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Sample records for 3d internal marker

  1. Use of MV and kV imager correlation for maintaining continuous real-time 3D internal marker tracking during beam interruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiersma, R. D.; Riaz, N.; Dieterich, Sonja; Suh, Yelin; Xing, L.

    2009-01-01

    The integration of onboard kV imaging together with a MV electronic portal imaging device (EPID) on linear accelerators (LINAC) can provide an easy to implement real-time 3D organ position monitoring solution for treatment delivery. Currently, real-time MV-kV tracking has only been demonstrated by simultaneous imagining by both MV and kV imaging devices. However, modalities such as step-and-shoot IMRT (SS-IMRT), which inherently contain MV beam interruptions, can lead to loss of target information necessary for 3D localization. Additionally, continuous kV imaging throughout the treatment delivery can lead to high levels of imaging dose to the patient. This work demonstrates for the first time how full 3D target tracking can be maintained even in the presence of such beam interruption, or MV/kV beam interleave, by use of a relatively simple correlation model together with MV-kV tracking. A moving correlation model was constructed using both present and prior positions of the marker in the available MV or kV image to compute the position of the marker on the interrupted imager. A commercially available radiotherapy system, equipped with both MV and kV imaging devices, was used to deliver typical SS-IMRT lung treatment plans to a 4D phantom containing internally embedded metallic markers. To simulate actual lung tumor motion, previous recorded 4D lung patient motion data were used. Lung tumor motion data of five separate patients were inputted into the 4D phantom, and typical SS-IMRT lung plans were delivered to simulate actual clinical deliveries. Application of the correlation model to SS-IMRT lung treatment deliveries was found to be an effective solution for maintaining continuous 3D tracking during 'step' beam interruptions. For deliveries involving five or more gantry angles with 50 or more fields per plan, the positional errors were found to have <=1 mm root