertices and runs in time O(nm+nplog m) log(m+ p)), where n is the number of edges, m is one plus the number of obtuse angles, and p is one plus the number of holes and interior vertices in the original <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>. A previously considered problem is refining a <span class="hlt">constrained</span> <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> of a simple polygon, where p = 1. For this problem we add O({upsilon}{sup 2}) Steiner points, which is within a constant factor of worst case optimal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3587385','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3587385"><span id="translatedtitle">Blocking Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Aichholzer, Oswin; Fabila-Monroy, Ruy; Hackl, Thomas; van Kreveld, Marc; Pilz, Alexander; Ramos, Pedro; Vogtenhuber, Birgit</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Given a set B of n black points in general position, we say that a set of white points W blocks B if in the Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> of B∪W there is no edge connecting two black points. We give the following bounds for the size of the smallest set W blocking B: (i) 3n/2 white points are always sufficient to block a set of n black points, (ii) if B is in convex position, 5n/4 white points are always sufficient to block it, and (iii) at least n−1 white points are always necessary to block a set of n black points. PMID:23483043</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23483043','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23483043"><span id="translatedtitle">Blocking Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Aichholzer, Oswin; Fabila-Monroy, Ruy; Hackl, Thomas; van Kreveld, Marc; Pilz, Alexander; Ramos, Pedro; Vogtenhuber, Birgit</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>Given a set B of n black points in general position, we say that a set of white points W blocks B if in the Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> of [Formula: see text] there is no edge connecting two black points. We give the following bounds for the size of the smallest set W blocking B: (i) [Formula: see text] white points are always sufficient to block a set of n black points, (ii) if B is in convex position, [Formula: see text] white points are always sufficient to block it, and (iii) at least [Formula: see text] white points are always necessary to block a set of n black points. PMID:23483043</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Geomo.253..181N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Geomo.253..181N"><span id="translatedtitle">A method for building <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models of barchan dunes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nai, Yang; Li-lan, Su; Lin, Wan; Jie, Yang; Shi-yi, Chen; Wei-lu, Hu</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The distributions of barchan dunes are usually represented by digital terrain models (DTMs) overlaid with digital orthophoto maps. Given that most regions with barchan dues have low relief, a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> map obtained from a DTM may ineffectively show the stereoscopic shape of each dune. The method of building <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models of barchan dunes using existing modeling software seldom considers the geographical environment. As a result, barchan dune models are often inconsistent with actual DTMs and incompletely express the morphological characteristics of dunes. Manual construction of barchan dune models is also costly and time consuming. Considering these problems, the morphological characteristics of barchan dunes and the mathematical relationships between the morphological parameters of the dunes, such as length, height, and width, are analyzed in this study. The methods of extracting the morphological feature points of barchan dunes, calculating their morphological parameters and building dune outlines and skeleton lines based on the medial axes, are also presented. The dune outlines, skeleton lines, and part of the medial axes of dunes are used to construct a <span class="hlt">constrained</span> <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> irregular network. C# and ArcEngine are employed to build <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models of barchan dunes automatically. Experimental results of a study conducted in Tengger Desert show that the method can be used to approximate the morphological characteristics of barchan dunes and is less time consuming than manual methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070038219','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070038219"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-Sensor <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> of Multi-Source Spatial Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Habib, Ayman; Kim, Chang-Jae; Bang, Ki-In</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The introduced methodologies are successful in: a) Ising LIDAR features for photogrammetric geo-refererncing; b) Delivering a geo-referenced imagery of the same quality as point-based geo-referencing procedures; c) Taking advantage of the synergistic characteristics of spatial data acquisition systems. The <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> output can be used for the generation of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> perspective views.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.H41A0835W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.H41A0835W"><span id="translatedtitle">Using outcrop observations, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> discrete feature network (DFN) fluid-flow simulations, and subsurface data to <span class="hlt">constrain</span> the impact of normal faults and opening mode fractures on fluid flow in an active asphalt mine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wilson, C. E.; Aydin, A.; Durlofsky, L.; Karimi-Fard, M.; Brownlow, D. T.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>An active quarry near Uvalde, TX which mines asphaltic limestone from the Anacacho Formation offers an ideal setting to study fluid-flow in fractured and faulted carbonate rocks. Semi-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> exposures of normal faults and fractures in addition to visual evidence of asphalt concentrations in the quarry help <span class="hlt">constrain</span> relationships between geologic structures and the flow and transport of hydrocarbons. Furthermore, a subsurface dataset which includes thin sections and measured asphalt concentration from the surrounding region provides a basis to estimate asphalt concentrations and <span class="hlt">constrain</span> the depositional architecture of both the previously mined portions of the quarry and the un-mined surrounding rock volume. We characterized a series of normal faults and opening mode fractures at the quarry and documented a correlation between the intensity and distribution of these structures with increased concentrations of asphalt. The three-dimensional depositional architecture of the Anacacho Formation was characterized using the subsurface thin sections. Then outcrop exposures of faults, fractured beds, and stratigraphic contacts were mapped and their three-dimensional positions were recorded with differential gps devices. These two datasets were assimilated and a quarry-scale, geologically realistic, three-dimensional Discrete Feature Network (DFN) which represents the geometries and material properties of the matrix, normal faults, and fractures within the quarry was constructed. We then performed two-point flux, control-volume finite- difference fluid-flow simulations with the DFN to investigate the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> flow and transport of fluids. The results were compared and contrasted with available asphalt concentration estimates from the mine and the aforementioned data from the surrounding drill cores.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25571245','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25571245"><span id="translatedtitle">Segmentation and reconstruction of cerebral vessels from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> rotational angiography for AVM embolization planning.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Fan; Chenoune, Yasmina; Ouenniche, Meriem; Blanc, Raphaël; Petit, Eric</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Diagnosis and computer-guided therapy of cerebral Arterio-Venous Malformations (AVM) require an accurate understanding of the cerebral vascular network both from structural and biomechanical point of view. We propose to obtain such information by analyzing three Dimensional Rotational Angiography (3DRA) images. In this paper, we describe a two-step process allowing 1) the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> automatic segmentation of cerebral vessels from 3DRA images using a region-growing based algorithm and 2) the reconstruction of the segmented vessels using the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">constrained</span> Delaunay <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> method. The proposed algorithm was successfully applied to reconstruct cerebral blood vessels from ten datasets of 3DRA images. This software allows the neuroradiologist to separately analyze cerebral vessels for pre-operative interventions planning and therapeutic decision making. PMID:25571245</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940028440','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940028440"><span id="translatedtitle">Incremental <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> by way of edge swapping and local optimization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wiltberger, N. Lyn</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This document is intended to serve as an installation, usage, and basic theory guide for the two dimensional <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> software 'HARLEY' written for the Silicon Graphics IRIS workstation. This code consists of an incremental <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> algorithm based on point insertion and local edge swapping. Using this basic strategy, several types of <span class="hlt">triangulations</span> can be produced depending on user selected options. For example, local edge swapping criteria can be chosen which minimizes the maximum interior angle (a MinMax <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>) or which maximizes the minimum interior angle (a MaxMin or Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>). It should be noted that the MinMax <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> is generally only locally optical (not globally optimal) in this measure. The MaxMin <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>, however, is both locally and globally optical. In addition, Steiner <span class="hlt">triangulations</span> can be constructed by inserting new sites at triangle circumcenters followed by edge swapping based on the MaxMin criteria. Incremental insertion of sites also provides flexibility in choosing cell refinement criteria. A dynamic heap structure has been implemented in the code so that once a refinement measure is specified (i.e., maximum aspect ratio or some measure of a solution gradient for the solution adaptive grid generation) the cell with the largest value of this measure is continually removed from the top of the heap and refined. The heap refinement strategy allows the user to specify either the number of cells desired or refine the mesh until all cell refinement measures satisfy a user specified tolerance level. Since the dynamic heap structure is constantly updated, the algorithm always refines the particular cell in the mesh with the largest refinement criteria value. The code allows the user to: <span class="hlt">triangulate</span> a cloud of prespecified points (sites), <span class="hlt">triangulate</span> a set of prespecified interior points <span class="hlt">constrained</span> by prespecified boundary curve(s), Steiner <span class="hlt">triangulate</span> the interior/exterior of prespecified boundary curve</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6805E..06L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6805E..06L"><span id="translatedtitle">Rapid 360 degree imaging and stitching of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects using multiple precision <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cameras</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lu, Thomas; Yin, Stuart; Zhang, Jianzhong; Li, Jiangan; Wu, Frank</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>In this paper, we present the system architecture of a 360 degree view <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> imaging system. The system consists of multiple <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> sensors synchronized to take <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> images around the object. Each <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> camera employs a single high-resolution digital camera and a color-coded light projector. The cameras are synchronized to rapidly capture the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and color information of a static object or a live person. The color encoded structure lighting ensures the precise reconstruction of the depth of the object. A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> imaging system architecture is presented. The architecture employs the displacement of the camera and the projector to <span class="hlt">triangulate</span> the depth information. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> camera system has achieved high depth resolution down to 0.1mm on a human head sized object and 360 degree imaging capability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8833E..05H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8833E..05H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> measurement using circular gratings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harding, Kevin</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> measurement using methods of structured light are well known in the industry. Most such systems use some variation of straight lines, either as simple lines or with some form of encoding. This geometry assumes the lines will be projected from one side and viewed from another to generate the profile information. But what about applications where a wide <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> angle may not be practical, particularly at longer standoff distances. This paper explores the use of circular grating patterns projected from a center point to achieve <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> information. Originally suggested by John Caulfield around 1990, the method had some interesting potential, particularly if combined with alternate means of measurement from traditional <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> including depth from focus methods. The possible advantages of a central reference point in the projected pattern may offer some different capabilities not as easily attained with a linear grating pattern. This paper will explore the pros and cons of the method and present some examples of possible applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20426123','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20426123"><span id="translatedtitle">Mesh generation from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> multi-material images.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Boltcheva, Dobrina; Yvinec, Mariette; Boissonnat, Jean-Daniel</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The problem of generating realistic computer models of objects represented by <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> segmented images is important in many biomedical applications. Labelled <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> images impose particular challenges for meshing algorithms because multi-material junctions form features such as surface pacthes, edges and corners which need to be preserved into the output mesh. In this paper, we propose a feature preserving Delaunay refinement algorithm which can be used to generate high-quality tetrahedral meshes from segmented images. The idea is to explicitly sample corners and edges from the input image and to <span class="hlt">constrain</span> the Delaunay refinement algorithm to preserve these features in addition to the surface patches. Our experimental results on segmented medical images have shown that, within a few seconds, the algorithm outputs a tetrahedral mesh in which each material is represented as a consistent submesh without gaps and overlaps. The optimization property of the Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> makes these meshes suitable for the purpose of realistic visualization or finite element simulations. PMID:20426123</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EL....10940011K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EL....10940011K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Entropy of unimodular lattice <span class="hlt">triangulations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Knauf, Johannes F.; Krüger, Benedikt; Mecke, Klaus</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Triangulations</span> are important objects of study in combinatorics, finite element simulations and quantum gravity, where their entropy is crucial for many physical properties. Due to their inherent complex topological structure even the number of possible <span class="hlt">triangulations</span> is unknown for large systems. We present a novel algorithm for an approximate enumeration which is based on calculations of the density of states using the Wang-Landau flat histogram sampling. For <span class="hlt">triangulations</span> on two-dimensional integer lattices we achieve excellent agreement with known exact numbers of small <span class="hlt">triangulations</span> as well as an improvement of analytical calculated asymptotics. The entropy density is C=2.196(3) consistent with rigorous upper and lower bounds. The presented numerical scheme can easily be applied to other counting and optimization problems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013LNP...863...93G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013LNP...863...93G"><span id="translatedtitle">Introduction to Causal Dynamical <span class="hlt">Triangulations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Görlich, Andrzej</p> <p></p> <p>The method of causal dynamical <span class="hlt">triangulations</span> is a non-perturbative and background-independent approach to quantum theory of gravity. In this review we present recent results obtained within the four dimensional model of causal dynamical <span class="hlt">triangulations</span>. We describe the phase structure of the model and demonstrate how a macroscopic four-dimensional de Sitter universe emerges dynamically from the full gravitational path integral. We show how to reconstruct the effective action describing scale factor fluctuations from Monte Carlo data.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/416823','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/416823"><span id="translatedtitle">Quasi-greedy <span class="hlt">triangulations</span> approximating the minimum weight <span class="hlt">triangulation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Levcopoulos, C.; Krznaric, D.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>This paper settles the following two open problems: (1) What is the worst-case approximation ratio between the greedy and the minimum weight <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>? (2) Is there a polynomial time algorithm that always pro- duces a <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> whose length is within a constant factor from the minimum? The answer to the first question is that the known {Omega}({radical}n) lower bound is tight. The second question is answered in the affirmative by using a slight modification of an O(n log n) algorithm for the greedy <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>. We also derive some other interesting results. For example, we show that a constant-factor approximation of the minimum weight convex partition can be obtained within the same time bounds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8791E..0MG','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8791E..0MG"><span id="translatedtitle">Metrological characterization of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> imaging devices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guidi, G.</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Manufacturers often express the performance of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> imaging device in various non-uniform ways for the lack of internationally recognized standard requirements for metrological parameters able to identify the capability of capturing a real scene. For this reason several national and international organizations in the last ten years have been developing protocols for verifying such performance. Ranging from VDI/VDE 2634, published by the Association of German Engineers and oriented to the world of mechanical <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> measurements (<span class="hlt">triangulation</span>-based devices), to the ASTM technical committee E57, working also on laser systems based on direct range detection (TOF, Phase Shift, FM-CW, flash LADAR), this paper shows the state of the art about the characterization of active range devices, with special emphasis on measurement uncertainty, accuracy and resolution. Most of these protocols are based on special objects whose shape and size are certified with a known level of accuracy. By capturing the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape of such objects with a range device, a comparison between the measured points and the theoretical shape they should represent is possible. The actual deviations can be directly analyzed or some derived parameters can be obtained (e.g. angles between planes, distances between barycenters of spheres rigidly connected, frequency domain parameters, etc.). This paper shows theoretical aspects and experimental results of some novel characterization methods applied to different categories of active <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> imaging devices based on both principles of <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> and direct range detection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ISPAr3816W.483P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ISPAr3816W.483P"><span id="translatedtitle">Europeana and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pletinckx, D.</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>The current <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> hype creates a lot of interest in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. People go to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> movies, but are we ready to use <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> to a general public and use interactive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> learning objects, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> tourist information or <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1236744','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1236744"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> for CSG in Mercury</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Engel, Daniel; O'Brien, Matthew J.</p> <p>2015-08-26</p> <p>Visualization routines for rendering complicated geometries are very useful for engineers and scientists who are trying to build <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> prototypes of their designs. A common way to rapidly add interesting features to a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model is through the use of a concept called Constructive Solid Geometry. CSG uses compositions of the boolean set operations to manipulate basic geometric primitives to form more complicated objects. The most common boolean operations employed are union, intersection, and subtraction. Most computer-aided design software packages contain some sort of ability visualize CSG. The typical workflow for the user is as follows: The user specifies the individual primitive components, the user arbitrarily combines each of these primitives with boolean operations, the software generates a CSG tree structure which normally stores these solids implicitly with their defining equation, the tree is traversed and a general algorithm is applied to render the appropriate geometry onto the screen. Algorithms for visualizing CSG have been extensively developed for over a decade. Points sampled from the implicit solids are typically used as input by variations of algorithms like marching cubes and point-cloud surface reconstruction. Here, we explain a surface <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> method from the graphics community that is being used for surface visualization in the framework of a Monte-Carlo neutron transport code called Mercury.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6550E..0TB','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6550E..0TB"><span id="translatedtitle">Container integrity verification using laser <span class="hlt">triangulation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Busboom, Axel; Sequeira, Vítor</p> <p>2007-04-01</p> <p>We present a system for verifying the integrity of storage containers using a laser <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> scanner, with applications in nuclear security. Any intrusion into the container shell and subsequent reconstruction of the surface inevitably leaves slight changes to the three-dimensional surface structure which the proposed system can detect. The setup consists of a laser line scanner, mounted on a rotation stage. We propose an auto-calibration procedure for this system which - from several scans of a planar calibration target acquired from different viewpoints - automatically determines the position and orientation of the rotation axis with respect to the scanner coordinate frame. We further present an algorithm for the automatic registration of two <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scans of a cylindrical surface, not requiring any user interaction such as the identification of corresponding point pairs. We show that the algorithm accurately aligns two scans of the same object, acquired from different viewpoints. The accuracy of the overall system is dominated by the measurement uncertainty of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanner; residual errors resulting from the calibration and registration are subordinate. The system can reliably detect changes in the surface shape resulting from tampering.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4464888','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4464888"><span id="translatedtitle">An Effective <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Ear Acquisition System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liu, Yahui; Lu, Guangming; Zhang, David</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ear acquisition system by using <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition. PMID:26061553</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26061553','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26061553"><span id="translatedtitle">An Effective <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Ear Acquisition System.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Yahui; Lu, Guangming; Zhang, David</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ear acquisition system by using <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition. PMID:26061553</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.6045E..01F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.6045E..01F"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model reconstruction of underground goaf</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fang, Yuanmin; Zuo, Xiaoqing; Jin, Baoxuan</p> <p>2005-10-01</p> <p>Constructing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model of underground goaf, we can control the process of mining better and arrange mining work reasonably. However, the shape of goaf and the laneway among goafs are very irregular, which produce great difficulties in data-acquiring and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model reconstruction. In this paper, we research on the method of data-acquiring and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model construction of underground goaf, building topological relation among goafs. The main contents are as follows: a) The paper proposed an efficient encoding rule employed to structure the field measurement data. b) A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model construction method of goaf is put forward, which by means of combining several TIN (<span class="hlt">triangulated</span> irregular network) pieces, and an efficient automatic processing algorithm of boundary of TIN is proposed. c) Topological relation of goaf models is established. TIN object is the basic modeling element of goaf <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model, and the topological relation among goaf is created and maintained by building the topological relation among TIN objects. Based on this, various <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> spatial analysis functions can be performed including transect and volume calculation of goaf. A prototype is developed, which can realized the model and algorithm proposed in this paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860009539','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860009539"><span id="translatedtitle">Some properties of n-dimensional <span class="hlt">triangulations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lawson, C. L.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>A number of mathematical results relevant to the problem of constructing a <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>, i.e., a simplicial tessellation, of the convex hull of an arbitrary finite set of points in n-space are described. The principal results achieved are: (1) a set of n+2 points in n-space may be <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> in at most 2 different ways; (2) the sphere test defined in this report selects a preferred one of these two <span class="hlt">triangulations</span>; (3) a set of parameters is defined that permits the characterization and enumeration of all sets of n+2 points in n-space that are significantly different from the point of view of their possible <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>; (4) the local sphere test induces a global sphere test property for a <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>; and (5) a <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> satisfying the global sphere property is dual to the n-dimensional Dirichlet tesselation, i.e., it is a Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHEP...04..140C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHEP...04..140C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> correspondence revisited</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chung, Hee-Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> {N}=2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. We also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998JGR...103.1923R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998JGR...103.1923R"><span id="translatedtitle">Type III radio source located by Ulysses/Wind <span class="hlt">triangulation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reiner, M. J.; Fainberg, J.; Kaiser, M. L.; Stone, R. G.</p> <p>1998-02-01</p> <p>Radio <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> from the widely separated Ulysses and Wind spacecraft is used to reconstruct the trajectory of a type III radio burst in the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> heliosphere. The derived radio trajectory follows a (Parker) spiral path corresponding to a solar wind speed of about 200 km/s and progresses to the south of the ecliptic plane. These remote radio observations also measure the interplanetary plasma density along the path of the radio source. The derived average density-distance scale is very similar to the previously derived RAE density scale, which was determined in a different way. The results of the radio <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>, combined with a drift rate analysis, give an average electron exciter speed of about 0.3 c. The radio source size and the brightness temperature as viewed from Ulysses and Wind are determined and compared as a function of observing frequency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013JPhCS.415a2066M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013JPhCS.415a2066M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Meulien Ohlmann, Odile</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>Today the industry offers a chain of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> products. Learning to "read" and to "create in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> visualization, to learn <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> grammar, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> language, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013TDR.....4...81T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013TDR.....4...81T"><span id="translatedtitle">Pattern based <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image Steganography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thiyagarajan, P.; Natarajan, V.; Aghila, G.; Prasanna Venkatesan, V.; Anitha, R.</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>This paper proposes a new high capacity Steganographic scheme using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geometric models. The novel algorithm re-<span class="hlt">triangulates</span> a part of a triangle mesh and embeds the secret information into newly added position of triangle meshes. Up to nine bits of secret data can be embedded into vertices of a triangle without causing any changes in the visual quality and the geometric properties of the cover image. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is secure, with high capacity and low distortion rate. Our algorithm also resists against uniform affine transformations such as cropping, rotation and scaling. Also, the performance of the method is compared with other existing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Steganography algorithms. [Figure not available: see fulltext.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=computed+AND+tomography&pg=2&id=EJ663163','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=computed+AND+tomography&pg=2&id=EJ663163"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Imaging.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hastings, S. K.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Discusses <span class="hlt">3</span> <span class="hlt">D</span> imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of <span class="hlt">3</span> <span class="hlt">D</span> imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015FoPh..tmp..102C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015FoPh..tmp..102C"><span id="translatedtitle">Making the Case for Causal Dynamical <span class="hlt">Triangulations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cooperman, Joshua H.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The aim of the causal dynamical <span class="hlt">triangulations</span> approach is to define nonperturbatively a quantum theory of gravity as the continuum limit of a lattice-regularized model of dynamical geometry. My aim in this paper is to give a concise yet comprehensive, impartial yet personal presentation of the causal dynamical <span class="hlt">triangulations</span> approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Lead+AND+Poisoning&id=EJ968446','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Lead+AND+Poisoning&id=EJ968446"><span id="translatedtitle">Mixed Methods, <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span>, and Causal Explanation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Howe, Kenneth R.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This article distinguishes a disjunctive conception of mixed methods/<span class="hlt">triangulation</span>, which brings different methods to bear on different questions, from a conjunctive conception, which brings different methods to bear on the same question. It then examines a more inclusive, holistic conception of mixed methods/<span class="hlt">triangulation</span> that accommodates…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21833101','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21833101"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> of cubic panorama for view synthesis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Chunxiao; Zhao, Yan; Wu, Falin</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>An unstructured <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> approach, new to our knowledge, is proposed to apply triangular meshes for representing and rendering a scene on a cubic panorama (CP). It sophisticatedly converts a complicated three-dimensional <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> into a simple three-step <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>. First, a two-dimensional Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> is individually carried out on each face. Second, an improved polygonal <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> is implemented in the intermediate regions of each of two faces. Third, a cobweblike <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> is designed for the remaining intermediate regions after unfolding four faces to the top/bottom face. Since the last two steps well solve the boundary problem arising from cube edges, the <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> with irregular-distribution feature points is implemented in a CP as a whole. The triangular meshes can be warped from multiple reference CPs onto an arbitrary viewpoint by face-to-face homography transformations. The experiments indicate that the proposed <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> approach provides a good modeling for the scene with photorealistic rendered CPs. PMID:21833101</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMIN22A..01G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMIN22A..01G"><span id="translatedtitle">IGMAS+ A New <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Gravity, FTG and Magnetic Modeling Software</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goetze, H.; Schmidt, S.; Fichler, C.; Alvers, M. R.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Modern geophysical interpretation requires an interdisciplinary approach, particularly when considering the available amount of 'state of the art' information contained in comprehensive data bases. A combination of different geophysical surveys employing seismics, gravity and geoelectrics, together with geological and petrological studies, can provide new insights into the structures and tectonic evolution of the lithosphere and natural deposits. Interdisciplinary interpretation is essential for any numerical modelling of these structures and the processes acting on them. Three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) interactive modeling with the IGMAS+ software provides means for integrated processing and interpretation of geoid, gravity and magnetic fields and their gradients (full tensor), yielding improved geological interpretation. IGMAS+ is an acronym standing for "Interactive Geophysical Modelling Application System". It bases on the existing software IGMAS (http://www.gravity.uni-kiel.de/igmas), a tool developed during the past twenty years for potential field modelling. The new IGMAS+, however, will comprise the advantages of the "old" IGMAS (e.g. flexible geometry concept and a fast and stable algorithm) with automated interpretation tools and a modern graphical GUI based on leading edge insights from psychological computer graphics research and thus provide optimal man machine communication. IGMAS+ fully three-dimensional models are constructed using <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> polyhedra and/or <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> grids, to which constant density and/or induced and remanent susceptibility are assigned. Interactive modifications of model parameters (geometry, density, susceptibility, magnetization), access to the numerical modeling process, and direct visualization of both calculated and measured fields of gravity and magnetics, enable the interpreter to design the model as realistically as possible. IGMAS+ allows easy integration of <span class="hlt">constraining</span> data into interactive modeling processes</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.1306G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.1306G"><span id="translatedtitle">IGMAS+ a new <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Gravity, FTG and Magnetic Modeling Software</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Götze, Hans-Jürgen; Schmidt, Sabine; Fichler, Christine; Planka, Christian</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Modern geophysical interpretation requires an interdisciplinary approach, particularly when considering the available amount of 'state of the art' information contained in comprehensive data bases. A combination of different geophysical surveys employing seismics, gravity and geoelectrics, together with geological and petrological studies, can provide new insights into the structures and tectonic evolution of the lithosphere and natural deposits. Interdisciplinary interpretation is essential for any numerical modelling of these structures and the processes acting on them Three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) interactive modeling with the IGMAS+ software provides means for integrated processing and interpretation of geoid, gravity and magnetic fields and their gradients (full tensor), yielding improved geological interpretation. IGMAS+ is an acronym standing for "Interactive Geophysical Modelling Application System". It bases on the existing software IGMAS (http://www.gravity.uni-kiel.de/igmas), a tool developed during the past twenty years for potential field modelling. The new IGMAS+, however, will comprise the advantages of the "old" IGMAS (e.g. flexible geometry concept and a fast and stable algorithm) with automated interpretation tools and a modern graphical GUI based on leading edge insights from psychological computer graphics research and thus provide optimal man machine communication. IGMAS+ fully three-dimensional models are constructed using <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> polyhedra and/or <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> grids, to which constant density and/or induced and remanent susceptibility are assigned. Interactive modifications of model parameters (geometry, density, susceptibility, magnetization), access to the numerical modeling process, and direct visualization of both calculated and measured fields of gravity and magnetics, enable the interpreter to design the model as realistically as possible. IGMAS+ allows easy integration of <span class="hlt">constraining</span> data into interactive modeling processes</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6290515','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6290515"><span id="translatedtitle">TRACE <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> documentation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Crandall, K.R.</p> <p>1987-08-01</p> <p>TRACE <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> is an interactive beam-dynamics program that calculates the envelopes of a bunched beam, including linear space-charge forces, through a user-defined transport system. TRACE <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> provides an immediate graphics display of the envelopes and the phase-space ellipses and allows nine types of beam-matching options. This report describes the beam-dynamics calculations and gives detailed instruction for using the code. Several examples are described in detail.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713235E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713235E"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of different terrain-<span class="hlt">triangulations</span> on a block-based landslide-model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Elsen, Katharina; Tinti, Stefano; Zaniboni, Filippo</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Influence of different surface-<span class="hlt">triangulations</span> on a block-based landslide-model The present work is investigating the influence of different surface-<span class="hlt">triangulation</span> approaches on the block-based landslide-model developed by Tinti and Bertolucci (2000). For planar (2D) surfaces as well as for objects in the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-space well-known algorithms like the Delaunay-<span class="hlt">triangulation</span> are available (ensuring also special characteristics of the <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>). This is however not that easy in the 2.5D-case -- needed for example in terrain-<span class="hlt">triangulations</span> -- where a surface is specified by points z=f(x,y). Different methods with (partly) very different results like the 2D-Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulations</span> (using an orthogonal projection of all points on the (x,y)-plane, implemented e.g. in CGAL), three dimensional topographic terrain representation in an integrated TIN/TEN model (Friso Penninga, 2004) or <span class="hlt">triangulations</span> based on contour lines. Another possibility is to create a regular planar grid (which has the advantage of being stored and accessed in a very simple and fast way) and projecting the points orthogonally on the reconstructed surface. The surface then is represented by those new points. This last method is currently used in our model and shall be compared now to other possible <span class="hlt">triangulations</span>. Simulations are run for simple surfaces (e.g. given by a paraboloid) as well as on more realistic, complex surfaces and evaluated with respect to the arrival times, final velocities and final positions of the sliding mass.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/922825','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/922825"><span id="translatedtitle">4-D XRD for strain in many grains using <span class="hlt">triangulation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bale, Hrishikesh A.; Hanan, Jay C.; Tamura, Nobumichi</p> <p>2006-12-31</p> <p>Determination of the strains in a polycrystalline materialusing 4-D XRD reveals sub-grain and grain-to-grain behavior as a functionof stress. Here 4-D XRD involves an experimental procedure usingpolychromatic micro-beam X-radiation (micro-Laue) to characterizepolycrystalline materials in spatial location as well as with increasingstress. The in-situ tensile loading experiment measured strain in a modelaluminum-sapphire metal matrix composite using the Advanced Light Source,Beam-line 7.3.3. Micro-Laue resolves individual grains in thepolycrystalline matrix. Results obtained from a list of grains sorted bycrystallographic orientation depict the strain states within and amongindividual grains. Locating the grain positions in the planeperpendicular to the incident beam is trivial. However, determining theexact location of grains within a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> space is challenging. Determiningthe depth of the grains within the matrix (along the beam direction)involved a <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> method tracing individual rays that producespots on the CCD back to the point of origin. <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> wasexperimentally implemented by simulating a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> detector capturingmultiple diffraction images while increasing the camera to sampledistance. Hence by observing the intersection of rays from multiple spotsbelonging to the corresponding grain, depth is calculated. Depthresolution is a function of the number of images collected, grain to beamsize ratio, and the pixel resolution of the CCD. The 4DXRD methodprovides grain morphologies, strain behavior of each grain, andinteractions of the matrix grains with each other and the centrallylocated single crystal fiber.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070003485&hterms=hamilton-jacobi&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dhamilton-jacobi','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070003485&hterms=hamilton-jacobi&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dhamilton-jacobi"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical Schemes for the Hamilton-Jacobi and Level Set Equations on <span class="hlt">Triangulated</span> Domains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Barth, Timothy J.; Sethian, James A.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Borrowing from techniques developed for conservation law equations, we have developed both monotone and higher order accurate numerical schemes which discretize the Hamilton-Jacobi and level set equations on <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> domains. The use of unstructured meshes containing triangles (2D) and tetrahedra (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) easily accommodates mesh adaptation to resolve disparate level set feature scales with a minimal number of solution unknowns. The minisymposium talk will discuss these algorithmic developments and present sample calculations using our adaptive <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> algorithm applied to various moving interface problems such as etching, deposition, and curvature flow.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23193202','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23193202"><span id="translatedtitle">Alpha shape and Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> in studies of protein-related interactions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhou, Weiqiang; Yan, Hong</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In recent years, more <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> protein structures have become available, which has made the analysis of large molecular structures much easier. There is a strong demand for geometric models for the study of protein-related interactions. Alpha shape and Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> are powerful tools to represent protein structures and have advantages in characterizing the surface curvature and atom contacts. This review presents state-of-the-art applications of alpha shape and Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> in the studies on protein-DNA, protein-protein, protein-ligand interactions and protein structure analysis. PMID:23193202</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015JPhCS.573a2006O&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015JPhCS.573a2006O&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Radiochromic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Detectors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oldham, Mark</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> dose measurement in general.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHEP...03..120I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHEP...03..120I"><span id="translatedtitle">Bootstrapping <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> fermions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions < ψψψψ> in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. We first introduce an embedding formalism for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge C T . We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N . We also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10146198','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10146198"><span id="translatedtitle">Linear-size nonobtuse <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> of polygons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bern, M.; Mitchell, S.; Ruppert, J.</p> <p>1994-05-01</p> <p>We give an algorithm for <span class="hlt">triangulating</span> n-vertex polygonal regions (with holes) so that no angle in the final <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> measures more than {pi}/2. The number of triangles in the <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> is only 0(n), improving a previous bound of 0(n{sup 2}), and the worst-case running time is 0(n log{sup 2} n). The basic technique used in the algorithm, recursive subdivision by disks, is new and may have wider application in mesh generation. We also report on an implementation of our algorithm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.6015..467S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.6015..467S"><span id="translatedtitle">Vector quantization of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> point clouds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sim, Jae-Young; Kim, Chang-Su; Lee, Sang-Uk</p> <p>2005-10-01</p> <p>A geometry compression algorithm for <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> QSplat data using vector quantization (VQ) is proposed in this work. The positions of child spheres are transformed to the local coordinate system, which is determined by the parent children relationship. The coordinate transform makes child positions more compactly distributed in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> space, facilitating effective quantization. Moreover, we develop a <span class="hlt">constrained</span> encoding method for sphere radii, which guarantees hole-free surface rendering at the decoder side. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm provides a faithful rendering quality even at low bitrates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6861E..13I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6861E..13I"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> microscope</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Iizuka, Keigo</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>In order to circumvent the fact that only one observer can view the image from a stereoscopic microscope, an attachment was devised for displaying the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> microscopic image on a large LCD monitor for viewing by multiple observers in real time. The principle of operation, design, fabrication, and performance are presented, along with tolerance measurements relating to the properties of the cellophane half-wave plate used in the design.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ISPAr.XL1b.157G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ISPAr.XL1b.157G"><span id="translatedtitle">Uav Photogrammetry: Block <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> Comparisons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gini, R.; Pagliari, D.; Passoni, D.; Pinto, L.; Sona, G.; Dosso, P.</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>UAVs systems represent a flexible technology able to collect a big amount of high resolution information, both for metric and interpretation uses. In the frame of experimental tests carried out at Dept. ICA of Politecnico di Milano to validate vector-sensor systems and to assess metric accuracies of images acquired by UAVs, a block of photos taken by a fixed wing system is <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> with several software. The test field is a rural area included in an Italian Park ("Parco Adda Nord"), useful to study flight and imagery performances on buildings, roads, cultivated and uncultivated vegetation. The UAV SenseFly, equipped with a camera Canon Ixus 220HS, flew autonomously over the area at a height of 130 m yielding a block of 49 images divided in 5 strips. Sixteen pre-signalized Ground Control Points, surveyed in the area through GPS (NRTK survey), allowed the referencing of the block and accuracy analyses. Approximate values for exterior orientation parameters (positions and attitudes) were recorded by the flight control system. The block was processed with several software: Erdas-LPS, EyeDEA (Univ. of Parma), Agisoft Photoscan, Pix4UAV, in assisted or automatic way. Results comparisons are given in terms of differences among digital surface models, differences in orientation parameters and accuracies, when available. Moreover, image and ground point coordinates obtained by the various software were independently used as initial values in a comparative adjustment made by scientific in-house software, which can apply constraints to evaluate the effectiveness of different methods of point extraction and accuracies on ground check points.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAr41B3..453A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAr41B3..453A"><span id="translatedtitle">a Modified Method for Image <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> Using Inclined Angles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alsadik, Bashar</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The ongoing technical improvements in photogrammetry, Geomatics, computer vision (CV), and robotics offer new possibilities for many applications requiring efficient acquisition of three-dimensional data. Image orientation is one of these important techniques in many applications like mapping, precise measurements, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> modeling and navigation. Image orientation comprises three main techniques of resection, intersection (<span class="hlt">triangulation</span>) and relative orientation, which are conventionally solved by collinearity equations or by using projection and fundamental matrices. However, different problems still exist in the state - of -the -art of image orientation because of the nonlinearity and the sensitivity to proper initialization and spatial distribution of the points. In this research, a modified method is presented to solve the <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> problem using inclined angles derived from the measured image coordinates and based on spherical trigonometry rules and vector geometry. The developed procedure shows promising results compared to collinearity approach and to converge to the global minimum even when starting from far approximations. This is based on the strong geometric constraint offered by the inclined angles that are enclosed between the object points and the camera stations. Numerical evaluations with perspective and panoramic images are presented and compared with the conventional solution of collinearity equations. The results show the efficiency of the developed model and the convergence of the solution to global minimum even with improper starting values.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998SPIE.3363..423K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998SPIE.3363..423K"><span id="translatedtitle">Multiviewer <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> monitor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kostrzewski, Andrew A.; Aye, Tin M.; Kim, Dai Hyun; Esterkin, Vladimir; Savant, Gajendra D.</p> <p>1998-09-01</p> <p>Physical Optics Corporation has developed an advanced <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> virtual reality system for use with simulation tools for training technical and military personnel. This system avoids such drawbacks of other virtual reality (VR) systems as eye fatigue, headaches, and alignment for each viewer, all of which are due to the need to wear special VR goggles. The new system is based on direct viewing of an interactive environment. This innovative holographic multiplexed screen technology makes it unnecessary for the viewer to wear special goggles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020083312','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020083312"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Audio System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8783E..0ZM','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8783E..0ZM"><span id="translatedtitle">Triangular framework mesh generation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Meng, Xianhai; Zhou, Kun; Li, Jigang; Yang, Qin</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>The dynamic simulation of oil migration and accumulation is an important issue on the research of petroleum exploration, and it is a numerical simulation process with special requirement on the framework mesh of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological models, which means that the mesh should have same geometry and topology relation near the intersected part of geological surfaces. In this paper, basing on the conforming Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> algorithm to construct mesh of individual geological stratum or fault, a novel link-Delaunay-<span class="hlt">triangulation</span> method is presented to achieve the geometric and topological consistency in the intersected line between two surfaces, also with the analysis of termination of our algorithm. Finally, some examples of the geological framework mesh are provided and the experimental result proved that the algorithm's effectiveness in engineering practice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38..913N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38..913N"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geometry applied to atmospheric layers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nadjib Kouahla, Mohamed; Moreels, Guy; Faivre, Michael</p> <p></p> <p>Epipolar geometry is an efficient method for generating <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> representations of objects. Here we present an original application of this method to the case of atmospheric layers. Two synchronized simultaneous images of the same scene are taken in two sites at a distance D. The 36*36 fields of view are oriented face to face along the same line of sight, but in opposite directions. The elevation angle of the optical axis above the horizon is 17. The observed objects are airglow emissions or cirrus clouds or aircraft trails. In the case of clouds, the shape of the objects is diffuse. To obtain a superposition of the common observed zone, it is necessary to calculate a normalized cross-correlation coefficient (NCC) to identify pairs of matching points in both images. The perspective effect in the rectangular images is inverted to produce a satellite-type view of the atmospheric layer as could be seen from an overlying satellite. We developed a <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> algorithm to retrieve the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surface of the observed layer. The stereoscopic method was used to retrieve the wavy structure of the OH emissive layer at the altitude of 87 km. The distance between the observing sites was 600 km. Results obtained in Peru from the sites of Cerro Cosmos and Cerro Verde will be presented. We are currently extending the stereoscopic procedure to the study of troposphere cirruses, of natural origin or induced by aircraft engines. In this case, the distance between observation sites is D 60 km.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2994415','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2994415"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Surgical Simulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intra-operative guidance. The system provides further intra-operative assistance with the help of a computer display showing jaw positions and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> positioning guides updated in real-time during the surgical procedure. The CAS system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures prior to the surgery. CAS has the potential to make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. Supported by NIDCR DE017727, and DE018962 PMID:20816308</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27525809','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27525809"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Keating, Steven J; Gariboldi, Maria Isabella; Patrick, William G; Sharma, Sunanda; Kong, David S; Oxman, Neri</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We present a novel <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves <span class="hlt">constrain</span> fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics. PMID:27525809</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4985141','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4985141"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Patrick, William G.; Sharma, Sunanda; Kong, David S.; Oxman, Neri</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We present a novel <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves <span class="hlt">constrain</span> fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics. PMID:27525809</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990SPIE.1194..186B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990SPIE.1194..186B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Triangulation</span>-Based Camera Calibration For Machine Vision Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bachnak, Rafic A.; Celenk, Mehmet</p> <p>1990-04-01</p> <p>This paper describes a camera calibration procedure for stereo-based machine vision systems. The method is based on geometric <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> using only a single image of three distinctive points. Both the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the system are determined. The procedure is performed only once at the initial set-up using a simple camera model. The effective focal length is extended in such a way that a linear transformation exists between the camera image plane and the output digital image. Only three world points are needed to find the extended focal length and the transformation matrix elements that relates the camera position and orientation to a real world coordinate system. The parameters of the system are computed by solving a set of linear equations. Experimental results show that the method, when used in a stereo system developed in this research, produces reasonably accurate <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JCST....2..655Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JCST....2..655Y"><span id="translatedtitle">A Software System for Filling Complex Holes in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Meshes by Flexible Interacting Particles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yamazaki, Daisuke; Savchenko, Vladimir</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> meshes generated by acquisition devices such as laser range scanners often contain holes due to occlusion, etc. In practice, these holes are extremely geometrically and topologically complex. We propose a heuristic hole filling technique using particle systems to fill complex holes with arbitrary topology in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> meshes. Our approach includes the following steps: hole identification, base surface creation, particle distribution, <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>, and mesh refinement. We demonstrate the functionality of the proposed surface retouching system on synthetic and real data.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010OptCo.283.4430G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010OptCo.283.4430G"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> polarimetric purity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gil, José J.; San José, Ignacio</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>From our previous definition of the indices of polarimetric purity for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> light beams [J.J. Gil, J.M. Correas, P.A. Melero and C. Ferreira, Monogr. Semin. Mat. G. de Galdeano 31, 161 (2004)], an analysis of their geometric and physical interpretation is presented. It is found that, in agreement with previous results, the first parameter is a measure of the degree of polarization, whereas the second parameter (called the degree of directionality) is a measure of the mean angular aperture of the direction of propagation of the corresponding light beam. This pair of invariant, non-dimensional, indices of polarimetric purity contains complete information about the polarimetric purity of a light beam. The overall degree of polarimetric purity is obtained as a weighted quadratic average of the degree of polarization and the degree of directionality.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5232433','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5232433"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> field harmonics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Caspi, S.; Helm, M.; Laslett, L.J.</p> <p>1991-03-30</p> <p>We have developed an harmonic representation for the three dimensional field components within the windings of accelerator magnets. The form by which the field is presented is suitable for interfacing with other codes that make use of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> field components (particle tracking and stability). The field components can be calculated with high precision and reduced cup time at any location (r,{theta},z) inside the magnet bore. The same conductor geometry which is used to simulate line currents is also used in CAD with modifications more readily available. It is our hope that the format used here for magnetic fields can be used not only as a means of delivering fields but also as a way by which beam dynamics can suggest correction to the conductor geometry. 5 refs., 70 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA05562&hterms=bonneville&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dbonneville','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA05562&hterms=bonneville&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dbonneville"><span id="translatedtitle">'Bonneville' in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>!</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> navigation camera mosaic of the crater called 'Bonneville' after driving approximately 13 meters (42.7 feet) to get a better vantage point. Spirit's current position is close enough to the edge to see the interior of the crater, but high enough and far enough back to get a view of all of the walls. Because scientists and rover controllers are so pleased with this location, they will stay here for at least two more martian days, or sols, to take high resolution panoramic camera images of 'Bonneville' in its entirety. Just above the far crater rim, on the left side, is the rover's heatshield, which is visible as a tiny reflective speck.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001SPIE.4298....1H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001SPIE.4298....1H"><span id="translatedtitle">CMOS array of photodiodes with electronic processing for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> optical reconstruction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hornero, Gemma; Montane, Enric; Chapinal, Genis; Moreno, Mauricio; Herms, Atila</p> <p>2001-04-01</p> <p>It is well known that laser time-of-flight (TOF) and optical <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> are the most useful optical techniques for distance measurements. The first one is more suitable for large distances, since for short range of distances high modulation frequencies of laser diodes (©200-500MHz) are needed. For these ranges, optical <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> is simpler, as it is only necessary to read the projection of the laser point over a linear optical sensor without any laser modulation. Laser <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> is based on the rotation of the object. This motion shifts the projected point over the linear sensor, resulting on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> information, by means of the whole readout of the linear sensor in each angle position. On the other hand, a hybrid method of <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> and TOF can be implemented. In this case, a synchronized scanning of a laser beam over the object results in different arrival times of light to each pixel. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> information is carried by these delays. Only a single readout of the linear sensor is needed. In this work we present the design of two different linear arrays of photodiodes in CMOS technology, the first one based on the Optical <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> measurement and the second one based in this hybrid method (TFO). In contrast to PSD (Position Sensitive Device) and CCDs, CMOS technology can include, on the same chip, photodiodes, control and processing electronics, that in the other cases should be implemented with external microcontrollers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00680&hterms=Pumpkin&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DPumpkin','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00680&hterms=Pumpkin&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DPumpkin"><span id="translatedtitle">Prominent rocks - <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, is at lower right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.<p/>Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.<p/>Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA06786&hterms=rodent&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Drodent','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA06786&hterms=rodent&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Drodent"><span id="translatedtitle">'Diamond' in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p><p/> This <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time. <p/> Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer. <p/> On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed. <p/> The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014OptLE..54..175R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014OptLE..54..175R"><span id="translatedtitle">Optical monitoring of scoliosis by <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> medical laser scanner</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rodríguez-Quiñonez, Julio C.; Sergiyenko, Oleg Yu.; Preciado, Luis C. Basaca; Tyrsa, Vera V.; Gurko, Alexander G.; Podrygalo, Mikhail A.; Lopez, Moises Rivas; Balbuena, Daniel Hernandez</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Three dimensional recording of the human body surface or anatomical areas have gained importance in many medical applications. In this paper, our <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Medical Laser Scanner is presented. It is based on the novel principle of dynamic <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>. We analyze the method of operation, medical applications, orthopedically diseases as Scoliosis and the most common types of skin to employ the system the most proper way. It is analyzed a group of medical problems related to the application of optical scanning in optimal way. Finally, experiments are conducted to verify the performance of the proposed system and its method uncertainty.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JSP...163..514K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JSP...163..514K"><span id="translatedtitle">Spectral Properties of Unimodular Lattice <span class="hlt">Triangulations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krüger, Benedikt; Schmidt, Ella M.; Mecke, Klaus</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Random unimodular lattice <span class="hlt">triangulations</span> have been recently used as an embedded random graph model, which exhibit a crossover behavior between an ordered, large-world and a disordered, small-world behavior. Using the ergodic Pachner flips that transform such <span class="hlt">triangulations</span> into another and an energy functional that corresponds to the degree distribution variance, Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations can be applied to study these graphs. Here, we consider the spectra of the adjacency and the Laplacian matrix as well as the algebraic connectivity and the spectral radius. Power law dependencies on the system size can clearly be identified and compared to analytical solutions for periodic ground states. For random <span class="hlt">triangulations</span> we find a qualitative agreement of the spectral properties with well-known random graph models. In the microcanonical ensemble analytical approximations agree with numerical simulations. In the canonical ensemble a crossover behavior can be found for the algebraic connectivity and the spectral radius, thus combining large-world and small-world behavior in one model. The considered spectral properties can be applied to transport problems on <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> graphs and the crossover behavior allows a tuning of important transport quantities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990SPIE.1267..158B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990SPIE.1267..158B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> technique in optical fiber sensing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brenci, Massimo; Mencaglia, Andrea A.; Mignani, Anna G.</p> <p>1990-08-01</p> <p>Optical <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> is a very well-known classical technique which can be advantageously performed by optical fibers, taking profit from their geometrical versatility, intrinsic safety and good transmission properties. The exploitation of different optical architectures provides spatial information over single or multiple sensing zones, so that a wide class of intensity-modulated optical fiber sensors can be achieved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1410902K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1410902K"><span id="translatedtitle">Towards "realistic" fault zones in a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structure model of the Thuringian Basin, Germany</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kley, J.; Malz, A.; Donndorf, S.; Fischer, T.; Zehner, B.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> computer models of geological architecture are evolving into a standard tool for visualization and analysis. Such models typically comprise the bounding surfaces of stratigraphic layers and faults. Faults affect the continuity of aquifers and can themselves act as fluid conduits or barriers. This is one reason why a "realistic" representation of faults in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models is desirable. Still so, many existing models treat faults in a simplistic fashion, e.g. as vertical downward projections of fault traces observed at the surface. Besides being geologically and mechanically unreasonable, this also causes technical difficulties in the modelling workflow. Most natural faults are inclined and may change dips according to rock type or flatten into mechanically weak layers. Boreholes located close to a fault can therefore cross it at depth, resulting in stratigraphic control points allocated to the wrong block. Also, faults tend to split up into several branches, forming fault zones. Obtaining a more accurate representation of faults and fault zones is therefore challenging. We present work-in-progress from the Thuringian Basin in central Germany. The fault zone geometries are never fully <span class="hlt">constrained</span> by data and must be extrapolated to depth. We use balancing of serial, parallel cross-sections to <span class="hlt">constrain</span> subsurface extrapolations. The structure sections are checked for consistency by restoring them to an undeformed state. If this is possible without producing gaps or overlaps, the interpretation is considered valid (but not unique) for a single cross-section. Additional constraints are provided by comparison of adjacent cross-sections. Structures should change continuously from one section to another. Also, from the deformed and restored cross-sections we can measure the strain incurred during deformation. Strain should be compatible among the cross-sections: If at all, it should vary smoothly and systematically along a given fault zone. The stratigraphic contacts and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920001696','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920001696"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> using synthetic aperture radar images</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Sherman S. C.; Howington-Kraus, Annie E.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>For the extraction of topographic information about Venus from stereoradar images obtained from the Magellan Mission, a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) compilation system was developed on analytical stereoplotters. The system software was extensively tested by using stereoradar images from various spacecraft and airborne radar systems, including Seasat, SIR-B, ERIM XCL, and STAR-1. Stereomodeling from radar images was proven feasible, and development is on a correct approach. During testing, the software was enhanced and modified to obtain more flexibility and better precision. <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> software for establishing control points by using SAR images was also developed through a joint effort with the Defense Mapping Agency. The SAR <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> system comprises four main programs, TRIDATA, MODDATA, TRISAR, and SHEAR. The first two programs are used to sort and update the data; the third program, the main one, performs iterative statistical adjustment; and the fourth program analyzes the results. Also, input are flight data and data from the Global Positioning System and Inertial System (navigation information). The SAR <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> system was tested with six strips of STAR-1 radar images on a VAX-750 computer. Each strip contains images of 10 minutes flight time (equivalent to a ground distance of 73.5 km); the images cover a ground width of 22.5 km. All images were collected from the same side. With an input of 44 primary control points, 441 ground control points were produced. The adjustment process converged after eight iterations. With a 6-m/pixel resolution of the radar images, the <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> adjustment has an average standard elevation error of 81 m. Development of Magellan radargrammetry will be continued to convert both SAR compilation and <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> systems into digital form.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPRS..101..233R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPRS..101..233R"><span id="translatedtitle">Aerial multi-camera systems: Accuracy and block <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> issues</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rupnik, Ewelina; Nex, Francesco; Toschi, Isabella; Remondino, Fabio</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Oblique photography has reached its maturity and has now been adopted for several applications. The number and variety of multi-camera oblique platforms available on the market is continuously growing. So far, few attempts have been made to study the influence of the additional cameras on the behaviour of the image block and comprehensive revisions to existing flight patterns are yet to be formulated. This paper looks into the precision and accuracy of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> points <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> from diverse multi-camera oblique platforms. Its coverage is divided into simulated and real case studies. Within the simulations, different imaging platform parameters and flight patterns are varied, reflecting both current market offerings and common flight practices. Attention is paid to the aspect of completeness in terms of dense matching algorithms and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city modelling - the most promising application of such systems. The experimental part demonstrates the behaviour of two oblique imaging platforms in real-world conditions. A number of Ground Control Point (GCP) configurations are adopted in order to point out the sensitivity of tested imaging networks and arising block deformations. To stress the contribution of slanted views, all scenarios are compared against a scenario in which exclusively nadir images are used for evaluation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988SPIE..959..225B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988SPIE..959..225B"><span id="translatedtitle">Practical Considerations For A Design Of A High Precision <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Laser Scanner System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Blais, Francois; Rioux, Marc; Beraldin, J.-Angelo</p> <p>1988-11-01</p> <p>The Laboratory for Intelligent Systems of the Division of Electrical Engineering of the National Research Council of Canada is intensively involved in the development of laser-based three-dimensional vision systems and their applications. Two basic systems have been invented. One, based on a double aperture mask in front of a CCD camera, has been developed for robotic applications and control. The other technique is based on an auto-synchronized scanning principle to provide accurate, fast, and reliable <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> coordinates. Using the latter method, several prototypes have been developed for the acquisition of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> data of objects and for inspection. This paper will describe some practical considerations for the design and implementation of <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>-based <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> range sensors with emphasis on the latter <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> technique. Some applications and results will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997PhDT........88E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997PhDT........88E"><span id="translatedtitle">A comprehensive study on GPS-assisted aerial <span class="hlt">triangulation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ebadi, Hamid</p> <p></p> <p>Aerial <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> (AT) has been used for mapping purposes for a long time to provide <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> coordinates of object points on the ground. This technique uses series of overlapping photographs, and some control points, in order to establish the relationship between the image coordinate system and object coordinate system. In the process of bundle block adjustment, image coordinate observations and coordinates of the ground control points are simultaneously adjusted and the exterior orientation parameters, as well as the ground coordinates of all tie and pass points, are estimated. One of the biggest challenges in AT is to reduce the number of control points. One effective way is to directly measure the exterior orientation parameters of the camera at the time of exposure. Airborne kinematic GPS (Global Positioning System) provides a means of determining the position of the aerial camera at each instant of exposure. The combined GPS-photogrammetric block adjustment takes advantage of weighted GPS observations, which significantly reduces the number of ground control points needed in a conventional block adjustment. A comprehensive software package, GAP (General Adjustment Program), was developed in this research to effectively integrate and adjust GPS, geodetic, and photogrammetric observations. Optimization of the GPS-photogrammetric bundle block adjustments for both simulated large scale mapping and real medium scale mapping was carried out. Aspects of reliability, and precision, as well as practical considerations, for an airborne GPS-photogrammetry system were also investigated. GPS coordinates of the camera exposure stations do not permit recovery of the roll angle of the aircraft in a GPS single strip <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>. Therefore, ground control points are still required in addition to the GPS coordinates of exposure stations to overcome this problem, and to eliminate singularity of the normal matrix in the least squares adjustment. A new technique for GPS single</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..APR.X7006G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..APR.X7006G"><span id="translatedtitle">The Newtonian approximation in Causal Dynamical <span class="hlt">Triangulations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Getchell, Adam</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>I review how to derive Newton's law of universal gravitation from the Weyl strut between two Chazy-Curzon particles. I also briefly review Causal Dynamical <span class="hlt">Triangulations</span> (CDT), a method for evaluating the path integral from canonical quantum gravity using Regge calculus and restrictions of the class of simplicial manifolds evaluated to those with a defined time foliation, thus enforcing a causal structure. I then discuss how to apply this approach to Causal Dynamical <span class="hlt">Triangulations</span>, in particular modifying the algorithm to keep two simplicial submanifolds with curvature (i.e. mass) a fixed distance from each other, modulo regularized deviations and across all time slices. I then discuss how to determine if CDT produces an equivalent Weyl strut, which can then be used to obtain the Newtonian limit. I wrap up with a brief discussion of computational methods and code development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NuPhB.858..267A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NuPhB.858..267A"><span id="translatedtitle">Roaming moduli space using dynamical <span class="hlt">triangulations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ambjørn, J.; Barkley, J.; Budd, T. G.</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>In critical as well as in non-critical string theory the partition function reduces to an integral over moduli space after integration over matter fields. For non-critical string theory this moduli integrand is known for genus one surfaces. The formalism of dynamical <span class="hlt">triangulations</span> provides us with a regularization of non-critical string theory. We show how to assign in a simple and geometrical way a moduli parameter to each <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>. After integrating over possible matter fields we can thus construct the moduli integrand. We show numerically for c=0 and c=-2 non-critical strings that the moduli integrand converges to the known continuum expression when the number of triangles goes to infinity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712313C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712313C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> modelling in salt tectonic context: the Crocodile minibasin in Sivas (Turkey)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Collon, Pauline; Pichat, Alexandre; Kergaravat, Charlie; Botella, Arnaud; Caumon, Guillaume; Favreau, Océane; Fuss, Gaétan; Godefroy, Gabriel; Lerat, Marine; Mazuyer, Antoine; Parquer, Marion; Charreau, Julien; Callot, Jean-Paul; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Impermeable, with a low density and acting as a viscous fluid at the geological time scale, salt plays a unique tectonic role favouring hydrocarbon trap formations. Halokinetic structures are various and difficult to image with classic seismic techniques. Thus, outcrop analogues are precious and sought after. Since the re-interpretation in September 2011 of its evaporite deposits, the Oligo-Miocene basin of Sivas (Turkey) is a new choice analogue for the study of salt tectonic with outstanding outcrops reflecting the variety of salt related structures: minibasins, diapirs, welds... While studying these structures requires an important field work, building <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models becomes an interesting way to better help understanding the three-dimensional organisation and to further perform numerical simulations (e.g., restoration, potential field measurement campaign simulation). The complex geometries observed in salt tectonic context make these <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological models particularly challenging to build, especially when only outcrops data are available. We focus on the Crocodile minibasin (Sivas) and present a modelling strategy using a subtle combination of recently developed techniques. Available data are: a Digital Elevation Model, satellite images and associated interpreted bedding traces on topography, orientation measurements of the strata and a conceptual interpretation. Located on an ancient salt extrusion, this minibasin is filled with lacustrine and sabkha sediments. It is interpreted with a closed synclinal structure on North. On its southern part, a central diapir has risen up, separating two tightened synclinals. The salt surface is modelled first as a <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> surface using a classical explicit surface patch construction method and a manual post-process mesh improvement. Then, the minibasin sediments are modelled with an implicit approach that considers interfaces as equipotentials of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scalar field. This requires to build a volumetric mesh conformable to the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011tdsa.book.....M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011tdsa.book.....M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Spectroscopy in Astronomy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mediavilla, Evencio; Arribas, Santiago; Roth, Martin; Cepa-Nogué, Jordi; Sánchez, Francisco</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Introductory review and technical approaches Martin M. Roth; 2. Observational procedures and data reduction James E. H. Turner; 3. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Spectroscopy instrumentation M. A. Bershady; 4. Analysis of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data Pierre Ferruit; 5. Science motivation for IFS and galactic studies F. Eisenhauer; 6. Extragalactic studies and future IFS science Luis Colina; 7. Tutorials: how to handle <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> spectroscopy data Sebastian F. Sánchez, Begona García-Lorenzo and Arlette Pécontal-Rousset.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2016/3022/fs20163022.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2016/3022/fs20163022.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Elevation Program—Virtual USA in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  </p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/221032','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/221032"><span id="translatedtitle">Coefficient adaptive <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> for strongly anisotropic problems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>D`Azevedo, E.F.; Romine, C.H.; Donato, J.M.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Second order elliptic partial differential equations arise in many important applications, including flow through porous media, heat conduction, the distribution of electrical or magnetic potential. The prototype is the Laplace problem, which in discrete form produces a coefficient matrix that is relatively easy to solve in a regular domain. However, the presence of anisotropy produces a matrix whose condition number is increased, making the resulting linear system more difficult to solve. In this work, we take the anisotropy into account in the discretization by mapping each anisotropic region into a ``stretched`` coordinate space in which the anisotropy is removed. The region is then uniformly <span class="hlt">triangulated</span>, and the resulting <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> mapped back to the original space. The effect is to generate long slender triangles that are oriented in the direction of ``preferred flow.`` Slender triangles are generally regarded as numerically undesirable since they tend to cause poor conditioning; however, our <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> has the effect of producing effective isotropy, thus improving the condition number of the resulting coefficient matrix.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRA..115.0E12S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRA..115.0E12S"><span id="translatedtitle">Sprite initiation altitude measured by <span class="hlt">triangulation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Haaland, R.; McHarg, M. G.; Hensley, B. A.; Kanmae, T.</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>High time resolution (10,000 frames per second) images of sprites combined with multistation concurrent video recordings have provided data for <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> of the altitude of the initial sprite onset. The high-speed images were obtained from the Langmuir Laboratory, New Mexico, during summer campaigns in 2007 and 2008 with video observations from sites at Portales, New Mexico, and Las Vegas, New Mexico. Sprites start with one or more downward-propagating streamer heads. The <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> onset altitudes of this initial downward streamer vary between 66 and 89 km. In some sprites the downward streamers are followed a little later by upward-propagating streamers. The upward streamers start from a lower altitude and existing luminous sprite structures and their <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> altitudes vary from 64 to 78 km. The downward streamers create C sprite characteristics, while the upward streamers form the broad diffuse tops of carrot sprites. In the sprites analyzed the higher onset altitudes for the downward-propagating initial streamers were associated with C sprites and the lower with carrot sprites, but our larger data set indicates that this is not generally the case. It appears that the dominant sprite types vary from year to year, indicating that some longer-lasting environmental parameter, such as mesospheric conductivity and composition or thunderstorm cloud dynamics, may play an important role in determining the types of sprites observed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24734998','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24734998"><span id="translatedtitle">Extending particle tracking capability with Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Kejia; Anthony, Stephen M; Granick, Steve</p> <p>2014-04-29</p> <p>Particle tracking, the analysis of individual moving elements in time series of microscopic images, enables burgeoning new applications, but there is need to better resolve conformation and dynamics. Here we describe the advantages of Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> to extend the capabilities of particle tracking in three areas: (1) discriminating irregularly shaped objects, which allows one to track items other than point features; (2) combining time and space to better connect missing frames in trajectories; and (3) identifying shape backbone. To demonstrate the method, specific examples are given, involving analyzing the time-dependent molecular conformations of actin filaments and λ-DNA. The main limitation of this method, shared by all other clustering techniques, is the difficulty to separate objects when they are very close. This can be mitigated by inspecting locally to remove edges that are longer than their neighbors and also edges that link two objects, using methods described here, so that the combination of Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> with edge removal can be robustly applied to processing large data sets. As common software packages, both commercial and open source, can construct Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> on command, the methods described in this paper are both computationally efficient and easy to implement. PMID:24734998</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=74916&keyword=soil+AND+radiation&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=64183124&CFTOKEN=81446066','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=74916&keyword=soil+AND+radiation&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=64183124&CFTOKEN=81446066"><span id="translatedtitle">Modular <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Transport model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>MT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> was first developed by Chunmiao Zheng in 1990 at S.S. Papadopulos & Associates, Inc. with partial support from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Starting in 1990, MT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> was released as a pubic domain code from the USEPA. Commercial versions with enhanced capab...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770018839','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770018839"><span id="translatedtitle">Market study: <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> eyetracker</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>A market study of a proposed version of a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> eyetracker for initial use at NASA's Ames Research Center was made. The commercialization potential of a simplified, less expensive <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> eyetracker was ascertained. Primary focus on present and potential users of eyetrackers, as well as present and potential manufacturers has provided an effective means of analyzing the prospects for commercialization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231744-llnl-earth3d','SCIGOV-ESTSC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231744-llnl-earth3d"><span id="translatedtitle">LLNL-Earth<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/">Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Earth<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a computer code designed to allow fast calculation of seismic rays and travel times through a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model of the Earth. LLNL is using this for earthquake location and global tomography efforts and such codes are of great interest to the Earth Science community.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7919882','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7919882"><span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> ultrasound in gastroenterology].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zoller, W G; Liess, H</p> <p>1994-06-01</p> <p>Three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) sonography represents a development of noninvasive diagnostic imaging by real-time two-dimensional (2D) sonography. The use of transparent rotating scans, comparable to a block of glass, generates a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> effect. The objective of the present study was to optimate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> presentation of abdominal findings. Additional investigations were made with a new volumetric program to determine the volume of selected findings of the liver. The results were compared with the estimated volumes of 2D sonography and 2D computer tomography (CT). For the processing of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> images, typical parameter constellations were found for the different findings, which facilitated processing of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> images. In more than 75% of the cases examined we found an optimal <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> presentation of sonographic findings with respect to the evaluation criteria developed by us for the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> imaging of processed data. Great differences were found for the estimated volumes of the findings of the liver concerning the three different techniques applied. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ultrasound represents a valuable method to judge morphological appearance in abdominal findings. The possibility of volumetric measurements enlarges its potential diagnostic significance. Further clinical investigations are necessary to find out if definite differentiation between benign and malign findings is possible. PMID:7919882</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1121334','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1121334"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> World Building System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-30</p> <p>This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/biblio/1121334','SCIGOVIMAGE-SCICINEMA'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/biblio/1121334"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> World Building System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/">ScienceCinema</a></p> <p>None</p> <p>2014-02-26</p> <p>This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AN....325...83W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AN....325...83W"><span id="translatedtitle">Euro<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Science Conference</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Walsh, J. R.</p> <p>2004-02-01</p> <p>The Euro<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> RTN is an EU funded Research Training Network to foster the exploitation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> spectroscopy in Europe. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> spectroscopy is a general term for spectroscopy of an area of the sky and derives its name from its two spatial + one spectral dimensions. There are an increasing number of instruments which use integral field devices to achieve spectroscopy of an area of the sky, either using lens arrays, optical fibres or image slicers, to pack spectra of multiple pixels on the sky (``spaxels'') onto a 2D detector. On account of the large volume of data and the special methods required to reduce and analyse <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data, there are only a few centres of expertise and these are mostly involved with instrument developments. There is a perceived lack of expertise in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> spectroscopy spread though the astronomical community and its use in the armoury of the observational astronomer is viewed as being highly specialised. For precisely this reason the Euro<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> RTN was proposed to train young researchers in this area and develop user tools to widen the experience with this particular type of data in Europe. The Euro<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> RTN is coordinated by Martin M. Roth (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam) and has been running since July 2002. The first Euro<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> science conference was held in Cambridge, UK from 22 to 23 May 2003. The main emphasis of the conference was, in keeping with the RTN, to expose the work of the young post-docs who are funded by the RTN. In addition the team members from the eleven European institutes involved in Euro<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> also presented instrumental and observational developments. The conference was organized by Andy Bunker and held at the Institute of Astronomy. There were over thirty participants and 26 talks covered the whole range of application of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> techniques. The science ranged from Galactic planetary nebulae and globular clusters to kinematics of nearby galaxies out to objects at high redshift. Several talks were devoted to reporting recent observations with newly</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900013774','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900013774"><span id="translatedtitle">PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> user's manual</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, and sample command files.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26657435','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26657435"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing in dentistry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery. PMID:26657435</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940002506&hterms=Tools+physicists&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DTools%2Bphysicists','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940002506&hterms=Tools+physicists&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DTools%2Bphysicists"><span id="translatedtitle">PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (WITH TURB<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Buning, P.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>'s interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>'s 74 functions are organized into</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940002508&hterms=Tools+physicists&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DTools%2Bphysicists','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940002508&hterms=Tools+physicists&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DTools%2Bphysicists"><span id="translatedtitle">PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (WITHOUT TURB<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Buning, P.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>'s interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>'s 74 functions are organized into</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/456334','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/456334"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">d</span> modular gripper design tool</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Brown, R.G.; Brost, R.C.</p> <p>1997-02-01</p> <p>Modular fixturing kits are sets of components used for flexible, rapid construction of fixtures. A modular vise is a parallel-jaw vise, each jaw of which is a modular fixture plate with a regular grid of precisely positioned holes. To fixture a part, one places pins in some of the holes so that when the vise is closed, the part is reliably located and completely <span class="hlt">constrained</span>. The modular vise concept can be adapted easily to the design of modular parallel-jaw grippers for robots. By attaching a grid-plate to each jaw of a parallel-jaw gripper, one gains the ability to easily construct high-quality grasps for a wide variety of parts from a standard set of hardware. Wallack and Canny developed an algorithm for planning planar grasp configurations for the modular vise. In this paper, the authors expand this work to produce a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">d</span> fixture/gripper design tool. They describe several analyses they have added to the planar algorithm, including a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">d</span> grasp quality metric based on force information, <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">d</span> geometric loading analysis, and inter-gripper interference analysis. Finally, the authors describe two applications of their code. One of these is an internal application at Sandia, while the other shows a potential use of the code for designing part of an agile assembly line.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26066320','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26066320"><span id="translatedtitle">Bioprinting of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> hydrogels.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stanton, M M; Samitier, J; Sánchez, S</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) bioprinting has recently emerged as an extension of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> material printing, by using biocompatible or cellular components to build structures in an additive, layer-by-layer methodology for encapsulation and culture of cells. These <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> systems allow for cell culture in a suspension for formation of highly organized tissue or controlled spatial orientation of cell environments. The in vitro <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cellular environments simulate the complexity of an in vivo environment and natural extracellular matrices (ECM). This paper will focus on bioprinting utilizing hydrogels as <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scaffolds. Hydrogels are advantageous for cell culture as they are highly permeable to cell culture media, nutrients, and waste products generated during metabolic cell processes. They have the ability to be fabricated in customized shapes with various material properties with dimensions at the micron scale. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> hydrogels are a reliable method for biocompatible <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing and have applications in tissue engineering, drug screening, and organ on a chip models. PMID:26066320</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012SPIE.8288E..08A&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012SPIE.8288E..08A&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Unassisted <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> camera calibration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>With the rapid growth of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> technology, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image capture has become a critical part of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> feature set on mobile phones. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPArXL55..195R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPArXL55..195R"><span id="translatedtitle">Filming Underwater in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> Respecting Stereographic Rules</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rinaldi, R.; Hordosch, H.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>After an experimental phase of many years, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> filming is now effective and successful. Improvements are still possible, but the film industry achieved memorable success on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> movie's box offices due to the overall quality of its products. Special environments such as space ("Gravity") and the underwater realm look perfect to be reproduced in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. "Filming in space" was possible in "Gravity" using special effects and computer graphic. The underwater realm is still difficult to be handled. Underwater filming in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> was not that easy and effective as filming in 2D, since not long ago. After almost 3 years of research, a French, Austrian and Italian team realized a perfect tool to film underwater, in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, without any <span class="hlt">constrains</span>. This allows filmmakers to bring the audience deep inside an environment where they most probably will never have the chance to be.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2637860','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2637860"><span id="translatedtitle">Arena<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>: visualization of biological networks in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pavlopoulos, Georgios A; O'Donoghue, Seán I; Satagopam, Venkata P; Soldatos, Theodoros G; Pafilis, Evangelos; Schneider, Reinhard</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Background Complexity is a key problem when visualizing biological networks; as the number of entities increases, most graphical views become incomprehensible. Our goal is to enable many thousands of entities to be visualized meaningfully and with high performance. Results We present a new visualization tool, Arena<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, which introduces a new concept of staggered layers in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> space. Related data – such as proteins, chemicals, or pathways – can be grouped onto separate layers and arranged via layout algorithms, such as Fruchterman-Reingold, distance geometry, and a novel hierarchical layout. Data on a layer can be clustered via k-means, affinity propagation, Markov clustering, neighbor joining, tree clustering, or UPGMA ('unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean'). A simple input format defines the name and URL for each node, and defines connections or similarity scores between pairs of nodes. The use of Arena<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is illustrated with datasets related to Huntington's disease. Conclusion Arena<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a user friendly visualization tool that is able to visualize biological or any other network in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> space. It is free for academic use and runs on any platform. It can be downloaded or lunched directly from . Java<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> library and Java 1.5 need to be pre-installed for the software to run. PMID:19040715</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016TDR.....7...91S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016TDR.....7...91S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Novel <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Compression Methods for Geometry, Connectivity and Texture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Siddeq, M. M.; Rodrigues, M. A.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>A large number of applications in medical visualization, games, engineering design, entertainment, heritage, e-commerce and so on require the transmission of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models over the Internet or over local networks. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data compression is an important requirement for fast data storage, access and transmission within bandwidth limitations. The Wavefront OBJ (object) file format is commonly used to share models due to its clear simple design. Normally each OBJ file contains a large amount of data (e.g. vertices and <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> faces, normals, texture coordinates and other parameters) describing the mesh surface. In this paper we introduce a new method to compress geometry, connectivity and texture coordinates by a novel Geometry Minimization Algorithm (GM-Algorithm) in connection with arithmetic coding. First, each vertex ( x, y, z) coordinates are encoded to a single value by the GM-Algorithm. Second, triangle faces are encoded by computing the differences between two adjacent vertex locations, which are compressed by arithmetic coding together with texture coordinates. We demonstrate the method on large data sets achieving compression ratios between 87 and 99 % without reduction in the number of reconstructed vertices and triangle faces. The decompression step is based on a Parallel Fast Matching Search Algorithm (Parallel-FMS) to recover the structure of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> mesh. A comparative analysis of compression ratios is provided with a number of commonly used <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> file formats such as VRML, OpenCTM and STL highlighting the performance and effectiveness of the proposed method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999SPIE.3640..125Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999SPIE.3640..125Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Robust <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction system for human jaw modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yamany, Sameh M.; Farag, Aly A.; Tazman, David; Farman, Allan G.</p> <p>1999-03-01</p> <p>This paper presents a model-based vision system for dentistry that will replace traditional approaches used in diagnosis, treatment planning and surgical simulation. Dentistry requires accurate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> representation of the teeth and jaws for many diagnostic and treatment purposes. For example orthodontic treatment involves the application of force systems to teeth over time to correct malocclusion. In order to evaluate tooth movement progress, the orthodontists monitors this movement by means of visual inspection, intraoral measurements, fabrication of plastic models, photographs and radiographs, a process which is both costly and time consuming. In this paper an integrate system has been developed to record the patient's occlusion using computer vision. Data is acquired with an intraoral video camera. A modified shape from shading (SFS) technique, using perspective projection and camera calibration, is used to extract accurate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> information from a sequence of 2D images of the jaw. A new technique for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data registration, using a Grid Closest Point transform and genetic algorithms, is used to register the SFS output. <span class="hlt">Triangulization</span> is then performed, and a solid <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model is obtained via a rapid prototype machine.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..DFDL21004O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..DFDL21004O"><span id="translatedtitle">Fdf in US<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Otis, Collin; Ferrero, Pietro; Candler, Graham; Givi, Peyman</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>The scalar filtered mass density function (SFMDF) methodology is implemented into the computer code US<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. This is an unstructured Eulerian finite volume hydrodynamic solver and has proven very effective for simulation of compressible turbulent flows. The resulting SFMDF-US<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> code is employed for large eddy simulation (LES) on unstructured meshes. Simulations are conducted of subsonic and supersonic flows under non-reacting and reacting conditions. The consistency and the accuracy of the simulated results are assessed along with appraisal of the overall performance of the methodology. The SFMDF-US<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is now capable of simulating high speed flows in complex configurations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/348942','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/348942"><span id="translatedtitle">Strategies for nonobtuse boundary Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Murphy, M. |; Gable, C.W.</p> <p>1998-12-31</p> <p>Delaunay <span class="hlt">Triangulations</span> with nonobtuse triangles at the boundaries satisfy a minimal requirement for Control Volume meshes. They motivate this quality requirement, discuss it in context with others that have been proposed, and give point placement strategies that generate the fewest or close to the fewest number of Steiner points needed to satisfy it for a particular problem instance. The advantage is that this strategy places a number of Steiner points proportional to the combinatorial size of the input rather than the local feature size, resulting in far fewer points in many cases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/543001','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/543001"><span id="translatedtitle">Wavefront construction in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chilcoat, S.R. Hildebrand, S.T.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>Travel time computation in inhomogeneous media is essential for pre-stack Kirchhoff imaging in areas such as the sub-salt province in the Gulf of Mexico. The 2D algorithm published by Vinje, et al, has been extended to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> to compute wavefronts in complicated inhomogeneous media. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> wavefront construction algorithm provides many advantages over conventional ray tracing and other methods of computing travel times in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. The algorithm dynamically maintains a reasonably consistent ray density without making a priori guesses at the number of rays to shoot. The determination of caustics in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a straight forward geometric procedure. The wavefront algorithm also enables the computation of multi-valued travel time surfaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OptCo.368....1Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OptCo.368....1Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Heterodyne <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ghost imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Xu; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Chenghua; Xu, Lu; Wang, Qiang; Zhao, Yuan</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Conventional three dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) ghost imaging measures range of target based on pulse fight time measurement method. Due to the limit of data acquisition system sampling rate, range resolution of the conventional <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ghost imaging is usually low. In order to take off the effect of sampling rate to range resolution of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ghost imaging, a heterodyne <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ghost imaging (HGI) system is presented in this study. The source of HGI is a continuous wave laser instead of pulse laser. Temporal correlation and spatial correlation of light are both utilized to obtain the range image of target. Through theory analysis and numerical simulations, it is demonstrated that HGI can obtain high range resolution image with low sampling rate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MARL36014C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MARL36014C"><span id="translatedtitle">Combinatorial <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Mechanical Metamaterials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Coulais, Corentin; Teomy, Eial; de Reus, Koen; Shokef, Yair; van Hecke, Martin</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-folding motion. Our structures consist of cubic lattices of anisotropic unit cells that can be tiled in a complex combinatorial fashion. We design and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>-print this complex ordered mechanism, in which we combine elastic hinges and defects to tailor the mechanics of the material. Finally, we use this large design space to encode smart functionalities such as surface patterning and multistability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930040784&hterms=Automobiles&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DAutomobiles','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930040784&hterms=Automobiles&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DAutomobiles"><span id="translatedtitle">Unstructured <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Delaunay mesh generation applied to planes, trains and automobiles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Blake, Kenneth R.; Spragle, Gregory S.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Technical issues associated with domain-tessellation production, including initial boundary node <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> and volume mesh refinement, are presented for the 'TGrid' <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Delaunay unstructured grid generation program. The approach employed is noted to be capable of preserving predefined triangular surface facets in the final tessellation. The capabilities of the approach are demonstrated by generating grids about an entire fighter aircraft configuration, a train, and a wind tunnel model of an automobile.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CG.....66..121L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CG.....66..121L"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>-based approach to automatically repair GIS polygons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ledoux, Hugo; Arroyo Ohori, Ken; Meijers, Martijn</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Although the validation of a single GIS polygon can be considered as a solved issue, the repair of an invalid polygon has not received much attention and is still in practice a semi-manual and time-consuming task. We investigate in this paper algorithms to automatically repair a single polygon. Automated repair algorithms can be considered as interpreting ambiguous or ill-defined polygons and returning a coherent and clearly defined output (the definition of the international standards in our case). We present a novel approach, based on the use of a <span class="hlt">constrained</span> <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>, to automatically repair invalid polygons. Our approach is conceptually simple and easy to implement as it is mostly based on labelling triangles. It is also flexible: it permits us to implement different repair paradigms (we describe two in the paper). We have implemented our algorithms, and we report on experiments made with large real-world polygons that are often used by practitioners in different disciplines. We show that our approach is faster and more scalable than alternative tools.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014SPIE.9143E..5ED&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014SPIE.9143E..5ED&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">From <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> view to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> print</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>In the last few years <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model, realized with a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/10148829','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/10148829"><span id="translatedtitle">Finding a covering <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> whose maximum angle is provably small</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mitchell, S.A.; Park, J.K.</p> <p>1993-03-03</p> <p>Given a planar straight-line graph, we find a covering <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> whose maximum angle is as small as possible. A covering <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> is a <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> whose vertex set contains the input vertex set and whose edge set contains the input edge set. Such a <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> differs from the usual Steiner <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> in that we may not add a Steiner vertex on any input edge. Covering <span class="hlt">triangulations</span> provide a convenient method for <span class="hlt">triangulating</span> multiple regions sharing a common boundary, as each region can be <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> independently. As it is possible that no finite covering <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> is optimal in terms of its maximum angle, we propose an approximation algorithm. Our algorithm produces a covering <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> whose maximum angle {gamma} is probably close to {gamma}{sub opt}, a lower bound on the maximum angle in any covering <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> of the input graph. Note that we must have {gamma} {le} 3{gamma}{sub opt}, since we always have {gamma}{sub opt} {ge} {pi}/3 and no <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> can contain an angle of size greater than {pi}. We prove something significantly stronger. We show that {pi} {minus} {gamma} {ge} ({pi} {minus} {gamma}{sub opt})/6, i.e., our {gamma} is not much closer to {pi} than is {gamma}{sub opt}. This result represents the first nontrivial bound on a covering <span class="hlt">triangulation`s</span> maximum angle. We require a subroutine for the following problem: Given a polygon with holes, find a Steiner <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> whose maximum angle is bounded away from {pi}. No angle larger than 8{pi}/9 is sufficient for the bound on {gamma} claimed above. The number of Steiner vertices added by our algorithm and its running time are highly dependent on the corresponding bounds for the subroutine. Given an n-vertex planar straight-line graph, we require O(n + S(n)) Steiner vertices and O(n log n + T(n)) time, where S(n) is the number of Steiner vertices added by the subroutine and T(n) is its running time for an O(n)-vertex polygon with holes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8288E..19S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8288E..19S"><span id="translatedtitle">YouDash<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>: exploring stereoscopic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> gaming for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> movie theaters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> movie theater gaming.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20679031','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20679031"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> target-based distributed smart camera network localization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kassebaum, John; Bulusu, Nirupama; Feng, Wu-Chi</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>For distributed smart camera networks to perform vision-based tasks such as subject recognition and tracking, every camera's position and orientation relative to a single <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> coordinate frame must be accurately determined. In this paper, we present a new camera network localization solution that requires successively showing a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> feature point-rich target to all cameras, then using the known geometry of a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> target, cameras estimate and decompose projection matrices to compute their position and orientation relative to the coordinatization of the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> target's feature points. As each <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> target position establishes a distinct coordinate frame, cameras that view more than one <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> target position compute translations and rotations relating different positions' coordinate frames and share the transform data with neighbors to facilitate realignment of all cameras to a single coordinate frame. Compared to other localization solutions that use opportunistically found visual data, our solution is more suitable to battery-powered, processing-<span class="hlt">constrained</span> camera networks because it requires communication only to determine simultaneous target viewings and for passing transform data. Additionally, our solution requires only pairwise view overlaps of sufficient size to see the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> target and detect its feature points, while also giving camera positions in meaningful units. We evaluate our algorithm in both real and simulated smart camera networks. In the real network, position error is less than 1 ('') when the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> target's feature points fill only 2.9% of the frame area. PMID:20679031</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011vire.book..139W&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011vire.book..139W&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Remote <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Medical Consultation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Welch, Greg; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Fuchs, Henry; Cairns, Bruce; Mayer-Patel, Ketan; Yang, Ruigang; State, Andrei; Towles, Herman; Ilie, Adrian; Krishnan, Srinivas; Söderholm, Hanna M.</p> <p></p> <p>Two-dimensional (2D) video-based telemedical consultation has been explored widely in the past 15-20 years. Two issues that seem to arise in most relevant case studies are the difficulty associated with obtaining the desired 2D camera views, and poor depth perception. To address these problems we are exploring the use of a small array of cameras to synthesize a spatially continuous range of dynamic three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) views of a remote environment and events. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> views can be sent across wired or wireless networks to remote viewers with fixed displays or mobile devices such as a personal digital assistant (PDA). The viewpoints could be specified manually or automatically via user head or PDA tracking, giving the remote viewer virtual head- or hand-slaved (PDA-based) remote cameras for mono or stereo viewing. We call this idea remote <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> medical consultation (3DMC). In this article we motivate and explain the vision for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> medical consultation; we describe the relevant computer vision/graphics, display, and networking research; we present a proof-of-concept prototype system; and we present some early experimental results supporting the general hypothesis that <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> remote medical consultation could offer benefits over conventional 2D televideo.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020080311','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020080311"><span id="translatedtitle">Speaking Volumes About <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6397749','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6397749"><span id="translatedtitle">Area and volume coherence for efficient visualization of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scalar functions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Max, N. California Univ., Davis, CA ); Hanrahan, P. ); Crawfis, R. )</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>We present an algorithm for compositing a combination of density clouds and contour surfaces used to represent a scalar function on a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> volume. The volume is divided into convex polyhedra, at whose vertices the function is known, and the polyhedra are sorted in depth before compositing. For data given at scattered <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> points, we show that this sorting can be done in O(n) time if we chose the tetrahedra in the Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> as the polyhedra. The integrals for cloud opacity and visible cloud intensity along a ray through a convex polyhedron are computed analytically, and this computation is coherent across the polyhedron's area. 33 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9282E..1TL','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9282E..1TL"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction with two webcams and a laser line projector</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Dongdong; Hui, Bingwei; Qiu, Shaohua; Wen, Gongjian</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) reconstruction is one of the most attractive research topics in photogrammetry and computer vision. Nowadays <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction with simple and consumable equipment plays an important role. In this paper, a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction desktop system is built based on binocular stereo vision using a laser scanner. The hardware requirements are a simple commercial hand-held laser line projector and two common webcams for image acquisition. Generally, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction based on passive <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> methods requires point correspondences among various viewpoints. The development of matching algorithms remains a challenging task in computer vision. In our proposal, with the help of a laser line projector, stereo correspondences are established robustly from epipolar geometry and the laser shadow on the scanned object. To establish correspondences more conveniently, epipolar rectification is employed using Bouguet's method after stereo calibration with a printed chessboard. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> coordinates of the observed points are worked out with rayray <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> and reconstruction outliers are removed with the planarity constraint of the laser plane. Dense <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> point clouds are derived from multiple scans under different orientations. Each point cloud is derived by sweeping the laser plane across the object requiring <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction. The Iterative Closest Point algorithm is employed to register the derived point clouds. Rigid body transformation between neighboring scans is obtained to get the complete <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> point cloud. Finally polygon meshes are reconstructed from the derived point cloud and color images are used in texture mapping to get a lifelike <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model. Experiments show that our reconstruction method is simple and efficient.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AIPC.1558.2042M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AIPC.1558.2042M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">An efficient modified Gabriel method for <span class="hlt">triangulating</span> complex fractured media for multiphase flow simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mustapha, Hussein; Rouxel-Labbé, Mael; Abbas, Hicham</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Fractured reservoirs and aquifers are complex domains where discrete fractures are internal <span class="hlt">constraining</span> boundaries. The Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> of a fractured medium generally does not conform to the fracture boundaries and recovering the fracture elements may violate the Delaunay empty-circle (2D) criterion, which may lead to a low-quality <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>. This paper presents a new approach based on the combined Gabriel and Delaunay methods. A modified Gabriel condition of edge-empty-circle is introduced. In a first stage, the fracture edges violating the modified Gabriel criterion are released and then followed by a Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> with the rest of the fracture constraints. The released fracture edges are approximated by the edges of the Delaunay triangles in a postprocessing stage. The final representation of the fractures might be slightly different, but a very accurate solution is always maintained. The method has the capability to generate fine grids and to offer an accurate and good-quality grid. Numerical examples are presented to assess the efficiency of the proposed method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ApGeo...6..159L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ApGeo...6..159L"><span id="translatedtitle">High resolution <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> nonlinear integrated inversion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Yong; Wang, Xuben; Li, Zhirong; Li, Qiong; Li, Zhengwen</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>The high resolution <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> nonlinear integrated inversion method is based on nonlinear theory. Under layer control, the log data from several wells (or all wells) in the study area and seismic trace data adjacent to the wells are input to a network with multiple inputs and outputs and are integratedly trained to obtain an adaptive weight function of the entire study area. Integrated nonlinear mapping relationships are built and updated by the lateral and vertical geologic variations of the reservoirs. Therefore, the inversion process and its inversion results can be <span class="hlt">constrained</span> and controlled and a stable seismic inversion section with high resolution with velocity inversion, impedance inversion, and density inversion sections, can be gained. Good geologic effects have been obtained in model computation tests and real data processing, which verified that this method has high precision, good practicality, and can be used for quantitative reservoir analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050215652','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050215652"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Packaging: A Technology Review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Strickland, Mark; Johnson, R. Wayne; Gerke, David</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Traditional electronics are assembled as a planar arrangement of components on a printed circuit board (PCB) or other type of substrate. These planar assemblies may then be plugged into a motherboard or card cage creating a volume of electronics. This architecture is common in many military and space electronic systems as well as large computer and telecommunications systems and industrial electronics. The individual PCB assemblies can be replaced if defective or for system upgrade. Some applications are <span class="hlt">constrained</span> by the volume or the shape of the system and are not compatible with the motherboard or card cage architecture. Examples include missiles, camcorders, and digital cameras. In these systems, planar rigid-flex substrates are folded to create complex <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> shapes. The flex circuit serves the role of motherboard, providing interconnection between the rigid boards. An example of a planar rigid - flex assembly prior to folding is shown. In both architectures, the interconnection is effectively 2-D.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26854878','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26854878"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-Printed Microfluidics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Au, Anthony K; Huynh, Wilson; Horowitz, Lisa F; Folch, Albert</p> <p>2016-03-14</p> <p>The advent of soft lithography allowed for an unprecedented expansion in the field of microfluidics. However, the vast majority of PDMS microfluidic devices are still made with extensive manual labor, are tethered to bulky control systems, and have cumbersome user interfaces, which all render commercialization difficult. On the other hand, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing has begun to embrace the range of sizes and materials that appeal to the developers of microfluidic devices. Prior to fabrication, a design is digitally built as a detailed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> CAD file. The design can be assembled in modules by remotely collaborating teams, and its mechanical and fluidic behavior can be simulated using finite-element modeling. As structures are created by adding materials without the need for etching or dissolution, processing is environmentally friendly and economically efficient. We predict that in the next few years, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing will replace most PDMS and plastic molding techniques in academia. PMID:26854878</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15014084','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15014084"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Computations and Experiments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D</p> <p>2004-04-05</p> <p>This project consists of two activities. Task A, Simulations and Measurements, combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. The goal of this effort is to provide an improved understanding of dynamic material properties and to provide accurate numerical representations of those properties for use in analysis codes. Task B, ALE<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Development, involves general development activities in the ALE<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> code with the focus of improving simulation capabilities for problems of mutual interest to DoD and DOE. Emphasis is on problems involving multi-phase flow, blast loading of structures and system safety/vulnerability studies.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15004908','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15004908"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Computations and Experiments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D</p> <p>2003-05-12</p> <p>This project is in its first full year after the combining of two previously funded projects: ''<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Code Development'' and ''Dynamic Material Properties''. The motivation behind this move was to emphasize and strengthen the ties between the experimental work and the computational model development in the materials area. The next year's activities will indicate the merging of the two efforts. The current activity is structured in two tasks. Task A, ''Simulations and Measurements'', combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. Task B, ''ALE<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Development'', is a continuation of the non-materials related activities from the previous project.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=triangulation&id=EJ968448','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=triangulation&id=EJ968448"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Triangulation</span>, Respondent Validation, and Democratic Participation in Mixed Methods Research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Torrance, Harry</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Over the past 10 years or so the "Field" of "Mixed Methods Research" (MMR) has increasingly been exerting itself as something separate, novel, and significant, with some advocates claiming paradigmatic status. <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> is an important component of mixed methods designs. <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> has its origins in attempts to validate research findings…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9550051','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9550051"><span id="translatedtitle">Computerized <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction of two "double teeth".</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lyroudia, K; Mikrogeorgis, G; Nikopoulos, N; Samakovitis, G; Molyvdas, I; Pitas, I</p> <p>1997-10-01</p> <p>"Double teeth" is a root malformation in the dentition and the purpose of this study was to reconstruct three-dimensionally the external and internal morphology of two "double teeth". The first set of "double teeth" was formed by the conjunction of a mandibular molar and a premolar, and the second by a conjunction of a maxillary molar and a supernumerary tooth. The process of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction included serial cross-sectioning, photographs of the sections, digitization of the photographs, extraction of the boundaries of interest for each section, surface representation using <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> and, finally, surface rendering using photorealistic effects. The resulting three-dimensional representations of the two teeth helped us visualize their external and internal anatomy. The results showed: a) in the first case, fusion of the radical and coronal dentin, as well as fusion of the pulp chambers; and b) in the second case, fusion only of the radical dentin and the pulp chambers. PMID:9550051</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24029910','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24029910"><span id="translatedtitle">The sinogram polygonizer for reconstructing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shapes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yamanaka, Daiki; Ohtake, Yutaka; Suzuki, Hiromasa</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>This paper proposes a novel approach, the sinogram polygonizer, for directly reconstructing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shapes from sinograms (i.e., the primary output from X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanners consisting of projection image sequences of an object shown from different viewing angles). To obtain a polygon mesh approximating the surface of a scanned object, a grid-based isosurface polygonizer, such as Marching Cubes, has been conventionally applied to the CT volume reconstructed from a sinogram. In contrast, the proposed method treats CT values as a continuous function and directly extracts a triangle mesh based on tetrahedral mesh deformation. This deformation involves quadratic error metric minimization and optimal Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> for the generation of accurate, high-quality meshes. Thanks to the analytical gradient estimation of CT values, sharp features are well approximated, even though the generated mesh is very coarse. Moreover, this approach eliminates aliasing artifacts on triangle meshes. PMID:24029910</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23712999','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23712999"><span id="translatedtitle">The Sinogram Polygonizer for Reconstructing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Shapes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yamanaka, Daiki; Ohtake, Yutaka; Suzuki, Hiromasa</p> <p>2013-05-24</p> <p>This paper proposes a novel approach, the sinogram polygonizer, for directly reconstructing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shapes from sinograms (i.e., the primary output from X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanners consisting of projection image sequences of an object shown from different viewing angles). To obtain a polygon mesh approximating the surface of a scanned object, a grid-based isosurface polygonizer, such as Marching Cubes, has been conventionally applied to the CT volume reconstructed from a sinogram. In contrast, the proposed method treats CT values as a continuous function and directly extracts a triangle mesh based on tetrahedral mesh deformation. This deformation involves quadratic error metric minimization and optimal Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> for the generation of accurate, high-quality meshes. Thanks to the analytical gradient estimation of CT values, sharp features are well approximated, even though the generated mesh is very coarse. Moreover, this approach eliminates aliasing artifacts on triangle meshes. PMID:23712999</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6518556','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6518556"><span id="translatedtitle">Finding a covering <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> whose maximum angle is provably small</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mitchell, S.A.; Park, J.K.</p> <p>1993-03-03</p> <p>Given a planar straight-line graph, we find a covering <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> whose maximum angle is as small as possible. A covering <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> is a <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> whose vertex set contains the input vertex set and whose edge set contains the input edge set. Such a <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> differs from the usual Steiner <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> in that we may not add a Steiner vertex on any input edge. Covering <span class="hlt">triangulations</span> provide a convenient method for <span class="hlt">triangulating</span> multiple regions sharing a common boundary, as each region can be <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> independently. As it is possible that no finite covering <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> is optimal in terms of its maximum angle, we propose an approximation algorithm. Our algorithm produces a covering <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> whose maximum angle [gamma] is probably close to [gamma][sub opt], a lower bound on the maximum angle in any covering <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> of the input graph. Note that we must have [gamma] [le] 3[gamma][sub opt], since we always have [gamma][sub opt] [ge] [pi]/3 and no <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> can contain an angle of size greater than [pi]. We prove something significantly stronger. We show that [pi] [minus] [gamma] [ge] ([pi] [minus] [gamma][sub opt])/6, i.e., our [gamma] is not much closer to [pi] than is [gamma][sub opt]. This result represents the first nontrivial bound on a covering <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>'s maximum angle. We require a subroutine for the following problem: Given a polygon with holes, find a Steiner <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> whose maximum angle is bounded away from [pi]. No angle larger than 8[pi]/9 is sufficient for the bound on [gamma] claimed above. The number of Steiner vertices added by our algorithm and its running time are highly dependent on the corresponding bounds for the subroutine. Given an n-vertex planar straight-line graph, we require O(n + S(n)) Steiner vertices and O(n log n + T(n)) time, where S(n) is the number of Steiner vertices added by the subroutine and T(n) is its running time for an O(n)-vertex polygon with holes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2005SPIE.5916..114F&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2005SPIE.5916..114F&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Automated <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> vascular segmentation in CT hepatic venography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fetita, Catalin; Lucidarme, Olivier; Preteux, Francoise</p> <p>2005-08-01</p> <p>In the framework of preoperative evaluation of the hepatic venous anatomy in living-donor liver transplantation or oncologic rejections, this paper proposes an automated approach for the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> segmentation of the liver vascular structure from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> CT hepatic venography data. The developed segmentation approach takes into account the specificities of anatomical structures in terms of spatial location, connectivity and morphometric properties. It implements basic and advanced morphological operators (closing, geodesic dilation, gray-level reconstruction, sup-<span class="hlt">constrained</span> connection cost) in mono- and multi-resolution filtering schemes in order to achieve an automated <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction of the opacified hepatic vessels. A thorough investigation of the venous anatomy including morphometric parameter estimation is then possible via computer-vision <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> rendering, interaction and navigation capabilities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231087-snl3dface','SCIGOV-ESTSC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231087-snl3dface"><span id="translatedtitle">SNL<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>Face</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/">Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-07-20</p> <p>This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial featuresmore » of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> environment.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Arts+AND+crafts&id=EJ1091305','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Arts+AND+crafts&id=EJ1091305"><span id="translatedtitle">Making Inexpensive <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Manos, Harry</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> model reference frame and a model gravity…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231087','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231087"><span id="translatedtitle">SNL<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>Face</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Russ, Trina; Koch, Mark; Koudelka, Melissa; Peters, Ralph; Little, Charles; Boehnen, Chris; Peters, Tanya</p> <p>2007-07-20</p> <p>This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial features of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=3D+AND+printer&id=EJ1096219','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=3D+AND+printer&id=EJ1096219"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printing: Exploring Capabilities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>As <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015TDR.....6...41E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015TDR.....6...41E"><span id="translatedtitle">Incremental Multi-view <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Reconstruction Starting from Two Images Taken by a Stereo Pair of Cameras</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>El hazzat, Soulaiman; Saaidi, Abderrahim; Karam, Antoine; Satori, Khalid</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>In this paper, we present a new method for multi-view <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction based on the use of a binocular stereo vision system constituted of two unattached cameras to initialize the reconstruction process. Afterwards , the second camera of stereo vision system (characterized by varying parameters) moves to capture more images at different times which are used to obtain an almost complete <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction. The first two projection matrices are estimated by using a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> pattern with known properties. After that, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scene points are recovered by <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> of the matched interest points between these two images. The proposed approach is incremental. At each insertion of a new image, the camera projection matrix is estimated using the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> information already calculated and new <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> points are recovered by <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> from the result of the matching of interest points between the inserted image and the previous image. For the refinement of the new projection matrix and the new <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> points, a local bundle adjustment is performed. At first, all projection matrices are estimated, the matches between consecutive images are detected and Euclidean sparse <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction is obtained. So, to increase the number of matches and have a more dense reconstruction, the Match propagation algorithm, more suitable for interesting movement of the camera, was applied on the pairs of consecutive images. The experimental results show the power and robustness of the proposed approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/139050','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/139050"><span id="translatedtitle">TACO<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Finite Element Heat Transfer Code</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mason, W.E.</p> <p>1992-03-04</p> <p>TACO<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a three-dimensional, finite-element program for heat transfer analysis. An extension of the two-dimensional TACO program, it can perform linear and nonlinear analyses and can be used to solve either transient or steady-state problems. The program accepts time-dependent or temperature-dependent material properties, and materials may be isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions and loadings are available including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation boundary conditions and internal heat generation. Additional specialized features treat enclosure radiation, bulk nodes, and master/slave internal surface conditions (e.g., contact resistance). Data input via a free-field format is provided. A user subprogram feature allows for any type of functional representation of any independent variable. A profile (bandwidth) minimization option is available. The code is limited to implicit time integration for transient solutions. TACO<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> has no general mesh generation capability. Rows of evenly-spaced nodes and rows of sequential elements may be generated, but the program relies on separate mesh generators for complex zoning. TACO<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> does not have the ability to calculate view factors internally. Graphical representation of data in the form of time history and spatial plots is provided through links to the POSTACO and GRAPE postprocessor codes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.7932E..0DF','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.7932E..0DF"><span id="translatedtitle">DLP/DSP-based optical <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> sensors for the mass market in industrial metrology and life sciences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Frankowski, G.; Hainich, R.</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>GFM has developed and constructed DLP-based optical <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> measuring devices based on structured light illumination. Over the years the devices have been used in industrial metrology and life sciences for different <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> measuring tasks. This lecture will discuss integration of DLP Pico technology and DSP technology from Texas Instruments for mass market optical <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> sensors. In comparison to existing mass market laser <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> sensors, the new <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> sensors provide a full-field measurement of up to a million points in less than a second. The lecture will further discuss different fields of application and advantages of the new generation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> sensors for: OEM application in industrial measuring and inspection; <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> metrology in industry, life sciences and biometrics, and industrial image processing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8923E..1QR','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8923E..1QR"><span id="translatedtitle">Optoplasmonics: hybridization in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rosa, L.; Gervinskas, G.; Žukauskas, A.; Malinauskas, M.; Brasselet, E.; Juodkazis, S.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Femtosecond laser fabrication has been used to make hybrid refractive and di ractive micro-optical elements in photo-polymer SZ2080. For applications in micro- uidics, axicon lenses were fabricated (both single and arrays), for generation of light intensity patterns extending through the entire depth of a typically tens-of-micrometers deep channel. Further hybridisation of an axicon with a plasmonic slot is fabricated and demonstrated nu- merically. Spiralling chiral grooves were inscribed into a 100-nm-thick gold coating sputtered over polymerized micro-axicon lenses, using a focused ion beam. This demonstrates possibility of hybridisation between optical and plasmonic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> micro-optical elements. Numerical modelling of optical performance by <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-FDTD method is presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998tx19.confE.425N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998tx19.confE.425N"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Relativistic MHD Simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nishikawa, K.-I.; Frank, J.; Koide, S.; Sakai, J.-I.; Christodoulou, D. M.; Sol, H.; Mutel, R. L.</p> <p>1998-12-01</p> <p>We present <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> numerical simulations of moderately hot, supersonic jets propagating initially along or obliquely to the field lines of a denser magnetized background medium with Lorentz factors of W = 4.56 and evolving in a four-dimensional spacetime. The new results are understood as follows: Relativistic simulations have consistently shown that these jets are effectively heavy and so they do not suffer substantial momentum losses and are not decelerated as efficiently as their nonrelativistic counterparts. In addition, the ambient magnetic field, however strong, can be pushed aside with relative ease by the beam, provided that the degrees of freedom associated with all three spatial dimensions are followed self-consistently in the simulations. This effect is analogous to pushing Japanese ``noren'' or vertical Venetian blinds out of the way while the slats are allowed to bend in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> space rather than as a 2-D slab structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/13967','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/13967"><span id="translatedtitle">Forensic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Scene Reconstruction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.</p> <p>1999-10-12</p> <p>Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000SPIE.3905...67L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000SPIE.3905...67L"><span id="translatedtitle">Forensic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scene reconstruction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Little, Charles Q.; Small, Daniel E.; Peters, Ralph R.; Rigdon, J. B.</p> <p>2000-05-01</p> <p>Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a fieldable prototype of a fast, accurate, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997SPIE.3204..204S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997SPIE.3204..204S"><span id="translatedtitle">360-degree <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> profilometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Song, Yuanhe; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Wenyi; Tan, Yushan</p> <p>1997-12-01</p> <p>A new method of 360 degree turning <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape measurement in which light sectioning and phase shifting techniques are both used is presented in this paper. A sine light field is applied in the projected light stripe, meanwhile phase shifting technique is used to calculate phases of the light slit. Thereafter wrapped phase distribution of the slit is formed and the unwrapping process is made by means of the height information based on the light sectioning method. Therefore phase measuring results with better precision can be obtained. At last the target <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape data can be produced according to geometric relationships between phases and the object heights. The principles of this method are discussed in detail and experimental results are shown in this paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26153673','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26153673"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printable Graphene Composite.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In human being's history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today's personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printable into computer-designed models. The composite's linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C(-1) from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130013694','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130013694"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printed Robotic Hand</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11489078','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11489078"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> light scanning macrography.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huber, D; Keller, M; Robert, D</p> <p>2001-08-01</p> <p>The technique of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> light scanning macrography permits the non-invasive surface scanning of small specimens at magnifications up to 200x. Obviating both the problem of limited depth of field inherent to conventional close-up macrophotography and the metallic coating required by scanning electron microscopy, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> light scanning macrography provides three-dimensional digital images of intact specimens without the loss of colour, texture and transparency information. This newly developed technique offers a versatile, portable and cost-efficient method for the non-invasive digital and photographic documentation of small objects. Computer controlled device operation and digital image acquisition facilitate fast and accurate quantitative morphometric investigations, and the technique offers a broad field of research and educational applications in biological, medical and materials sciences. PMID:11489078</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22054345','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22054345"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-graphite structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Belenkov, E. A. Ali-Pasha, V. A.</p> <p>2011-01-15</p> <p>The structure of clusters of some new carbon <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-graphite phases have been calculated using the molecular-mechanics methods. It is established that <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-graphite polytypes {alpha}{sub 1,1}, {alpha}{sub 1,3}, {alpha}{sub 1,5}, {alpha}{sub 2,1}, {alpha}{sub 2,3}, {alpha}{sub 3,1}, {beta}{sub 1,2}, {beta}{sub 1,4}, {beta}{sub 1,6}, {beta}{sub 2,1}, and {beta}{sub 3,2} consist of sp{sup 2}-hybridized atoms, have hexagonal unit cells, and differ in regards to the structure of layers and order of their alternation. A possible way to experimentally synthesize new carbon phases is proposed: the polymerization and carbonization of hydrocarbon molecules.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11494630','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11494630"><span id="translatedtitle">[Real time <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> echocardiography].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bauer, F; Shiota, T; Thomas, J D</p> <p>2001-07-01</p> <p>Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients. PMID:11494630</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040112338&hterms=MATRICIAL+PROBE&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DMATRICIAL%2BPROBE','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040112338&hterms=MATRICIAL+PROBE&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DMATRICIAL%2BPROBE"><span id="translatedtitle">[Real time <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> echocardiography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231920-gpu-accelerated-denoising-gd3d','SCIGOV-ESTSC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231920-gpu-accelerated-denoising-gd3d"><span id="translatedtitle">GPU-Accelerated Denoising in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (GD<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/">Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>The raw computational power GPU Accelerators enables fast denoising of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. This software addresses two facets of this promising application: what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? And what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? To answer the first question, the software performs an autotuning step to empirically determine optimal memory blocking on the GPU. To answer themore » second, it performs a sweep of algorithm parameters to determine the combination that best reduces the mean squared error relative to a noiseless reference image.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ISPAr41B3..561A&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ISPAr41B3..561A&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of Gsd for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> City Modeling and Visualization from Aerial Imagery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alrajhi, Muhamad; Alam, Zafare; Afroz Khan, Mohammad; Alobeid, Abdalla</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Ministry of Municipal and Rural Affairs (MOMRA), aims to establish solid infrastructure required for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city modelling, for decision making to set a mark in urban development. MOMRA is responsible for the large scale mapping 1:1,000; 1:2,500; 1:10,000 and 1:20,000 scales for 10cm, 20cm and 40 GSD with Aerial <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> data. As <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city models are increasingly used for the presentation exploration, and evaluation of urban and architectural designs. Visualization capabilities and animations support of upcoming <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geo-information technologies empower architects, urban planners, and authorities to visualize and analyze urban and architectural designs in the context of the existing situation. To make use of this possibility, first of all <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city model has to be created for which MOMRA uses the Aerial <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> data and aerial imagery. The main concise for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city modelling in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia exists due to uneven surface and undulations. Thus real time <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> visualization and interactive exploration support planning processes by providing multiple stakeholders such as decision maker, architects, urban planners, authorities, citizens or investors with a three - dimensional model. Apart from advanced visualization, these <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city models can be helpful for dealing with natural hazards and provide various possibilities to deal with exotic conditions by better and advanced viewing technological infrastructure. Riyadh on one side is 5700m above sea level and on the other hand Abha city is 2300m, this uneven terrain represents a drastic change of surface in the Kingdom, for which <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city models provide valuable solutions with all possible opportunities. In this research paper: influence of different GSD (Ground Sample Distance) aerial imagery with Aerial <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> is used for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> visualization in different region of the Kingdom, to check which scale is more sophisticated for obtaining better results and is cost manageable, with GSD (7.5cm, 10cm, 20cm and 40cm</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.U52A..09K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.U52A..09K"><span id="translatedtitle">Magmatic Systems in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bazin, S.; Singh, S.; Detrick, R. S.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Diebold, J.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>Multichannel seismic (MCS) images of crustal magma chambers are ideal targets for advanced visualization techniques. In the mid-ocean ridge environment, reflections originating at the melt-lens are well separated from other reflection boundaries, such as the seafloor, layer 2A and Moho, which enables the effective use of transparency filters. <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> visualization of seismic reflectivity falls into two broad categories: volume and surface rendering. Volumetric-based visualization is an extremely powerful approach for the rapid exploration of very dense <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> datasets. These <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> datasets are divided into volume elements or voxels, which are individually color coded depending on the assigned datum value; the user can define an opacity filter to reject plotting certain voxels. This transparency allows the user to peer into the data volume, enabling an easy identification of patterns or relationships that might have geologic merit. Multiple image volumes can be co-registered to look at correlations between two different data types (e.g., amplitude variation with offsets studies), in a manner analogous to draping attributes onto a surface. In contrast, surface visualization of seismic reflectivity usually involves producing "fence" diagrams of 2-D seismic profiles that are complemented with seafloor topography, along with point class data, draped lines and vectors (e.g. fault scarps, earthquake locations and plate-motions). The overlying seafloor can be made partially transparent or see-through, enabling <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> correlations between seafloor structure and seismic reflectivity. Exploration of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> datasets requires additional thought when constructing and manipulating these complex objects. As numbers of visual objects grow in a particular scene, there is a tendency to mask overlapping objects; this clutter can be managed through the effective use of total or partial transparency (i.e., alpha-channel). In this way, the co-variation between different datasets can be investigated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130009404','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130009404"><span id="translatedtitle">Interactive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Mars Visualization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Powell, Mark W.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The Interactive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA05277&hterms=Adirondacks&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DAdirondacks','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA05277&hterms=Adirondacks&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DAdirondacks"><span id="translatedtitle">A Clean Adirondack (<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>This is a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> anaglyph showing a microscopic image taken of an area measuring 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across on the rock called Adirondack. The image was taken at Gusev Crater on the 33rd day of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's journey (Feb. 5, 2004), after the rover used its rock abrasion tool brush to clean the surface of the rock. Dust, which was pushed off to the side during cleaning, can still be seen to the left and in low areas of the rock.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhTea..54..150M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhTea..54..150M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Making Inexpensive <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Manos, Harry</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the TPT theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> model reference frame and a model gravity well tailored to specific class lessons. Most of the supplies are readily available in the home or at school: rubbing alcohol, a rag, two colors of spray paint, art brushes, and masking tape. The cost of these supplies, if you don't have them, is less than 20.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA05654&hterms=bonneville&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dbonneville','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA05654&hterms=bonneville&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dbonneville"><span id="translatedtitle">What Lies Ahead (<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> cylindrical-perspective mosaic taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 82 shows the view south of the large crater dubbed 'Bonneville.' The rover will travel toward the Columbia Hills, seen here at the upper left. The rock dubbed 'Mazatzal' and the hole the rover drilled in to it can be seen at the lower left. The rover's position is referred to as 'Site 22, Position 32.' This image was geometrically corrected to make the horizon appear flat.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA05183&hterms=PST&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DPST','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA05183&hterms=PST&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DPST"><span id="translatedtitle">Vacant Lander in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> image captured by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's rear hazard-identification camera shows the now-empty lander that carried the rover 283 million miles to Meridiani Planum, Mars. Engineers received confirmation that Opportunity's six wheels successfully rolled off the lander and onto martian soil at 3:01 a.m. PST, January 31, 2004, on the seventh martian day, or sol, of the mission. The rover is approximately 1 meter (3 feet) in front of the lander, facing north.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10146193','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10146193"><span id="translatedtitle">Cardinality bounds for <span class="hlt">triangulations</span> with bounded minimum angle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mitchell, S.A.</p> <p>1994-05-01</p> <p>We consider bounding the cardinality of an arbitrary <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> with smallest angle {alpha}. We show that if the local feature size (i.e. distance between disjoint vertices or edges) of the <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> is within a constant factor of the local feature size of the input, then N < O(1/{alpha})M, where N is the cardinality of the <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> and M is the cardinality of any other <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> with smallest angle at least {alpha}. Previous results had an O(1/{alpha}{sup 1/{alpha}}) dependence. Our O(1/{alpha}) dependence is tight for input with a large length to height ratio, in which triangles may be oriented along the long dimension.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006APS..MARB21008A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006APS..MARB21008A"><span id="translatedtitle">Melting of Temperature-Sensitive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Colloidal Crystals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alsayed, Ahmed; Han, Yilong; Yodh, Arjun</p> <p>2006-03-01</p> <p>We employ thermally responsive monodisperse microgel colloidal spheres to study the melting mechanisms of colloidal crystals [1]. The particle diameter decreases with increasing temperature and leads to volume fraction changes that drive phase-transitions. We will describe observations of a variety of phenomena. Premelting, the localized loss of crystalline order near defects (e.g. grain boundaries) at volume fractions above the bulk melting transition, is directly observed by video microscopy, and is characterized by monitoring the first peak position of the particle pair correlation function. We find the position of the first peak shifts toward smaller particle separations at the onset of premelting. After Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>, mean square rotational and translational fluctuations of bonds were measured close to and away from defects. The behavior of all such quantities exhibits increased disorder near the defects. By locally heating the material within a crystal domain, we also studied the superheating and melting of a perfect <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> crystal. Finally, the introduction of weak attractions between spheres reveals free-floating <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> crystal `blobs' which can be made to melt and recrystallize by tuning the temperature. [1] A. M. Alsayed, M. F. Islam, J. Zhang, P. J. Collings, A. G. Yodh, Science 309, 1207 (2005). This work was supported by grants from NSF (DMR-0505048 and MRSEC DMR05-20020) and NASA (NAG8-2172).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989SPIE.1005..179T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989SPIE.1005..179T"><span id="translatedtitle">Calibration of an intensity ratio system for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tsui, H. T.; Tang, K. C.</p> <p>1989-03-01</p> <p>An intensity ratio method for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> imaging is proposed with error analysis given for assessment and future improvements. The method is cheap and reasonably fast as it requires no mechanical scanning or laborious correspondence computation. One drawback of the intensity ratio methods which hamper their widespread use is the undesirable change of image intensity. This is usually caused by the difference in reflection from different parts of an object surface and the automatic iris or gain control of the camera. In our method, gray-level patterns used include an uniform pattern, a staircase pattern and a sawtooth pattern to make the system more robust against errors in intensity ratio. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> information of the surface points of an object can be derived from the intensity ratios of the images by <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>. A reference back plane is put behind the object to monitor the change in image intensity. Errors due to camera calibration, projector calibration, variations in intensity, imperfection of the slides etc. are analyzed. Early experiments of the system using a newvicon CCTV camera with back plane intensity correction gives a mean-square range error of about 0.5 percent. Extensive analysis of various errors is expected to yield methods for improving the accuracy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9316E..0CC','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9316E..0CC"><span id="translatedtitle">Dual multispectral and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structured light laparoscope</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Clancy, Neil T.; Lin, Jianyu; Arya, Shobhit; Hanna, George B.; Elson, Daniel S.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Intraoperative feedback on tissue function, such as blood volume and oxygenation would be useful to the surgeon in cases where current clinical practice relies on subjective measures, such as identification of ischaemic bowel or tissue viability during anastomosis formation. Also, tissue surface profiling may be used to detect and identify certain pathologies, as well as diagnosing aspects of tissue health such as gut motility. In this paper a dual modality laparoscopic system is presented that combines multispectral reflectance and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surface imaging. White light illumination from a xenon source is detected by a laparoscope-mounted fast filter wheel camera to assemble a multispectral image (MSI) cube. Surface shape is then calculated using a spectrally-encoded structured light (SL) pattern detected by the same camera and <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> using an active stereo technique. Images of porcine small bowel were acquired during open surgery. Tissue reflectance spectra were acquired and blood volume was calculated at each spatial pixel across the bowel wall and mesentery. SL features were segmented and identified using a `normalised cut' algoritm and the colour vector of each spot. Using the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geometry defined by the camera coordinate system the multispectral data could be overlaid onto the surface mesh. Dual MSI and SL imaging has the potential to provide augmented views to the surgeon supplying diagnostic information related to blood supply health and organ function. Future work on this system will include filter optimisation to reduce noise in tissue optical property measurement, and minimise spot identification errors in the SL pattern.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8011E..7QM','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8011E..7QM"><span id="translatedtitle">Metrological analysis of the human foot: <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> multisensor exploration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Muñoz Potosi, A.; Meneses Fonseca, J.; León Téllez, J.</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>In the podiatry field, many of the foot dysfunctions are mainly generated due to: Congenital malformations, accidents or misuse of footwear. For the treatment or prevention of foot disorders, the podiatrist diagnoses prosthesis or specific adapted footwear, according to the real dimension of foot. Therefore, it is necessary to acquire <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> information of foot with 360 degrees of observation. As alternative solution, it was developed and implemented an optical system of threedimensional reconstruction based in the principle of laser <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>. The system is constituted by an illumination unit that project a laser plane into the foot surface, an acquisition unit with 4 CCD cameras placed around of axial foot axis, an axial moving unit that displaces the illumination and acquisition units in the axial axis direction and a processing and exploration unit. The exploration software allows the extraction of distances on three-dimensional image, taking into account the topography of foot. The optical system was tested and their metrological performances were evaluated in experimental conditions. The optical system was developed to acquire <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> information in order to design and make more appropriate footwear.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6026..349W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6026..349W"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> measurement of human face by stereophotogrammetry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wagner, Holger; Wiegmann, Axel; Kowarschik, Richard; Zöllner, Friedrich</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The following article describes a stereophotogrammetry based technique for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> measurement of human faces. The method was developed for function orientated diagnostics and therapy in dentistry to provide prognoses for jaw-growth or surgical procedures. The main aim of our activities was to realize both -- a rapid measurement and a dense point cloud. The setup consists of two digital cameras in a convergent arrangement and a digital projector. During the measurement a rapid sequence of about 20 statistical generated patterns were projected onto the face and synchronously captured by the two cameras. Therefore, every single pixel of the two cameras is encoded by a characteristically stack of intensity values. To find corresponding points into the image sequences a correlation technique is used. At least, the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction is done by <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>. The advantages of the shown method are the possible short measurement time (< 1 second) and - in comparison to gray code and phase shift techniques - the low quality requirements of the projection unit. At present the reached accuracy is +/- 0.1mm (rms), which is sufficient for medical applications. But the demonstrated method is not restricted to evaluate the shape of human faces. Also technical objects could be measured.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22156596','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22156596"><span id="translatedtitle">On <span class="hlt">triangulations</span> of the plane by pencils of conics. II</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lazareva, V B; Shelekhov, A M</p> <p>2013-06-30</p> <p>The present work continues our previous paper in which all possible <span class="hlt">triangulations</span> of the plane using three pencils of circles were listed. In the present article we find all projectively distinct <span class="hlt">triangulations</span> of the plane by pencils of conics that are obtained by projecting regular three-webs, cut out on a nondegenerate cubic surface by three pencils of planes, whose axes lie on this surface. Bibliography: 6 titles.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120017465','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120017465"><span id="translatedtitle">Positional Awareness Map <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (PAM<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hoffman, Monica; Allen, Earl L.; Yount, John W.; Norcross, April Louise</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The Western Aeronautical Test Range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center needed to address the aging software and hardware of its current situational awareness display application, the Global Real-Time Interactive Map (GRIM). GRIM was initially developed in the late 1980s and executes on older PC architectures using a Linux operating system that is no longer supported. Additionally, the software is difficult to maintain due to its complexity and loss of developer knowledge. It was decided that a replacement application must be developed or acquired in the near future. The replacement must provide the functionality of the original system, the ability to monitor test flight vehicles in real-time, and add improvements such as high resolution imagery and true 3-dimensional capability. This paper will discuss the process of determining the best approach to replace GRIM, and the functionality and capabilities of the first release of the Positional Awareness Map <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/198190','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/198190"><span id="translatedtitle">Coping with degeneracies in Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Beichl, I.; Sullivan, F.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>Degeneracy is a serious issue in geometry. In their original form, many geometric algorithms simply assume that there is no degeneracy. As a result, when these methods are used on data that is degenerate or nearly degenerate, they either fail to complete or else give nonsensical results. We will describe a new method that removes only those <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">d</span> degeneracies that cause ambiguity in determining Delaunay tetrahedra and only those <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">d</span> degeneracies that cause ambiguity in determining Delaunay triangles. The mathematical justification is based on classical results of real analysis. The proof identifies degeneracies with the polynomial derived from the determinants that express geometrical primitives. Our result is a probabilistic statement about the real numbers; with probability one, degeneracies are removed in real arithmetic. In floating-point arithmetic, detection of degeneracies is based on relative error criteria that we describe here.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...511181W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...511181W"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printable Graphene Composite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C-1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9242E..0RR','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9242E..0RR"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> acoustic atmospheric tomography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rogers, Kevin; Finn, Anthony</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>This paper presents a method for tomographically reconstructing spatially varying <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> atmospheric temperature profiles and wind velocity fields based. Measurements of the acoustic signature measured onboard a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) are compared to ground-based observations of the same signals. The frequency-shifted signal variations are then used to estimate the acoustic propagation delay between the UAV and the ground microphones, which are also affected by atmospheric temperature and wind speed vectors along each sound ray path. The wind and temperature profiles are modelled as the weighted sum of Radial Basis Functions (RBFs), which also allow local meteorological measurements made at the UAV and ground receivers to supplement any acoustic observations. Tomography is used to provide a full <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction/visualisation of the observed atmosphere. The technique offers observational mobility under direct user control and the capacity to monitor hazardous atmospheric environments, otherwise not justifiable on the basis of cost or risk. This paper summarises the tomographic technique and reports on the results of simulations and initial field trials. The technique has practical applications for atmospheric research, sound propagation studies, boundary layer meteorology, air pollution measurements, analysis of wind shear, and wind farm surveys.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3925752','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3925752"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printed Bionic Ears</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing. PMID:23635097</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998AAS...19311005N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998AAS...19311005N"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Relativistic MHD Simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nishikaw, K.-I.; Frank, J.; Christodoulou, D. M.; Koide, S.; Sakai, J.-I.; Sol, H.; Mutel, R. L.</p> <p>1998-12-01</p> <p>We present <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> numerical simulations of moderately hot, supersonic jets propagating initially along or obliquely to the field lines of a denser magnetized background medium with Lorentz factors of W=4.56 and evolving in a four-dimensional spacetime. The new results are understood as follows: Relativistic simulations have consistently shown that these jets are effectively heavy and so they do not suffer substantial momentum losses and are not decelerated as efficiently as their nonrelativistic counterparts. In addition, the ambient magnetic field, however strong, can be pushed aside with relative ease by the beam, provided that the degrees of freedom associated with all three spatial dimensions are followed self-consistently in the simulations. This effect is analogous to pushing Japanese ``noren'' or vertical Venetian blinds out of the way while the slats are allowed to bend in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> space rather than as a 2-D slab structure. We also simulate jets with the more realistic initial conditions for injecting jets for helical mangetic field, perturbed density, velocity, and internal energy, which are supposed to be caused in the process of jet generation. Three possible explanations for the observed variability are (i) tidal disruption of a star falling into the black hole, (ii) instabilities in the relativistic accretion disk, and (iii) jet-related PRocesses. New results will be reported at the meeting.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23635097','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23635097"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed bionic ears.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C</p> <p>2013-06-12</p> <p>The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing. PMID:23635097</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4495599','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4495599"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printable Graphene Composite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C−1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9485E..1JM','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9485E..1JM"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> medical thermography device</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moghadam, Peyman</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>In this paper, a novel handheld <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> medical thermography system is introduced. The proposed system consists of a thermal-infrared camera, a color camera and a depth camera rigidly attached in close proximity and mounted on an ergonomic handle. As a practitioner holding the device smoothly moves it around the human body parts, the proposed system generates and builds up a precise <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> thermogram model by incorporating information from each new measurement in real-time. The data is acquired in motion, thus it provides multiple points of view. When processed, these multiple points of view are adaptively combined by taking into account the reliability of each individual measurement which can vary due to a variety of factors such as angle of incidence, distance between the device and the subject and environmental sensor data or other factors influencing a confidence of the thermal-infrared data when captured. Finally, several case studies are presented to support the usability and performance of the proposed system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009APS..DPPTP8136T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009APS..DPPTP8136T"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Ion Temperature Reconstruction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tanabe, Hiroshi; You, Setthivoine; Balandin, Alexander; Inomoto, Michiaki; Ono, Yasushi</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>The TS-4 experiment at the University of Tokyo collides two spheromaks to form a single high-beta compact toroid. Magnetic reconnection during the merging process heats and accelerates the plasma in toroidal and poloidal directions. The reconnection region has a complex <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> topology determined by the pitch of the spheromak magnetic fields at the merging plane. A pair of multichord passive spectroscopic diagnostics have been established to measure the ion temperature and velocity in the reconnection volume. One setup measures spectral lines across a poloidal plane, retrieving velocity and temperature from Abel inversion. The other, novel setup records spectral lines across another section of the plasma and reconstructs velocity and temperature from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> vector and 2D scalar tomography techniques. The magnetic field linking both measurement planes is determined from in situ magnetic probe arrays. The ion temperature is then estimated within the volume between the two measurement planes and at the reconnection region. The measurement is followed over several repeatable discharges to follow the heating and acceleration process during the merging reconnection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/835649','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/835649"><span id="translatedtitle">LOTT RANCH <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> PROJECT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Larry Lawrence; Bruce Miller</p> <p>2004-09-01</p> <p>The Lott Ranch <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> seismic prospect located in Garza County, Texas is a project initiated in September of 1991 by the J.M. Huber Corp., a petroleum exploration and production company. By today's standards the 126 square mile project does not seem monumental, however at the time it was conceived it was the most intensive land <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> project ever attempted. Acquisition began in September of 1991 utilizing GEO-SEISMIC, INC., a seismic data contractor. The field parameters were selected by J.M. Huber, and were of a radical design. The recording instruments used were GeoCor IV amplifiers designed by Geosystems Inc., which record the data in signed bit format. It would not have been practical, if not impossible, to have processed the entire raw volume with the tools available at that time. The end result was a dataset that was thought to have little utility due to difficulties in processing the field data. In 1997, Yates Energy Corp. located in Roswell, New Mexico, formed a partnership to further develop the project. Through discussions and meetings with Pinnacle Seismic, it was determined that the original Lott Ranch <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> volume could be vastly improved upon reprocessing. Pinnacle Seismic had shown the viability of improving field-summed signed bit data on smaller 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> projects. Yates contracted Pinnacle Seismic Ltd. to perform the reprocessing. This project was initiated with high resolution being a priority. Much of the potential resolution was lost through the initial summing of the field data. Modern computers that are now being utilized have tremendous speed and storage capacities that were cost prohibitive when this data was initially processed. Software updates and capabilities offer a variety of quality control and statics resolution, which are pertinent to the Lott Ranch project. The reprocessing effort was very successful. The resulting processed data-set was then interpreted using modern PC-based interpretation and mapping software. Production data, log data</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004CG.....30..405W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004CG.....30..405W"><span id="translatedtitle">Topological relations embodied in a generalized tri-prism (GTP) model for a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geoscience modeling system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Lixin</p> <p>2004-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geoscience modeling system (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> GMS) embodied with topological relations is of extreme importance for Geosciences. This paper presents a universal <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model, generalized tri-prism (GTP) for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> GMS and real-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> GIS, which is a modification and improvement of former presented analogous tri-prism (ATP) model and is the common model of pyramid model, tetrahedron model and tri-prism (TP) model. The GTP model takes the divergent drill holes, rather than <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> network after interpolation or vertical parallel drill holes after projection transformation, as its direct data source. Hence, the reliability and quality of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model is maximatily ensured. The GTP component is comprised of six primitives as node, TIN-edge, side-edge, TIN-face, side-face and GTP. Besides, three intermediary diagonal lines in each GTP component are temporary applied for spatial operations. Six groups of topological relations between the six primitives are carefully designed for geo-spatial inquiry and geo-spatial analysis. The mechanisms of chipping, dynamic updating and local refining operations of so constructed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological model are introduced. A real-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> software platform, GeoMo <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>@, developed with VC ++, OPGL and SQL server, demonstrates most of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geo-spatial operations including clipping, separating, uncovering and geo-fence diagram generating based on an actual <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological model of a coal mine, Tangshan, P.R. China.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPAr.XL5..403S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPAr.XL5..403S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Modeling from Multi-views Images for Cultural Heritage in Wat-Pho, Thailand</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Soontranon, N.; Srestasathiern, P.; Lawawirojwong, S.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>In Thailand, there are several types of (tangible) cultural heritages. This work focuses on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> modeling of the heritage objects from multi-views images. The images are acquired by using a DSLR camera which costs around 1,500 (camera and lens). Comparing with a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> laser scanner, the camera is cheaper and lighter than the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanner. Hence, the camera is available for public users and convenient for accessing narrow areas. The acquired images consist of various sculptures and architectures in Wat-Pho which is a Buddhist temple located behind the Grand Palace (Bangkok, Thailand). Wat-Pho is known as temple of the reclining Buddha and the birthplace of traditional Thai massage. To compute the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models, a diagram is separated into following steps; Data acquisition, Image matching, Image calibration and orientation, Dense matching and Point cloud processing. For the initial work, small heritages less than 3 meters height are considered for the experimental results. A set of multi-views images of an interested object is used as input data for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> modeling. In our experiments, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models are obtained from MICMAC (open source) software developed by IGN, France. The output of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models will be represented by using standard formats of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> point clouds and <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> surfaces such as .ply, .off, .obj, etc. To compute for the efficient <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models, post-processing techniques are required for the final results e.g. noise reduction, surface simplification and reconstruction. The reconstructed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models can be provided for public access such as website, DVD, printed materials. The high accurate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models can also be used as reference data of the heritage objects that must be restored due to deterioration of a lifetime, natural disasters, etc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...813L..20S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...813L..20S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> of the Interstellar Magnetic Field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schwadron, N. A.; Richardson, J. D.; Burlaga, L. F.; McComas, D. J.; Moebius, E.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Determining the direction of the local interstellar magnetic field (LISMF) is important for understanding the heliosphere’s global structure, the properties of the interstellar medium, and the propagation of cosmic rays in the local galactic medium. Measurements of interstellar neutral atoms by Ulysses for He and by SOHO/SWAN for H provided some of the first observational insights into the LISMF direction. Because secondary neutral H is partially deflected by the interstellar flow in the outer heliosheath and this deflection is influenced by the LISMF, the relative deflection of H versus He provides a plane—the so-called B-V plane in which the LISMF direction should lie. Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) subsequently discovered a ribbon, the center of which is conjectured to be the LISMF direction. The most recent He velocity measurements from IBEX and those from Ulysses yield a B-V plane with uncertainty limits that contain the centers of the IBEX ribbon at 0.7-2.7 keV. The possibility that Voyager 1 has moved into the outer heliosheath now suggests that Voyager 1's direct observations provide another independent determination of the LISMF. We show that LISMF direction measured by Voyager 1 is >40° off from the IBEX ribbon center and the B-V plane. Taking into account the temporal gradient of the field direction measured by Voyager 1, we extrapolate to a field direction that passes directly through the IBEX ribbon center (0.7-2.7 keV) and the B-V plane, allowing us to <span class="hlt">triangulate</span> the LISMF direction and estimate the gradient scale size of the magnetic field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015ApJ...813L..20S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015ApJ...813L..20S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> of the Interstellar Magnetic Field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schwadron, N. A.; Richardson, J. D.; Burlaga, L. F.; McComas, D. J.; Moebius, E.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Determining the direction of the local interstellar magnetic field (LISMF) is important for understanding the heliosphere’s global structure, the properties of the interstellar medium, and the propagation of cosmic rays in the local galactic medium. Measurements of interstellar neutral atoms by Ulysses for He and by SOHO/SWAN for H provided some of the first observational insights into the LISMF direction. Because secondary neutral H is partially deflected by the interstellar flow in the outer heliosheath and this deflection is influenced by the LISMF, the relative deflection of H versus He provides a plane—the so-called B–V plane in which the LISMF direction should lie. Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) subsequently discovered a ribbon, the center of which is conjectured to be the LISMF direction. The most recent He velocity measurements from IBEX and those from Ulysses yield a B–V plane with uncertainty limits that contain the centers of the IBEX ribbon at 0.7–2.7 keV. The possibility that Voyager 1 has moved into the outer heliosheath now suggests that Voyager 1's direct observations provide another independent determination of the LISMF. We show that LISMF direction measured by Voyager 1 is >40° off from the IBEX ribbon center and the B–V plane. Taking into account the temporal gradient of the field direction measured by Voyager 1, we extrapolate to a field direction that passes directly through the IBEX ribbon center (0.7–2.7 keV) and the B–V plane, allowing us to <span class="hlt">triangulate</span> the LISMF direction and estimate the gradient scale size of the magnetic field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008CG.....34..738P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008CG.....34..738P"><span id="translatedtitle">Tensor<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>: A computer graphics program to simulate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> real-time deformation and visualization of geometric bodies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pallozzi Lavorante, Luca; Dirk Ebert, Hans</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>Tensor<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a geometric modeling program with the capacity to simulate and visualize in real-time the deformation, specified through a tensor matrix and applied to <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> models representing geological bodies. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> visualization allows the study of deformational processes that are traditionally conducted in 2D, such as simple and pure shears. Besides geometric objects that are immediately available in the program window, the program can read other models from disk, thus being able to import objects created with different open-source or proprietary programs. A strain ellipsoid and a bounding box are simultaneously shown and instantly deformed with the main object. The principal axes of strain are visualized as well to provide graphical information about the orientation of the tensor's normal components. The deformed models can also be saved, retrieved later and deformed again, in order to study different steps of progressive strain, or to make this data available to other programs. The shape of stress ellipsoids and the corresponding Mohr circles defined by any stress tensor can also be represented. The application was written using the Visualization ToolKit, a powerful scientific visualization library in the public domain. This development choice, allied to the use of the Tcl/Tk programming language, which is independent on the host computational platform, makes the program a useful tool for the study of geometric deformations directly in three dimensions in teaching as well as research activities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12..547D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12..547D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Stratigraphic Modeling of Central Aachen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dong, M.; Neukum, C.; Azzam, R.; Hu, H.</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>, -y, -z coordinates, down-hole depth, and stratigraphic information are available. 4) We grouped stratigraphic units into four main layers based on analysis of geological settings of the modeling area. The stratigraphic units extend from Quaternary, Cretaceous, Carboniferous to Devonian. In order to facilitate the determination of each unit boundaries, a series of standard code was used to integrate data with different descriptive attributes. 5) The Quaternary and Cretaceous units are characterized by subhorizontal layers. Kriging interpolation was processed to the borehole data in order to estimate data distribution and surface relief for the layers. 6) The Carboniferous and Devonian units are folded. The lack of software support, concerning simulating folds and the shallow depth of boreholes and cross sections <span class="hlt">constrained</span> the determination of geological boundaries. A strategy of digitalizing the fold surfaces from cross sections and establishing them as inclined strata was followed. The modeling was simply subdivided into two steps. The first step consisted of importing data into the modeling software. The second step involved the construction of subhorizontal layers and folds, which were <span class="hlt">constrained</span> by geological maps, cross sections and outcrops. The construction of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> stratigraphic model is of high relevance to further simulation and application, such as 1) lithological modeling; 2) answering simple questions such as "At which unit is the water table?" and calculating volume of groundwater storage during assessment of aquifer vulnerability to contamination; and 3) assigned by geotechnical properties in grids and providing them for user required application. Acknowledgements: Borehole data is kindly provided by the Municipality of Aachen. References: 1. Janet T. Watt, Jonathan M.G. Glen, David A. John and David A. Ponce (2007) Three-dimensional geologic model of the northern Nevada rift and the Beowawe geothermal system, north-central Nevada. Geosphere, v. 3</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26737226','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26737226"><span id="translatedtitle">High quality surface reconstruction in radiotherapy: Cross-sectional contours to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> mesh using wavelets.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moriconi, S; Scalco, E; Broggi, S; Avuzzi, B; Valdagni, R; Rizzo, G</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>A novel approach for three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) surface reconstruction of anatomical structures in radiotherapy (RT) is presented. This is obtained from manual cross-sectional contours by combining both image voxel segmentation processing and implicit surface streaming methods using wavelets. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> meshes reconstructed with the proposed approach are compared to those obtained from traditional <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> algorithm. Qualitative and quantitative evaluations are performed in terms of mesh quality metrics. Differences in smoothness, detail and accuracy are observed in the comparison, considering three different anatomical districts and several organs at risk in radiotherapy. Overall best performances were recorded for the proposed approach, regardless the complexity of the anatomical structure. This demonstrates the efficacy of the proposed approach for the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surface reconstruction in radiotherapy and allows for further specific image analyses using real biomedical data. PMID:26737226</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22003697','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22003697"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape analysis for early diagnosis of malignant lung nodules.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>El-Baz, Ayman; Nitzken, Matthew; Elnakib, Ahmed; Khalifa, Fahmi; Gimel'farb, Georgy; Falk, Robert; El-Ghar, Mohamed Abou</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>An alternative method of diagnosing malignant lung nodules by their shape, rather than conventional growth rate, is proposed. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surfaces of the detected lung nodules are delineated by spherical harmonic analysis that represents a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surface of the lung nodule supported by the unit sphere with a linear combination of special basis functions, called Spherical Harmonics (SHs). The proposed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape analysis is carried out in five steps: (i) <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> lung nodule segmentation with a deformable <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> boundary controlled by a new prior visual appearance model; (ii) <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> to construct a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> mesh model of the segmented lung nodule surface; (iii) mapping this model to the unit sphere; (iv) computing the SHs for the surface; and (v) determining the number of the SHs to delineate the lung nodule. We describe the lung nodule shape complexity with a new shape index, the estimated number of the SHs, and use it for the K-nearest classification into malignant and benign lung nodules. Preliminary experiments on 327 lung nodules (153 malignant and 174 benign) resulted in a classification accuracy of 93.6%, showing that the proposed method is a promising supplement to current technologies for the early diagnosis of lung cancer. PMID:22003697</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21761703','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21761703"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape analysis for early diagnosis of malignant lung nodules.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>El-Bazl, Ayman; Nitzken, Matthew; Khalifa, Fahmi; Elnakib, Ahmed; Gimel'farb, Georgy; Falk, Robert; El-Ghar, Mohammed Abo</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>An alternative method for diagnosing malignant lung nodules by their shape rather than conventional growth rate is proposed. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surfaces of the detected lung nodules are delineated by spherical harmonic analysis, which represents a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surface of the lung nodule supported by the unit sphere with a linear combination of special basis functions, called spherical harmonics (SHs). The proposed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape analysis is carried out in five steps: (i) <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> lung nodule segmentation with a deformable <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> boundary controlled by two probabilistic visual appearance models (the learned prior and the estimated current appearance one); (ii) <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> to construct a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> mesh model of the segmented lung nodule surface; (iii) mapping this model to the unit sphere; (iv) computing the SHs for the surface, and (v) determining the number of the SHs to delineate the lung nodule. We describe the lung nodule shape complexity with a new shape index, the estimated number of the SHs, and use it for the K-nearest classification to distinguish malignant and benign lung nodules. Preliminary experiments on 327 lung nodules (153 malignant and 174 benign) resulted in the 93.6% correct classification (for the 95% confidence interval), showing that the proposed method is a promising supplement to current technologies for the early diagnosis of lung cancer. PMID:21761703</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26861680','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26861680"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printing of Graphene Aerogels.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing of a graphene aerogel with true <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction. PMID:26861680</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJAEO..35...44F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJAEO..35...44F"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> object-oriented image analysis in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geophysical modelling: Analysing the central part of the East African Rift System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fadel, I.; van der Meijde, M.; Kerle, N.; Lauritsen, N.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Non-uniqueness of satellite gravity interpretation has traditionally been reduced by using a priori information from seismic tomography models. This reduction in the non-uniqueness has been based on velocity-density conversion formulas or user interpretation of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> subsurface structures (objects) based on the seismic tomography models and then forward modelling these objects. However, this form of object-based approach has been done without a standardized methodology on how to extract the subsurface structures from the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models. In this research, a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> object-oriented image analysis (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> OOA) approach was implemented to extract the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> subsurface structures from geophysical data. The approach was applied on a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shear wave seismic tomography model of the central part of the East African Rift System. Subsequently, the extracted <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects from the tomography model were reconstructed in the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> interactive modelling environment IGMAS+, and their density contrast values were calculated using an object-based inversion technique to calculate the forward signal of the objects and compare it with the measured satellite gravity. Thus, a new object-based approach was implemented to interpret and extract the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> subsurface objects from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geophysical data. We also introduce a new approach to <span class="hlt">constrain</span> the interpretation of the satellite gravity measurements that can be applied using any <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geophysical model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231527-showme3d','SCIGOV-ESTSC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231527-showme3d"><span id="translatedtitle">ShowMe<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/">Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-05</p> <p>ShowMe<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from themore » displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231527','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231527"><span id="translatedtitle">ShowMe<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sinclair, Michael B</p> <p>2012-01-05</p> <p>ShowMe<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.S42A..03G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.S42A..03G"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Elastic Wavefield Tomography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guasch, L.; Warner, M.; Stekl, I.; Umpleby, A.; Shah, N.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Wavefield tomography, or waveform inversion, aims to extract the maximum information from seismic data by matching trace by trace the response of the solid earth to seismic waves using numerical modelling tools. Its first formulation dates from the early 80's, when Albert Tarantola developed a solid theoretical basis that is still used today with little change. Due to computational limitations, the application of the method to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> problems has been unaffordable until a few years ago, and then only under the acoustic approximation. Although acoustic wavefield tomography is widely used, a complete solution of the seismic inversion problem requires that we account properly for the physics of wave propagation, and so must include elastic effects. We have developed a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> tomographic wavefield inversion code that incorporates the full elastic wave equation. The bottle neck of the different implementations is the forward modelling algorithm that generates the synthetic data to be compared with the field seismograms as well as the backpropagation of the residuals needed to form the direction update of the model parameters. Furthermore, one or two extra modelling runs are needed in order to calculate the step-length. Our approach uses a FD scheme explicit time-stepping by finite differences that are 4th order in space and 2nd order in time, which is a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> version of the one developed by Jean Virieux in 1986. We chose the time domain because an explicit time scheme is much less demanding in terms of memory than its frequency domain analogue, although the discussion of wich domain is more efficient still remains open. We calculate the parameter gradients for Vp and Vs by correlating the normal and shear stress wavefields respectively. A straightforward application would lead to the storage of the wavefield at all grid points at each time-step. We tackled this problem using two different approaches. The first one makes better use of resources for small models of dimension equal</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.G51A0859F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.G51A0859F"><span id="translatedtitle">Reducing Non-Uniqueness in Satellite Gravity Inversion using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Object Oriented Image Analysis Techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fadel, I.; van der Meijde, M.; Kerle, N.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Non-uniqueness of satellite gravity interpretation has been usually reduced by using a priori information from various sources, e.g. seismic tomography models. The reduction in non-uniqueness has been based on velocity-density conversion formulas or user interpretation for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> subsurface structures (objects) in seismic tomography models. However, these processes introduce additional uncertainty through the conversion relations due to the dependency on the other physical parameters such as temperature and pressure, or through the bias in the interpretation due to user choices and experience. In this research, a new methodology is introduced to extract the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> subsurface structures from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geophysical data using a state-of-art <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Object Oriented Image Analysis (OOA) technique. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> OOA is tested using a set of synthetic models that simulate the real situation in the study area of this research. Then, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> OOA is used to extract <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> subsurface objects from a real <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> seismic tomography model. The extracted <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects are used to reconstruct a forward model and its response is compared with the measured satellite gravity. Finally, the result of the forward modelling, based on the extracted <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects, is used to <span class="hlt">constrain</span> the inversion process of satellite gravity data. Through this work, a new object-based approach is introduced to interpret and extract the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> subsurface objects from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geophysical data. This can be used to <span class="hlt">constrain</span> modelling and inversion of potential field data using the extracted <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> subsurface structures from other methods. In summary, a new approach is introduced to <span class="hlt">constrain</span> inversion of satellite gravity measurements and enhance interpretation capabilities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA11748&hterms=supernova&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dsupernova','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA11748&hterms=supernova&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dsupernova"><span id="translatedtitle">Supernova Remnant in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p> wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> model using all of this information. A program called <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> model. Commercial software was then used to create the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> fly-through. <p/> The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave. <p/> This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron. <p/> High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5103B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5103B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Surface Reconstruction and Volume Calculation of Rills</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brings, Christine; Gronz, Oliver; Becker, Kerstin; Wirtz, Stefan; Seeger, Manuel; Ries, Johannes B.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>We use the low-cost, user-friendly photogrammetric Structure from Motion (SfM) technique, which is implemented in the Software VisualSfM, for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surface reconstruction and volume calculation of an 18 meter long rill in Luxembourg. The images were taken with a Canon HD video camera 1) before a natural rainfall event, 2) after a natural rainfall event and before a rill experiment and 3) after a rill experiment. Recording with a video camera results compared to a photo camera not only a huge time advantage, the method also guarantees more than adequately overlapping sharp images. For each model, approximately 8 minutes of video were taken. As SfM needs single images, we automatically selected the sharpest image from 15 frame intervals. The sharpness was estimated using a derivative-based metric. Then, VisualSfM detects feature points in each image, searches matching feature points in all image pairs, recovers the camera positions and finally by <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> of camera positions and feature points the software reconstructs a point cloud of the rill surface. From the point cloud, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surface models (meshes) are created and via difference calculations of the pre and post models a visualization of the changes (erosion and accumulation areas) and quantification of erosion volumes are possible. The calculated volumes are presented in spatial units of the models and so real values must be converted via references. The outputs are three models at three different points in time. The results show that especially using images taken from suboptimal videos (bad lighting conditions, low contrast of the surface, too much in-motion unsharpness), the sharpness algorithm leads to much more matching features. Hence the point densities of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models are increased and thereby clarify the calculations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHEP...03..149A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHEP...03..149A"><span id="translatedtitle">Dark matter in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alves, Daniele S. M.; El Hedri, Sonia; Wacker, Jay G.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>We discuss the relevance of directional detection experiments in the post-discovery era and propose a method to extract the local dark matter phase space distribution from directional data. The first feature of this method is a parameterization of the dark matter distribution function in terms of integrals of motion, which can be analytically extended to infer properties of the global distribution if certain equilibrium conditions hold. The second feature of our method is a decomposition of the distribution function in moments of a model independent basis, with minimal reliance on the ansatz for its functional form. We illustrate our method using the Via Lactea II N-body simulation as well as an analytical model for the dark matter halo. We conclude that {O}(1000) events are necessary to measure deviations from the Standard Halo Model and <span class="hlt">constrain</span> or measure the presence of anisotropies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1155793','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1155793"><span id="translatedtitle">Dark Matter in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Alves, Daniele S.M.; Hedri, Sonia El; Wacker, Jay G.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>We discuss the relevance of directional detection experiments in the post-discovery era and propose a method to extract the local dark matter phase space distribution from directional data. The first feature of this method is a parameterization of the dark matter distribution function in terms of integrals of motion, which can be analytically extended to infer properties of the global distribution if certain equilibrium conditions hold. The second feature of our method is a decomposition of the distribution function in moments of a model independent basis, with minimal reliance on the ansatz for its functional form. We illustrate our method using the Via Lactea II N-body simulation as well as an analytical model for the dark matter halo. We conclude that O(1000) events are necessary to measure deviations from the Standard Halo Model and <span class="hlt">constrain</span> or measure the presence of anisotropies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ilgp.confE..13T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ilgp.confE..13T"><span id="translatedtitle">HII Galaxies in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Telles, E.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>In this contribution I review some results of the integral field spectroscopy of HII galaxies. The two main topics are related to their internal kinematics and the distribution of physical conditions. HII galaxies present a L-σ relation similar to elliptical galaxies. However, the origin of supersonic motions of the ionized gas (σ) is still a matter of debate. We show that the core of the star forming region dominates the internal kinematics and probes the underlying turbulent motions. The show our latest calibration of the L-sigma relation of local HII galaxies. We also show that the physical conditions are very uniform throughout the whole extent of the star forming region, once you account for the levels of ionization. HII galaxies are excellent laboratories for <span class="hlt">constraining</span> the ionization power of high mass stars at low metallicities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1244259-dark-matter','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1244259-dark-matter"><span id="translatedtitle">Dark matter in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGESBeta</a></p> <p>Alves, Daniele S. M.; El Hedri, Sonia; Wacker, Jay G.</p> <p>2016-03-21</p> <p>We discuss the relevance of directional detection experiments in the post-discovery era and propose a method to extract the local dark matter phase space distribution from directional data. The first feature of this method is a parameterization of the dark matter distribution function in terms of integrals of motion, which can be analytically extended to infer properties of the global distribution if certain equilibrium conditions hold. The second feature of our method is a decomposition of the distribution function in moments of a model independent basis, with minimal reliance on the ansatz for its functional form. We illustrate our methodmore » using the Via Lactea II N-body simulation as well as an analytical model for the dark matter halo. Furthermore, we conclude that O(1000) events are necessary to measure deviations from the Standard Halo Model and <span class="hlt">constrain</span> or measure the presence of anisotropies.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA11748&hterms=shooting&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dshooting','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA11748&hterms=shooting&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dshooting"><span id="translatedtitle">Supernova Remnant in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p> wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> model using all of this information. A program called <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> model. Commercial software was then used to create the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> fly-through. <p/> The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave. <p/> This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron. <p/> High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMED23B0644K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMED23B0644K"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Viewing: Odd Perception - Illusion? reality? or both?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kisimoto, K.; Iizasa, K.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>We live in the three dimensional space, don't we? It could be at least four dimensions, but that is another story. In either way our perceptual capability of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-Viewing is <span class="hlt">constrained</span> by our 2D-perception (our intrinsic tools of perception). I carried out a few visual experiments using topographic data to show our intrinsic (or biological) disability (or shortcoming) in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-recognition of our world. Results of the experiments suggest: (1) <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-surface model displayed on a 2D-computer screen (or paper) always has two interpretations of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>- surface geometry, if we choose one of the interpretation (in other word, if we are hooked by one perception of the two), we maintain its perception even if the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-model changes its viewing perspective in time shown on the screen, (2) more interesting is that <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-real solid object (e.g.,made of clay) also gives above mentioned two interpretations of the geometry of the object, if we observe the object with one-eye. Most famous example of this viewing illusion is exemplified by a magician, who died in 2007, Jerry Andrus who made a super-cool paper crafted dragon which causes visual illusion to one-eyed viewer. I, by the experiments, confirmed this phenomenon in another perceptually persuasive (deceptive?) way. My conclusion is that this illusion is intrinsic, i.e. reality for human, because, even if we live in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-space, our perceptional tool (eyes) is composed of 2D sensors whose information is reconstructed or processed to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> by our experience-based brain. So, (3) when we observe the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-surface-model on the computer screen, we are always one eye short even if we use both eyes. One last suggestion from my experiments is that recent highly sophisticated <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>- models might include too many information that human perceptions cannot handle properly, i.e. we might not be understanding the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> world (geospace) at all, just illusioned.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Nanos...813263B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Nanos...813263B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9018E..0AM','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9018E..0AM"><span id="translatedtitle">State of the art of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanning systems and inspection of textile surfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Montilla, M.; Orjuela-Vargas, S. A.; Philips, W.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>The rapid development of hardware and software in the digital image processing field has boosted research in computer vision for applications in industry. The development of new electronic devices and the tendency to decrease their prices makes possible new developments that few decades ago were possible only in the imagination. This is the case of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> imaging technology which permits to detect failures in industrial products by inspecting aspects on their <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surface. In search of an optimal solution for scanning textiles we present in this paper a review of existing techniques for digitizing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surfaces. Topographic details of textiles can be obtained by digitizing surfaces using laser line <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>, phase shifting optical <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>, projected-light, stereo-vision systems and silhouette analysis. Although we are focused on methods that have been used in the textile industry, we also consider potential mechanisms used for other applications. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the evaluated methods and state a summary of potential implementations for the textile industry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/945691','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/945691"><span id="translatedtitle">NIF Ignition Target <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Point Design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jones, O; Marinak, M; Milovich, J; Callahan, D</p> <p>2008-11-05</p> <p>We have developed an input file for running <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> NIF hohlraums that is optimized such that it can be run in 1-2 days on parallel computers. We have incorporated increasing levels of automation into the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> input file: (1) Configuration controlled input files; (2) Common file for 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, different types of capsules (symcap, etc.); and (3) Can obtain target dimensions, laser pulse, and diagnostics settings automatically from NIF Campaign Management Tool. Using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Hydra calculations to investigate different problems: (1) Intrinsic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> asymmetry; (2) Tolerance to nonideal <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> effects (e.g. laser power balance, pointing errors); and (3) Synthetic diagnostics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27336475','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27336475"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel</p> <p>2016-07-21</p> <p>Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K(+) channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44(+) EGFR(+) KV1.1(+) MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44(-) EGFR(-) KV1.1(+) 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110012955','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110012955"><span id="translatedtitle">2D/<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Visual Tracker for Rover Mast</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bajracharya, Max; Madison, Richard W.; Nesnas, Issa A.; Bandari, Esfandiar; Kunz, Clayton; Deans, Matt; Bualat, Maria</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>A visual-tracker computer program controls an articulated mast on a Mars rover to keep a designated feature (a target) in view while the rover drives toward the target, avoiding obstacles. Several prior visual-tracker programs have been tested on rover platforms; most require very small and well-estimated motion between consecutive image frames a requirement that is not realistic for a rover on rough terrain. The present visual-tracker program is designed to handle large image motions that lead to significant changes in feature geometry and photometry between frames. When a point is selected in one of the images acquired from stereoscopic cameras on the mast, a stereo <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> algorithm computes a three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) location for the target. As the rover moves, its body-mounted cameras feed images to a visual-odometry algorithm, which tracks two-dimensional (2D) corner features and computes their old and new <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> locations. The algorithm rejects points, the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> motions of which are inconsistent with a rigid-world constraint, and then computes the apparent change in the rover pose (i.e., translation and rotation). The mast pan and tilt angles needed to keep the target centered in the field-of-view of the cameras (thereby minimizing the area over which the 2D-tracking algorithm must operate) are computed from the estimated change in the rover pose, the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> position of the target feature, and a model of kinematics of the mast. If the motion between the consecutive frames is still large (i.e., <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> tracking was unsuccessful), an adaptive view-based matching technique is applied to the new image. This technique uses correlation-based template matching, in which a feature template is scaled by the ratio between the depth in the original template and the depth of pixels in the new image. This is repeated over the entire search window and the best correlation results indicate the appropriate match. The program could be a core for building application programs for systems</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MAR.K2003H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MAR.K2003H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Kitaev spin liquids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hermanns, Maria</p> <p></p> <p>The Kitaev honeycomb model has become one of the archetypal spin models exhibiting topological phases of matter, where the magnetic moments fractionalize into Majorana fermions interacting with a Z2 gauge field. In this talk, we discuss generalizations of this model to three-dimensional lattice structures. Our main focus is the metallic state that the emergent Majorana fermions form. In particular, we discuss the relation of the nature of this Majorana metal to the details of the underlying lattice structure. Besides (almost) conventional metals with a Majorana Fermi surface, one also finds various realizations of Dirac semi-metals, where the gapless modes form Fermi lines or even Weyl nodes. We introduce a general classification of these gapless quantum spin liquids using projective symmetry analysis. Furthermore, we briefly outline why these Majorana metals in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Kitaev systems provide an even richer variety of Dirac and Weyl phases than possible for electronic matter and comment on possible experimental signatures. Work done in collaboration with Kevin O'Brien and Simon Trebst.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00688&hterms=rock+mechanics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Drock%2Bmechanics','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00688&hterms=rock+mechanics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Drock%2Bmechanics"><span id="translatedtitle">Yogi the rock - <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Yogi, a rock taller than rover Sojourner, is the subject of this image, taken in stereo by the deployed Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The soil in the foreground has been the location of multiple soil mechanics experiments performed by Sojourner's cleated wheels. Pathfinder scientists were able to control the force inflicted on the soil beneath the rover's wheels, giving them insight into the soil's mechanical properties. The soil mechanics experiments were conducted after this image was taken.<p/>Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.<p/>Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8611E..0NM','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8611E..0NM"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ultrafast laser scanner</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mahjoubfar, A.; Goda, K.; Wang, C.; Fard, A.; Adam, J.; Gossett, D. R.; Ayazi, A.; Sollier, E.; Malik, O.; Chen, E.; Liu, Y.; Brown, R.; Sarkhosh, N.; Di Carlo, D.; Jalali, B.</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Laser scanners are essential for scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and medical practice. Unfortunately, often times the speed of conventional laser scanners (e.g., galvanometric mirrors and acousto-optic deflectors) falls short for many applications, resulting in motion blur and failure to capture fast transient information. Here, we present a novel type of laser scanner that offers roughly three orders of magnitude higher scan rates than conventional methods. Our laser scanner, which we refer to as the hybrid dispersion laser scanner, performs inertia-free laser scanning by dispersing a train of broadband pulses both temporally and spatially. More specifically, each broadband pulse is temporally processed by time stretch dispersive Fourier transform and further dispersed into space by one or more diffractive elements such as prisms and gratings. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, we perform 1D line scans at a record high scan rate of 91 MHz and 2D raster scans and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> volumetric scans at an unprecedented scan rate of 105 kHz. The method holds promise for a broad range of scientific, industrial, and biomedical applications. To show the utility of our method, we demonstrate imaging, nanometer-resolved surface vibrometry, and high-precision flow cytometry with real-time throughput that conventional laser scanners cannot offer due to their low scan rates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ISPAr41B5..587S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ISPAr41B5..587S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Crowdsourcing Based <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> Modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016Nanos...813263B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016Nanos...813263B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6974K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6974K"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Dynamic Earthquake Fracture Simulation (Test Case)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Korkusuz Öztürk, Yasemin; Meral Özel, Nurcan; Ando, Ryosuke</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> dynamic earthquake fracture simulation is being developed for the fault structures which are non-planar to understand heterogeneous stress states in the Marmara Sea. Locating in a seismic gap, a large earthquake is expected in the center of the Sea of Marmara. Concerning the fact that more than 14 million inhabitants of İstanbul, located very closely to the Marmara Sea, the importance of the analysis of the Central Marmara Sea is extremely high. A few <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> dynamic earthquake fracture studies have been already done in the Sea of Marmara for pure right lateral strike-slip stress regimes (Oglesby and Mai, 2012; Aochi and Ulrich, 2015). In this study, a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> dynamic earthquake fracture model with heterogeneous stress patches from the TPV5, a SCEC code validation case, is adapted. In this test model, the fault and the ground surfaces are gridded by a scalene <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> technique using GMSH program. For a grid size changing between 0.616 km and 1.050 km the number of elements for the fault surface is 1984 and for the ground surface is 1216. When these results are compared with Kaneko's results for TPV5 from SPECFEM<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, reliable findings could be observed for the first 6.5 seconds (stations on the fault) although a stability problem is encountered after this time threshold. To solve this problem grid sizes are made smaller, so the number of elements increase 7986 for the fault surface and 4867 for the ground surface. On the other hand, computational problems arise in that case, since the computation time is directly proportional to the number of total elements and the required memory also increases with the square of that. Therefore, it is expected that this method can be adapted for less coarse grid cases, regarding the main difficulty coming from the necessity of an effective supercomputer and run time limitations. The main objective of this research is to obtain <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> dynamic earthquake rupture scenarios, concerning not only planar and non-planar faults but also</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016MNRAS.459.2670Z&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016MNRAS.459.2670Z&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">DIVE in the cosmic web: voids with Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> from discrete matter tracer distributions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, Cheng; Tao, Charling; Liang, Yu; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Chuang, Chia-Hsun</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>We present a novel parameter-free cosmological void finder (DIVE, Delaunay <span class="hlt">TrIangulation</span> Void findEr) based on Delaunay <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> (DT), which efficiently computes the empty spheres <span class="hlt">constrained</span> by a discrete set of tracers. We define the spheres as DT voids, and describe their properties, including a universal density profile together with an intrinsic scatter. We apply this technique on 100 halo catalogues with volumes of 2.5 h-1Gpc side each, with a bias and number density similar to the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey CMASS luminous red galaxies, performed with the PATCHY code. Our results show that there are two main species of DT voids, which can be characterized by the radius: they have different responses to halo redshift space distortions, to number density of tracers, and reside in different dark matter environments. Based on dynamical arguments using the tidal field tensor, we demonstrate that large DT voids are hosted in expanding regions, whereas the haloes used to construct them reside in collapsing ones. Our approach is therefore able to efficiently determine the troughs of the density field from galaxy surveys, and can be used to study their clustering. We further study the power spectra of DT voids, and find that the bias of the two populations are different, demonstrating that the small DT voids are essentially tracers of groups of haloes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9555624','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9555624"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction of tomographic images applied to largely spaced slices.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Traina, A J; Prado, A H; Bueno, J M</p> <p>1997-12-01</p> <p>This paper presents a full reconstruction process of magnetic resonance images. The first step is to bring the acquired data from the frequency domain, using a Fast Fourier Transform algorithm. A Tomographic Image Interpolation is then used to transform a sequence of tomographic slices in an isotropic volume data set, a process also called <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Reconstruction. This work describes an automatic method whose interpolation stage is based on a previous matching stage using Delaunay <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span>. The reconstruction approach uses an extrapolation procedure that permits appropriate treatment of the boundaries of the object under analysis. PMID:9555624</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000SPIE.4309...26X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000SPIE.4309...26X"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> measurement of the human body for apparel mass customization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xu, Bugao; Lin, Sheng; Chen, Tong</p> <p>2000-12-01</p> <p>An automatic body measurement system is essential for apparel mass customization. This paper introduces the development of a body-scanning system using the multi-line <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> technique, and methods for body size extraction and body modeling. The scanning system can rapidly acquire the surface data of a body, provide accurate body dimensions, many of which are not measurable with conventional methods, and also construct a body form based on the scanned data as a digital model of the body for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> garment design and for virtual try-on of a designed garment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000PhDT.......168T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000PhDT.......168T"><span id="translatedtitle">Photogrammetric <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> and dynamic modeling of airborne video imagery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Theiss, Henry J.</p> <p>2000-10-01</p> <p>Video is becoming a popular image source for a wide range of remote sensing applications, particularly when timely acquisition and low cost are the objectives. Specific photogrammetric applications include close range machine vision, rapid orthomosaic construction, and georegistration of tactical video sequences acquired using UAV's (unmanned aircraft vehicles). Accurate position determination requires rigorous mathematical modeling of uncalibrated video cameras, which contain relatively large systematic errors due to lens distortions and the unknown principal point location relative to the image coordinate system. A photogrammetric bundle adjustment algorithm with 10 Interior Orientation (IO) camera parameters is implemented using unified least squares. Due to high correlations among the IO parameters and between the IO and Exterior Orientation (EO) camera parameters, and sometimes also due to weak geometry, it is practical to recover only a subset of the 10 IO camera parameters in a self-calibration solution. Experiments with real video data are used to determine which IO parameters to recover, and to analyze the <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> results using blocks and sequences of video with varying geometry. Both cases with fixed and varying zoom are considered. Tests with simulated data are run to study the use of GPS observations of the camera perspective center as the only source of control, provided that the aircraft trajectory does not approximate a straight line. Since the rigorous photogrammetric condition equations are nonlinear with respect to the unknown parameters, they require close initial approximations and iterations. Linear image invariance techniques are presented in this thesis that compute estimates for the camera parameters, of a single frame or an overlapping pair of frames, as a function of image coordinates and ground coordinates only. Optional <span class="hlt">constrained</span> nonlinear refinements to these techniques that improve accuracy and reduce control requirements are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/793405','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/793405"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Cavern Enlargement Analyses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>EHGARTNER, BRIAN L.; SOBOLIK, STEVEN R.</p> <p>2002-03-01</p> <p>Three-dimensional finite element analyses simulate the mechanical response of enlarging existing caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The caverns are located in Gulf Coast salt domes and are enlarged by leaching during oil drawdowns as fresh water is injected to displace the crude oil from the caverns. The current criteria adopted by the SPR limits cavern usage to 5 drawdowns (leaches). As a base case, 5 leaches were modeled over a 25 year period to roughly double the volume of a 19 cavern field. Thirteen additional leaches where then simulated until caverns approached coalescence. The cavern field approximated the geometries and geologic properties found at the West Hackberry site. This enabled comparisons are data collected over nearly 20 years to analysis predictions. The analyses closely predicted the measured surface subsidence and cavern closure rates as inferred from historic well head pressures. This provided the necessary assurance that the model displacements, strains, and stresses are accurate. However, the cavern field has not yet experienced the large scale drawdowns being simulated. Should they occur in the future, code predictions should be validated with actual field behavior at that time. The simulations were performed using JAS<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, a three dimensional finite element analysis code for nonlinear quasi-static solids. The results examine the impacts of leaching and cavern workovers, where internal cavern pressures are reduced, on surface subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The results suggest that the current limit of 5 oil drawdowns may be extended with some mitigative action required on the wells and later on to surface structure due to subsidence strains. The predicted stress state in the salt shows damage to start occurring after 15 drawdowns with significant failure occurring at the 16th drawdown, well beyond the current limit of 5 drawdowns.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ISPAr39B5..127S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ISPAr39B5..127S"><span id="translatedtitle">Imaging a Sustainable Future in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schuhr, W.; Lee, J. D.; Kanngieser, E.</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>It is the intention of this paper, to contribute to a sustainable future by providing objective object information based on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> photography as well as promoting <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> photography not only for scientists, but also for amateurs. Due to the presentation of this article by CIPA Task Group 3 on "<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Photographs in Cultural Heritage", the presented samples are masterpieces of historic as well as of current <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> photography concentrating on cultural heritage. In addition to a report on exemplarily access to international archives of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> photographs, samples for new <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> photographs taken with modern <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cameras, as well as by means of a ground based high resolution XLITE staff camera and also <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> photographs taken from a captive balloon and the use of civil drone platforms are dealt with. To advise on optimum suited <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> methodology, as well as to catch new trends in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, an updated synoptic overview of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> visualization technology, even claiming completeness, has been carried out as a result of a systematic survey. In this respect, e.g., today's lasered crystals might be "early bird" products in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, which, due to lack in resolution, contrast and color, remember to the stage of the invention of photography.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=3d+AND+graphics&pg=5&id=EJ748295','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=3d+AND+graphics&pg=5&id=EJ748295"><span id="translatedtitle">Teaching Geography with <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Visualization Technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Anthamatten, Peter; Ziegler, Susy S.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Technology that helps students view images in three dimensions (<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>) can support a broad range of learning styles. "Geo-Wall systems" are visualization tools that allow scientists, teachers, and students to project stereographic images and view them in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>. We developed and presented <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> visualization exercises in several undergraduate courses.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4444770','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4444770"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printing and Its Urologic Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing is the development of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology. PMID:26028997</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020054405','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020054405"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Flow Visualization Using Texture Advection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kao, David; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Kwansik; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Texture advection is an effective tool for animating and investigating 2D flows. In this paper, we discuss how this technique can be extended to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> flows. In particular, we examine the use of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and 4D textures on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> synthetic and computational fluid dynamics flow fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230473-elastic-seismic-wave-propagation-code','SCIGOV-ESTSC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230473-elastic-seismic-wave-propagation-code"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Elastic Seismic Wave Propagation Code</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/">Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1998-09-23</p> <p>E<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is capable of simulating seismic wave propagation in a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> heterogeneous earth. Seismic waves are initiated by earthquake, explosive, and/or other sources. These waves propagate through a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geologic model, and are simulated as synthetic seismograms or other graphical output.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26028997','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26028997"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printing and Its Urologic Applications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing is the development of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology. PMID:26028997</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9473E..0JO','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9473E..0JO"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of camera location on the reconstruction of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> flare trajectory with two cameras</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Özsaraç, Seçkin; Yeşilkaya, Muhammed</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Flares are used as valuable electronic warfare assets for the battle against infrared guided missiles. The trajectory of the flare is one of the most important factors that determine the effectiveness of the counter measure. Reconstruction of the three dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) position of a point, which is seen by multiple cameras, is a common problem. Camera placement, camera calibration, corresponding pixel determination in between the images of different cameras and also the <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> algorithm affect the performance of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> position estimation. In this paper, we specifically investigate the effects of camera placement on the flare trajectory estimation performance by simulations. Firstly, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> trajectory of a flare and also the aircraft, which dispenses the flare, are generated with simple motion models. Then, we place two virtual ideal pinhole camera models on different locations. Assuming the cameras are tracking the aircraft perfectly, the view vectors of the cameras are computed. Afterwards, using the view vector of each camera and also the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> position of the flare, image plane coordinates of the flare on both cameras are computed using the field of view (FOV) values. To increase the fidelity of the simulation, we have used two sources of error. One is used to model the uncertainties in the determination of the camera view vectors, i.e. the orientations of the cameras are measured noisy. Second noise source is used to model the imperfections of the corresponding pixel determination of the flare in between the two cameras. Finally, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> position of the flare is estimated using the corresponding pixel indices, view vector and also the FOV of the cameras by <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>. All the processes mentioned so far are repeated for different relative camera placements so that the optimum estimation error performance is found for the given aircraft and are trajectories.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhSen...6..177C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhSen...6..177C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Research on pavement roughness based on the laser <span class="hlt">triangulation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Wenxue; Ni, Zhibin; Hu, Xinhan; Lu, Xiaofeng</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Pavement roughness is one of the most important factors for appraising highway construction. In this paper, we choose the laser <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> to measure pavement roughness. The principle and configuration of laser <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> are introduced. Based on this technology, the pavement roughness of a road surface is measured. The measurement results are given in this paper. The measurement range of this system is 50 μm. The measurement error of this technology is analyzed. This technology has an important significance to appraise the quality of highway after completion of the workload.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994SPIE.2357..858T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994SPIE.2357..858T"><span id="translatedtitle">Digital aerial-<span class="hlt">triangulation</span> system on personal computers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tseng, Yi-Hsing; Chang, Shau-Yen</p> <p>1994-08-01</p> <p>This paper demonstrates a prototype of a PC-based digital aerial-<span class="hlt">triangulation</span> system (PC- DATS). The system takes all of the procedures of aerial <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> and is constructed by five working modules: preparation, interior orientation, tie point measurement, target point measurement, and bundle adjustment. All of the modules are integrated on the platform Microsoft-Windows. A test block containing 15 photos was processed by using the system. The operation was quite smooth, and the adjustment result shows an accuracy of about 0.3 pixel in average. The success of this proto-DATS was quite encouraging.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6481880','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6481880"><span id="translatedtitle">A mesh generator for tetrahedral elements using Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yuan, J.S.; Fitzsimons, C.J. )</p> <p>1993-03-01</p> <p>A tetrahedral mesh generator has been developed. The generator is based on the Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> which is implemented by employing the insertion polyhedron algorithm. In this paper some new methods to deal with the problems associated with the three-dimensional Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> and the insertion polyhedron algorithm are presented: degeneracy, the crossing situation, identification of the internal elements and internal point generation. The generator works both for convex and non-convex domains, including those with high aspect-ratio subdomains. Some examples are given in this paper to illustrate the capability of the generator.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GPN-2000-000449&hterms=italy+earthquake&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Ditaly%2Bearthquake','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GPN-2000-000449&hterms=italy+earthquake&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Ditaly%2Bearthquake"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Perspective Pasadena, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada, Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U.S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014E%26ES...18a2172R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014E%26ES...18a2172R"><span id="translatedtitle">The Esri <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city information model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reitz, T.; Schubiger-Banz, S.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>With residential and commercial space becoming increasingly scarce, cities are going vertical. Managing the urban environments in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is an increasingly important and complex undertaking. To help solving this problem, Esri has released the ArcGIS for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Cities solution. The ArcGIS for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Cities solution provides the information model, tools and apps for creating, analyzing and maintaining a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city using the ArcGIS platform. This paper presents an overview of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> City Information Model and some sample use cases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/437676','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/437676"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">d</span> modular gripper design tool</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Brown, R.G.; Brost, R.C.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Modular fixturing kits are precisely machined sets of components used for flexible, short-turnaround construction of fixtures for a variety of manufacturing purposes. A modular vise is a parallel-jaw vise, where each jaw is a modular fixture plate with a regular grid of precisely positioned holes. A modular vise can be used to locate and hold parts for machining, assembly, and inspection tasks. To fixture a part, one places pins in some of the holes so that when the vise is closed, the part is reliably located and completely <span class="hlt">constrained</span>. The modular vise concept can be adapted easily to the design of modular parallel-jaw grippers for robots. By attaching a grid plate to each jaw of a parallel-jaw gripper, the authors gain the ability to easily construct high-quality grasps for a wide variety of parts from a standard set of hardware. Wallack and Canny developed a previous algorithm for planning planar grasp configurations for the modular vise. In this paper, the authors expand this work to produce a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">d</span> fixture/gripper design tool. They describe several analyses added to the planar algorithm to improve its utility, including a three-dimensional grasp quality metric based on geometric and force information, three-dimensional geometric loading analysis, and inter-gripper interference analysis to determine the compatibility of multiple grasps for handing the part from one gripper to another. Finally, the authors describe two applications which combine the utility of modular vise-style grasping with inter-gripper interference: The first is the design of a flexible part-handling subsystem for a part cleaning workcell under development at Sandia National Laboratories; the second is the automatic design of grippers that support the assembly of multiple products on a single assembly line.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7524E..0BH','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7524E..0BH"><span id="translatedtitle">Case study: Beauty and the Beast <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>: benefits of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> viewing for 2D to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> conversion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Handy Turner, Tara</p> <p>2010-02-01</p> <p>From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> monitors were available and few software packages provided <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> conversions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8383E..0YE','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8383E..0YE"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> laptop for defense applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Edmondson, Richard; Chenault, David</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>Polaris Sensor Technologies has developed numerous <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> display systems using a US Army patented approach. These displays have been developed as prototypes for handheld controllers for robotic systems and closed hatch driving, and as part of a TALON robot upgrade for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> vision, providing depth perception for the operator for improved manipulation and hazard avoidance. In this paper we discuss the prototype rugged <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> laptop computer and its applications to defense missions. The prototype <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> laptop combines full temporal and spatial resolution display with the rugged Amrel laptop computer. The display is viewed through protective passive polarized eyewear, and allows combined 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> content. Uses include robot tele-operation with live <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> video or synthetically rendered scenery, mission planning and rehearsal, enhanced <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data interpretation, and simulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016APS..MARH35004L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016APS..MARH35004L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Technology Approaches for Biological Ecologies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Liyu; Austin, Robert; U. S-China Physical-Oncology Sciences Alliance (PS-OA) Team</p> <p></p> <p>Constructing three dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>) landscapes is an inevitable issue in deep study of biological ecologies, because in whatever scales in nature, all of the ecosystems are composed by complex <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> environments and biological behaviors. Just imagine if a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> technology could help complex ecosystems be built easily and mimic in vivo microenvironment realistically with flexible environmental controls, it will be a fantastic and powerful thrust to assist researchers for explorations. For years, we have been utilizing and developing different technologies for constructing <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> micro landscapes for biophysics studies in in vitro. Here, I will review our past efforts, including probing cancer cell invasiveness with <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> silicon based Tepuis, constructing <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> microenvironment for cell invasion and metastasis through polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft lithography, as well as explorations of optimized stenting positions for coronary bifurcation disease with <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> wax printing and the latest home designed <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> bio-printer. Although <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> technologies is currently considered not mature enough for arbitrary <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> micro-ecological models with easy design and fabrication, I hope through my talk, the audiences will be able to sense its significance and predictable breakthroughs in the near future. This work was supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No. 2013CB837200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474345) and the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 7154221).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/585058','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/585058"><span id="translatedtitle">RT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> tutorials for GMS users</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Clement, T.P.; Jones, N.L.</p> <p>1998-02-01</p> <p>RT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is a computer code that solves coupled partial differential equations that describe reactive-flow and transport of multiple mobile and/or immobile species in a three dimensional saturated porous media. RT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> was developed from the single-species transport code, MT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (DoD-1.5, 1997 version). As with MT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, RT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> also uses the USGS groundwater flow model MODFLOW for computing spatial and temporal variations in groundwater head distribution. This report presents a set of tutorial problems that are designed to illustrate how RT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> simulations can be performed within the Department of Defense Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). GMS serves as a pre- and post-processing interface for RT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. GMS can be used to define all the input files needed by RT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> code, and later the code can be launched from within GMS and run as a separate application. Once the RT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> simulation is completed, the solution can be imported to GMS for graphical post-processing. RT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> v1.0 supports several reaction packages that can be used for simulating different types of reactive contaminants. Each of the tutorials, described below, provides training on a different RT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reaction package. Each reaction package has different input requirements, and the tutorials are designed to describe these differences. Furthermore, the tutorials illustrate the various options available in GMS for graphical post-processing of RT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> results. Users are strongly encouraged to complete the tutorials before attempting to use RT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and GMS on a routine basis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11470121','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11470121"><span id="translatedtitle">Merging of intersecting <span class="hlt">triangulations</span> for finite element modeling.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cebral, J R; Löhner, R; Choyke, P L; Yim, P J</p> <p>2001-06-01</p> <p>Surface mesh generation over intersecting <span class="hlt">triangulations</span> is a problem common to many branches of biomechanics. A new strategy for merging intersecting <span class="hlt">triangulations</span> is described. The basis of the method is that object surfaces are represented as the zero-level iso-surface of the distance-to-surface function defined on a background grid. Thus, the <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> of intersecting objects reduces to the extraction of an iso-surface from an unstructured grid. In a first step, a regular background mesh is constructed. For each point of the background grid, the closest distance to the surface of each object is computed. Background points are then classified as external or internal by checking the direction of the surface normal at the closest location and assigned a positive or negative distance, respectively. Finally, the zero-level iso-surface is constructed. This is the final <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> of the intersecting objects. The overall accuracy is enhanced by adaptive refinement of the background grid elements. The resulting surface models are used as support surfaces to generate three-dimensional grids for finite element analysis. The algorithms are demonstrated by merging arterial branches independently reconstructed from contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images and by adding extra features such as vascular stents. Although the methodology is presented in the context of finite element analysis of blood flow, the algorithms are general and can be applied in other areas as well. PMID:11470121</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=240397','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=240397"><span id="translatedtitle">A Simple Quality <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> Algorithm for Complex Geometries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This paper presents a new and simple algorithm for quality <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> in complex geometries. The proposed algorithm is based on an initial equilateral triangle mesh covering the whole domain. The mesh nodes close to the boundary edges satisfy the so-called non-encroaching criterion: the distance ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=triangulation&pg=4&id=EJ752577','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=triangulation&pg=4&id=EJ752577"><span id="translatedtitle">The Use of <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> Methods in Qualitative Educational Research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Allen, DeeDee</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> involves the careful reviewing of data collected through different methods in order to achieve a more accurate and valid estimate of qualitative results for a particular construct. This paper describes how we used three qualitative methods of data collection to study attitudes of students toward graphing, hands-on activities, and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeCar..64..113W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeCar..64..113W"><span id="translatedtitle">Remote measurement methods for <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> modeling purposes using BAE Systems' Software</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Walker, Stewart; Pietrzak, Arleta</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Efficient, accurate data collection from imagery is the key to an economical generation of useful geospatial products. Incremental developments of traditional geospatial data collection and the arrival of new image data sources cause new software packages to be created and existing ones to be adjusted to enable such data to be processed. In the past, BAE Systems' digital photogrammetric workstation, SOCET SET®, met fin de siècle expectations in data processing and feature extraction. Its successor, SOCET GXP®, addresses today's photogrammetric requirements and new data sources. SOCET GXP is an advanced workstation for mapping and photogrammetric tasks, with automated functionality for <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>, Digital Elevation Model (DEM) extraction, orthorectification and mosaicking, feature extraction and creation of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> models with texturing. BAE Systems continues to add sensor models to accommodate new image sources, in response to customer demand. New capabilities added in the latest version of SOCET GXP facilitate modeling, visualization and analysis of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> features.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014OptLE..54..222S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014OptLE..54..222S"><span id="translatedtitle">Optoranger: A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> pattern matching method for bin picking applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sansoni, Giovanna; Bellandi, Paolo; Leoni, Fabio; Docchio, Franco</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>This paper presents a new method, based on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> vision, for the recognition of free-form objects in the presence of clutters and occlusions, ideal for robotic bin picking tasks. The method can be considered as a compromise between complexity and effectiveness. A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> point cloud representing the scene is generated by a <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>-based scanning system, where a fast camera acquires a blade projected by a laser source. Image segmentation is based on 2D images, and on the estimation of the distances between point pairs, to search for empty areas. Object recognition is performed using commercial software libraries integrated with custom-developed segmentation algorithms, and a database of model clouds created by means of the same scanning system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9525E..15H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9525E..15H"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental comparison of laser speckle projection and array projection for high-speed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Heist, Stefan; Lutzke, Peter; Dietrich, Patrick; Kühmstedt, Peter; Notni, Gunther</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>In many application areas, stereo vision-based active <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> systems are used to reconstruct the three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>) surface shape of measurement objects. Typically, in order to solve the correspondence problem and increase the accuracy of the pixel assignment, a sequence of patterns is projected onto the object's surface and simultaneously recorded by two cameras. Most <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> measurement systems are limited to static objects. In order to enhance their speed, it is necessary to use fast cameras as well as fast projection systems. Although high-speed camera systems are available, pattern projection at high frame rates is a difficult task and only a few techniques exist at the moment. In this contribution, we compare two different projection approaches, a laser-based speckle projection unit and an LED-based multi-aperture projection system, with regard to the achievable point cloud completeness and accuracy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3859055','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3859055"><span id="translatedtitle">Taking Advantage of Selective Change Driven Processing for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Scanning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Vegara, Francisco; Zuccarello, Pedro; Boluda, Jose A.; Pardo, Fernando</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This article deals with the application of the principles of SCD (Selective Change Driven) vision to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> laser scanning. Two experimental sets have been implemented: one with a classical CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor) sensor, and the other one with a recently developed CMOS SCD sensor for comparative purposes, both using the technique known as Active <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span>. An SCD sensor only delivers the pixels that have changed most, ordered by the magnitude of their change since their last readout. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanning method is based on the systematic search through the entire image to detect pixels that exceed a certain threshold, showing the SCD approach to be ideal for this application. Several experiments for both capturing strategies have been performed to try to find the limitations in high speed acquisition/processing. The classical approach is limited by the sequential array acquisition, as predicted by the Nyquist–Shannon sampling theorem, and this has been experimentally demonstrated in the case of a rotating helix. These limitations are overcome by the SCD <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanning prototype achieving a significantly higher performance. The aim of this article is to compare both capturing strategies in terms of performance in the time and frequency domains, so they share all the static characteristics including resolution, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanning method, etc., thus yielding the same <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction in static scenes. PMID:24084110</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998JaJAP..37.3097O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998JaJAP..37.3097O"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Dynamic Echocardiography with a Digitizer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oshiro, Osamu; Matani, Ayumu; Chihara, Kunihiro</p> <p>1998-05-01</p> <p>In this paper,a three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) dynamic ultrasound (US) imaging system,where a US brightness-mode (B-mode) imagetriggered with an R-wave of electrocardiogram (ECG)was obtained with an ultrasound diagnostic deviceand the location and orientation of the US probewere simultaneously measured with a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> digitizer, is described.The obtained B-mode imagewas then projected onto a virtual <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> spacewith the proposed interpolation algorithm using a Gaussian operator.Furthermore, a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image was presented on a cathode ray tube (CRT)and stored in virtual reality modeling language (VRML).We performed an experimentto reconstruct a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> heart image in systole using this system.The experimental results indicatethat the system enables the visualization ofthe <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and internal structure of a heart viewed from any angleand has potential for use in dynamic imaging,intraoperative ultrasonography and tele-medicine.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvD..93j3524P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvD..93j3524P"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> weak lensing: Modified theories of gravity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pratten, Geraint; Munshi, Dipak; Valageas, Patrick; Brax, Philippe</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Weak lensing (WL) promises to be a particularly sensitive probe of both the growth of large-scale structure as well as the fundamental relation between matter density perturbations and metric perturbations, thus providing a powerful tool with which we may <span class="hlt">constrain</span> modified theories of gravity (MG) on cosmological scales. Future deep, wide-field WL surveys will provide an unprecedented opportunity to <span class="hlt">constrain</span> deviations from General Relativity. Employing a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> analysis based on the spherical Fourier-Bessel expansion, we investigate the extent to which MG theories will be <span class="hlt">constrained</span> by a typical <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> WL survey configuration including noise from the intrinsic ellipticity distribution σɛ of source galaxies. Here, we focus on two classes of screened theories of gravity: (i) f (R ) chameleon models and (ii) environmentally dependent dilaton models. We use one-loop perturbation theory combined with halo models in order to accurately model the evolution of the matter power spectrum with redshift in these theories. Using a χ2 analysis, we show that for an all-sky spectroscopic survey, the parameter fR0 can be <span class="hlt">constrained</span> in the range fR0<5 ×10-6(9 ×10-6) for n =1 (2 ) with a 3 σ confidence level. This can be achieved by using relatively low-order angular harmonics ℓ<100 . Higher-order harmonics ℓ>100 could provide tighter constraints but are subject to nonlinear effects, such as baryonic feedback, that must be accounted for. We also employ a Principal Component Analysis in order to study the parameter degeneracies in the MG parameters. The confusion from intrinsic ellipticity correlation and modification of the matter power spectrum at a small scale due to feedback mechanisms is briefly discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015svb..book.....K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015svb..book.....K"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Scientific Visualization with Blender</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kent, Brian R.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>This is the first book written on using Blender for scientific visualization. It is a practical and interesting introduction to Blender for understanding key parts of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> rendering and animation that pertain to the sciences via step-by-step guided tutorials. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Scientific Visualization with Blender takes you through an understanding of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> graphics and modelling for different visualization scenarios in the physical sciences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PMB....59.4111K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PMB....59.4111K"><span id="translatedtitle">Software for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> radiotherapy dosimetry. Validation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kozicki, Marek; Maras, Piotr; Karwowski, Andrzej C.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>The subject of this work is polyGeVero® software (GeVero Co., Poland), which has been developed to fill the requirements of fast calculations of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> dosimetry data with the emphasis on polymer gel dosimetry for radiotherapy. This software comprises four workspaces that have been prepared for: (i) calculating calibration curves and calibration equations, (ii) storing the calibration characteristics of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> dosimeters, (iii) calculating <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> dose distributions in irradiated <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> dosimeters, and (iv) comparing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> dose distributions obtained from measurements with the aid of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> dosimeters and calculated with the aid of treatment planning systems (TPSs). The main features and functions of the software are described in this work. Moreover, the core algorithms were validated and the results are presented. The validation was performed using the data of the new PABIGnx polymer gel dosimeter. The polyGeVero® software simplifies and greatly accelerates the calculations of raw <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> dosimetry data. It is an effective tool for fast verification of TPS-generated plans for tumor irradiation when combined with a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> dosimeter. Consequently, the software may facilitate calculations by the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> dosimetry community. In this work, the calibration characteristics of the PABIGnx obtained through four calibration methods: multi vial, cross beam, depth dose, and brachytherapy, are discussed as well.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014SPIE.9036E..29O&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014SPIE.9036E..29O&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Dimensional accuracy of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed vertebra</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> rendered vertebra using commercial <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> rendered vertebra.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhTea..50..163Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhTea..50..163Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Stereo <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Vision in Teaching Physics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zabunov, Svetoslav</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Stereo <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The current paper describes the modern stereo <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> technologies that are applicable to various tasks in teaching physics in schools, colleges, and universities. Examples of stereo <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> simulations developed by the author can be observed on online.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4558689','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4558689"><span id="translatedtitle">Accuracy in Quantitative <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Image Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bassel, George W.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Quantitative <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> imaging is becoming an increasingly popular and powerful approach to investigate plant growth and development. With the increased use of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image analysis, standards to ensure the accuracy and reproducibility of these data are required. This commentary highlights how image acquisition and postprocessing can introduce artifacts into <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image data and proposes steps to increase both the accuracy and reproducibility of these analyses. It is intended to aid researchers entering the field of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image processing of plant cells and tissues and to help general readers in understanding and evaluating such data. PMID:25804539</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110014847','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110014847"><span id="translatedtitle">FastScript<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> - A Companion to Java <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Koenig, Patti</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>FastScript<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a computer program, written in the Java <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>(TM) programming language, that establishes an alternative language that helps users who lack expertise in Java <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> to use Java <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> for constructing three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>)-appearing graphics. The FastScript<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> language provides a set of simple, intuitive, one-line text-string commands for creating, controlling, and animating <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models. The first word in a string is the name of a command; the rest of the string contains the data arguments for the command. The commands can also be used as an aid to learning Java <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. Developers can extend the language by adding custom text-string commands. The commands can define new <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects or load representations of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects from files in formats compatible with such other software systems as X<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. The text strings can be easily integrated into other languages. FastScript<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> facilitates communication between scripting languages [which enable programming of hyper-text markup language (HTML) documents to interact with users] and Java <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. The FastScript<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> language can be extended and customized on both the scripting side and the Java <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> side.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3958280','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3958280"><span id="translatedtitle">Limits of Active Laser <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> as an Instrument for High Precision Plant Imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Paulus, Stefan; Eichert, Thomas; Goldbach, Heiner E.; Kuhlmann, Heiner</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Laser scanning is a non-invasive method for collecting and parameterizing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data of well reflecting objects. These systems have been used for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> imaging of plant growth and structure analysis. A prerequisite is that the recorded signals originate from the true plant surface. In this paper we studied the effects of species, leaf chlorophyll content and sensor settings on the suitability and accuracy of a commercial 660 nm active laser <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> scanning device. We found that surface images of Ficus benjamina leaves were inaccurate at low chlorophyll concentrations and a long sensor exposure time. Imaging of the rough waxy leaf surface of leek (Allium porrum) was possible using very low exposure times, whereas at higher exposure times penetration and multiple refraction prevented the correct imaging of the surface. A comparison of scans with varying exposure time enabled the target-oriented analysis to identify chlorotic, necrotic and healthy leaf areas or mildew infestations. We found plant properties and sensor settings to have a strong influence on the accuracy of measurements. These interactions have to be further elucidated before laser imaging of plants is possible with the high accuracy required for e.g., the observation of plant growth or reactions to water stress. PMID:24504106</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=triangulation&id=EJ879367','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=triangulation&id=EJ879367"><span id="translatedtitle">Adolescent <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> into Parental Conflicts: Longitudinal Implications for Appraisals and Adolescent-Parent Relations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Fosco, Gregory M.; Grych, John H.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Although <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> into parental conflict is a risk factor for child and adolescent maladjustment, little is known about how <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> affects adolescents' functioning or the factors that lead children to be drawn into parental disagreements. This prospective study examined the relations between <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>, appraisals of conflict, and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.4780S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.4780S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> PDF - a means of public access to geological <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> - objects, using the example of GTA<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Slaby, Mark-Fabian; Reimann, Rüdiger</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>In geology, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> modeling has become very important. In the past, two-dimensional data such as isolines, drilling profiles, or cross-sections based on those, were used to illustrate the subsurface geology, whereas now, we can create complex digital <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models. These models are produced with special software, such as GOCAD ®. The models can be viewed, only through the software used to create them, or through viewers available for free. The platform-independent PDF (Portable Document Format), enforced by Adobe, has found a wide distribution. This format has constantly evolved over time. Meanwhile, it is possible to display CAD data in an Adobe <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> PDF file with the free Adobe Reader (version 7). In a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> PDF, a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model is freely rotatable and can be assembled from a plurality of objects, which can thus be viewed from all directions on their own. In addition, it is possible to create moveable cross-sections (profiles), and to assign transparency to the objects. Based on industry-standard CAD software, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> PDFs can be generated from a large number of formats, or even be exported directly from this software. In geoinformatics, different approaches to creating <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> PDFs exist. The intent of the Authority for Mining, Energy and Geology to allow free access to the models of the Geotectonic Atlas (GTA<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>), could not be realized with standard software solutions. A specially designed code converts the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects to VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language). VRML is one of the few formats that allow using image files (maps) as textures, and to represent colors and shapes correctly. The files were merged in Acrobat X Pro, and a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> PDF was generated subsequently. A topographic map, a display of geographic directions and horizontal and vertical scales help to facilitate the use.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016SPIE.9828E..06H&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016SPIE.9828E..06H&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">An aerial <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing test mission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>This paper provides an overview of an aerial <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing technology. A series of aerial <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PMB....59L...1P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PMB....59L...1P"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Esteban Arango, Juan; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Shear-Wave Imaging, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra—and inter-observer variability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27183171','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27183171"><span id="translatedtitle">Directing Matter: Toward Atomic-Scale <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Nanofabrication.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jesse, Stephen; Borisevich, Albina Y; Fowlkes, Jason D; Lupini, Andrew R; Rack, Philip D; Unocic, Raymond R; Sumpter, Bobby G; Kalinin, Sergei V; Belianinov, Alex; Ovchinnikova, Olga S</p> <p>2016-06-28</p> <p>Enabling memristive, neuromorphic, and quantum-based computing as well as efficient mainstream energy storage and conversion technologies requires the next generation of materials customized at the atomic scale. This requires full control of atomic arrangement and bonding in three dimensions. The last two decades witnessed substantial industrial, academic, and government research efforts directed toward this goal through various lithographies and scanning-probe-based methods. These technologies emphasize 2D surface structures, with some limited <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> capability. Recently, a range of focused electron- and ion-based methods have demonstrated compelling alternative pathways to achieving atomically precise manufacturing of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structures in solids, liquids, and at interfaces. Electron and ion microscopies offer a platform that can simultaneously observe dynamic and static structures at the nano- and atomic scales and also induce structural rearrangements and chemical transformation. The addition of predictive modeling or rapid image analytics and feedback enables guiding these in a controlled manner. Here, we review the recent results that used focused electron and ion beams to create free-standing nanoscale <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structures, radiolysis, and the fabrication potential with liquid precursors, epitaxial crystallization of amorphous oxides with atomic layer precision, as well as visualization and control of individual dopant motion within a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> crystal lattice. These works lay the foundation for approaches to directing nanoscale level architectures and offer a potential roadmap to full <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> atomic control in materials. In this paper, we lay out the gaps that currently <span class="hlt">constrain</span> the processing range of these platforms, reflect on indirect requirements, such as the integration of large-scale data analysis with theory, and discuss future prospects of these technologies. PMID:27183171</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1295115-directing-matter-towards-atomic-scale-nanofabrication','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1295115-directing-matter-towards-atomic-scale-nanofabrication"><span id="translatedtitle">Directing Matter: Towards Atomic Scale <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Nanofabrication</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGESBeta</a></p> <p>Jesse, Stephen; Borisevich, Albina Y; Fowlkes, Jason Davidson; Lupini, Andrew R; Rack, Philip D; Unocic, Raymond R; Sumpter, Bobby G; Kalinin, Sergei V; Ovchinnikova, Olga S</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Enabling memristive, neuromorphic, and quantum based computing as well as efficient mainstream energy storage and conversion technologies requires next generation of materials customized at the atomic scale. This requires full control of atomic arrangement and bonding in three dimensions. The last two decades witnessed substantial industrial, academic, and government research efforts directed towards this goal through various lithographies and scanning probe based methods. These technologies emphasize 2D surface structures, with some limited <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> capability. Recently, a range of focused electron and ion based methods have demonstrated compelling alternative pathways to achieving atomically precise manufacturing of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structures in solids, liquids,more » and at interfaces. Electron and ion microscopies offer a platform that can simultaneously observe dynamic and static structures at the nano and atomic scales, and also induce structural rearrangements and chemical transformation. The addition of predictive modeling or rapid image analytics and feedback enables guiding these in a controlled manner. Here, we review the recent results that used focused electron and ion beams to create free-standing nanoscale <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structures, radiolysis and the fabrication potential with liquid precursors, epitaxial crystallization of amorphous oxides with atomic layer precision, as well as visualization and control of individual dopant motion within a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> crystal lattice. These works lay the foundation for new approaches to directing nanoscale level architectures and offer a potential roadmap to full <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> atomic control in materials. In this perspective we lay out the gaps that currently <span class="hlt">constrain</span> the processing range of these platforms, reflect on indirect requirements, such as the integration of large scale data analysis with theory, and discuss future prospects of these technologies.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22745004','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22745004"><span id="translatedtitle">Topology dictionary for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> video understanding.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tung, Tony; Matsuyama, Takashi</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>This paper presents a novel approach that achieves <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> video understanding. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> video consists of a stream of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models of subjects in motion. The acquisition of long sequences requires large storage space (2 GB for 1 min). Moreover, it is tedious to browse data sets and extract meaningful information. We propose the topology dictionary to encode and describe <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> video content. The model consists of a topology-based shape descriptor dictionary which can be generated from either extracted patterns or training sequences. The model relies on 1) topology description and classification using Reeb graphs, and 2) a Markov motion graph to represent topology change states. We show that the use of Reeb graphs as the high-level topology descriptor is relevant. It allows the dictionary to automatically model complex sequences, whereas other strategies would require prior knowledge on the shape and topology of the captured subjects. Our approach serves to encode <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> video sequences, and can be applied for content-based description and summarization of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> video sequences. Furthermore, topology class labeling during a learning process enables the system to perform content-based event recognition. Experiments were carried out on various <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> videos. We showcase an application for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> video progressive summarization using the topology dictionary. PMID:22745004</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/127326','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/127326"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> seismology in the Arabian Gulf</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Al-Husseini, M.; Chimblo, R.</p> <p>1995-08-01</p> <p>Since 1977 when Aramco and GSI (Geophysical Services International) pioneered the first <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> seismic survey in the Arabian Gulf, under the guidance of Aramco`s Chief Geophysicist John Hoke, <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> seismology has been effectively used to map many complex subsurface geological phenomena. By the mid-1990s extensive <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> surveys were acquired in Abu Dhabi, Oman, Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Also in the mid-1990`s Bahrain, Kuwait and Dubai were preparing to record surveys over their fields. On the structural side <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> has refined seismic maps, focused faults and fractures systems, as well as outlined the distribution of facies, porosity and fluid saturation. In field development, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> has not only reduced drilling costs significantly, but has also improved the understanding of fluid behavior in the reservoir. In Oman, Petroleum Development Oman (PDO) has now acquired the first Gulf 4-D seismic survey (time-lapse <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> survey) over the Yibal Field. The 4-D survey will allow PDO to directly monitor water encroachment in the highly-faulted Cretaceous Shu`aiba reservoir. In exploration, <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> seismology has resolved complex prospects with structural and stratigraphic complications and reduced the risk in the selection of drilling locations. The many case studies from Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates, which are reviewed in this paper, attest to the effectiveness of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> seismology in exploration and producing, in clastics and carbonates reservoirs, and in the Mesozoic and Paleozoic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230460-geostatistical-mapping-tool','SCIGOV-ESTSC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230460-geostatistical-mapping-tool"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Geostatistical Mapping Tool</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/">Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-02-09</p> <p>This software provides accurate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reservoir modeling tools and high quality <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> graphics for PC platforms enabling engineers and geologists to better comprehend reservoirs and consequently improve their decisions. The mapping algorithms are fractals, kriging, sequential guassian simulation, and three nearest neighbor methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=SCREEN+AND+3&pg=3&id=EJ968847','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=SCREEN+AND+3&pg=3&id=EJ968847"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, or Not to Be?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Norbury, Keith</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>It may be too soon for students to be showing up for class with popcorn and gummy bears, but technology similar to that behind the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> blockbuster movie "Avatar" is slowly finding its way into college classrooms. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> classroom projectors are taking students on fantastic voyages inside the human body, to the ruins of ancient Greece--even to faraway…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20726782','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20726782"><span id="translatedtitle">Stereoscopic Investigations of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Coulomb Balls</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kaeding, Sebastian; Melzer, Andre; Arp, Oliver; Block, Dietmar; Piel, Alexander</p> <p>2005-10-31</p> <p>In dusty plasmas particles are arranged due to the influence of external forces and the Coulomb interaction. Recently Arp et al. were able to generate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> spherical dust clouds, so-called Coulomb balls. Here, we present measurements that reveal the full <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> particle trajectories from stereoscopic imaging.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.728c2005S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.728c2005S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> structures of planetary nebulae</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Steffen, W.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Recent advances in the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction of planetary nebulae are reviewed. We include not only results for <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> reconstructions, but also the current techniques in terms of general methods and software. In order to obtain more accurate reconstructions, we suggest to extend the widely used assumption of homologous nebula expansion to map spectroscopically measured velocity to position along the line of sight.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=3D&pg=4&id=EJ915469','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=3D&pg=4&id=EJ915469"><span id="translatedtitle">Wow! <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Content Awakens the Classroom</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gordon, Dan</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>From her first encounter with stereoscopic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> technology designed for classroom instruction, Megan Timme, principal at Hamilton Park Pacesetter Magnet School in Dallas, sensed it could be transformative. Last spring, when she began pilot-testing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> content in her third-, fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms, Timme wasn't disappointed. Students…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Polymers&pg=5&id=EJ1082413','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Polymers&pg=5&id=EJ1082413"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printed Block Copolymer Nanostructures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Scalfani, Vincent F.; Turner, C. Heath; Rupar, Paul A.; Jenkins, Alexander H.; Bara, Jason E.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The emergence of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing has dramatically advanced the availability of tangible molecular and extended solid models. Interestingly, there are few nanostructure models available both commercially and through other do-it-yourself approaches such as <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing. This is unfortunate given the importance of nanotechnology in science today. In this…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230079-static-amp-dynamic-response-solids','SCIGOV-ESTSC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230079-static-amp-dynamic-response-solids"><span id="translatedtitle">Static & Dynamic Response of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Solids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/">Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1996-07-15</p> <p>NIKE<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a large deformations <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> finite element code used to obtain the resulting displacements and stresses from multi-body static and dynamic structural thermo-mechanics problems with sliding interfaces. Many nonlinear and temperature dependent constitutive models are available.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=d&id=EJ1082225','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=d&id=EJ1082225"><span id="translatedtitle">Immersive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Geovisualization in Higher Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In this study, we investigate how immersive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geovisualization can be used in higher education. Based on MacEachren and Kraak's geovisualization cube, we examine the usage of immersive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geovisualization and its usefulness in a research-based learning module on flood risk, called GEOSimulator. Results of a survey among participating students…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=d&pg=3&id=EJ982397','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=d&pg=3&id=EJ982397"><span id="translatedtitle">Stereo <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Vision in Teaching Physics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Zabunov, Svetoslav</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Stereo <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ972444.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ972444.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Pathways for Learning from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to find out if <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion" in that 3D…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH32B..03H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH32B..03H"><span id="translatedtitle">Electromagnetic Precursors Leading to <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> of Future Earthquakes and Imaging of the Subduction Zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Heraud, J. A.; Centa, V. A.; Bleier, T.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p> data in video form and as events occur day by day, depicting the formation of the future epicenter and the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> position of pressure points on the subduction zone, as a dozen earthquakes occur during 2013 and 2014 in Central Peru. <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> of pulses for EQs in 2013- 2014 Image of subduction zone from the same data points 20</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhCS.573a2011W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhCS.573a2011W"><span id="translatedtitle">Clinical applications of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> dosimeters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wuu, Cheng-Shie</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Both <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> gels and radiochromic plastic dosimeters, in conjunction with dose image readout systems (MRI or optical-CT), have been employed to measure <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> dose distributions in many clinical applications. The <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> dose maps obtained from these systems can provide a useful tool for clinical dose verification for complex treatment techniques such as IMRT, SRS/SBRT, brachytherapy, and proton beam therapy. These complex treatments present high dose gradient regions in the boundaries between the target and surrounding critical organs. Dose accuracy in these areas can be critical, and may affect treatment outcome. In this review, applications of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> gels and PRESAGE dosimeter are reviewed and evaluated in terms of their performance in providing information on clinical dose verification as well as commissioning of various treatment modalities. Future interests and clinical needs on studies of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> dosimetry are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26805790','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26805790"><span id="translatedtitle">Biocompatible <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Matrix with Antimicrobial Properties.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ion, Alberto; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Rădulescu, Dragoș; Rădulescu, Marius; Iordache, Florin; Vasile, Bogdan Ștefan; Surdu, Adrian Vasile; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Maniu, Horia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Holban, Alina Maria</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to develop, characterize and assess the biological activity of a new regenerative <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> matrix with antimicrobial properties, based on collagen (COLL), hydroxyapatite (HAp), β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and usnic acid (UA). The prepared <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> matrix was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Microscopy (FT-IRM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). In vitro qualitative and quantitative analyses performed on cultured diploid cells demonstrated that the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> matrix is biocompatible, allowing the normal development and growth of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells and exhibited an antimicrobial effect, especially on the Staphylococcus aureus strain, explained by the particular higher inhibitory activity of usnic acid (UA) against Gram positive bacterial strains. Our data strongly recommend the obtained <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> matrix to be used as a successful alternative for the fabrication of three dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) anti-infective regeneration matrix for bone tissue engineering. PMID:26805790</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1042666','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1042666"><span id="translatedtitle">Fabrication of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Silicon Sensors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; Kenney, C.; Hasi, J.; Da Via, C.; Parker, S.I.; /Hawaii U.</p> <p>2012-06-06</p> <p>Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> detectors is also briefly reported.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1129429','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1129429"><span id="translatedtitle">BEAMS<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Neutral Beam Injection Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lazerson, Samuel</p> <p>2014-04-14</p> <p>With the advent of applied <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, which addresses this need by coupling <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> magnetic fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013PhDT.......129N&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013PhDT.......129N&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Visualization Development of SIUE Campus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nellutla, Shravya</p> <p></p> <p>Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has progressed from the traditional map-making to the modern technology where the information can be created, edited, managed and analyzed. Like any other models, maps are simplified representations of real world. Hence visualization plays an essential role in the applications of GIS. The use of sophisticated visualization tools and methods, especially three dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) modeling, has been rising considerably due to the advancement of technology. There are currently many off-the-shelf technologies available in the market to build <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> GIS models. One of the objectives of this research was to examine the available ArcGIS and its extensions for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> modeling and visualization and use them to depict a real world scenario. Furthermore, with the advent of the web, a platform for accessing and sharing spatial information on the Internet, it is possible to generate interactive online maps. Integrating Internet capacity with GIS functionality redefines the process of sharing and processing the spatial information. Enabling a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> map online requires off-the-shelf GIS software, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model builders, web server, web applications and client server technologies. Such environments are either complicated or expensive because of the amount of hardware and software involved. Therefore, the second objective of this research was to investigate and develop simpler yet cost-effective <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> modeling approach that uses available ArcGIS suite products and the free <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> computer graphics software for designing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> world scenes. Both ArcGIS Explorer and ArcGIS Online will be used to demonstrate the way of sharing and distributing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geographic information on the Internet. A case study of the development of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> campus for the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville is demonstrated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4820600','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4820600"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging In Vivo</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative real-time imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in three dimensions based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32×32 matrix-array probe. Its capability to track in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Shear-Wave Imaging, <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Ultrafast Doppler Imaging and finally <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, for the first time, the complex <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, and the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> real-time mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra- and inter-observer variability. PMID:25207828</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8648E..0UJ','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8648E..0UJ"><span id="translatedtitle">The psychology of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> experience</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Janicke, Sophie H.; Ellis, Andrew</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>With <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> televisions expected to reach 50% home saturation as early as 2016, understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the user response to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> technology is critical for content providers, educators and academics. Unfortunately, research examining the effects of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> technology has not kept pace with the technology's rapid adoption, resulting in large-scale use of a technology about which very little is actually known. Recognizing this need for new research, we conducted a series of studies measuring and comparing many of the variables and processes underlying both 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> media experiences. In our first study, we found narratives within primetime dramas had the power to shift viewer attitudes in both 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> settings. However, we found no difference in persuasive power between 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> content. We contend this lack of effect was the result of poor conversion quality and the unique demands of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> production. In our second study, we found <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> technology significantly increased enjoyment when viewing sports content, yet offered no added enjoyment when viewing a movie trailer. The enhanced enjoyment of the sports content was shown to be the result of heightened emotional arousal and attention in the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> condition. We believe the lack of effect found for the movie trailer may be genre-related. In our final study, we found <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> technology significantly enhanced enjoyment of two video games from different genres. The added enjoyment was found to be the result of an increased sense of presence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19447728','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19447728"><span id="translatedtitle">Personal authentication using hand vein <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> and knuckle shape.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kumar, Ajay; Prathyusha, K Venkata</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>This paper presents a new approach to authenticate individuals using <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> of hand vein images and simultaneous extraction of knuckle shape information. The proposed method is fully automated and employs palm dorsal hand vein images acquired from the low-cost, near infrared, contactless imaging. The knuckle tips are used as key points for the image normalization and extraction of region of interest. The matching scores are generated in two parallel stages: (i) hierarchical matching score from the four topologies of <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> in the binarized vein structures and (ii) from the geometrical features consisting of knuckle point perimeter distances in the acquired images. The weighted score level combination from these two matching scores are used to authenticate the individuals. The achieved experimental results from the proposed system using contactless palm dorsal-hand vein images are promising (equal error rate of 1.14%) and suggest more user friendly alternative for user identification. PMID:19447728</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880007030','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880007030"><span id="translatedtitle">Discovery and problem solving: <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> as a weak heuristic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rochowiak, Daniel</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Recently the artificial intelligence community has turned its attention to the process of discovery and found that the history of science is a fertile source for what Darden has called compiled hindsight. Such hindsight generates weak heuristics for discovery that do not guarantee that discoveries will be made but do have proven worth in leading to discoveries. <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> is one such heuristic that is grounded in historical hindsight. This heuristic is explored within the general framework of the BACON, GLAUBER, STAHL, DALTON, and SUTTON programs. In <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> different bases of information are compared in an effort to identify gaps between the bases. Thus, assuming that the bases of information are relevantly related, the gaps that are identified should be good locations for discovery and robust analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GReGr..48...29C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GReGr..48...29C"><span id="translatedtitle">On a renormalization group scheme for causal dynamical <span class="hlt">triangulations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cooperman, Joshua H.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The causal dynamical <span class="hlt">triangulations</span> approach aims to construct a quantum theory of gravity as the continuum limit of a lattice-regularized model of dynamical geometry. A renormalization group scheme—in concert with finite size scaling analysis—is essential to this aim. Formulating and implementing such a scheme in the present context raises novel and notable conceptual and technical problems. I explored these problems, and, building on standard techniques, suggested potential solutions in a previous paper (Cooperman, arXiv:gr-qc/1410.0026). As an application of these solutions, I now propose a renormalization group scheme for causal dynamical <span class="hlt">triangulations</span>. This scheme differs significantly from that studied recently by Ambjørn, Görlich, Jurkiewicz, Kreienbuehl, and Loll.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3489504','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3489504"><span id="translatedtitle">Quality Tetrahedral Mesh Smoothing via Boundary-Optimized Delaunay <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gao, Zhanheng; Yu, Zeyun; Holst, Michael</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Despite its great success in improving the quality of a tetrahedral mesh, the original optimal Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> (ODT) is designed to move only inner vertices and thus cannot handle input meshes containing “bad” triangles on boundaries. In the current work, we present an integrated approach called boundary-optimized Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> (B-ODT) to smooth (improve) a tetrahedral mesh. In our method, both inner and boundary vertices are repositioned by analytically minimizing the error between a paraboloid function and its piecewise linear interpolation over the neighborhood of each vertex. In addition to the guaranteed volume-preserving property, the proposed algorithm can be readily adapted to preserve sharp features in the original mesh. A number of experiments are included to demonstrate the performance of our method. PMID:23144522</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26724715','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26724715"><span id="translatedtitle">Experiences with systematic <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> at the Global Environment Facility.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carugi, Carlo</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Systematic <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> may address common challenges in evaluation, such as the scarcity or unreliability of data, or the complexities of comparing and cross-checking evidence from diverse disciplines. Used to identify key evaluation findings, its application has proven to be effective in addressing the limitations encountered in country-level evaluation analysis conducted by the Independent Evaluation Office of the Global Environment Facility (GEF). These include the scarcity or unreliability of national statistics on environmental indicators and data series, especially in Least Developed Countries; challenges in evaluating the impacts of GEF projects; and inherent difficulties in defining the GEF portfolio of projects prior to the undertaking of the evaluation. In addition to responding to the need for further developing <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> protocols, procedures and/or methodologies advocated by some authors, the approach offers a contribution to evaluation practice. This applies particularly to those evaluation units tasked with country-level evaluations in international organizations, facing similar constraints. PMID:26724715</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1003073','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1003073"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluating habitat selection with radio-telemetry <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> error</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Samuel, M.D.; Kenow, K.P.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Radio-telemetry <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> errors result in the mislocation of animals and misclassification of habitat use. We present analytical methods that provide improved estimates of habitat use when misclassification probabilities can be determined. When misclassification probabilities cannot be determined, we use random subsamples from the error distribution of an estimated animal location to improve habitat use estimates. We conducted Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the effects of this subsampling method, <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> error, number of animal locations, habitat availability, and habitat complexity on bias and variation in habitat use estimates. Results for the subsampling method are illustrated using habitat selection by redhead ducks (Aythya americana ). We recommend the subsampling method with a minimum of 50 random points to reduce problems associated with habitat misclassification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1001321','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1001321"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluating habitat selection with radio-telemetry <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> error</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Samuel, M.D.; Kenow, K.P.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Radio-telemetry <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> errors result in the mislocation of animals and misclassification of habitat use. We present analytical methods that provide improved estimates of habitat use when misclassification probabilities can be determined. When misclassification probabilities cannot be determined, we use random subsamples from the error distribution of an estimated animal location to improve habitat use estimates. We conducted Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the effects of this subsampling method, <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> error, number of animal locations, habitat availability, and habitat complexity on bias and variation in habitat use estimates. Results for the subsampling method are illustrated using habitat selection by redhead ducks (Aythya americana). We recommend the subsampling method with a minimum of 50 random points to reduce problems associated with habitat misclassification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/321028','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/321028"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical conformal mapping using cross-ratios and Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Driscoll, T.A.; Vavasis, S.A.</p> <p>1998-11-01</p> <p>The authors propose a new algorithm for computing the Riemann mapping of the unit disk to a polygon, also known as the Schwarz-Christoffel transformation. The new algorithm, CRDT (for cross-ratios of the Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>), based on cross-ratios of the prevertices, and also on cross-ratios of quadrilaterals in a Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> of the polygon. The CRDT algorithm produces an accurate representation of the Riemann mapping even in the presence of arbitrary long, thin regions in the polygon, unlike any previous conformal mapping algorithm. They believe that CRDT solves all difficulties with crowding and global convergence, although these facts depend on conjectures that they have so far not been able to prove. They demonstrate convergence with computational experiments. The Riemann mapping has applications in two-dimensional potential theory and mesh generation. They demonstrate CRDT on problems in long, thin regions in which no other known algorithm can perform comparably.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23144522','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23144522"><span id="translatedtitle">Quality Tetrahedral Mesh Smoothing via Boundary-Optimized Delaunay <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gao, Zhanheng; Yu, Zeyun; Holst, Michael</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Despite its great success in improving the quality of a tetrahedral mesh, the original optimal Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> (ODT) is designed to move only inner vertices and thus cannot handle input meshes containing "bad" triangles on boundaries. In the current work, we present an integrated approach called boundary-optimized Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> (B-ODT) to smooth (improve) a tetrahedral mesh. In our method, both inner and boundary vertices are repositioned by analytically minimizing the error between a paraboloid function and its piecewise linear interpolation over the neighborhood of each vertex. In addition to the guaranteed volume-preserving property, the proposed algorithm can be readily adapted to preserve sharp features in the original mesh. A number of experiments are included to demonstrate the performance of our method. PMID:23144522</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27410637','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27410637"><span id="translatedtitle">Detectability of active <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> range finder: a solar irradiance approach.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Huizhe; Gao, Jason; Bui, Viet Phuong; Liu, Zhengtong; Lee, Kenneth Eng Kian; Peh, Li-Shiuan; Png, Ching Eng</p> <p>2016-06-27</p> <p>Active <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> range finders are widely used in a variety of applications such as robotics and assistive technologies. The power of the laser source should be carefully selected in order to satisfy detectability and still remain eye-safe. In this paper, we present a systematic approach to assess the detectability of an active <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> range finder in an outdoor environment. For the first time, we accurately quantify the background noise of a laser system due to solar irradiance by coupling the Perez all-weather sky model and ray tracing techniques. The model is validated with measurements with a modeling error of less than 14.0%. Being highly generic and sufficiently flexible, the proposed model serves as a guide to define a laser system for any geographical location and microclimate. PMID:27410637</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27087444','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27087444"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> RNA and Functional Interactions from Evolutionary Couplings.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Weinreb, Caleb; Riesselman, Adam J; Ingraham, John B; Gross, Torsten; Sander, Chris; Marks, Debora S</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Non-coding RNAs are ubiquitous, but the discovery of new RNA gene sequences far outpaces the research on the structure and functional interactions of these RNA gene sequences. We mine the evolutionary sequence record to derive precise information about the function and structure of RNAs and RNA-protein complexes. As in protein structure prediction, we use maximum entropy global probability models of sequence co-variation to infer evolutionarily <span class="hlt">constrained</span> nucleotide-nucleotide interactions within RNA molecules and nucleotide-amino acid interactions in RNA-protein complexes. The predicted contacts allow all-atom blinded <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structure prediction at good accuracy for several known RNA structures and RNA-protein complexes. For unknown structures, we predict contacts in 160 non-coding RNA families. Beyond <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structure prediction, evolutionary couplings help identify important functional interactions-e.g., at switch points in riboswitches and at a complex nucleation site in HIV. Aided by increasing sequence accumulation, evolutionary coupling analysis can accelerate the discovery of functional interactions and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structures involving RNA. PMID:27087444</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21204956','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21204956"><span id="translatedtitle">Finding evidence for massive neutrinos using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> weak lensing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kitching, T. D.; Heavens, A. F.; Verde, L.; Serra, P.; Melchiorri, A.</p> <p>2008-05-15</p> <p>In this paper we investigate the potential of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cosmic shear to <span class="hlt">constrain</span> massive neutrino parameters. We find that if the total mass is substantial (near the upper limits from large scale structure, but setting aside the Ly alpha limit for now), then <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cosmic shear+Planck is very sensitive to neutrino mass and one may expect that a next generation photometric redshift survey could <span class="hlt">constrain</span> the number of neutrinos N{sub {nu}} and the sum of their masses m{sub {nu}}=im{sub i} to an accuracy of {delta}N{sub {nu}}{approx}0.08 and {delta}m{sub {nu}}{approx}0.03 eV, respectively. If in fact the masses are close to zero, then the errors weaken to {delta}N{sub {nu}}{approx}0.10 and {delta}m{sub {nu}}{approx}0.07 eV. In either case there is a factor 4 improvement over Planck alone. We use a Bayesian evidence method to predict joint expected evidence for N{sub {nu}} and m{sub {nu}}. We find that <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cosmic shear combined with a Planck prior could provide 'substantial' evidence for massive neutrinos and be able to distinguish 'decisively' between many competing massive neutrino models. This technique should 'decisively' distinguish between models in which there are no massive neutrinos and models in which there are massive neutrinos with |N{sub {nu}}-3| > or approx. 0.35 and m{sub {nu}} > or approx. 0.25 eV. We introduce the notion of marginalized and conditional evidence when considering evidence for individual parameter values within a multiparameter model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890005253','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890005253"><span id="translatedtitle">Determination of convergence rates across the Ventura Basin, Southern California, using GPS and historical <span class="hlt">triangulation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Donnellan, Andrea; Hager, Bradford H.; Larsen, Shawn</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Comparison of angles from historical <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> observations dating as far back as 1932 with Global Positions System (GPS) measurements taken in 1987 indicates that rapid convergence may be taking place on decade timescales in the central and eastern part of the Ventura basin, an east-west trending trough bounded by thrust faults. Changes in angles over this time were analyzed using Prescott's modified Frank's method and in terms of a model which assumes that the regions to the north and south of the basin are rigid blocks undergoing relative motion. For the two block model, inversion of the observed angle changes over the last 28 years for the relative motion vector leads to north-south convergence across the basin of 30 + or - 5 mm/yr, with a left lateral component of 10 + or - 1 mm/yr in the Fillmore-Santa Paula area in the central part of the basin. The modified Frank's method yields strain rates of approximately 2 microrad/yr in both the east and central parts of the basin for measurements spanning the 1971 San Fernando earthquake. Assuming no east-west strain yeilds north-south compression of approximately 3.5 + or - .2 cm/yr. Comparison of <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> data prior to the earthquake shows no strain outside the margin of error. The convergence rates determined by geodetic techniques are consistent with geologic observations in the area. Such large geodetic deformation rates, with no apparent near-surface creep on the major thrust, can be understood if these faults become subhorizontal at relatively shallow depths and if the subhorizontal portions of the faults are creeping. An alternative explanation of the large displacement rates might be that the pumping of oil in the vicinity of the benchmarks caused large horizontal motions, although it is unlikely that meter scale horizontal motions are due to oil withdrawal. These and other hypotheses are evaluated to better <span class="hlt">constrain</span> the tectonics of this active region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880020365','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880020365"><span id="translatedtitle">Adaptive mesh generation for viscous flows using Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mavriplis, Dimitri J.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>A method for generating an unstructured triangular mesh in two dimensions, suitable for computing high Reynolds number flows over arbitrary configurations is presented. The method is based on a Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>, which is performed in a locally stretched space, in order to obtain very high aspect ratio triangles in the boundary layer and the wake regions. It is shown how the method can be coupled with an unstructured Navier-Stokes solver to produce a solution adaptive mesh generation procedure for viscous flows.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750028913&hterms=EDM&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DEDM','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750028913&hterms=EDM&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DEDM"><span id="translatedtitle">Earth parameters from global satellite <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> and trilateration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mueller, I. I.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>Results obtained from 159-station global satellite <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> and trilateration (including Baker-Nunn, BC-4, PC-1000 camera observations, SECOR, C-Band radar and EDM distance measurements) indicate differences in the semidiameter and orientation of the earth compared to results obtained from dynamic satellite solutions. Geoidal undulations obtained can be made consistent with dynamically determined ones at the expense of slight changes in the currently accepted parameters defining the gravity field of the level ellipsoid.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26562233','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26562233"><span id="translatedtitle">Medical <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printing for the Radiologist.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing as it relates to their field, including types of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing technologies and materials used to create <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:26562233</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25093879','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25093879"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> bioprinting of tissues and organs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Murphy, Sean V; Atala, Anthony</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Additive manufacturing, otherwise known as three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) printing, is driving major innovations in many areas, such as engineering, manufacturing, art, education and medicine. Recent advances have enabled <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing of biocompatible materials, cells and supporting components into complex <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> functional living tissues. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> bioprinting is being applied to regenerative medicine to address the need for tissues and organs suitable for transplantation. Compared with non-biological printing, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> bioprinting involves additional complexities, such as the choice of materials, cell types, growth and differentiation factors, and technical challenges related to the sensitivities of living cells and the construction of tissues. Addressing these complexities requires the integration of technologies from the fields of engineering, biomaterials science, cell biology, physics and medicine. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> bioprinting has already been used for the generation and transplantation of several tissues, including multilayered skin, bone, vascular grafts, tracheal splints, heart tissue and cartilaginous structures. Other applications include developing high-throughput <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-bioprinted tissue models for research, drug discovery and toxicology. PMID:25093879</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25361316','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25361316"><span id="translatedtitle">Optically rewritable <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> liquid crystal displays.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sun, J; Srivastava, A K; Zhang, W; Wang, L; Chigrinov, V G; Kwok, H S</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Optically rewritable liquid crystal display (ORWLCD) is a concept based on the optically addressed bi-stable display that does not need any power to hold the image after being uploaded. Recently, the demand for the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image display has increased enormously. Several attempts have been made to achieve <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image on the ORWLCD, but all of them involve high complexity for image processing on both hardware and software levels. In this Letter, we disclose a concept for the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-ORWLCD by dividing the given image in three parts with different optic axis. A quarter-wave plate is placed on the top of the ORWLCD to modify the emerging light from different domains of the image in different manner. Thereafter, Polaroid glasses can be used to visualize the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image can be refreshed, on the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-ORWLCD, in one-step with proper ORWLCD printer and image processing, and therefore, with easy image refreshing and good image quality, such displays can be applied for many applications viz. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> bi-stable display, security elements, etc. PMID:25361316</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MeScT..26f4001T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MeScT..26f4001T"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> velocity measurements in a premixed flame by tomographic PIV</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tokarev, M. P.; Sharaborin, D. K.; Lobasov, A. S.; Chikishev, L. M.; Dulin, V. M.; Markovich, D. M.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Tomographic particle image velocimetry (PIV) has become a standard tool for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> velocity measurements in non-reacting flows. However, the majority of the measurements in flows with combustion are limited to small resolved depth compared to the size of the field of view (typically 1 : 10). The limitations are associated with inhomogeneity of the volume illumination and the non-uniform flow seeding, the optical distortions and errors in the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> calibration, and the unwanted flame luminosity. In the present work, the above constraints were overcome for the tomographic PIV experiment in a laminar axisymmetric premixed flame. The measurements were conducted for a 1 : 1 depth-to-size ratio using a system of eight CCD cameras and a 200 mJ pulsed laser. The results show that camera calibration based on the <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> of the tracer particles in the non-reacting conditions provided reliable accuracy for the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image reconstruction in the flame. The modification of the tomographic reconstruction allowed a posteriori removal of unwanted bright objects, which were located outside of the region of interest but affected the reconstruction quality. This study reports on a novel experience for the instantaneous <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> velocimetry in laboratory-scale flames by using tomographic PIV.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015JGRA..12010237L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015JGRA..12010237L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Are <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> coronal mass ejection parameters from single-view observations consistent with multiview ones?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Harim; Moon, Y.-J.; Na, Hyeonock; Jang, Soojeong; Lee, Jae-Ok</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>To prepare for when only single-view observations are available, we have made a test whether the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> parameters (radial velocity, angular width, and source location) of halo coronal mass ejections (HCMEs) from single-view observations are consistent with those from multiview observations. For this test, we select 44 HCMEs from December 2010 to June 2011 with the following conditions: partial and full HCMEs by SOHO and limb CMEs by twin STEREO spacecraft when they were approximately in quadrature. In this study, we compare the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> parameters of the HCMEs from three different methods: (1) a geometrical <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> method, the STEREO CAT tool developed by NASA/CCMC, for multiview observations using STEREO/SECCHI and SOHO/LASCO data, (2) the graduated cylindrical shell (GCS) flux rope model for multiview observations using STEREO/SECCHI data, and (3) an ice cream cone model for single-view observations using SOHO/LASCO data. We find that the radial velocities and the source locations of the HCMEs from three methods are well consistent with one another with high correlation coefficients (≥0.9). However, the angular widths by the ice cream cone model are noticeably underestimated for broad CMEs larger than 100° and several partial HCMEs. A comparison between the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> CME parameters directly measured from twin STEREO spacecraft and the above <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> parameters shows that the parameters from multiview are more consistent with the STEREO measurements than those from single view.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JPhCS.396b2019G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JPhCS.396b2019G"><span id="translatedtitle">Extra Dimensions: <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> in PDF Documentation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Graf, Norman A.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (U<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) and the ISO PRC file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> content. Until recently, Adobe's Acrobat software was also capable of incorporating <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> content into PDF files from a variety of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> file formats, including proprietary CAD formats. However, this functionality is no longer available in Acrobat X, having been spun off to a separate company. Incorporating <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> content now requires the additional purchase of a separate plug-in. In this talk we present alternatives based on open source libraries which allow the programmatic creation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> content in PDF format. While not providing the same level of access to CAD files as the commercial software, it does provide physicists with an alternative path to incorporate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> content into PDF files from such disparate applications as detector geometries from Geant4, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data sets, mathematical surfaces or tesselated volumes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3355417','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3355417"><span id="translatedtitle">Optical <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span>-Based Microtopographic Inspection of Surfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Costa, Manuel F. M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The non-invasive inspection of surfaces is a major issue in a wide variety of industries and research laboratories. The vast and increasing range of surface types, tolerance requirements and measurement constraints demanded during the last decades represents a major research effort in the development of new methods, systems and metrological strategies. The discreet dimensional evaluation the rugometric characterization and the profilometric inspection seem to be insufficient in many instances. The full microtopographic inspection has became a common requirement. Among the different systems developed, optical methods have the most important role and among those <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>-based ones have gained a major status thanks to their flexibility, reliability and robustness. In this communication we will provide a brief historical review on the development of optical <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> application to the dimensional inspection of objects and surfaces and on the work done at the Microtopography Laboratory of the Physics Department of the University of Minho, Portugal, in the development of methods and systems of optical <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>-based microtopographic inspection of surfaces. PMID:22666036</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994JCoPh.111..291R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994JCoPh.111..291R"><span id="translatedtitle">Fast <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> vortex methods for the 2D Eulen equations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Russo, Giovanni; Strain, John A.</p> <p>1994-04-01</p> <p>Vortex methods for inviscid incompressible two-dimensional fluid flow are usually based on blob approximations. This paper presents a vortex method in which the vorticity is approximated by a piecewise polynomial interpolant on a Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> of the vortices. An efficient reconstruction of the Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> at each step makes the method accurate for long times. The vertices of the <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> move with the fluid velocity, which is reconstructed from the vorticity via a simplified fast multipole method for the Biot-Savart law with a continuous source distribution. The initial distribution of vortices is constructed from the initial vorticity field by an adaptive approximation method which produces good accuracy even for discontinuous initial data. Numerical results show that the method is highly accurate over long time intervals. Experiments with single and multiple circular and elliptical rotating patches of both piecewise constant and smooth vorticity indicate that the method produces much smaller errors than blob methods with the same number of degrees of freedom, at little additional cost. Generalizations to domains with boundaries, viscous flow, and three space dimensions are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7083047','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7083047"><span id="translatedtitle">Fast <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> vortex methods for the 2D Euler equations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Russo, G. ); Strain, J.A. )</p> <p>1994-04-01</p> <p>Vortex methods for inviscid incompressible two-dimensional fluid flow are usually based on blob approximations. This paper presents a vortex method in which the vorticity is approximated by a piecewise polynomial interpolant on a Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> of the vortices. An efficient reconstruction of the Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> at each step makes the method accurate for long times. The vertices of the <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> move with the fluid velocity, which is reconstructed from the vorticity via a simplified fast multipole method for the Biot-Savart law with a continuous source distribution. The initial distribution of vortices is constructed from the initial vorticity field by an adaptive approximation method which produces good accuracy even for discontinuous initial data. Numerical results show that the method is highly accurate over long time intervals. Experiments with single and multiple circular and elliptical rotating patches of both piecewise constant and smooth vorticity indicate that the method produces much smaller errors than blob methods with the same number of degrees of freedom, at little additional cost. Generalizations to domains with boundaries, viscous flow, and three space dimensions are discussed. 52 refs., 28 figs., 2 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150008956','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150008956"><span id="translatedtitle">FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Manual: 12.7</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> version 12.7, including optional dependent packages. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160003610','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160003610"><span id="translatedtitle">FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Manual: 12.9</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> version 12.9, including optional dependent packages. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160010563','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160010563"><span id="translatedtitle">FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Manual: 13.0</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bill; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> version 13.0, including optional dependent packages. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160000769','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160000769"><span id="translatedtitle">FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Manual: 12.8</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> version 12.8, including optional dependent packages. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/420397','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/420397"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> packaging for integrated circuit systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chu, D.; Palmer, D.W.</p> <p>1996-11-01</p> <p>A goal was set for high density, high performance microelectronics pursued through a dense <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> packing of integrated circuits. A {open_quotes}tool set{close_quotes} of assembly processes have been developed that enable <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> system designs: <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> thermal analysis, silicon electrical through vias, IC thinning, mounting wells in silicon, adhesives for silicon stacking, pretesting of IC chips before commitment to stacks, and bond pad bumping. Validation of these process developments occurred through both Sandia prototypes and subsequent commercial examples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19147891','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19147891"><span id="translatedtitle">A high capacity <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> steganography algorithm.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chao, Min-Wen; Lin, Chao-hung; Yu, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Tong-Yee</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, we present a very high-capacity and low-distortion <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> steganography scheme. Our steganography approach is based on a novel multilayered embedding scheme to hide secret messages in the vertices of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> polygon models. Experimental results show that the cover model distortion is very small as the number of hiding layers ranges from 7 to 13 layers. To the best of our knowledge, this novel approach can provide much higher hiding capacity than other state-of-the-art approaches, while obeying the low distortion and security basic requirements for steganography on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models. PMID:19147891</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991SPIE.1567..698H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991SPIE.1567..698H"><span id="translatedtitle">New method of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> object recognition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>He, An-Zhi; Li, Qun Z.; Miao, Peng C.</p> <p>1991-12-01</p> <p>In this paper, a new method of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> object recognition using optical techniques and a computer is presented. We perform <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> object recognition using moire contour to obtain the object's <span class="hlt">3</span>- <span class="hlt">D</span> coordinates, projecting drawings of the object in three coordinate planes to describe it and using a method of inquiring library of judgement to match objects. The recognition of a simple geometrical entity is simulated by computer and studied experimentally. The recognition of an object which is composed of a few simple geometrical entities is discussed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230630-explicit-hydrodynamic-fem-program','SCIGOV-ESTSC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230630-explicit-hydrodynamic-fem-program"><span id="translatedtitle">Explicit <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Hydrodynamic FEM Program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/">Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-11-07</p> <p>DYNA<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> has a sophisticated contact interface capability, includingmore » frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1214316','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1214316"><span id="translatedtitle">How We <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-Print Aerogel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-04-23</p> <p>A new type of graphene aerogel will make for better energy storage, sensors, nanoelectronics, catalysis and separations. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory researchers have made graphene aerogel microlattices with an engineered architecture via a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing technique known as direct ink writing. The research appears in the April 22 edition of the journal, Nature Communications. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed graphene aerogels have high surface area, excellent electrical conductivity, are lightweight, have mechanical stiffness and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90 percent compressive strain). In addition, the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed graphene aerogel microlattices show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials and much better mass transport.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/815736','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/815736"><span id="translatedtitle">An Improved Version of TOPAZ <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Krasnykh, Anatoly</p> <p>2003-07-29</p> <p>An improved version of the TOPAZ <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> gun code is presented as a powerful tool for beam optics simulation. In contrast to the previous version of TOPAZ <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, the geometry of the device under test is introduced into TOPAZ <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> directly from a CAD program, such as Solid Edge or AutoCAD. In order to have this new feature, an interface was developed, using the GiD software package as a meshing code. The article describes this method with two models to illustrate the results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010400','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010400"><span id="translatedtitle">FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Manual: 12.4</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> version 12.4, including optional dependent packages. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixedelement unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140012779','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140012779"><span id="translatedtitle">FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Manual: 12.5</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> version 12.5, including optional dependent packages. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a suite of computational uid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables ecient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150003790','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150003790"><span id="translatedtitle">FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Manual: 12.6</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> version 12.6, including optional dependent packages. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230630','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230630"><span id="translatedtitle">Explicit <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Hydrodynamic FEM Program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-11-07</p> <p>DYNA<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> has a sophisticated contact interface capability, including frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24808080','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24808080"><span id="translatedtitle">XML<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and Xflow: combining declarative <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> for the Web with generic data flows.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Klein, Felix; Sons, Kristian; Rubinstein, Dmitri; Slusallek, Philipp</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Researchers have combined XML<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, which provides declarative, interactive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scene descriptions based on HTML5, with Xflow, a language for declarative, high-performance data processing. The result lets Web developers combine a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scene graph with data flows for dynamic meshes, animations, image processing, and postprocessing. PMID:24808080</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27235417','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27235417"><span id="translatedtitle">JAR<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Webserver: Scoring and aligning RNA loop sequences to known <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> motifs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Roll, James; Zirbel, Craig L; Sweeney, Blake; Petrov, Anton I; Leontis, Neocles</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Many non-coding RNAs have been identified and may function by forming 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structures. RNA hairpin and internal loops are often represented as unstructured on secondary structure diagrams, but RNA <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structures show that most such loops are structured by non-Watson-Crick basepairs and base stacking. Moreover, different RNA sequences can form the same RNA <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> motif. JAR<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> finds possible <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geometries for hairpin and internal loops by matching loop sequences to motif groups from the RNA <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Motif Atlas, by exact sequence match when possible, and by probabilistic scoring and edit distance for novel sequences. The scoring gauges the ability of the sequences to form the same pattern of interactions observed in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structures of the motif. The JAR<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> webserver at http://rna.bgsu.edu/jar<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>/ takes one or many sequences of a single loop as input, or else one or many sequences of longer RNAs with multiple loops. Each sequence is scored against all current motif groups. The output shows the ten best-matching motif groups. Users can align input sequences to each of the motif groups found by JAR<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. JAR<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> will be updated with every release of the RNA <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Motif Atlas, and so its performance is expected to improve over time. PMID:27235417</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Nanot..27.4002B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Nanot..27.4002B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-printed bioanalytical devices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bishop, Gregory W.; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E.; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>While <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-printed bioanalytical devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/145962','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/145962"><span id="translatedtitle">Nonlaser-based <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surface imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lu, Shin-yee; Johnson, R.K.; Sherwood, R.J.</p> <p>1994-11-15</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surface imaging refers to methods that generate a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surface representation of objects of a scene under viewing. Laser-based <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surface imaging systems are commonly used in manufacturing, robotics and biomedical research. Although laser-based systems provide satisfactory solutions for most applications, there are situations where non laser-based approaches are preferred. The issues that make alternative methods sometimes more attractive are: (1) real-time data capturing, (2) eye-safety, (3) portability, and (4) work distance. The focus of this presentation is on generating a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surface from multiple 2D projected images using CCD cameras, without a laser light source. Two methods are presented: stereo vision and depth-from-focus. Their applications are described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LKpMcQ0q_fU','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LKpMcQ0q_fU"><span id="translatedtitle">Tropical Cyclone Jack in Satellite <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> flyby from NASA's TRMM satellite of Tropical Cyclone Jack on April 21 shows that some of the thunderstorms were shown by TRMM PR were still reaching height of at least 17 km (10.5 miles). ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4746729','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4746729"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printing for Tissue Engineering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jia, Jia; Yao, Hai; Mei, Ying</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Tissue engineering aims to fabricate functional tissue for applications in regenerative medicine and drug testing. More recently, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing has shown great promise in tissue fabrication with a structural control from micro- to macro-scale by using a layer-by-layer approach. Whether through scaffold-based or scaffold-free approaches, the standard for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed tissue engineering constructs is to provide a biomimetic structural environment that facilitates tissue formation and promotes host tissue integration (e.g., cellular infiltration, vascularization, and active remodeling). This review will cover several approaches that have advanced the field of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing through novel fabrication methods of tissue engineering constructs. It will also discuss the applications of synthetic and natural materials for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing facilitated tissue fabrication. PMID:26869728</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005EOSTr..86..142N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005EOSTr..86..142N"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Visualization of Recent Sumatra Earthquake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nayak, Atul; Kilb, Debi</p> <p>2005-04-01</p> <p>Scientists and visualization experts at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography have created an interactive three-dimensional visualization of the 28 March 2005 magnitude 8.7 earthquake in Sumatra. The visualization shows the earthquake's hypocenter and aftershocks recorded until 29 March 2005, and compares it with the location of the 26 December 2004 magnitude 9 event and the consequent seismicity in that region. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> visualization was created using the Fledermaus software developed by Interactive Visualization Systems (http://www.ivs.unb.ca/) and stored as a ``scene'' file. To view this visualization, viewers need to download and install the free viewer program iView<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (http://www.ivs<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>.com/products/iview<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yeMcVYomYVg','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yeMcVYomYVg"><span id="translatedtitle">Future Engineers <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Print Timelapse</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>NASA Challenges K-12 students to create a model of a container for space using <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> modeling software. Astronauts need containers of all kinds - from advanced containers that can study fruit flies t...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=27PErpOJ7VA','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=27PErpOJ7VA"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Flyover Visualization of Veil Nebula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> visualization flies across a small portion of the Veil Nebula as photographed by the Hubble Space Telescope. This region is a small part of a huge expanding remnant from a star that explod...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26603943','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26603943"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantifying Modes of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Cell Migration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Driscoll, Meghan K; Danuser, Gaudenz</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Although it is widely appreciated that cells migrate in a variety of diverse environments in vivo, we are only now beginning to use experimental workflows that yield images with sufficient spatiotemporal resolution to study the molecular processes governing cell migration in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> environments. Since cell migration is a dynamic process, it is usually studied via microscopy, but <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> movies of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> processes are difficult to interpret by visual inspection. In this review, we discuss the technologies required to study the diversity of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cell migration modes with a focus on the visualization and computational analysis tools needed to study cell migration quantitatively at a level comparable to the analyses performed today on cells crawling on flat substrates. PMID:26603943</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011Nanos...3.4929Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011Nanos...3.4929Z"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-patterned polymer brush surfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhou, Xuechang; Liu, Xuqing; Xie, Zhuang; Zheng, Zijian</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Polymer brush-based three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) structures are emerging as a powerful platform to engineer a surface by providing abundant spatially distributed chemical and physical properties. In this feature article, we aim to give a summary of the recent progress on the fabrication of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structures with polymer brushes, with a particular focus on the micro- and nanoscale. We start with a brief introduction on polymer brushes and the challenges to prepare their <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structures. Then, we highlight the recent advances of the fabrication approaches on the basis of traditional polymerization time and grafting density strategies, and a recently developed feature density strategy. Finally, we provide some perspective outlooks on the future directions of engineering the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structures with polymer brushes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3221767','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3221767"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling Cellular Processes in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mogilner, Alex; Odde, David</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Summary Recent advances in photonic imaging and fluorescent protein technology offer unprecedented views of molecular space-time dynamics in living cells. At the same time, advances in computing hardware and software enable modeling of ever more complex systems, from global climate to cell division. As modeling and experiment become more closely integrated, we must address the issue of modeling cellular processes in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>. Here, we highlight recent advances related to <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> modeling in cell biology. While some processes require full <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> analysis, we suggest that others are more naturally described in 2-D or 1-D. Keeping the dimensionality as low as possible reduces computational time and makes models more intuitively comprehensible; however, the ability to test full <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> models will build greater confidence in models generally and remains an important emerging area of cell biological modeling. PMID:22036197</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130012677','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130012677"><span id="translatedtitle">Eyes on the Earth <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kulikov, anton I.; Doronila, Paul R.; Nguyen, Viet T.; Jackson, Randal K.; Greene, William M.; Hussey, Kevin J.; Garcia, Christopher M.; Lopez, Christian A.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Eyes on the Earth <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> software gives scientists, and the general public, a realtime, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> interactive means of accurately viewing the real-time locations, speed, and values of recently collected data from several of NASA's Earth Observing Satellites using a standard Web browser (climate.nasa.gov/eyes). Anyone with Web access can use this software to see where the NASA fleet of these satellites is now, or where they will be up to a year in the future. The software also displays several Earth Science Data sets that have been collected on a daily basis. This application uses a third-party, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, realtime, interactive game engine called Unity <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> to visualize the satellites and is accessible from a Web browser.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NjAfIs9fnR8','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NjAfIs9fnR8"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Animation of Typhoon Bopha</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> animation of NASA's TRMM satellite data showed Typhoon Bopha tracking over the Philippines on Dec. 3 and moving into the Sulu Sea on Dec. 4, 2012. TRMM saw heavy rain (red) was falling at ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7rfwUobblPg','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7rfwUobblPg"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> TRMM Flyby of Hurricane Amanda</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The TRMM satellite flew over Hurricane Amanda on Tuesday, May 27 at 1049 UTC (6:49 a.m. EDT) and captured rainfall rates and cloud height data that was used to create this <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> simulated flyby. Cred...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x0KNf0eaxcc','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x0KNf0eaxcc"><span id="translatedtitle">Cyclone Rusty's Landfall in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> image derived from NASA's TRMM satellite Precipitation Radar data on February 26, 2013 at 0654 UTC showed that the tops of some towering thunderstorms in Rusty's eye wall were reaching hei...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rHKpt0oBwqI','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rHKpt0oBwqI"><span id="translatedtitle">TRMM <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Flyby of Ingrid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> flyby of Tropical Storm Ingrid's rainfall was created from TRMM satellite data for Sept. 16. Heaviest rainfall appears in red towers over the Gulf of Mexico, while moderate rainfall stretc...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27250897','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27250897"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-printed bioanalytical devices.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bishop, Gregory W; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F</p> <p>2016-07-15</p> <p>While <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-printed bioanalytical devices. PMID:27250897</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/80242','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/80242"><span id="translatedtitle">Palacios field: A <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> case history</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McWhorter, R.; Torguson, B.</p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>In late 1992, Mitchell Energy Corporation acquired a 7.75 sq mi (20.0 km{sup 2}) <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> seismic survey over Palacios field. Matagorda County, Texas. The company shot the survey to help evaluate the field for further development by delineating the fault pattern of the producing Middle Oligocene Frio interval. They compare the mapping of the field before and after the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> survey. This comparison shows that the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> volume yields superior fault imaging and interpretability compared to the dense 2-D data set. The problems with the 2-D data set are improper imaging of small and oblique faults and insufficient coverage over a complex fault pattern. Whereas the 2-D data set validated a simple fault model, the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> volume revealed a more complex history of faulting that includes three different fault systems. This discovery enabled them to reconstruct the depositional and structural history of Palacios field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001SPIE.4431..153R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001SPIE.4431..153R"><span id="translatedtitle">Radiosity diffusion model in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Riley, Jason D.; Arridge, Simon R.; Chrysanthou, Yiorgos; Dehghani, Hamid; Hillman, Elizabeth M. C.; Schweiger, Martin</p> <p>2001-11-01</p> <p>We present the Radiosity-Diffusion model in three dimensions(<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>), as an extension to previous work in 2D. It is a method for handling non-scattering spaces in optically participating media. We present the extension of the model to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> including an extension to the model to cope with increased complexity of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> domain. We show that in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> more careful consideration must be given to the issues of meshing and visibility to model the transport of light within reasonable computational bounds. We demonstrate the model to be comparable to Monte-Carlo simulations for selected geometries, and show preliminary results of comparisons to measured time-resolved data acquired on resin phantoms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1295115-directing-matter-toward-atomic-scale-nanofabrication','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1295115-directing-matter-toward-atomic-scale-nanofabrication"><span id="translatedtitle">Directing Matter: Toward Atomic-Scale <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Nanofabrication</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGESBeta</a></p> <p>Jesse, Stephen; Borisevich, Albina Y.; Fowlkes, Jason D.; Lupini, Andrew R.; Rack, Philip D.; Unocic, Raymond R.; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Belianinov, Alex; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.</p> <p>2016-05-16</p> <p>Here we report that enabling memristive, neuromorphic, and quantum based computing as well as efficient mainstream energy storage and conversion technologies requires next generation of materials customized at the atomic scale. This requires full control of atomic arrangement and bonding in three dimensions. The last two decades witnessed substantial industrial, academic, and government research efforts directed towards this goal through various lithographies and scanning probe based methods. These technologies emphasize 2D surface structures, with some limited <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> capability. Recently, a range of focused electron and ion based methods have demonstrated compelling alternative pathways to achieving atomically precise manufacturing of 3Dmore » structures in solids, liquids, and at interfaces. Electron and ion microscopies offer a platform that can simultaneously observe dynamic and static structures at the nano and atomic scales, and also induce structural rearrangements and chemical transformation. The addition of predictive modeling or rapid image analytics and feedback enables guiding these in a controlled manner. Here, we review the recent results that used focused electron and ion beams to create free-standing nanoscale <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structures, radiolysis and the fabrication potential with liquid precursors, epitaxial crystallization of amorphous oxides with atomic layer precision, as well as visualization and control of individual dopant motion within a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> crystal lattice. These works lay the foundation for new approaches to directing nanoscale level architectures and offer a potential roadmap to full <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> atomic control in materials. Lastly, in this perspective we lay out the gaps that currently <span class="hlt">constrain</span> the processing range of these platforms, reflect on indirect requirements, such as the integration of large scale data analysis with theory, and discuss future prospects of these technologies.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AAS...22520601V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AAS...22520601V"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-HST results and prospects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Van Dokkum, Pieter G.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-HST survey is providing a comprehensive census of the distant Universe, combining HST WFC3 imaging and grism spectroscopy with a myriad of other ground- and space-based datasets. This talk constitutes an overview of science results from the survey, with a focus on ongoing work and ways to exploit the rich public release of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-HST data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150004125','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150004125"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Radiative Transfer in Eta Carinae: Application of the SimpleX Algorithm to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> SPH Simulations of Binary Colliding Winds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Clementel, N.; Madura, T. I.; Kruip, C. J. H.; Icke, V.; Gull, T. R.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Eta Carinae is an ideal astrophysical laboratory for studying massive binary interactions and evolution, and stellar wind-wind collisions. Recent three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) simulations set the stage for understanding the highly complex <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> flows in Eta Car. Observations of different broad high- and low-ionization forbidden emission lines provide an excellent tool to <span class="hlt">constrain</span> the orientation of the system, the primary's mass-loss rate, and the ionizing flux of the hot secondary. In this work we present the first steps towards generating synthetic observations to compare with available and future HST/STIS data. We present initial results from full <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> radiative transfer simulations of the interacting winds in Eta Car. We use the SimpleX algorithm to post-process the output from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> SPH simulations and obtain the ionization fractions of hydrogen and helium assuming three different mass-loss rates for the primary star. The resultant ionization maps of both species <span class="hlt">constrain</span> the regions where the observed forbidden emission lines can form. Including collisional ionization is necessary to achieve a better description of the ionization states, especially in the areas shielded from the secondary's radiation. We find that reducing the primary's mass-loss rate increases the volume of ionized gas, creating larger areas where the forbidden emission lines can form. We conclude that post processing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> SPH data with SimpleX is a viable tool to create ionization maps for Eta Car.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140017812','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140017812"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Radiative Transfer in Eta Carinae: Application of the SimpleX Algorithm to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> SPH Simulations of Binary Colliding Winds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Clementel, N.; Madura, T. I.; Kruip, C.J.H.; Icke, V.; Gull, T. R.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Eta Carinae is an ideal astrophysical laboratory for studying massive binary interactions and evolution, and stellar wind-wind collisions. Recent three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) simulations set the stage for understanding the highly complex <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> flows in eta Car. Observations of different broad high- and low-ionization forbidden emission lines provide an excellent tool to <span class="hlt">constrain</span> the orientation of the system, the primary's mass-loss rate, and the ionizing flux of the hot secondary. In this work we present the first steps towards generating synthetic observations to compare with available and future HST/STIS data. We present initial results from full <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> radiative transfer simulations of the interacting winds in eta Car.We use the SimpleX algorithm to post-process the output from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> SPH simulations and obtain the ionization fractions of hydrogen and helium assuming three different mass-loss rates for the primary star. The resultant ionization maps of both species <span class="hlt">constrain</span> the regions where the observed forbidden emission lines can form. Including collisional ionization is necessary to achieve a better description of the ionization states, especially in the areas shielded from the secondary's radiation. We find that reducing the primary's mass-loss rate increases the volume of ionized gas, creating larger areas where the forbidden emission lines can form.We conclude that post processing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> SPH data with SimpleX is a viable tool to create ionization maps for eta Car.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ISPAr41B6..267M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ISPAr41B6..267M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> Photogrammetry Techniques in Craniometrics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moshobane, M. C.; de Bruyn, P. J. N.; Bester, M. N.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Morphometrics (the measurement of morphological features) has been revolutionized by the creation of new techniques to study how organismal shape co-varies with several factors such as ecophenotypy. Ecophenotypy refers to the divergence of phenotypes due to developmental changes induced by local environmental conditions, producing distinct ecophenotypes. None of the techniques hitherto utilized could explicitly address organismal shape in a complete biological form, i.e. three-dimensionally. This study investigates the use of the commercial software, Photomodeler Scanner® (PMSc®) three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) modelling software to produce accurate and high-resolution <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models. Henceforth, the modelling of Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis) and Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) skulls which could allow for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> measurements. Using this method, sixteen accurate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> skull models were produced and five metrics were determined. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> linear measurements were compared to measurements taken manually with a digital caliper. In addition, repetitive measurements were recorded by varying researchers to determine repeatability. To allow for comparison straight line measurements were taken with the software, assuming that close accord with all manually measured features would illustrate the model's accurate replication of reality. Measurements were not significantly different demonstrating that realistic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> skull models can be successfully produced to provide a consistent basis for craniometrics, with the additional benefit of allowing non-linear measurements if required.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22752138','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22752138"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> steerable wavelets in practice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chenouard, Nicolas; Unser, Michael</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>We introduce a systematic and practical design for steerable wavelet frames in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. Our steerable wavelets are obtained by applying a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> version of the generalized Riesz transform to a primary isotropic wavelet frame. The novel transform is self-reversible (tight frame) and its elementary constituents (Riesz wavelets) can be efficiently rotated in any <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> direction by forming appropriate linear combinations. Moreover, the basis functions at a given location can be linearly combined to design custom (and adaptive) steerable wavelets. The features of the proposed method are illustrated with the processing and analysis of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> biomedical data. In particular, we show how those wavelets can be used to characterize directional patterns and to detect edges by means of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> monogenic analysis. We also propose a new inverse-problem formalism along with an optimization algorithm for reconstructing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> images from a sparse set of wavelet-domain edges. The scheme results in high-quality image reconstructions which demonstrate the feature-reduction ability of the steerable wavelets as well as their potential for solving inverse problems. PMID:22752138</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6214450','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6214450"><span id="translatedtitle">DYNA<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> example problem manual</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lovejoy, S.C.; Whirley, R.G.</p> <p>1990-10-10</p> <p>This manual describes in detail the solution of ten example problems using the explicit nonlinear finite element code DYNA<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. The sample problems include solid, shell, and beam element types, and a variety of linear and nonlinear material models. For each example, there is first an engineering description of the physical problem to be studied. Next, the analytical techniques incorporated in the model are discussed and key features of DYNA<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> are highlighted. INGRID commands used to generate the mesh are listed, and sample plots from the DYNA<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> analysis are given. Finally, there is a description of the TAURUS post-processing commands used to generate the plots of the solution. This set of example problems is useful in verifying the installation of DYNA<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> on a new computer system. In addition, these documented analyses illustrate the application of DYNA<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> to a variety of engineering problems, and thus this manual should be helpful to new analysts getting started with DYNA<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. 7 refs., 56 figs., 9 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMIN31C1521T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMIN31C1521T"><span id="translatedtitle">Ground and Structure Deformation <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> Modelling with a Tin Based Property Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>TIAN, T.; Zhang, J.; Jiang, W.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>With the development of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>( three-dimensional) modeling and visualization, more and more <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> tectonics are used to assist the daily work in Engineering Survey, in which the prediction of deformation field in strata and structure induced by underground construction is an essential part. In this research we developed a TIN (<span class="hlt">Triangulated</span> Irregular Network) based property model for the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (three dimensional) visualization of ground deformation filed. By record deformation vector for each nodes, the new model can express the deformation with geometric-deformation-style by drawing each node in its new position and deformation-attribute-distribution-style by drawing each node in the color correspond with its deformation attribute at the same time. Comparing with the volume model based property model, this new property model can provide a more precise geometrical shape for structure objects. Furthermore, by recording only the deformation data of the user-interested <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> surface- such as the ground surface or the underground digging surface, the new property model can save a lot of space, which makes it possible to build the deformation filed model of a much more large scale. To construct the models of deformation filed based on TIN model, the refinement of the network is needed to increase the nodes number, which is necessary to express the deformation filed with a certain resolution. The TIN model refinement is a process of sampling the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> deformation field values on points on the TIN surface, for which we developed a self-adapting TIN refinement method. By set the parameter of the attribute resolution, this self-adapting method refines the input geometric-expressing TIN model by adding more vertexes and triangles where the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> deformation filed changing faster. Comparing with the even refinement method, the self-adapting method can generate a refined TIN model with nodes counted less by two thirds. Efficiency Comparison between Self-adapting Refinement Method and Even</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=3D&pg=4&id=EJ1068694','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=3D&pg=4&id=EJ1068694"><span id="translatedtitle">Physical Environment as a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Textbook: Design and Development of a Prototype</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kong, Seng Yeap; Yaacob, Naziaty Mohd; Ariffin, Ati Rosemary Mohd</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The use of the physical environment as a three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>) textbook is not a common practice in educational facilities design. Previous researches documented that little progress has been made to incorporate environmental education (EE) into architecture, especially among the conventional designers who are often <span class="hlt">constrained</span> by the budget and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25620087','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25620087"><span id="translatedtitle">Recording stereoscopic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> neurosurgery with a head-mounted <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> camera system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, Brian; Chen, Brian R; Chen, Beverly B; Lu, James Y; Giannotta, Steven L</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Stereoscopic three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) imaging can present more information to the viewer and further enhance the learning experience over traditional two-dimensional (2D) video. Most <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surgical videos are recorded from the operating microscope and only feature the crux, or the most important part of the surgery, leaving out other crucial parts of surgery including the opening, approach, and closing of the surgical site. In addition, many other surgeries including complex spine, trauma, and intensive care unit procedures are also rarely recorded. We describe and share our experience with a commercially available head-mounted stereoscopic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> camera system to obtain stereoscopic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> recordings of these seldom recorded aspects of neurosurgery. The strengths and limitations of using the GoPro(®) <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> system as a head-mounted stereoscopic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> camera system in the operating room are reviewed in detail. Over the past several years, we have recorded in stereoscopic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> over 50 cranial and spinal surgeries and created a library for education purposes. We have found the head-mounted stereoscopic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> camera system to be a valuable asset to supplement <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> footage from a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> microscope. We expect that these comprehensive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surgical videos will become an important facet of resident education and ultimately lead to improved patient care. PMID:25620087</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26304547','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26304547"><span id="translatedtitle">RAG-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>: a search tool for RNA <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> substructures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar</p> <p>2015-10-30</p> <p>To address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-a dataset of RNA tertiary (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool-designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structural fragments. The objects in RAG-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> consist of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structures translated into <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally described in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> search tool then compares a query RNA <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding. PMID:26304547</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ISPAr3816W.357B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ISPAr3816W.357B"><span id="translatedtitle">a Comparison Between Active and Passive Techniques for Underwater <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bianco, G.; Gallo, A.; Bruno, F.; Muzzupappa, M.</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>In the field of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanning, there is an increasing need for more accurate technologies to acquire <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models of close range objects. Underwater exploration, for example, is very hard to perform due to the hostile conditions and the bad visibility of the environment. Some application fields, like underwater archaeology, require to recover tridimensional data of objects that cannot be moved from their site or touched in order to avoid possible damages. Photogrammetry is widely used for underwater <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> acquisition, because it requires just one or two digital still or video cameras to acquire a sequence of images taken from different viewpoints. Stereo systems composed by a pair of cameras are often employed on underwater robots (i.e. ROVs, Remotely Operated Vehicles) and used by scuba divers, in order to survey archaeological sites, reconstruct complex <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structures in aquatic environment, estimate in situ the length of marine organisms, etc. The stereo <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction is based on the <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> of corresponding points on the two views. This requires to find in both images common points and to match them (correspondence problem), determining a plane that contains the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> point on the object. Another <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> technique, frequently used in air acquisition, solves this point-matching problem by projecting structured lighting patterns to codify the acquired scene. The corresponding points are identified associating a binary code in both images. In this work we have tested and compared two whole-field <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> imaging techniques (active and passive) based on stereo vision, in underwater environment. A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> system has been designed, composed by a digital projector and two still cameras mounted in waterproof housing, so that it can perform the various acquisitions without changing the configuration of optical devices. The tests were conducted in a water tank in different turbidity conditions, on objects with different surface properties. In order to simulate a typical seafloor, we used</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.5808...44B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.5808...44B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> SAR image formation from sparse aperture data using <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> target grids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bhalla, Rajan; Li, Junfei; Ling, Hao</p> <p>2005-05-01</p> <p>The performance of ATR systems can potentially be improved by using three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>) SAR images instead of the traditional two-dimensional SAR images or one-dimensional range profiles. <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> SAR image formation of targets from radar backscattered data collected on wide angle, sparse apertures has been identified by AFRL as fundamental to building an object detection and recognition capability. A set of data has been released as a challenge problem. This paper describes a technique based on the concept of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> target grids aimed at the formation of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> SAR images of targets from sparse aperture data. The <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> target grids capture the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> spatial and angular scattering properties of the target and serve as matched filters for SAR formation. The results of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> SAR formation using the backhoe public release data are presented.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130003235','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130003235"><span id="translatedtitle">CFL<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>, and NSU<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Contributions to the Fifth Drag Prediction Workshop</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Park, Michael A.; Laflin, Kelly R.; Chaffin, Mark S.; Powell, Nicholas; Levy, David W.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Results presented at the Fifth Drag Prediction Workshop using CFL<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, and NSU<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> are described. These are calculations on the workshop provided grids and drag adapted grids. The NSU<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> results have been updated to reflect an improvement to skin friction calculation on skewed grids. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> results generated after the workshop are included for custom participant generated grids and a grid from a previous workshop. Uniform grid refinement at the design condition shows a tight grouping in calculated drag, where the variation in the pressure component of drag is larger than the skin friction component. At this design condition, A fine-grid drag value was predicted with a smaller drag adjoint adapted grid via tetrahedral adaption to a metric and mixed-element subdivision. The buffet study produced larger variation than the design case, which is attributed to large differences in the predicted side-of-body separation extent. Various modeling and discretization approaches had a strong impact on predicted side-of-body separation. This large wing root separation bubble was not observed in wind tunnel tests indicating that more work is necessary in modeling wing root juncture flows to predict experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ISPAr.XL4..357Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ISPAr.XL4..357Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Indoor <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Route Modeling Based On Estate Spatial Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, H.; Wen, Y.; Jiang, J.; Huang, W.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Indoor three-dimensional route model is essential for space intelligence navigation and emergency evacuation. This paper is motivated by the need of constructing indoor route model automatically and as far as possible. By comparing existing building data sources, this paper firstly explained the reason why the estate spatial management data is chosen as the data source. Then, an applicable method of construction three-dimensional route model in a building is introduced by establishing the mapping relationship between geographic entities and their topological expression. This data model is a weighted graph consist of "node" and "path" to express the spatial relationship and topological structure of a building components. The whole process of modelling internal space of a building is addressed by two key steps: (1) each single floor route model is constructed, including path extraction of corridor using Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> algorithm with <span class="hlt">constrained</span> edge, fusion of room nodes into the path; (2) the single floor route model is connected with stairs and elevators and the multi-floor route model is eventually generated. In order to validate the method in this paper, a shopping mall called "Longjiang New City Plaza" in Nanjing is chosen as a case of study. And the whole building space is constructed according to the modelling method above. By integrating of existing path finding algorithm, the usability of this modelling method is verified, which shows the indoor three-dimensional route modelling method based on estate spatial data in this paper can support indoor route planning and evacuation route design very well.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3233603','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3233603"><span id="translatedtitle">Protein <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Structure Computed from Evolutionary Sequence Variation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sheridan, Robert; Hopf, Thomas A.; Pagnani, Andrea; Zecchina, Riccardo; Sander, Chris</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The evolutionary trajectory of a protein through sequence space is <span class="hlt">constrained</span> by its function. Collections of sequence homologs record the outcomes of millions of evolutionary experiments in which the protein evolves according to these constraints. Deciphering the evolutionary record held in these sequences and exploiting it for predictive and engineering purposes presents a formidable challenge. The potential benefit of solving this challenge is amplified by the advent of inexpensive high-throughput genomic sequencing. In this paper we ask whether we can infer evolutionary constraints from a set of sequence homologs of a protein. The challenge is to distinguish true co-evolution couplings from the noisy set of observed correlations. We address this challenge using a maximum entropy model of the protein sequence, <span class="hlt">constrained</span> by the statistics of the multiple sequence alignment, to infer residue pair couplings. Surprisingly, we find that the strength of these inferred couplings is an excellent predictor of residue-residue proximity in folded structures. Indeed, the top-scoring residue couplings are sufficiently accurate and well-distributed to define the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> protein fold with remarkable accuracy. We quantify this observation by computing, from sequence alone, all-atom <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structures of fifteen test proteins from different fold classes, ranging in size from 50 to 260 residues., including a G-protein coupled receptor. These blinded inferences are de novo, i.e., they do not use homology modeling or sequence-similar fragments from known structures. The co-evolution signals provide sufficient information to determine accurate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> protein structure to 2.7–4.8 Å Cα-RMSD error relative to the observed structure, over at least two-thirds of the protein (method called EVfold, details at http://EVfold.org). This discovery provides insight into essential interactions <span class="hlt">constraining</span> protein evolution and will facilitate a comprehensive survey of the universe of protein</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100019590','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100019590"><span id="translatedtitle">PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Export Tool for Tecplot</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Alter, Stephen</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> export tool for Tecplot solves the problem of modified data being impossible to output for use by another computational science solver. The PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Exporter add-on enables the use of the most commonly available visualization tools to engineers for output of a standard format. The exportation of PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data from Tecplot has far reaching effects because it allows for grid and solution manipulation within a graphical user interface (GUI) that is easily customized with macro language-based and user-developed GUIs. The add-on also enables the use of Tecplot as an interpolation tool for solution conversion between different grids of different types. This one add-on enhances the functionality of Tecplot so significantly, it offers the ability to incorporate Tecplot into a general suite of tools for computational science applications as a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> graphics engine for visualization of all data. Within the PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Export Add-on are several functions that enhance the operations and effectiveness of the add-on. Unlike Tecplot output functions, the PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Export Add-on enables the use of the zone selection dialog in Tecplot to choose which zones are to be written by offering three distinct options - output of active, inactive, or all zones (grid blocks). As the user modifies the zones to output with the zone selection dialog, the zones to be written are similarly updated. This enables the use of Tecplot to create multiple configurations of a geometry being analyzed. For example, if an aircraft is loaded with multiple deflections of flaps, by activating and deactivating different zones for a specific flap setting, new specific configurations of that aircraft can be easily generated by only writing out specific zones. Thus, if ten flap settings are loaded into Tecplot, the PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Export software can output ten different configurations, one for each flap setting.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMiMi..26a5003S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMiMi..26a5003S"><span id="translatedtitle">A microfluidic device for 2D to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cell navigation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shamloo, Amir; Amirifar, Leyla</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Microfluidic devices have received wide attention and shown great potential in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Investigating cell response to various stimulations is much more accurate and comprehensive with the aid of microfluidic devices. In this study, we introduced a microfluidic device by which the matrix density as a mechanical property and the concentration profile of a biochemical factor as a chemical property could be altered. Our microfluidic device has a cell tank and a cell culture chamber to mimic both 2D to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> migration of three types of cells. Fluid shear stress is negligible on the cells and a stable concentration gradient can be obtained by diffusion. The device was designed by a numerical simulation so that the uniformity of the concentration gradients throughout the cell culture chamber was obtained. Adult neural cells were cultured within this device and they showed different branching and axonal navigation phenotypes within varying nerve growth factor (NGF) concentration profiles. Neural stem cells were also cultured within varying collagen matrix densities while exposed to NGF concentrations and they experienced <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> collective migration. By generating vascular endothelial growth factor concentration gradients, adult human dermal microvascular endothelial cells also migrated in a 2D to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> manner and formed a stable lumen within a specific collagen matrix density. It was observed that a minimum absolute concentration and concentration gradient were required to stimulate migration of all types of the cells. This device has the advantage of changing multiple parameters simultaneously and is expected to have wide applicability in cell studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1239896-rag-search-tool-rna-substructures','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1239896-rag-search-tool-rna-substructures"><span id="translatedtitle">RAG-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>: A search tool for RNA <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> substructures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGESBeta</a></p> <p>Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar</p> <p>2015-08-24</p> <p>In this study, to address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structural fragments. The objects in RAG-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> consist of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structures translated into <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally describedmore » in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> search tool then compares a query RNA <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1239896','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1239896"><span id="translatedtitle">RAG-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>: A search tool for RNA <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> substructures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar</p> <p>2015-08-24</p> <p>In this study, to address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structural fragments. The objects in RAG-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> consist of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structures translated into <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally described in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> search tool then compares a query RNA <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4627073','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4627073"><span id="translatedtitle">RAG-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>: a search tool for RNA <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> substructures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>To address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structural fragments. The objects in RAG-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> consist of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structures translated into <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally described in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> search tool then compares a query RNA <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding. PMID:26304547</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6789E..0RZ','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6789E..0RZ"><span id="translatedtitle">Automatic needle segmentation in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ultrasound images using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Hough transform</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhou, Hua; Qiu, Wu; Ding, Mingyue; Zhang, Songgeng</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ultrasound (US) is a new technology that can be used for a variety of diagnostic applications, such as obstetrical, vascular, and urological imaging, and has been explored greatly potential in the applications of image-guided surgery and therapy. Uterine adenoma and uterine bleeding are the two most prevalent diseases in Chinese woman, and a minimally invasive ablation system using an RF button electrode which is needle-like is being used to destroy tumor cells or stop bleeding currently. Now a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> US guidance system has been developed to avoid accidents or death of the patient by inaccurate localizations of the electrode and the tumor position during treatment. In this paper, we described two automated techniques, the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Hough Transform (3DHT) and the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Randomized Hough Transform (3DRHT), which is potentially fast, accurate, and robust to provide needle segmentation in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> US image for use of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> US imaging guidance. Based on the representation (Φ , θ , ρ , α ) of straight lines in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> space, we used the 3DHT algorithm to segment needles successfully assumed that the approximate needle position and orientation are known in priori. The 3DRHT algorithm was developed to detect needles quickly without any information of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> US images. The needle segmentation techniques were evaluated using the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> US images acquired by scanning water phantoms. The experiments demonstrated the feasibility of two <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> needle segmentation algorithms described in this paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100005261','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100005261"><span id="translatedtitle">ICER-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Hyperspectral Image Compression Software</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Xie, Hua; Kiely, Aaron; Klimesh, matthew; Aranki, Nazeeh</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Software has been developed to implement the ICER-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> algorithm. ICER-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> effects progressive, three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>), wavelet-based compression of hyperspectral images. If a compressed data stream is truncated, the progressive nature of the algorithm enables reconstruction of hyperspectral data at fidelity commensurate with the given data volume. The ICER-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> software is capable of providing either lossless or lossy compression, and incorporates an error-containment scheme to limit the effects of data loss during transmission. The compression algorithm, which was derived from the ICER image compression algorithm, includes wavelet-transform, context-modeling, and entropy coding subalgorithms. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> wavelet decomposition structure used by ICER-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> exploits correlations in all three dimensions of sets of hyperspectral image data, while facilitating elimination of spectral ringing artifacts, using a technique summarized in "Improving <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Wavelet-Based Compression of Spectral Images" (NPO-41381), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 3 (March 2009), page 7a. Correlation is further exploited by a context-modeling subalgorithm, which exploits spectral dependencies in the wavelet-transformed hyperspectral data, using an algorithm that is summarized in "Context Modeler for Wavelet Compression of Hyperspectral Images" (NPO-43239), which follows this article. An important feature of ICER-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a scheme for limiting the adverse effects of loss of data during transmission. In this scheme, as in the similar scheme used by ICER, the spatial-frequency domain is partitioned into rectangular error-containment regions. In ICER-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, the partitions extend through all the wavelength bands. The data in each partition are compressed independently of those in the other partitions, so that loss or corruption of data from any partition does not affect the other partitions. Furthermore, because compression is progressive within each partition, when data are lost, any data from that partition received</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231150-shim3d-helmholtz-solution-package','SCIGOV-ESTSC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231150-shim3d-helmholtz-solution-package"><span id="translatedtitle">Shim<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> Helmholtz Solution Package</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/">Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-01-29</p> <p>This suite of codes solves the Helmholtz Equation for the steady-state propagation of single-frequency electromagnetic radiation in an arbitrary 2D or <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> dielectric medium. Materials can be either transparent or absorptive (including metals) and are described entirely by their shape and complex dielectric constant. Dielectric boundaries are assumed to always fall on grid boundaries and the material within a single grid cell is considered to be uniform. Input to the problem is in the formmore » of a Dirichlet boundary condition on a single boundary, and may be either analytic (Gaussian) in shape, or a mode shape computed using a separate code (such as the included eigenmode solver vwave20), and written to a file. Solution is via the finite difference method using Jacobi iteration for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> problems or direct matrix inversion for 2D problems. Note that <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> problems that include metals will require different iteration parameters than described in the above reference. For structures with curved boundaries not easily modeled on a rectangular grid, the auxillary codes helmholtz11(2D), helm<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> (semivectoral), and helmv<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> (full vectoral) are provided. For these codes the finite difference equations are specified on a topological regular triangular grid and solved using Jacobi iteration or direct matrix inversion as before. An automatic grid generator is supplied.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015APS..DFDG25001T&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015APS..DFDG25001T&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Spray Droplet Distributions in Sneezes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Techet, Alexandra; Scharfman, Barry; Bourouiba, Lydia</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> spray droplet clouds generated during human sneezing are investigated using the Synthetic Aperture Feature Extraction (SAFE) method, which relies on light field imaging (LFI) and synthetic aperture (SA) refocusing computational photographic techniques. An array of nine high-speed cameras are used to image sneeze droplets and tracked the droplets in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> space and time (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> + T). An additional high-speed camera is utilized to track the motion of the head during sneezing. In the SAFE method, the raw images recorded by each camera in the array are preprocessed and binarized, simplifying post processing after image refocusing and enabling the extraction of feature sizes and positions in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> + T. These binary images are refocused using either additive or multiplicative methods, combined with thresholding. Sneeze droplet centroids, radii, distributions and trajectories are determined and compared with existing data. The reconstructed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> droplet centroids and radii enable a more complete understanding of the physical extent and fluid dynamics of sneeze ejecta. These measurements are important for understanding the infectious disease transmission potential of sneezes in various indoor environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5806161','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5806161"><span id="translatedtitle">T-HEMP<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> user manual</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Turner, D.</p> <p>1983-08-01</p> <p>The T-HEMP<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (Transportable HEMP<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) computer program is a derivative of the STEALTH three-dimensional thermodynamics code developed by Science Applications, Inc., under the direction of Ron Hofmann. STEALTH, in turn, is based entirely on the original HEMP<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> code written at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The primary advantage STEALTH has over its predecessors is that it was designed using modern structured design techniques, with rigorous programming standards enforced. This yields two benefits. First, the code is easily changeable; this is a necessity for a physics code used for research. The second benefit is that the code is easily transportable between different types of computers. The STEALTH program was transferred to LLNL under a cooperative development agreement. Changes were made primarily in three areas: material specification, coordinate generation, and the addition of sliding surface boundary conditions. The code was renamed T-HEMP<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> to avoid confusion with other versions of STEALTH. This document summarizes the input to T-HEMP<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, as used at LLNL. It does not describe the physics simulated by the program, nor the numerical techniques employed. Furthermore, it does not describe the separate job steps of coordinate generation and post-processing, including graphical display of results. (WHK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MAR.T1218B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MAR.T1218B"><span id="translatedtitle">Magnetic Properties of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printed Toroids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bollig, Lindsey; Otto, Austin; Hilpisch, Peter; Mowry, Greg; Nelson-Cheeseman, Brittany; Renewable Energy; Alternatives Lab (REAL) Team</p> <p></p> <p>Transformers are ubiquitous in electronics today. Although toroidal geometries perform most efficiently, transformers are traditionally made with rectangular cross-sections due to the lower manufacturing costs. Additive manufacturing techniques (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing) can easily achieve toroidal geometries by building up a part through a series of 2D layers. To get strong magnetic properties in a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed transformer, a composite filament is used containing Fe dispersed in a polymer matrix. How the resulting <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed toroid responds to a magnetic field depends on two structural factors of the printed 2D layers: fill factor (planar density) and fill pattern. In this work, we investigate how the fill factor and fill pattern affect the magnetic properties of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed toroids. The magnetic properties of the printed toroids are measured by a custom circuit that produces a hysteresis loop for each toroid. Toroids with various fill factors and fill patterns are compared to determine how these two factors can affect the magnetic field the toroid can produce. These <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed toroids can be used for numerous applications in order to increase the efficiency of transformers by making it possible for manufacturers to make a toroidal geometry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18982662','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18982662"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> dynamic roadmapping for abdominal catheterizations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bender, Frederik; Groher, Martin; Khamene, Ali; Wein, Wolfgang; Heibel, Tim Hauke; Navab, Nassir</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Despite rapid advances in interventional imaging, the navigation of a guide wire through abdominal vasculature remains, not only for novice radiologists, a difficult task. Since this navigation is mostly based on 2D fluoroscopic image sequences from one view, the process is slowed down significantly due to missing depth information and patient motion. We propose a novel approach for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> dynamic roadmapping in deformable regions by predicting the location of the guide wire tip in a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> vessel model from the tip's 2D location, respiratory motion analysis, and view geometry. In a first step, the method compensates for the apparent respiratory motion in 2D space before backprojecting the 2D guide wire tip into three dimensional space, using a given projection matrix. To countervail the error connected to the projection parameters and the motion compensation, as well as the ambiguity caused by vessel deformation, we establish a statistical framework, which computes a reliable estimate of the guide wire tip location within the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> vessel model. With this 2D-to-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> transfer, the navigation can be performed from arbitrary viewing angles, disconnected from the static perspective view of the fluoroscopic sequence. Tests on a realistic breathing phantom and on synthetic data with a known ground truth clearly reveal the superiority of our approach compared to naive methods for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> roadmapping. The concepts and information presented in this paper are based on research and are not commercially available. PMID:18982662</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27295458','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27295458"><span id="translatedtitle">Lifting Object Detection Datasets into <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carreira, Joao; Vicente, Sara; Agapito, Lourdes; Batista, Jorge</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>While data has certainly taken the center stage in computer vision in recent years, it can still be difficult to obtain in certain scenarios. In particular, acquiring ground truth <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shapes of objects pictured in 2D images remains a challenging feat and this has hampered progress in recognition-based object reconstruction from a single image. Here we propose to bypass previous solutions such as <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanning or manual design, that scale poorly, and instead populate object category detection datasets semi-automatically with dense, per-object <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstructions, bootstrapped from:(i) class labels, (ii) ground truth figure-ground segmentations and (iii) a small set of keypoint annotations. Our proposed algorithm first estimates camera viewpoint using rigid structure-from-motion and then reconstructs object shapes by optimizing over visual hull proposals guided by loose within-class shape similarity assumptions. The visual hull sampling process attempts to intersect an object's projection cone with the cones of minimal subsets of other similar objects among those pictured from certain vantage points. We show that our method is able to produce convincing per-object <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstructions and to accurately estimate cameras viewpoints on one of the most challenging existing object-category detection datasets, PASCAL VOC. We hope that our results will re-stimulate interest on joint object recognition and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction from a single image. PMID:27295458</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.5960.1381K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.5960.1381K"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> camera tracking from disparity images</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Kiyoung; Woo, Woontack</p> <p>2005-07-01</p> <p>In this paper, we propose a robust camera tracking method that uses disparity images computed from known parameters of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> camera and multiple epipolar constraints. We assume that baselines between lenses in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> camera and intrinsic parameters are known. The proposed method reduces camera motion uncertainty encountered during camera tracking. Specifically, we first obtain corresponding feature points between initial lenses using normalized correlation method. In conjunction with matching features, we get disparity images. When the camera moves, the corresponding feature points, obtained from each lens of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> camera, are robustly tracked via Kanade-Lukas-Tomasi (KLT) tracking algorithm. Secondly, relative pose parameters of each lens are calculated via Essential matrices. Essential matrices are computed from Fundamental matrix calculated using normalized 8-point algorithm with RANSAC scheme. Then, we determine scale factor of translation matrix by d-motion. This is required because the camera motion obtained from Essential matrix is up to scale. Finally, we optimize camera motion using multiple epipolar constraints between lenses and d-motion constraints computed from disparity images. The proposed method can be widely adopted in Augmented Reality (AR) applications, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> camera, and fine surveillance systems which not only need depth information, but also camera motion parameters in real-time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003SPIE.5005..126T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003SPIE.5005..126T"><span id="translatedtitle">Full-color holographic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Takano, Masami; Shigeta, Hiroaki; Nishihara, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Takahashi, Susumu; Ohyama, Nagaaki; Kobayashi, Akihiko; Iwata, Fujio</p> <p>2003-05-01</p> <p>A holographic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printer is a system that produces a direct hologram with full-parallax information using the 3-dimensional data of a subject from a computer. In this paper, we present a proposal for the reproduction of full-color images with the holographic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printer. In order to realize the 3-dimensional color image, we selected the 3 laser wavelength colors of red (λ=633nm), green (λ=533nm), and blue (λ=442nm), and we built a one-step optical system using a projection system and a liquid crystal display. The 3-dimensional color image is obtained by synthesizing in a 2D array the multiple exposure with these 3 wavelengths made on each 250mm elementary hologram, and moving recording medium on a x-y stage. For the natural color reproduction in the holographic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printer, we take the approach of the digital processing technique based on the color management technology. The matching between the input and output colors is performed by investigating first, the relation between the gray level transmittance of the LCD and the diffraction efficiency of the hologram and second, by measuring the color displayed by the hologram to establish a correlation. In our first experimental results a non-linear functional relation for single and multiple exposure of the three components were found. These results are the first step in the realization of a natural color <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image produced by the holographic color <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1260044','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1260044"><span id="translatedtitle">Extra dimensions: <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> in PDF documentation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Graf, Norman A.</p> <p>2011-01-11</p> <p>Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (U<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1260044-extra-dimensions-pdf-documentation','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1260044-extra-dimensions-pdf-documentation"><span id="translatedtitle">Extra dimensions: <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> in PDF documentation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGESBeta</a></p> <p>Graf, Norman A.</p> <p>2011-01-11</p> <p>Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universalmore » <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (U<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.« less</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhCS.573a2009L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhCS.573a2009L"><span id="translatedtitle">The importance of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> dosimetry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Low, Daniel</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Radiation therapy has been getting progressively more complex for the past 20 years. Early radiation therapy techniques needed only basic dosimetry equipment; motorized water phantoms, ionization chambers, and basic radiographic film techniques. As intensity modulated radiation therapy and image guided therapy came into widespread practice, medical physicists were challenged with developing effective and efficient dose measurement techniques. The complex 3-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) nature of the dose distributions that were being delivered demanded the development of more quantitative and more thorough methods for dose measurement. The quality assurance vendors developed a wide array of multidetector arrays that have been enormously useful for measuring and characterizing dose distributions, and these have been made especially useful with the advent of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> dose calculation systems based on the array measurements, as well as measurements made using film and portal imagers. Other vendors have been providing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> calculations based on data from the linear accelerator or the record and verify system, providing thorough evaluation of the dose but lacking quality assurance (QA) of the dose delivery process, including machine calibration. The current state of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> dosimetry is one of a state of flux. The vendors and professional associations are trying to determine the optimal balance between thorough QA, labor efficiency, and quantitation. This balance will take some time to reach, but a necessary component will be the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> measurement and independent calculation of delivered radiation therapy dose distributions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9529911','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9529911"><span id="translatedtitle">Visual inertia of rotating <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> objects.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jiang, Y; Pantle, A J; Mark, L S</p> <p>1998-02-01</p> <p>Five experiments were designed to determine whether a rotating, transparent <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> cloud of dots (simulated sphere) could influence the perceived direction of rotation of a subsequent sphere. Experiment 1 established conditions under which the direction of rotation of a virtual sphere was perceived unambiguously. When a near-far luminance difference and perspective depth cues were present, observers consistently saw the sphere rotate in the intended direction. In Experiment 2, a near-far luminance difference was used to create an unambiguous rotation sequence that was followed by a directionally ambiguous rotation sequence that lacked both the near-far luminance cue and the perspective cue. Observers consistently saw the second sequence as rotating in the same direction as the first, indicating the presence of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> visual inertia. Experiment 3 showed that <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> visual inertia was sufficiently powerful to bias the perceived direction of a rotation sequence made unambiguous by a near-far luminance cue. Experiment 5 showed that <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> visual inertia could be obtained using an occlusion depth cue to create an unambiguous inertia-inducing sequence. Finally, Experiments 2, 4, and 5 all revealed a fast-decay phase of inertia that lasted for approximately 800 msec, followed by an asymptotic phase that lasted for periods as long as 1,600 msec. The implications of these findings are examined with respect to motion mechanisms of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> visual inertia. PMID:9529911</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9391E..14O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9391E..14O"><span id="translatedtitle">Integral <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> display using multiple LCDs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Okaichi, Naoto; Miura, Masato; Arai, Jun; Mishina, Tomoyuki</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>The quality of the integral <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> images created by a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> imaging system was improved by combining multiple LCDs to utilize a greater number of pixels than that possible with one LCD. A prototype of the display device was constructed by using four HD LCDs. An integral photography (IP) image displayed by the prototype is four times larger than that reconstructed by a single display. The pixel pitch of the HD display used is 55.5 μm, and the number of elemental lenses is 212 horizontally and 119 vertically. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image pixel count is 25,228, and the viewing angle is 28°. Since this method is extensible, it is possible to display an integral <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image of higher quality by increasing the number of LCDs. Using this integral <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> display structure makes it possible to make the whole device thinner than a projector-based display system. It is therefore expected to be applied to the home television in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26724184','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26724184"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> bioprinting for engineering complex tissues.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mandrycky, Christian; Wang, Zongjie; Kim, Keekyoung; Kim, Deok-Ho</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Bioprinting is a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> fabrication technology used to precisely dispense cell-laden biomaterials for the construction of complex <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> functional living tissues or artificial organs. While still in its early stages, bioprinting strategies have demonstrated their potential use in regenerative medicine to generate a variety of transplantable tissues, including skin, cartilage, and bone. However, current bioprinting approaches still have technical challenges in terms of high-resolution cell deposition, controlled cell distributions, vascularization, and innervation within complex <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> tissues. While no one-size-fits-all approach to bioprinting has emerged, it remains an on-demand, versatile fabrication technique that may address the growing organ shortage as well as provide a high-throughput method for cell patterning at the micrometer scale for broad biomedical engineering applications. In this review, we introduce the basic principles, materials, integration strategies and applications of bioprinting. We also discuss the recent developments, current challenges and future prospects of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> bioprinting for engineering complex tissues. Combined with recent advances in human pluripotent stem cell technologies, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-bioprinted tissue models could serve as an enabling platform for high-throughput predictive drug screening and more effective regenerative therapies. PMID:26724184</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9528E..14L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9528E..14L"><span id="translatedtitle">Miniaturized <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> microscope imaging system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lan, Yung-Sung; Chang, Chir-Weei; Sung, Hsin-Yueh; Wang, Yen-Chang; Chang, Cheng-Yi</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>We designed and assembled a portable <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> miniature microscopic image system with the size of 35x35x105 mm3 . By integrating a microlens array (MLA) into the optical train of a handheld microscope, the biological specimen's image will be captured for ease of use in a single shot. With the light field raw data and program, the focal plane can be changed digitally and the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> image can be reconstructed after the image was taken. To localize an object in a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> volume, an automated data analysis algorithm to precisely distinguish profundity position is needed. The ability to create focal stacks from a single image allows moving or specimens to be recorded. Applying light field microscope algorithm to these focal stacks, a set of cross sections will be produced, which can be visualized using <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> rendering. Furthermore, we have developed a series of design rules in order to enhance the pixel using efficiency and reduce the crosstalk between each microlens for obtain good image quality. In this paper, we demonstrate a handheld light field microscope (HLFM) to distinguish two different color fluorescence particles separated by a cover glass in a 600um range, show its focal stacks, and <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> position.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.5776..576C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.5776..576C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> optical measuring technologies and systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chugui, Yuri V.</p> <p>2005-02-01</p> <p>The results of the R & D activity of TDI SIE SB RAS in the field of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> optical measuring technologies and systems for noncontact <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> optical dimensional inspection applied to atomic and railway industry safety problems are presented. This activity includes investigations of diffraction phenomena on some <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects, using the original constructive calculation method. The efficient algorithms for precise determining the transverse and longitudinal sizes of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects of constant thickness by diffraction method, peculiarities on formation of the shadow and images of the typical elements of the extended objects were suggested. Ensuring the safety of nuclear reactors and running trains as well as their high exploitation reliability requires a 100% noncontact precise inspection of geometrical parameters of their components. To solve this problem we have developed methods and produced the technical vision measuring systems LMM, CONTROL, PROFIL, and technologies for noncontact <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> dimensional inspection of grid spacers and fuel elements for the nuclear reactor VVER-1000 and VVER-440, as well as automatic laser diagnostic COMPLEX for noncontact inspection of geometric parameters of running freight car wheel pairs. The performances of these systems and the results of industrial testing are presented and discussed. The created devices are in pilot operation at Atomic and Railway Companies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PPCF...56i5019M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PPCF...56i5019M"><span id="translatedtitle">BEAMS<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Neutral Beam Injection Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McMillan, Matthew; Lazerson, Samuel A.</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>With the advent of applied <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> fields in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, which addresses this need by coupling <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous slowing down, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database. Elementary benchmark calculations are presented to verify the collisionless particle orbits, NBI model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> magnetic fields. Notice: this manuscript has been authored by Princeton University under Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466 with the US Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014OptLE..54..159B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014OptLE..54..159B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Optical <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> laser measurement system for navigation of autonomous mobile robot</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Básaca-Preciado, Luis C.; Sergiyenko, Oleg Yu.; Rodríguez-Quinonez, Julio C.; García, Xochitl; Tyrsa, Vera V.; Rivas-Lopez, Moises; Hernandez-Balbuena, Daniel; Mercorelli, Paolo; Podrygalo, Mikhail; Gurko, Alexander; Tabakova, Irina; Starostenko, Oleg</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>In our current research, we are developing a practical autonomous mobile robot navigation system which is capable of performing obstacle avoiding task on an unknown environment. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a robot navigation system which works using a high accuracy localization scheme by dynamic <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>. Our two main ideas are (1) integration of two principal systems, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> laser scanning technical vision system (TVS) and mobile robot (MR) navigation system. (2) Novel MR navigation scheme, which allows benefiting from all advantages of precise <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> localization of the obstacles, mostly over known camera oriented vision systems. For practical use, mobile robots are required to continue their tasks with safety and high accuracy on temporary occlusion condition. Presented in this work, prototype II of TVS is significantly improved over prototype I of our previous publications in the aspects of laser rays alignment, parasitic torque decrease and friction reduction of moving parts. The kinematic model of the MR used in this work is designed considering the optimal data acquisition from the TVS with the main goal of obtaining in real time, the necessary values for the kinematic model of the MR immediately during the calculation of obstacles based on the TVS data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26994875','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26994875"><span id="translatedtitle">Engineering EMT using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> micro-scaffold to promote hepatic functions for drug hepatotoxicity evaluation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Jingyu; Chen, Fengling; Liu, Longwei; Qi, Chunxiao; Wang, Bingjie; Yan, Xiaojun; Huang, Chenyu; Hou, Wei; Zhang, Michael Q; Chen, Yang; Du, Yanan</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Accompanied by decreased hepatic functions, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was observed in two dimensional (2D) cultured hepatocytes with elongated morphology, loss of polarity and weakened cell-cell interaction, while upgrading to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> culture has been considered as significant improvement of its 2D counterpart for hepatocyte maintenance. Here we hypothesize that <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> culture enhances hepatic functions through regulating the EMT status. Biomaterial-engineered EMT was achieved by culturing HepaRG as <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> spheroids (SP-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) or <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> stretched cells (ST-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) in non-adherent and adherent micro-scaffold respectively. In SP-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, <span class="hlt">constrained</span> EMT of HepaRG, a hepatic stem cell line, as represented by increased epithelial markers and decreased mesenchymal markers, was echoed by improved hepatic functions. To investigate the relationship between EMT status and hepatic functions, time-series RNA-Seq and gene network analysis were used for comparing different cell culture models, which identified histone deacetylases (HDACs) as key mediating factors. Protein analysis confirmed that high HDAC activity was correlated with high expression of Cadherin-1 (CDH1) and hepatic function genes, which were decreased upon HDAC inhibitor treatment in SP-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, suggesting HDACs may play positive role in regulating EMT and hepatic functions. To illustrate the application of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> micro-scaffold culture in drug safety evaluation, hepatotoxicity and metabolism assays of two hepatotoxins (i.e. N-acetyl-p-aminophenol and Doxorubicin) were performed and SP-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> showed more biomimetic toxicity response, indicating regulation of EMT as a vital consideration in designing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> hepatocyte culture configuration. PMID:26994875</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7855E..0FA','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7855E..0FA"><span id="translatedtitle">A hand-held <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> sensor for small features measurement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Abramovich, Gil; Harding, Kevin</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>This paper describes progressive generations of hand held <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> sensors for measuring small features, from edge breaks to corrosion pits. We describe the design considerations, ergonomics, packaging and interface between the device and part, such as the sensor tip and optional fixtures. We then present a customized design to address different types of surface features and defects. Next, we present the calibration concept, and its execution. The paper closes by summarizing system performance evaluation experiments and their results. It was shown that the system is capable of measuring edges down to a radius of 250 microns at a repeatability of 50 microns.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20795740','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20795740"><span id="translatedtitle">Foliations and 2+1 causal dynamical <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Konopka, Tomasz</p> <p>2006-01-15</p> <p>The original models of causal dynamical <span class="hlt">triangulations</span> construct space-time by arranging a set of simplices in layers separated by a fixed timelike distance. The importance of the foliation structure in the 2+1 dimensional model is studied by considering variations in which this property is relaxed. It turns out that the fixed-lapse condition can be equivalently replaced by a set of global constraints that have geometrical interpretation. On the other hand, the introduction of new types of simplices that puncture the foliating sheets in general leads to different low-energy behavior compared to the original model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10977532','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10977532"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling and modification of medical <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects. The benefit of using a haptic modeling tool.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kling-Petersen, T; Rydmark, M</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The Computer Laboratory of the medical faculty in Goteborg (Mednet) has since the end of 1998 been one of a limited numbers of participants in the development of a new modeling tool together with SensAble Technologies Inc [http:¿www.sensable.com/]. The software called SensAble FreeForm was officially released at Siggraph September 1999. Briefly, the software mimics the modeling techniques traditionally used by clay artists. An imported model or a user defined block of "clay" can be modified using different tools such as a ball, square block, scrape etc via the use of a SensAble Technologies PHANToM haptic arm. The model will deform in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> as a result of touching the "clay" with any selected tool and the amount of deformation is linear to the force applied. By getting instantaneous haptic as well as visual feedback, precise and intuitive changes are easily made. While SensAble FreeForm lacks several of the features normally associated with a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> modeling program (such as text handling, application of surface and bumpmaps, high-end rendering engines, etc) it's strength lies in the ability to rapidly create non-geometric <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models. For medical use, very few anatomically correct models are created from scratch. However, FreeForm features tools enable advanced modification of reconstructed or <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanned models. One of the main problems with <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> laserscanning of medical specimens is that the technique usually leaves holes or gaps in the dataset corresponding to areas in shadows such as orifices, deep grooves etc. By using FreeForms different tools, these defects are easily corrected and gaps are filled out. Similarly, traditional <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction (based on serial sections etc) often shows artifacts as a result of the <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> and/or tessellation processes. These artifacts usually manifest as unnatural ridges or uneven areas ("the accordion effect"). FreeForm contains a smoothing algorithm that enables the user to select an area to be modified and subsequently apply</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26386332','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26386332"><span id="translatedtitle">Real-time monitoring of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cell culture using a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> capacitance biosensor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, Sun-Mi; Han, Nalae; Lee, Rimi; Choi, In-Hong; Park, Yong-Beom; Shin, Jeon-Soo; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa</p> <p>2016-03-15</p> <p>Three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) cell cultures have recently received attention because they represent a more physiologically relevant environment compared to conventional two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures. However, 2D-based imaging techniques or cell sensors are insufficient for real-time monitoring of cellular behavior in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cell culture. Here, we report investigations conducted with a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> capacitance cell sensor consisting of vertically aligned pairs of electrodes. When GFP-expressing human breast cancer cells (GFP-MCF-7) encapsulated in alginate hydrogel were cultured in a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cell culture system, cellular activities, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis at different heights, could be monitored non-invasively and in real-time by measuring the change in capacitance with the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> capacitance sensor. Moreover, we were able to monitor cell migration of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with our <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> capacitance sensor. PMID:26386332</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9901E..1CL','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9901E..1CL"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scene reconstruction based on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> laser point cloud combining UAV images</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Huiyun; Yan, Yangyang; Zhang, Xitong; Wu, Zhenzhen</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>It is a big challenge capturing and modeling <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> information of the built environment. A number of techniques and technologies are now in use. These include GPS, and photogrammetric application and also remote sensing applications. The experiment uses multi-source data fusion technology for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scene reconstruction based on the principle of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> laser scanning technology, which uses the laser point cloud data as the basis and Digital Ortho-photo Map as an auxiliary, uses 3DsMAX software as a basic tool for building three-dimensional scene reconstruction. The article includes data acquisition, data preprocessing, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scene construction. The results show that the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scene has better truthfulness, and the accuracy of the scene meet the need of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scene construction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9012E..04L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9012E..04L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> whiteboard: collaborative sketching with <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-tracked smart phones</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lue, James; Schulze, Jürgen P.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>We present the results of our investigation of the feasibility of a new approach for collaborative drawing in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, based on Android smart phones. Our approach utilizes a number of fiduciary markers, placed in the working area where they can be seen by the smart phones' cameras, in order to estimate the pose of each phone in the room. Our prototype allows two users to draw <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects with their smart phones by moving their phones around in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> space. For example, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> lines are drawn by recording the path of the phone as it is moved around in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> space, drawing line segments on the screen along the way. Each user can see the virtual drawing space on their smart phones' displays, as if the display was a window into this space. Besides lines, our prototype application also supports <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geometry creation, geometry transformation operations, and it shows the location of the other user's phone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1214479','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1214479"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> face analysis for demographic biometrics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tokola, Ryan A; Mikkilineni, Aravind K; Boehnen, Chris Bensing</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Despite being increasingly easy to acquire, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data is rarely used for face-based biometrics applications beyond identification. Recent work in image-based demographic biometrics has enjoyed much success, but these approaches suffer from the well-known limitations of 2D representations, particularly variations in illumination, texture, and pose, as well as a fundamental inability to describe <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape. This paper shows that simple <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape features in a face-based coordinate system are capable of representing many biometric attributes without problem-specific models or specialized domain knowledge. The same feature vector achieves impressive results for problems as diverse as age estimation, gender classification, and race classification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6237E..06B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6237E..06B"><span id="translatedtitle">Angular description for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scattering centers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bhalla, Rajan; Raynal, Ann Marie; Ling, Hao; Moore, John; Velten, Vincent J.</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p>The electromagnetic scattered field from an electrically large target can often be well modeled as if it is emanating from a discrete set of scattering centers (see Fig. 1). In the scattering center extraction tool we developed previously based on the shooting and bouncing ray technique, no correspondence is maintained amongst the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scattering center extracted at adjacent angles. In this paper we present a multi-dimensional clustering algorithm to track the angular and spatial behaviors of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scattering centers and group them into features. The extracted features for the Slicy and backhoe targets are presented. We also describe two metrics for measuring the angular persistence and spatial mobility of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scattering centers that make up these features in order to gather insights into target physics and feature stability. We find that features that are most persistent are also the most mobile and discuss implications for optimal SAR imaging.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1133093','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1133093"><span id="translatedtitle">Ames Lab 101: <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Metals Printer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ott, Ryan</p> <p>2014-02-13</p> <p>To meet one of the biggest energy challenges of the 21st century - finding alternatives to rare-earth elements and other critical materials - scientists will need new and advanced tools. The Critical Materials Institute at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory has a new one: a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printer for metals research. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing technology, which has captured the imagination of both industry and consumers, enables ideas to move quickly from the initial design phase to final form using materials including polymers, ceramics, paper and even food. But the Critical Materials Institute (CMI) will apply the advantages of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing process in a unique way: for materials discovery.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020022185','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020022185"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Simulation: Microgravity Environments and Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hunter, Steve L.; Dischinger, Charles; Estes, Samantha; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Most, if not all, <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> and Virtual Reality (VR) software programs are designed for one-G gravity applications. Space environments simulations require gravity effects of one one-thousandth to one one-million of that of the Earth's surface (10(exp -3) - 10(exp -6) G), thus one must be able to generate simulations that replicate those microgravity effects upon simulated astronauts. Unfortunately, the software programs utilized by the National Aeronautical and Space Administration does not have the ability to readily neutralize the one-G gravity effect. This pre-programmed situation causes the engineer or analysis difficulty during micro-gravity simulations. Therefore, microgravity simulations require special techniques or additional code in order to apply the power of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> graphic simulation to space related applications. This paper discusses the problem and possible solutions to allow microgravity <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>/VR simulations to be completed successfully without program code modifications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27607639','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27607639"><span id="translatedtitle">Structured light field <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> imaging.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cai, Zewei; Liu, Xiaoli; Peng, Xiang; Yin, Yongkai; Li, Ameng; Wu, Jiachen; Gao, Bruce Z</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>In this paper, we propose a method by means of light field imaging under structured illumination to deal with high dynamic range <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> imaging. Fringe patterns are projected onto a scene and modulated by the scene depth then a structured light field is detected using light field recording devices. The structured light field contains information about ray direction and phase-encoded depth, via which the scene depth can be estimated from different directions. The multidirectional depth estimation can achieve high dynamic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> imaging effectively. We analyzed and derived the phase-depth mapping in the structured light field and then proposed a flexible ray-based calibration approach to determine the independent mapping coefficients for each ray. Experimental results demonstrated the validity of the proposed method to perform high-quality <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> imaging for highly and lowly reflective surfaces. PMID:27607639</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8291E..09S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8291E..09S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> holoscopic video imaging system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Steurer, Johannes H.; Pesch, Matthias; Hahne, Christopher</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Since many years, integral imaging has been discussed as a technique to overcome the limitations of standard still photography imaging systems where a three-dimensional scene is irrevocably projected onto two dimensions. With the success of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> stereoscopic movies, a huge interest in capturing three-dimensional motion picture scenes has been generated. In this paper, we present a test bench integral imaging camera system aiming to tailor the methods of light field imaging towards capturing integral <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> motion picture content. We estimate the hardware requirements needed to generate high quality <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> holoscopic images and show a prototype camera setup that allows us to study these requirements using existing technology. The necessary steps that are involved in the calibration of the system as well as the technique of generating human readable holoscopic images from the recorded data are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8785E..3BR','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8785E..3BR"><span id="translatedtitle">Spectroradiometric characterization of autostereoscopic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> displays</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rubiño, Manuel; Salas, Carlos; Pozo, Antonio M.; Castro, J. J.; Pérez-Ocón, Francisco</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Spectroradiometric measurements have been made for the experimental characterization of the RGB channels of autostereoscopic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> displays, giving results for different measurement angles with respect to the normal direction of the plane of the display. In the study, 2 different models of autostereoscopic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> displays of different sizes and resolutions were used, making measurements with a spectroradiometer (model PR-670 SpectraScan of PhotoResearch). From the measurements made, goniometric results were recorded for luminance contrast, and the fundamental hypotheses have been evaluated for the characterization of the displays: independence of the RGB channels and their constancy. The results show that the display with the lower angle variability in the contrast-ratio value and constancy of the chromaticity coordinates nevertheless presented the greatest additivity deviations with the measurement angle. For both displays, when the parameters evaluated were taken into account, lower angle variability consistently resulted in the 2D mode than in the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> mode.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARP44006H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARP44006H"><span id="translatedtitle">Decoder for <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> color codes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hsu, Kung-Chuan; Brun, Todd</p> <p></p> <p>Transversal circuits are important components of fault-tolerant quantum computation. Several classes of quantum error-correcting codes are known to have transversal implementations of any logical Clifford operation. However, to achieve universal quantum computation, it would be helpful to have high-performance error-correcting codes that have a transversal implementation of some logical non-Clifford operation. The <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> color codes are a class of topological codes that permit transversal implementation of the logical π / 8 -gate. The decoding problem of a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> color code can be understood as a graph-matching problem on a three-dimensional lattice. Whether this class of codes will be useful in terms of performance is still an open question. We investigate the decoding problem of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> color codes and analyze the performance of some possible decoders.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSH43A2428D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSH43A2428D"><span id="translatedtitle">Particle Acceleration in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Magnetic Reconnection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dahlin, J.; Drake, J. F.; Swisdak, M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Magnetic reconnection is an important driver of energetic particles in phenomena such as magnetospheric storms and solar flares. Using kinetic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, we show that the stochastic magnetic field structure which develops during <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconnection plays a vital role in particle acceleration and transport. In a 2D system, electrons are trapped in magnetic islands which limits their energy gain. In a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> system, however, the stochastic magnetic field enables the energetic electrons to access volume-filling acceleration regions and therefore gain energy much more efficiently than in the 2D system. We also examine the relative roles of two important acceleration drivers: parallel electric fields and a Fermi mechanism associated with reflection of charged particles from contracting field lines. We find that parallel electric fields are most important for accelerating low energy particles, whereas Fermi reflection dominates energetic particle production. We also find that proton energization is reduced in the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/biblio/1133093','SCIGOVIMAGE-SCICINEMA'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/biblio/1133093"><span id="translatedtitle">Ames Lab 101: <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Metals Printer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/">ScienceCinema</a></p> <p>Ott, Ryan</p> <p>2014-06-04</p> <p>To meet one of the biggest energy challenges of the 21st century - finding alternatives to rare-earth elements and other critical materials - scientists will need new and advanced tools. The Critical Materials Institute at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory has a new one: a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printer for metals research. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing technology, which has captured the imagination of both industry and consumers, enables ideas to move quickly from the initial design phase to final form using materials including polymers, ceramics, paper and even food. But the Critical Materials Institute (CMI) will apply the advantages of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing process in a unique way: for materials discovery.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230117-finite-element-heat-transfer','SCIGOV-ESTSC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230117-finite-element-heat-transfer"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Finite Element Heat Transfer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/">Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1992-02-01</p> <p>TOPAZ<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a three-dimensional implicit finite element computer code for heat transfer analysis. TOPAZ<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> can be used to solve for the steady-state or transient temperature field on three-dimensional geometries. Material properties may be temperature-dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation. By implementing the user subroutine feature, users can model chemical reaction kinetics and allow for any type of functionalmore » representation of boundary conditions and internal heat generation. TOPAZ<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in the material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluids, phase change, and energy balances.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10372188','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10372188"><span id="translatedtitle">Impedance mammograph <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> phantom studies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wtorek, J; Stelter, J; Nowakowski, A</p> <p>1999-04-20</p> <p>The results obtained using the Technical University of Gdansk Electroimpedance Mammograph (TUGEM) of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> phantom study are presented. The TUGEM system is briefly described. The hardware contains the measurement head and DSP-based identification modules controlled by a PC computer. A specially developed reconstruction algorithm, Regulated Correction Frequency Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (RCFART), is used to obtain <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> images. To visualize results, the Advance Visualization System (AVS) is used. It allows a powerful image processing on a fast workstation or on a high-performance computer. Results of three types of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> conductivity perturbations used in the study (aluminum, Plexiglas, and cucumber) are shown. The relative volumes of perturbations less than 2% of the measurement chamber are easily evidenced. PMID:10372188</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27203184','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27203184"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> EIT image reconstruction with GREIT.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Grychtol, Bartłomiej; Müller, Beat; Adler, Andy</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Most applications of thoracic EIT use a single plane of electrodes on the chest from which a transverse image 'slice' is calculated. However, interpretation of EIT images is made difficult by the large region above and below the electrode plane to which EIT is sensitive. Volumetric EIT images using two (or more) electrode planes should help compensate, but are little used currently. The Graz consensus reconstruction algorithm for EIT (GREIT) has become popular in lung EIT. One shortcoming of the original formulation of GREIT is its restriction to reconstruction onto a 2D planar image. We present an extension of the GREIT algorithm to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and develop open-source tools to evaluate its performance as a function of the choice of stimulation and measurement pattern. Results show <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> GREIT using two electrode layers has significantly more uniform sensitivity profiles through the chest region. Overall, the advantages of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> EIT are compelling. PMID:27203184</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996SPIE.2656...58P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996SPIE.2656...58P"><span id="translatedtitle">Methods for comparing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surface attributes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pang, Alex; Freeman, Adam</p> <p>1996-03-01</p> <p>A common task in data analysis is to compare two or more sets of data, statistics, presentations, etc. A predominant method in use is side-by-side visual comparison of images. While straightforward, it burdens the user with the task of discerning the differences between the two images. The user if further taxed when the images are of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scenes. This paper presents several methods for analyzing the extent, magnitude, and manner in which surfaces in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> differ in their attributes. The surface geometry are assumed to be identical and only the surface attributes (color, texture, etc.) are variable. As a case in point, we examine the differences obtained when a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scene is rendered progressively using radiosity with different form factor calculation methods. The comparison methods include extensions of simple methods such as mapping difference information to color or transparency, and more recent methods including the use of surface texture, perturbation, and adaptive placements of error glyphs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMSM12B..01S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMSM12B..01S"><span id="translatedtitle">Local Diagnosis of Reconnection in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scudder, J. D.; Karimabadi, H.; Daughton, W. S.; Roytershteyn, V.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>We demonstrate (I,II) an approach to find reconnection sites in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> where there is no flux function for guidance, and where local observational signatures for the ``violation of frozen flux'' are under developed, if not non-existent. We use 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> PIC simulations of asymmetric guide field reconnection to test our observational hierarchy of single spacecraft kinetic diagnostics - all possible with present state of the art instrumentation. The proliferation of turbulent, electron inertial scale layers in the realistic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> case demonstrates that electron demagnetization, while necessary, is not sufficient to identify reconnection sites. An excellent local, observable, single spacecraft proxy is demonstrated for the size of the theoretical frozen flux violation. Since even frozen flux violations need not imply reconnection is at hand, a new calibrated dimensionless method is used to determine the importance of such violations. This measure is available in 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> to help differentiate reconnection layers from weaker frozen flux violating layers. We discuss the possibility that this technique can be implemented on MMS. A technique to highlight flow geometries conducive to reconnection in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> simulations is also suggested, that may also be implementable with the MMS flotilla. We use local analysis with multiple necessary, but theoretically independent electron kinetic conditions to help reduce the probability of misidentification of any given layer as a reconnection site. Since these local conditions are all necessary for the site, but none is known to be sufficient, the multiple tests help to greatly reduce false positive identifications. The selectivity of the results of this approach using PIC simulations of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> asymmetric guide field reconnection will be shown using varying numbers of simultaneous conditions. Scudder, J.D., H. Karimabadi, W. Daughton and V. Roytershteyn I, II, submitted Phys. Plasma., 2014</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27082335','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27082335"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed diffractive terahertz lenses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Furlan, Walter D; Ferrando, Vicente; Monsoriu, Juan A; Zagrajek, Przemysław; Czerwińska, Elżbieta; Szustakowski, Mieczysław</p> <p>2016-04-15</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printer was used to realize custom-made diffractive THz lenses. After testing several materials, phase binary lenses with periodic and aperiodic radial profiles were designed and constructed in polyamide material to work at 0.625 THz. The nonconventional focusing properties of such lenses were assessed by computing and measuring their axial point spread function (PSF). Our results demonstrate that inexpensive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed THz diffractive lenses can be reliably used in focusing and imaging THz systems. Diffractive THz lenses with unprecedented features, such as extended depth of focus or bifocalization, have been demonstrated. PMID:27082335</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614965R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614965R"><span id="translatedtitle">The Galicia <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> experiment: an Introduction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reston, Timothy; Martinez Loriente, Sara; Holroyd, Luke; Merry, Tobias; Sawyer, Dale; Morgan, Julia; Jordan, Brian; Tesi Sanjurjo, Mari; Alexanian, Ara; Shillington, Donna; Gibson, James; Minshull, Tim; Karplus, Marianne; Bayracki, Gaye; Davy, Richard; Klaeschen, Dirk; Papenberg, Cord; Ranero, Cesar; Perez-Gussinye, Marta; Martinez, Miguel</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>In June and July 2013, scientists from 8 institutions took part in the Galicia <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> seismic experiment, the first ever crustal -scale academic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> MCS survey over a rifted margin. The aim was to determine the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structure of a critical portion of the west Galicia rifted margin. At this margin, well-defined tilted fault blocks, bound by west-dipping faults and capped by synrift sediments are underlain by a bright reflection, undulating on time sections, termed the S reflector and thought to represent a major detachment fault of some kind. Moving west, the crust thins to zero thickness and mantle is unroofed, as evidence by the "Peridotite Ridge" first reported at this margin, but since observed at many other magma-poor margins. By imaging such a margin in detail, the experiment aimed to resolve the processes controlling crustal thinning and mantle unroofing at a type example magma poor margin. The experiment set out to collect several key datasets: a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> seismic reflection volume measuring ~20x64km and extending down to ~14s TWT, a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ocean bottom seismometer dataset suitable for full wavefield inversion (the recording of the complete <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> seismic shots by 70 ocean bottom instruments), the "mirror imaging" of the crust using the same grid of OBS, a single 2D combined reflection/refraction profile extending to the west to determine the transition from unroofed mantle to true oceanic crust, and the seismic imaging of the water column, calibrated by regular deployment of XBTs to measure the temperature structure of the water column. We collected 1280 km2 of seismic reflection data, consisting of 136533 shots recorded on 1920 channels, producing 260 million seismic traces, each ~ 14s long. This adds up to ~ 8 terabytes of data, representing, we believe, the largest ever academic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> MCS survey in terms of both the area covered and the volume of data. The OBS deployment was the largest ever within an academic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> survey.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010IAUS..265..201L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010IAUS..265..201L"><span id="translatedtitle">Solar abundances and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model atmospheres</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ludwig, Hans-Günter; Caffau, Elisabetta; Steffen, Matthias; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Freytag, Bernd; Cayrel, Roger</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>We present solar photospheric abundances for 12 elements from optical and near-infrared spectroscopy. The abundance analysis was conducted employing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> hydrodynamical (CO5BOLD) as well as standard 1D hydrostatic model atmospheres. We compare our results to others with emphasis on discrepancies and still lingering problems, in particular exemplified by the pivotal abundance of oxygen. We argue that the thermal structure of the lower solar photosphere is very well represented by our <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model. We obtain an excellent match of the observed center-to-limb variation of the line-blanketed continuum intensity, also at wavelengths shortward of the Balmer jump.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991SPIE.1444...75C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991SPIE.1444...75C"><span id="translatedtitle">Visualization of liver in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Chin-Tu; Chou, Jin-Shin; Giger, Maryellen L.; Kahn, Charles E., Jr.; Bae, Kyongtae T.; Lin, Wei-Chung</p> <p>1991-05-01</p> <p>Visualization of the liver in three dimensions (<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>) can improve the accuracy of volumetric estimation and also aid in surgical planning. We have developed a method for <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> visualization of the liver using x-ray computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) images. This method includes four major components: (1) segmentation algorithms for extracting liver data from tomographic images; (2) interpolation techniques for both shape and intensity; (3) schemes for volume rendering and display, and (4) routines for electronic surgery and image analysis. This method has been applied to cases from a living-donor liver transplant project and appears to be useful for surgical planning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6785E..25S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6785E..25S"><span id="translatedtitle">Acquisition and applications of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> images</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sterian, Paul; Mocanu, Elena</p> <p>2007-08-01</p> <p>The moiré fringes method and their analysis up to medical and entertainment applications are discussed in this paper. We describe the procedure of capturing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> images with an Inspeck Camera that is a real-time <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape acquisition system based on structured light techniques. The method is a high-resolution one. After processing the images, using computer, we can use the data for creating laser fashionable objects by engraving them with a Q-switched Nd:YAG. In medical field we mention the plastic surgery and the replacement of X-Ray especially in pediatric use.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.S31A2045S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.S31A2045S"><span id="translatedtitle">Anisotropy effects on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> waveform inversion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stekl, I.; Warner, M.; Umpleby, A.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>In the recent years <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> waveform inversion has become achievable procedure for seismic data processing. A number of datasets has been inverted and presented (Warner el al 2008, Ben Hadj at all, Sirgue et all 2010) using isotropic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> waveform inversion. However the question arises will the results be affected by isotropic assumption. Full-wavefield inversion techniques seek to match field data, wiggle-for-wiggle, to synthetic data generated by a high-resolution model of the sub-surface. In this endeavour, correctly matching the travel times of the principal arrivals is a necessary minimal requirement. In many, perhaps most, long-offset and wide-azimuth datasets, it is necessary to introduce some form of p-wave velocity anisotropy to match the travel times successfully. If this anisotropy is not also incorporated into the wavefield inversion, then results from the inversion will necessarily be compromised. We have incorporated anisotropy into our <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> wavefield tomography codes, characterised as spatially varying transverse isotropy with a tilted axis of symmetry - TTI anisotropy. This enhancement approximately doubles both the run time and the memory requirements of the code. We show that neglect of anisotropy can lead to significant artefacts in the recovered velocity models. We will present inversion results of inverting anisotropic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> dataset by assuming isotropic earth and compare them with anisotropic inversion result. As a test case Marmousi model extended to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> with no velocity variation in third direction and with added spatially varying anisotropy is used. Acquisition geometry is assumed as OBC with sources and receivers everywhere at the surface. We attempted inversion using both 2D and full <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> acquisition for this dataset. Results show that if no anisotropy is taken into account although image looks plausible most features are miss positioned in depth and space, even for relatively low anisotropy, which leads to incorrect result. This may lead to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ascl.soft09006B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ascl.soft09006B"><span id="translatedtitle">FARGO<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>: Hydrodynamics/magnetohydrodynamics code</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Benítez Llambay, Pablo; Masset, Frédéric</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>A successor of FARGO (ascl:1102.017), FARGO<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a versatile HD/MHD code that runs on clusters of CPUs or GPUs, with special emphasis on protoplanetary disks. FARGO<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> offers Cartesian, cylindrical or spherical geometry; 1-, 2- or 3-dimensional calculations; and orbital advection (aka FARGO) for HD and MHD calculations. As in FARGO, a simple Runge-Kutta N-body solver may be used to describe the orbital evolution of embedded point-like objects. There is no need to know CUDA; users can develop new functions in C and have them translated to CUDA automatically to run on GPUs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1166048','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1166048"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Modeling Engine Representation Summary Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Steven Prescott; Ramprasad Sampath; Curtis Smith; Timothy Yang</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Computers have been used for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> modeling and simulation, but only recently have computational resources been able to give realistic results in a reasonable time frame for large complex models. This summary report addressed the methods, techniques, and resources used to develop a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> modeling engine to represent risk analysis simulation for advanced small modular reactor structures and components. The simulations done for this evaluation were focused on external events, specifically tsunami floods, for a hypothetical nuclear power facility on a coastline.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EGUGA..1610669P&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EGUGA..1610669P&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Immersive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geovisualisation in higher education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Through geovisualisation we explore spatial data, we analyse it towards a specific questions, we synthesise results, and we present and communicate them to a specific audience (MacEachren & Kraak 1997). After centuries of paper maps, the means to represent and visualise our physical environment and its abstract qualities have changed dramatically since the 1990s - and accordingly the methods how to use geovisualisation in teaching. Whereas some people might still consider the traditional classroom as ideal setting for teaching and learning geographic relationships and its mapping, we used a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> CAVE (computer-animated virtual environment) as environment for a problem-oriented learning project called "GEOSimulator". Focussing on this project, we empirically investigated, if such a technological advance like the CAVE make <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> visualisation, including <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geovisualisation, not only an important tool for businesses (Abulrub et al. 2012) and for the public (Wissen et al. 2008), but also for educational purposes, for which it had hardly been used yet. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> CAVE is a three-sided visualisation platform, that allows for immersive and stereoscopic visualisation of observed and simulated spatial data. We examined the benefits of immersive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> visualisation for geographic research and education and synthesized three fundamental technology-based visual aspects: First, the conception and comprehension of space and location does not need to be generated, but is instantaneously and intuitively present through stereoscopy. Second, optical immersion into virtual reality strengthens this spatial perception which is in particular important for complex <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geometries. And third, a significant benefit is interactivity, which is enhanced through immersion and allows for multi-discursive and dynamic data exploration and knowledge transfer. Based on our problem-oriented learning project, which concentrates on a case study on flood risk management at the Wilde Weisseritz in Germany, a river</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26548335','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26548335"><span id="translatedtitle">Cryogenic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing for tissue engineering.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Adamkiewicz, Michal; Rubinsky, Boris</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We describe a new cryogenic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing technology for freezing hydrogels, with a potential impact to tissue engineering. We show that complex frozen hydrogel structures can be generated when the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> object is printed immersed in a liquid coolant (liquid nitrogen), whose upper surface is maintained at the same level as the highest deposited layer of the object. This novel approach ensures that the process of freezing is controlled precisely, and that already printed frozen layers remain at a constant temperature. We describe the device and present results which illustrate the potential of the new technology. PMID:26548335</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24288392','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24288392"><span id="translatedtitle">Innovations in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing: a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> overview from optics to organs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schubert, Carl; van Langeveld, Mark C; Donoso, Larry A</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing is a method of manufacturing in which materials, such as plastic or metal, are deposited onto one another in layers to produce a three dimensional object, such as a pair of eye glasses or other <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects. This process contrasts with traditional ink-based printers which produce a two dimensional object (ink on paper). To date, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing has primarily been used in engineering to create engineering prototypes. However, recent advances in printing materials have now enabled <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printers to make objects that are comparable with traditionally manufactured items. In contrast with conventional printers, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing has the potential to enable mass customisation of goods on a large scale and has relevance in medicine including ophthalmology. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing has already been proved viable in several medical applications including the manufacture of eyeglasses, custom prosthetic devices and dental implants. In this review, we discuss the potential for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing to revolutionise manufacturing in the same way as the printing press revolutionised conventional printing. The applications and limitations of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing are discussed; the production process is demonstrated by producing a set of eyeglass frames from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> blueprints. PMID:24288392</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9495E..07S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9495E..07S"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent developments in DFD (depth-fused <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) display and arc <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> display</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Suyama, Shiro; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>We will report our recent developments in DFD (Depth-fused <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) display and arc <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> display, both of which have smooth movement parallax. Firstly, fatigueless DFD display, composed of only two layered displays with a gap, has continuous perceived depth by changing luminance ratio between two images. Two new methods, called "Edge-based DFD display" and "Deep DFD display", have been proposed in order to solve two severe problems of viewing angle and perceived depth limitations. Edge-based DFD display, layered by original 2D image and its edge part with a gap, can expand the DFD viewing angle limitation both in 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> perception. Deep DFD display can enlarge the DFD image depth by modulating spatial frequencies of front and rear images. Secondly, Arc <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> display can provide floating <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> images behind or in front of the display by illuminating many arc-shaped directional scattering sources, for example, arcshaped scratches on a flat board. Curved Arc <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> display, composed of many directional scattering sources on a curved surface, can provide a peculiar <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image, for example, a floating image in the cylindrical bottle. The new active device has been proposed for switching arc <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> images by using the tips of dual-frequency liquid-crystal prisms as directional scattering sources. Directional scattering can be switched on/off by changing liquid-crystal refractive index, resulting in switching of arc <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26630071','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26630071"><span id="translatedtitle">Segmentation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> EBSD data for subgrain boundary identification and feature characterization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Loeb, Andrew; Ferry, Michael; Bassman, Lori</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Subgrain structures formed during plastic deformation of metals can be observed by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) but are challenging to identify automatically. We have adapted a 2D image segmentation technique, fast multiscale clustering (FMC), to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> EBSD data using a novel variance function to accommodate quaternion data. This adaptation, which has been incorporated into the free open source texture analysis software package MTEX, is capable of segmenting based on subtle and gradual variation as well as on sharp boundaries within the data. FMC has been further modified to group the resulting closed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> segment boundaries into distinct coherent surfaces based on local normals of a <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> surface. We demonstrate the excellent capabilities of this technique with application to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> EBSD data sets generated from cold rolled aluminum containing well-defined microbands, cold rolled and partly recrystallized extra low carbon steel microstructure containing three magnitudes of boundary misorientations, and channel-die plane strain compressed Goss-oriented nickel crystal containing microbands with very subtle changes in orientation. PMID:26630071</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6509E..09A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6509E..09A"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> visualization and guidance system for handheld optical imaging devices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Azar, Fred S.; de Roquemaurel, Benoit; Cerussi, Albert; Hajjioui, Nassim; Li, Ang; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Sauer, Frank</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>We have developed a novel <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> visualization and guidance system for handheld optical imaging devices. In this paper, the system is applied to measurements of breast/cancerous tissue optical properties using a handheld diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) instrument. The combined guidance system/DOS instrument becomes particularly useful for monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients and for longitudinal studies where measurement reproducibility is critical. The system uses relatively inexpensive hardware components and comprises a 6 degrees-of-freedom (DOF) magnetic tracking device including a DC field generator, three sensors, and a PCI card running on a PC workstation. A custom-built virtual environment combined with a well-defined workflow provide the means for image-guided measurements, improved longitudinal studies of breast optical properties, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction of optical properties within the anatomical map, and serial data registration. The DOS instrument characterizes tissue function such as water, lipid and total hemoglobin concentration. The patient lies on her back at a 45-degrees angle. Each spectral measurement requires consistent contact with the skin, and lasts about 5-10 seconds. Therefore a limited number of positions may be studied. In a reference measurement session, the physician acquires surface points on the breast. A Delaunay-based <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> algorithm is used to build the virtual breast surface from the acquired points. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> locations of all DOS measurements are recorded. All subsequently acquired surfaces are automatically registered to the reference surface, thus allowing measurement reproducibility through image guidance using the reference measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8399E..0ND','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8399E..0ND"><span id="translatedtitle">Dense point-cloud creation using superresolution for a monocular <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Diskin, Yakov; Asari, Vijayan K.</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>We present an enhanced <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction algorithm designed to support an autonomously navigated unmanned aerial system (UAS). The algorithm presented focuses on the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction of a scene using only a single moving camera. In this way, the system can be used to construct a point cloud model of its unknown surroundings. The original reconstruction process, resulting with a point cloud was computed based on feature matching and depth <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> analysis. Although dense, this original model was hindered due to its low disparity resolution. As feature points were matched from frame to frame, the resolution of the input images and the discrete nature of disparities limited the depth computations within a scene. With the recent addition of the preprocessing steps of nonlinear super resolution, the accuracy of the point cloud which relies on precise disparity measurement has significantly increased. Using a pixel by pixel approach, the super resolution technique computes the phase congruency of each pixel's neighborhood and produces nonlinearly interpolated high resolution input frames. Thus, a feature point travels a more precise discrete disparity. Also, the quantity of points within the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> point cloud model is significantly increased since the number of features is directly proportional to the resolution and high frequencies of the input image. The contribution of the newly added preprocessing steps is measured by evaluating the density and accuracy of the reconstructed point cloud for autonomous navigation and mapping tasks within unknown environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JBO....17c6004P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JBO....17c6004P"><span id="translatedtitle">Laser <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> measuring system and real-time visual feedback for teaching and correcting breathing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Povšič, Klemen; Fležar, Matjaž; Možina, Janez; Jezeršek, Matija</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>We present a novel method for real-time <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> body-shape measurement during breathing based on the laser multiple-line <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> principle. The laser projector illuminates the measured surface with a pattern of 33 equally inclined light planes. Simultaneously, the camera records the distorted light pattern from a different viewpoint. The acquired images are transferred to a personal computer, where the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> surface reconstruction, shape analysis, and display are performed in real time. The measured surface displacements are displayed with a color palette, which enables visual feedback to the patient while breathing is being taught. The measuring range is approximately 400×600×500 mm in width, height, and depth, respectively, and the accuracy of the calibrated apparatus is +/-0.7 mm. The system was evaluated by means of its capability to distinguish between different breathing patterns. The accuracy of the measured volumes of chest-wall deformation during breathing was verified using standard methods of volume measurements. The results show that the presented <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> measuring system with visual feedback has great potential as a diagnostic and training assistance tool when monitoring and evaluating the breathing pattern, because it offers a simple and effective method of graphical communication with the patient.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120001455','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120001455"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of CART<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> to Complex Propulsion-Airframe Integration with Vehicle Sketch Pad</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hahn, Andrew S.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Vehicle Sketch Pad (VSP) is an easy-to-use modeler used to generate aircraft geometries for use in conceptual design and analysis. It has been used in the past to generate metageometries for aerodynamic analyses ranging from handbook methods to Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics (CFD). As desirable as it is to bring high order analyses, such as CFD, into the conceptual design process, this has been difficult and time consuming in practice due to the manual nature of both surface and volume grid generation. Over the last couple of years, VSP has had a major upgrade of its surface <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> and export capability. This has enhanced its ability to work with Cart<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, an inviscid, three dimensional fluid flow toolset. The combination of VSP and Cart<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> allows performing inviscid CFD on complex geometries with relatively high productivity. This paper will illustrate the use of VSP with Cart<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> through an example case of a complex propulsion-airframe integration (PAI) of an over-wing nacelle (OWN) airliner configuration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010MeScT..21a5702L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010MeScT..21a5702L"><span id="translatedtitle">A real-time <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanning system for pavement distortion inspection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Qingguang; Yao, Ming; Yao, Xun; Xu, Bugao</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Pavement distortions, such as rutting and shoving, are the common pavement distress problems that need to be inspected and repaired in a timely manner to ensure ride quality and traffic safety. This paper introduces a real-time, low-cost inspection system devoted to detecting these distress features using high-speed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> transverse scanning techniques. The detection principle is the dynamic generation and characterization of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> pavement profile based on structured light <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>. To improve the accuracy of the system, a multi-view coplanar scheme is employed in the calibration procedure so that more feature points can be used and distributed across the field of view of the camera. A sub-pixel line extraction method is applied for the laser stripe location, which includes filtering, edge detection and spline interpolation. The pavement transverse profile is then generated from the laser stripe curve and approximated by line segments. The second-order derivatives of the segment endpoints are used to identify the feature points of possible distortions. The system can output the real-time measurements and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> visualization of rutting and shoving distress in a scanned pavement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPArXL15...43A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPArXL15...43A"><span id="translatedtitle">An Image-Based Technique for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> Building Reconstruction Using Multi-View Uav Images</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alidoost, F.; Arefi, H.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Nowadays, with the development of the urban areas, the automatic reconstruction of the buildings, as an important objects of the city complex structures, became a challenging topic in computer vision and photogrammetric researches. In this paper, the capability of multi-view Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) images is examined to provide a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model of complex building façades using an efficient image-based modelling workflow. The main steps of this work include: pose estimation, point cloud generation, and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> modelling. After improving the initial values of interior and exterior parameters at first step, an efficient image matching technique such as Semi Global Matching (SGM) is applied on UAV images and a dense point cloud is generated. Then, a mesh model of points is calculated using Delaunay 2.5D <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> and refined to obtain an accurate model of building. Finally, a texture is assigned to mesh in order to create a realistic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model. The resulting model has provided enough details of building based on visual assessment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6813E..0AE','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6813E..0AE"><span id="translatedtitle">New solutions and applications of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> computer tomography image processing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Effenberger, Ira; Kroll, Julia; Verl, Alexander</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>As nowadays the industry aims at fast and high quality product development and manufacturing processes a modern and efficient quality inspection is essential. Compared to conventional measurement technologies, industrial computer tomography (CT) is a non-destructive technology for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-image data acquisition which helps to overcome their disadvantages by offering the possibility to scan complex parts with all outer and inner geometric features. In this paper new and optimized methods for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image processing, including innovative ways of surface reconstruction and automatic geometric feature detection of complex components, are presented, especially our work of developing smart online data processing and data handling methods, with an integrated intelligent online mesh reduction. Hereby the processing of huge and high resolution data sets is guaranteed. Besides, new approaches for surface reconstruction and segmentation based on statistical methods are demonstrated. On the extracted <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> point cloud or surface <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> automated and precise algorithms for geometric inspection are deployed. All algorithms are applied to different real data sets generated by computer tomography in order to demonstrate the capabilities of the new tools. Since CT is an emerging technology for non-destructive testing and inspection more and more industrial application fields will use and profit from this new technology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ISPAn..I3..105E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ISPAn..I3..105E"><span id="translatedtitle">Octree-Based SIMD Strategy for Icp Registration and Alignment of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> Point Clouds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eggert, D.; Dalyot, S.</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>Matching and fusion of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> point clouds, such as close range laser scans, is important for creating an integrated <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model data infrastructure. The Iterative Closest Point algorithm for alignment of point clouds is one of the most commonly used algorithms for matching of rigid bodies. Evidently, scans are acquired from different positions and might present different data characterization and accuracies, forcing complex data-handling issues. The growing demand for near real-time applications also introduces new computational requirements and constraints into such processes. This research proposes a methodology to solving the computational and processing complexities in the ICP algorithm by introducing specific performance enhancements to enable more efficient analysis and processing. An Octree data structure together with the caching of localized Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>-based surface meshes is implemented to increase computation efficiency and handling of data. Parallelization of the ICP process is carried out by using the Single Instruction, Multiple Data processing scheme - based on the Divide and Conquer multi-branched paradigm - enabling multiple processing elements to be performed on the same operation on multiple data independently and simultaneously. When compared to the traditional non-parallel list processing the Octree-based SIMD strategy showed a sharp increase in computation performance and efficiency, together with a reliable and accurate alignment of large <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> point clouds, contributing to a qualitative and efficient application.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSMSA51A..02T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSMSA51A..02T"><span id="translatedtitle">The EISCAT_<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Science Case</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tjulin, A.; Mann, I.; McCrea, I.; Aikio, A. T.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>EISCAT_<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> will be a world-leading international research infrastructure using the incoherent scatter technique to study the atmosphere in the Fenno-Scandinavian Arctic and to investigate how the Earth's atmosphere is coupled to space. The EISCAT_<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> phased-array multistatic radar system will be operated by EISCAT Scientific Association and thus be an integral part of an organisation that has successfully been running incoherent scatter radars for more than thirty years. The baseline design of the radar system contains a core site with transmitting and receiving capabilities located close to the intersection of the Swedish, Norwegian and Finnish borders and five receiving sites located within 50 to 250 km from the core. The EISCAT_<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> project is currently in its Preparatory Phase and can smoothly transit into implementation in 2014, provided sufficient funding. Construction can start 2016 and first operations in 2018. The EISCAT_<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Science Case is prepared as part of the Preparatory Phase. It is regularly updated with annual new releases, and it aims at being a common document for the whole future EISCAT_<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> user community. The areas covered by the Science Case are atmospheric physics and global change; space and plasma physics; solar system research; space weather and service applications; and radar techniques, new methods for coding and analysis. Two of the aims for EISCAT_<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> are to understand the ways natural variability in the upper atmosphere, imposed by the Sun-Earth system, can influence the middle and lower atmosphere, and to improve the predictivity of atmospheric models by providing higher resolution observations to replace the current parametrised input. Observations by EISCAT_<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> will also be used to monitor the direct effects from the Sun on the ionosphere-atmosphere system and those caused by solar wind magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction. In addition, EISCAT_<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> will be used for remote sensing the large-scale behaviour of the magnetosphere from its</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7723E..1FA','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7723E..1FA"><span id="translatedtitle">Minimizing camera-eye optical aberrations during the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction of retinal structures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aldana-Iuit, Javier; Martinez-Perez, M. Elena; Espinosa-Romero, Arturo; Diaz-Uribe, Rufino</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction of blood vessels is a powerful visualization tool for physicians, since it allows them to refer to qualitative representation of their subject of study. In this paper we propose a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction method of retinal vessels from fundus images. The reconstruction method propose herein uses images of the same retinal structure in epipolar geometry. Images are preprocessed by RISA system for segmenting blood vessels and obtaining feature points for correspondences. The correspondence points process is solved using correlation. The LMedS analysis and Graph Transformation Matching algorithm are used for outliers suppression. Camera projection matrices are computed with the normalized eight point algorithm. Finally, we retrieve <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> position of the retinal tree points by linear <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>. In order to increase the power of visualization, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> tree skeletons are represented by surfaces via generalized cylinders whose radius correspond to morphological measurements obtained by RISA. In this paper the complete calibration process including the fundus camera and the optical properties of the eye, the so called camera-eye system is proposed. On one hand, the internal parameters of the fundus camera are obtained by classical algorithms using a reference pattern. On the other hand, we minimize the undesirable efects of the aberrations induced by the eyeball optical system assuming that contact enlarging lens corrects astigmatism, spherical and coma aberrations are reduced changing the aperture size and eye refractive errors are suppressed adjusting camera focus during image acquisition. Evaluation of two self-calibration proposals and results of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> blood vessel surface reconstruction are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21181572','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21181572"><span id="translatedtitle">Automatic system for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction of the chick eye based on digital photographs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wong, Alexander; Genest, Reno; Chandrashekar, Naveen; Choh, Vivian; Irving, Elizabeth L</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The geometry of anatomical specimens is very complex and accurate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction is important for morphological studies, finite element analysis (FEA) and rapid prototyping. Although magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography and laser scanners can be used for reconstructing biological structures, the cost of the equipment is fairly high and specialised technicians are required to operate the equipment, making such approaches limiting in terms of accessibility. In this paper, a novel automatic system for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surface reconstruction of the chick eye from digital photographs of a serially sectioned specimen is presented as a potential cost-effective and practical alternative. The system is designed to allow for automatic detection of the external surface of the chick eye. Automatic alignment of the photographs is performed using a combination of coloured markers and an algorithm based on complex phase order likelihood that is robust to noise and illumination variations. Automatic segmentation of the external boundaries of the eye from the aligned photographs is performed using a novel level-set segmentation approach based on a complex phase order energy functional. The extracted boundaries are sampled to construct a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> point cloud, and a combination of Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> and subdivision surfaces is employed to construct the final triangular mesh. Experimental results using digital photographs of the chick eye show that the proposed system is capable of producing accurate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstructions of the external surface of the eye. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model geometry is similar to a real chick eye and could be used for morphological studies and FEA. PMID:21181572</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4809644','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4809644"><span id="translatedtitle">A Framework for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Vessel Analysis using Whole Slide Images of Liver Tissue Sections</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liang, Yanhui; Wang, Fusheng; Treanor, Darren; Magee, Derek; Roberts, Nick; Teodoro, George; Zhu, Yangyang; Kong, Jun</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) high resolution microscopic images have high potential for improving the understanding of both normal and disease processes where structural changes or spatial relationship of disease features are significant. In this paper, we develop a complete framework applicable to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> pathology analytical imaging, with an application to whole slide images of sequential liver slices for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> vessel structure analysis. The analysis workflow consists of image registration, segmentation, vessel cross-section association, interpolation, and volumetric rendering. To identify biologically-meaningful correspondence across adjacent slides, we formulate a similarity function for four association cases. The optimal solution is then obtained by <span class="hlt">constrained</span> Integer Programming. We quantitatively and qualitatively compare our vessel reconstruction results with human annotations. Validation results indicate a satisfactory concordance as measured both by region-based and distance-based metrics. These results demonstrate a promising <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> vessel analysis framework for whole slide images of liver tissue sections. PMID:27034719</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1110512','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1110512"><span id="translatedtitle">Advancements in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Structural Analysis of Geothermal Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Siler, Drew L; Faulds, James E; Mayhew, Brett; McNamara, David</p> <p>2013-06-23</p> <p>Robust geothermal activity in the Great Basin, USA is a product of both anomalously high regional heat flow and active fault-controlled extension. Elevated permeability associated with some fault systems provides pathways for circulation of geothermal fluids. <span class="hlt">Constraining</span> the local-scale <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geometry of these structures and their roles as fluid flow conduits is crucial in order to mitigate both the costs and risks of geothermal exploration and to identify blind (no surface expression) geothermal resources. Ongoing studies have indicated that much of the robust geothermal activity in the Great Basin is associated with high density faulting at structurally complex fault intersection/interaction areas, such as accommodation/transfer zones between discrete fault systems, step-overs or relay ramps in fault systems, intersection zones between faults with different strikes or different senses of slip, and horse-tailing fault terminations. These conceptualized models are crucial for locating and characterizing geothermal systems in a regional context. At the local scale, however, pinpointing drilling targets and characterizing resource potential within known or probable geothermal areas requires precise <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> characterization of the system. Employing a variety of surface and subsurface data sets, we have conducted detailed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geologic analyses of two Great Basin geothermal systems. Using EarthVision (Dynamic Graphics Inc., Alameda, CA) we constructed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geologic models of both the actively producing Brady’s geothermal system and a ‘greenfield’ geothermal prospect at Astor Pass, NV. These <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models allow spatial comparison of disparate data sets in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and are the basis for quantitative structural analyses that can aid geothermal resource assessment and be used to pinpoint discrete drilling targets. The relatively abundant data set at Brady’s, ~80 km NE of Reno, NV, includes 24 wells with lithologies interpreted from careful analysis of cuttings and core, a 1</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015CoPhC.190....1Z&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015CoPhC.190....1Z&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Molecular dynamics-based <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> algorithm of free-form parametric surfaces for computer-aided engineering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zheleznyakova, A. L.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>A new computational approach for automated <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> of Computer-Aided Design (CAD) surface models, applicable to various CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) problems of practical interest is proposed. The complex shaped product configurations are represented by a set of Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) surface patches. The suggested technique is based on the molecular dynamics method. The main idea of the approach is that the mesh nodes are considered as similarly charged interacting particles which move within the region to be meshed under the influence of internal (such as particle-particle interaction forces) and external forces as well as optional additional forces. Moreover, the particles experience a medium resistance due to which the system comes to equilibrium within a relatively short period of time. The proposed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surface mesh generation algorithm uses a parametric NURBS representation as initial definition of the domain boundary. This method first distributes the interacting nodes into optimal locations in the parametric domain of the NURBS surface patch using molecular dynamics simulation. Then, the well-shaped triangles can be created after connecting the nodes by Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>. Finally, the mapping from parametric space to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> physical space is performed. Since the presented interactive algorithm allows to control the distance between a pair of nodes depending on the curvature of the NURBS surface, the method generates high quality triangular mesh. The algorithm enables to produce uniform mesh, as well as anisotropic adaptive mesh with refinement in the large gradient regions. The mesh generation approach has the abilities to preserve the representation accuracy of the input geometry model, create a close relationship between geometry modeling and grid generation process, be automated to a large degree. Some examples are considered in order to illustrate the method's ability to generate a surface mesh for a complicated CAD model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ApJS..223...11B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ApJS..223...11B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">FARGO<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>: A New GPU-oriented MHD Code</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Benítez-Llambay, Pablo; Masset, Frédéric S.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>We present the FARGO<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> code, recently publicly released. It is a magnetohydrodynamics code developed with special emphasis on the physics of protoplanetary disks and planet-disk interactions, and parallelized with MPI. The hydrodynamics algorithms are based on finite-difference upwind, dimensionally split methods. The magnetohydrodynamics algorithms consist of the <span class="hlt">constrained</span> transport method to preserve the divergence-free property of the magnetic field to machine accuracy, coupled to a method of characteristics for the evaluation of electromotive forces and Lorentz forces. Orbital advection is implemented, and an N-body solver is included to simulate planets or stars interacting with the gas. We present our implementation in detail and present a number of widely known tests for comparison purposes. One strength of FARGO<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is that it can run on either graphical processing units (GPUs) or central processing units (CPUs), achieving large speed-up with respect to CPU cores. We describe our implementation choices, which allow a user with no prior knowledge of GPU programming to develop new routines for CPUs, and have them translated automatically for GPUs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16278063','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16278063"><span id="translatedtitle">A method for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction of coronary arteries using biplane angiography and intravascular ultrasound images.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bourantas, Christos V; Kourtis, Iraklis C; Plissiti, Marina E; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I; Katsouras, Christos S; Papafaklis, Michail I; Michalis, Lampros K</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>The aim of this study is to describe a new method for the three-dimensional reconstruction of coronary arteries and its quantitative validation. Our approach is based on the fusion of the data provided by intravascular ultrasound images (IVUS) and biplane angiographies. A specific segmentation algorithm is used for the detection of the regions of interest in intravascular ultrasound images. A new methodology is also introduced for the accurate extraction of the catheter path. In detail, a cubic B-spline is used for approximating the catheter path in each biplane projection. Each B-spline curve is swept along the normal direction of its X-ray angiographic plane forming a surface. The intersection of the two surfaces is a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> curve, which represents the reconstructed path. The detected regions of interest in the IVUS images are placed perpendicularly onto the path and their relative axial twist is computed using the sequential <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> algorithm. Then, an efficient algorithm is applied to estimate the absolute orientation of the first IVUS frame. In order to obtain <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> visualization the commercial package Geomagic Studio 4.0 is used. The performance of the proposed method is assessed using a validation methodology which addresses the separate validation of each step followed for obtaining the coronary reconstruction. The performance of the segmentation algorithm was examined in 80 IVUS images. The reliability of the path extraction method was studied in vitro using a metal wire model and in vivo in a dataset of 11 patients. The performance of the sequential <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> algorithm was tested in two gutter models and in the coronary arteries (marked with metal clips) of six cadaveric sheep hearts. Finally, the accuracy in the estimation of the first IVUS frame absolute orientation was examined in the same set of cadaveric sheep hearts. The obtained results demonstrate that the proposed reconstruction method is reliable and capable of depicting the morphology of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013PhDT.......497S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013PhDT.......497S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Automatic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Building Detection and Modeling from Airborne LiDAR Point Clouds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sun, Shaohui</p> <p></p> <p> vertices to produce <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> mesh models. These <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> mesh models are suitable for many applications, such as <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> mapping, urban planning and augmented reality.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhDT.......121L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhDT.......121L"><span id="translatedtitle">The capture and recreation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> auditory scenes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Zhiyun</p> <p></p> <p>The main goal of this research is to develop the theory and implement practical tools (in both software and hardware) for the capture and recreation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> auditory scenes. Our research is expected to have applications in virtual reality, telepresence, film, music, video games, auditory user interfaces, and sound-based surveillance. The first part of our research is concerned with sound capture via a spherical microphone array. The advantage of this array is that it can be steered into any <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> directions digitally with the same beampattern. We develop design methodologies to achieve flexible microphone layouts, optimal beampattern approximation and robustness constraint. We also design novel hemispherical and circular microphone array layouts for more spatially <span class="hlt">constrained</span> auditory scenes. Using the captured audio, we then propose a unified and simple approach for recreating them by exploring the reciprocity principle that is satisfied between the two processes. Our approach makes the system easy to build, and practical. Using this approach, we can capture the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> sound field by a spherical microphone array and recreate it using a spherical loudspeaker array, and ensure that the recreated sound field matches the recorded field up to a high order of spherical harmonics. For some regular or semi-regular microphone layouts, we design an efficient parallel implementation of the multi-directional spherical beamformer by using the rotational symmetries of the beampattern and of the spherical microphone array. This can be implemented in either software or hardware and easily adapted for other regular or semi-regular layouts of microphones. In addition, we extend this approach for headphone-based system. Design examples and simulation results are presented to verify our algorithms. Prototypes are built and tested in real-world auditory scenes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150002980','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150002980"><span id="translatedtitle">Complete Tem-Tomography: <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Structure of Gems Cluster</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Matsuno, J.; Miyake, A.; Tsuchiyama, A.; Messenger, S.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfide) grains in interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) are considered to be one of the ubiquitous and fundamental building blocks of solids in the Solar System. They have been considered to be interstellar silicate dust that survived various metamorphism or alteration processes in the protoplanetary disk but the elemental and isotopic composition measurements suggest that most of them have been formed in the protoplanetary disk as condensates from high temperature gas. This formation model is also supported by the formation of GEMS-like grains with respect to the size, mineral assemblage, texture and infrared spectrum by condensation experiments from mean GEMS composition materials. Previous GEMS studies were performed only with 2D observation by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or scanning TEM (STEM). However, the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape and structure of GEMS grains and the spatial distribution of Fe/FeS's has critical information about their formation and origin. Recently, the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structure of GEMS grains in ultrathin sections of cluster IDPs was revealed by electron tomography using a TEM/STEM (JEM-2100F, JEOL). However, CT images of thin sections mounted on Cu grids acquired by conventional TEM-tomography are limited to low tilt angles (e. g., less than absolute value of 75 deg. In fact, previous <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> TEM observations of GEMS were affected by some artifacts related to the limited tilt range in the TEM used. Complete tomographic images should be acquired by rotating the sample tilt angle over a range of more than absolute value of 80 deg otherwise the CT images lose their correct structures. In order to <span class="hlt">constrain</span> the origin and formation process of GEMS grains more clearly, we performed complete electron tomography for GEMS grains. Here we report the sample preparation method we have developed for this study, and the preliminary results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26285181','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26285181"><span id="translatedtitle">Density-tapered spiral arrays for ultrasound <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> imaging.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ramalli, Alessandro; Boni, Enrico; Savoia, Alessandro Stuart; Tortoli, Piero</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>The current high interest in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> ultrasound imaging is pushing the development of 2-D probes with a challenging number of active elements. The most popular approach to limit this number is the sparse array technique, which designs the array layout by means of complex optimization algorithms. These algorithms are typically <span class="hlt">constrained</span> by a few steering conditions, and, as such, cannot guarantee uniform side-lobe performance at all angles. The performance may be improved by the ungridded extensions of the sparse array technique, but this result is achieved at the expense of a further complication of the optimization process. In this paper, a method to design the layout of large circular arrays with a limited number of elements according to Fermat's spiral seeds and spatial density modulation is proposed and shown to be suitable for application to <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> ultrasound imaging. This deterministic, aperiodic, and balanced positioning procedure attempts to guarantee uniform performance over a wide range of steering angles. The capabilities of the method are demonstrated by simulating and comparing the performance of spiral and dense arrays. A good trade-off for small vessel imaging is found, e.g., in the 60λ spiral array with 1.0λ elements and Blackman density tapering window. Here, the grating lobe level is -16 dB, the lateral resolution is lower than 6λ the depth of field is 120λ and, the average contrast is 10.<span class="hlt">3</span> <span class="hlt">d</span>B, while the sensitivity remains in a 5 dB range for a wide selection of steering angles. The simulation results may represent a reference guide to the design of spiral sparse array probes for different application fields. PMID:26285181</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/tm/14/a01/pdf/tm14-a1.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/tm/14/a01/pdf/tm14-a1.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Scoops<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>: software to analyze <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> slope stability throughout a digital landscape</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Reid, Mark E.; Christian, Sarah B.; Brien, Dianne L.; Henderson, Scott T.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The computer program, Scoops<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, evaluates slope stability throughout a digital landscape represented by a digital elevation model (DEM). The program uses a three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) method of columns approach to assess the stability of many (typically millions) potential landslides within a user-defined size range. For each potential landslide (or failure), Scoops<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> assesses the stability of a rotational, spherical slip surface encompassing many DEM cells using a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> version of either Bishop’s simplified method or the Ordinary (Fellenius) method of limit-equilibrium analysis. Scoops<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> has several options for the user to systematically and efficiently search throughout an entire DEM, thereby incorporating the effects of complex surface topography. In a thorough search, each DEM cell is included in multiple potential failures, and Scoops<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> records the lowest stability (factor of safety) for each DEM cell, as well as the size (volume or area) associated with each of these potential landslides. It also determines the least-stable potential failure for the entire DEM. The user has a variety of options for building a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> domain, including layers or full <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> distributions of strength and pore-water pressures, simplistic earthquake loading, and unsaturated suction conditions. Results from Scoops<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> can be readily incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) or other visualization software. This manual includes information on the theoretical basis for the slope-stability analysis, requirements for constructing and searching a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> domain, a detailed operational guide (including step-by-step instructions for using the graphical user interface [GUI] software, Scoops<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-i) and input/output file specifications, practical considerations for conducting an analysis, results of verification tests, and multiple examples illustrating the capabilities of Scoops<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. Easy-to-use software installation packages are available for the Windows or Macintosh operating systems; these packages</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013SPIE.8738E..0CM&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013SPIE.8738E..0CM&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of viewing distance on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> fatigue caused by viewing mobile <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> content</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mun, Sungchul; Lee, Dong-Su; Park, Min-Chul; Yano, Sumio</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>With an advent of autostereoscopic display technique and increased needs for smart phones, there has been a significant growth in mobile TV markets. The rapid growth in technical, economical, and social aspects has encouraged <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> TV manufacturers to apply <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> rendering technology to mobile devices so that people have more opportunities to come into contact with many <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> content anytime and anywhere. Even if the mobile <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> technology leads to the current market growth, there is an important thing to consider for consistent development and growth in the display market. To put it briefly, human factors linked to mobile <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> viewing should be taken into consideration before developing mobile <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> technology. Many studies have investigated whether mobile <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> viewing causes undesirable biomedical effects such as motion sickness and visual fatigue, but few have examined main factors adversely affecting human health. Viewing distance is considered one of the main factors to establish optimized viewing environments from a viewer's point of view. Thus, in an effort to determine human-friendly viewing environments, this study aims to investigate the effect of viewing distance on human visual system when exposing to mobile <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> environments. Recording and analyzing brainwaves before and after watching mobile <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> content, we explore how viewing distance affects viewing experience from physiological and psychological perspectives. Results obtained in this study are expected to provide viewing guidelines for viewers, help ensure viewers against undesirable <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> effects, and lead to make gradual progress towards a human-friendly mobile <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> viewing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAnIII2...23K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAnIII2...23K"><span id="translatedtitle">Automated Photogrammetric Image Matching with Sift Algorithm and Delaunay <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Karagiannis, Georgios; Antón Castro, Francesc; Mioc, Darka</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>An algorithm for image matching of multi-sensor and multi-temporal satellite images is developed. The method is based on the SIFT feature detector proposed by Lowe in (Lowe, 1999). First, SIFT feature points are detected independently in two images (reference and sensed image). The features detected are invariant to image rotations, translations, scaling and also to changes in illumination, brightness and 3-dimensional viewpoint. Afterwards, each feature of the reference image is matched with one in the sensed image if, and only if, the distance between them multiplied by a threshold is shorter than the distances between the point and all the other points in the sensed image. Then, the matched features are used to compute the parameters of the homography that transforms the coordinate system of the sensed image to the coordinate system of the reference image. The Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulations</span> of each feature set for each image are computed. The isomorphism of the Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulations</span> is determined to guarantee the quality of the image matching. The algorithm is implemented in Matlab and tested on World-View 2, SPOT6 and TerraSAR-X image patches.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10188686','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10188686"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic ray tracing and its application in <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rueger, A.</p> <p>1993-07-01</p> <p>Hale and Cohen (1991) developed software to generate two-dimensional computer models of complex geology. Their method uses a <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> technique designed to support efficient and accurate computation of seismic wavefields for models of the earth`s interior. Subsequently, Hale (1991) used this <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> approach to perform dynamic ray tracing and create synthetic seismograms based on the method of Gaussian beams. Here, I extend this methodology to allow an increased variety of ray-theoretical experiments. Specifically, the developed program GBmod (Gaussian Beam MODeling) can produce arbitrary multiple sequences and incorporate attenuation and density variations. In addition, I have added an option to perform Fresnel-volume ray tracing (Cerveny and Soares, 1992). Corrections for reflection and transmission losses at interfaces, and for two-and-one-half-dimensional (2.5-D) spreading are included. However, despite these enhancements, difficulties remain in attempts to compute accurate synthetic seismograms if strong lateral velocity inhomogeneities are present. Here, these problems are discussed and, to a certain extent, reduced. I provide example computations of high-frequency seismograms based on the method of Gaussian beams to exhibit the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed modeling method and illustrate new features for both surface and vertical seismic profiling (VSP) acquisition geometries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26917441','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26917441"><span id="translatedtitle">The finite body <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>: algorithms, subgraphs, homogeneity estimation and application.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carson, Cantwell G; Levine, Jonathan S</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>The concept of a finite body Dirichlet tessellation has been extended to that of a finite body Delaunay '<span class="hlt">triangulation</span>' to provide a more meaningful description of the spatial distribution of nonspherical secondary phase bodies in 2- and 3-dimensional images. A finite body <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> (FBT) consists of a network of minimum edge-to-edge distances between adjacent objects in a microstructure. From this is also obtained the characteristic object chords formed by the intersection of the object boundary with the finite body tessellation. These two sets of distances form the basis of a parsimonious homogeneity estimation. The characteristics of the spatial distribution are then evaluated with respect to the distances between objects and the distances within them. Quantitative analysis shows that more physically representative distributions can be obtained by selecting subgraphs, such as the relative neighbourhood graph and the minimum spanning tree, from the finite body tessellation. To demonstrate their potential, we apply these methods to 3-dimensional X-ray computed tomographic images of foamed cement and their 2-dimensional cross sections. The Python computer code used to estimate the FBT is made available. Other applications for the algorithm - such as porous media transport and crack-tip propagation - are also discussed. PMID:26917441</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21409407','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21409407"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Triangulated</span> loop quantum cosmology: Bianchi IX universe and inhomogeneous perturbations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Battisti, Marco Valerio; Marciano, Antonino; Rovelli, Carlo</p> <p>2010-03-15</p> <p>We develop the <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> version of loop quantum cosmology, recently introduced in the literature. We focus on the dipole cosmology, where space is a three-sphere and the <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> is formed by two tetrahedra. We show that the discrete fiducial connection has a simple and appealing geometrical interpretation and we correct the ansatz on the relation between the model variables and the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker scale factor. The modified ansatz leads to the convergence of the Hamiltonian constraint to the continuum one. We then ask which degrees of freedom are captured by this model. We show that the model is rich enough to describe the (anisotropic) Bianchi IX universe, and give the explicit relation between the Bianchi IX variables and the variables of the model. We discuss the possibility of using this path in order to define the quantization of the Bianchi IX universe. The model contains more degrees of freedom than Bianchi IX, and therefore captures some inhomogeneous degrees of freedom as well. Inhomogeneous degrees of freedom can be expanded in representations of the SU(2) Bianchi IX isometry group, and the dipole model captures the lowest integer representation of these, connected to hyperspherical harmonic of angular momentum j=1.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2779860','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2779860"><span id="translatedtitle">Generating <span class="hlt">Triangulated</span> Macromolecular Surfaces by Euclidean Distance Transform</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Xu, Dong; Zhang, Yang</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Macromolecular surfaces are fundamental representations of their three-dimensional geometric shape. Accurate calculation of protein surfaces is of critical importance in the protein structural and functional studies including ligand-protein docking and virtual screening. In contrast to analytical or parametric representation of macromolecular surfaces, <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> mesh surfaces have been proved to be easy to describe, visualize and manipulate by computer programs. Here, we develop a new algorithm of EDTSurf for generating three major macromolecular surfaces of van der Waals surface, solvent-accessible surface and molecular surface, using the technique of fast Euclidean Distance Transform (EDT). The <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> surfaces are constructed directly from volumetric solids by a Vertex-Connected Marching Cube algorithm that forms triangles from grid points. Compared to the analytical result, the relative error of the surface calculations by EDTSurf is <2–4% depending on the grid resolution, which is 1.5–4 times lower than the methods in the literature; and yet, the algorithm is faster and costs less computer memory than the comparative methods. The improvements in both accuracy and speed of the macromolecular surface determination should make EDTSurf a useful tool for the detailed study of protein docking and structure predictions. Both source code and the executable program of EDTSurf are freely available at http://zhang.bioinformatics.ku.edu/EDTSurf. PMID:19956577</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QL6BhKXYEIQ','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QL6BhKXYEIQ"><span id="translatedtitle">GPM <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Flyby of Hurricane Lester</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> flyby of Lester was created using GPM's Radar data. NASA/JAXA's GPM core observatory satellite flew over Hurricane Lester on August 29, 2016 at 7:21 p.m. EDT. Rain was measured by GPM's ra...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=3d+AND+graphics&pg=4&id=EJ854212','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=3d+AND+graphics&pg=4&id=EJ854212"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial Visualization by Realistic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Views</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Yue, Jianping</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>In this study, the popular Purdue Spatial Visualization Test-Visualization by Rotations (PSVT-R) in isometric drawings was recreated with CAD software that allows <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> solid modeling and rendering to provide more realistic pictorial views. Both the original and the modified PSVT-R tests were given to students and their scores on the two tests were…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3903692','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3903692"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed PLA-based scaffolds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Serra, Tiziano; Mateos-Timoneda, Miguel A; Planell, Josep A; Navarro, Melba</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Rapid prototyping (RP), also known as additive manufacturing (AM), has been well received and adopted in the biomedical field. The capacity of this family of techniques to fabricate customized <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structures with complex geometries and excellent reproducibility has revolutionized implantology and regenerative medicine. In particular, nozzle-based systems allow the fabrication of high-resolution polylactic acid (PLA) structures that are of interest in regenerative medicine. These <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structures find interesting applications in the regenerative medicine field where promising applications including biodegradable templates for tissue regeneration purposes, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> in vitro platforms for studying cell response to different scaffolds conditions and for drug screening are considered among others. Scaffolds functionality depends not only on the fabrication technique, but also on the material used to build the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structure, the geometry and inner architecture of the structure, and the final surface properties. All being crucial parameters affecting scaffolds success. This Commentary emphasizes the importance of these parameters in scaffolds’ fabrication and also draws the attention toward the versatility of these PLA scaffolds as a potential tool in regenerative medicine and other medical fields. PMID:23959206</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26237523','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26237523"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed microfluidics for biological applications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ho, Chee Meng Benjamin; Ng, Sum Huan; Li, King Ho Holden; Yoon, Yong-Jin</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The term "Lab-on-a-Chip," is synonymous with describing microfluidic devices with biomedical applications. Even though microfluidics have been developing rapidly over the past decade, the uptake rate in biological research has been slow. This could be due to the tedious process of fabricating a chip and the absence of a "killer application" that would outperform existing traditional methods. In recent years, three dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) printing has been drawing much interest from the research community. It has the ability to make complex structures with high resolution. Moreover, the fast building time and ease of learning has simplified the fabrication process of microfluidic devices to a single step. This could possibly aid the field of microfluidics in finding its "killer application" that will lead to its acceptance by researchers, especially in the biomedical field. In this paper, a review is carried out of how <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing helps to improve the fabrication of microfluidic devices, the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing technologies currently used for fabrication and the future of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing in the field of microfluidics. PMID:26237523</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ApCM...19..275H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ApCM...19..275H"><span id="translatedtitle">Rubber Impact on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Textile Composites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Heimbs, Sebastian; Van Den Broucke, Björn; Duplessis Kergomard, Yann; Dau, Frederic; Malherbe, Benoit</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>A low velocity impact study of aircraft tire rubber on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> textile-reinforced composite plates was performed experimentally and numerically. In contrast to regular unidirectional composite laminates, no delaminations occur in such a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> textile composite. Yarn decohesions, matrix cracks and yarn ruptures have been identified as the major damage mechanisms under impact load. An increase in the number of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> warp yarns is proposed to improve the impact damage resistance. The characteristic of a rubber impact is the high amount of elastic energy stored in the impactor during impact, which was more than 90% of the initial kinetic energy. This large geometrical deformation of the rubber during impact leads to a less localised loading of the target structure and poses great challenges for the numerical modelling. A hyperelastic Mooney-Rivlin constitutive law was used in Abaqus/Explicit based on a step-by-step validation with static rubber compression tests and low velocity impact tests on aluminium plates. Simulation models of the textile weave were developed on the meso- and macro-scale. The final correlation between impact simulation results on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> textile-reinforced composite plates and impact test data was promising, highlighting the potential of such numerical simulation tools.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1064369.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1064369.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Introduction to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Graphics through Excel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Benacka, Jan</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The article presents a method of explaining the principles of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> graphics through making a revolvable and sizable orthographic parallel projection of cuboid in Excel. No programming is used. The method was tried in fourteen 90 minute lessons with 181 participants, which were Informatics teachers, undergraduates of Applied Informatics and gymnasium…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AAS...21922703S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AAS...21922703S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Virtual Reality for Teaching Astronomy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Speck, Angela; Ruzhitskaya, L.; Laffey, J.; Ding, N.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>We are developing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> virtual learning environments (VLEs) as learning materials for an undergraduate astronomy course, in which will utilize advances both in technologies available and in our understanding of the social nature of learning. These learning materials will be used to test whether such VLEs can indeed augment science learning so that it is more engaging, active, visual and effective. Our project focuses on the challenges and requirements of introductory college astronomy classes. Here we present our virtual world of the Jupiter system and how we plan to implement it to allow students to learn course material - physical laws and concepts in astronomy - while engaging them into exploration of the Jupiter's system, encouraging their imagination, curiosity, and motivation. The VLE can allow students to work individually or collaboratively. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> world also provides an opportunity for research in astronomy education to investigate impact of social interaction, gaming features, and use of manipulatives offered by a learning tool on students’ motivation and learning outcomes. Use of this VLE is also a valuable source for exploration of how the learners’ spatial awareness can be enhanced by working in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> environment. We will present the Jupiter-system environment along with a preliminary study of the efficacy and usability of our Jupiter <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> VLE.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140001464','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140001464"><span id="translatedtitle">Spacecraft <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Augmented Reality Mobile App</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hussey, Kevin J.; Doronila, Paul R.; Kumanchik, Brian E.; Chan, Evan G.; Ellison, Douglas J.; Boeck, Andrea; Moore, Justin M.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The Spacecraft <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> application allows users to learn about and interact with iconic NASA missions in a new and immersive way using common mobile devices. Using Augmented Reality (AR) techniques to project <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> renditions of the mission spacecraft into real-world surroundings, users can interact with and learn about Curiosity, GRAIL, Cassini, and Voyager. Additional updates on future missions, animations, and information will be ongoing. Using a printed AR Target and camera on a mobile device, users can get up close with these robotic explorers, see how some move, and learn about these engineering feats, which are used to expand knowledge and understanding about space. The software receives input from the mobile device's camera to recognize the presence of an AR marker in the camera's field of view. It then displays a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> rendition of the selected spacecraft in the user's physical surroundings, on the mobile device's screen, while it tracks the device's movement in relation to the physical position of the spacecraft's <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image on the AR marker.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=shadows&id=EJ1037445','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=shadows&id=EJ1037445"><span id="translatedtitle">How to See Shadows in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Parikesit, Gea O. F.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Shadows can be found easily everywhere around us, so that we rarely find it interesting to reflect on how they work. In order to raise curiosity among students on the optics of shadows, we can display the shadows in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, particularly using a stereoscopic set-up. In this paper we describe the optics of stereoscopic shadows using simple schematic…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=MSFC-9900738&hterms=ct+computed+tomography&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchany%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dct%2Bcomputed%2Btomography','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=MSFC-9900738&hterms=ct+computed+tomography&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchany%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dct%2Bcomputed%2Btomography"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Volume Rendering of Sand Specimen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Computed tomography (CT) images of resin-impregnated Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) specimens are assembled to provide <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> volume renderings of density patterns formed by dislocation under the external loading stress profile applied during the experiments. Experiments flown on STS-79 and STS-89. Principal Investigator: Dr. Stein Sture</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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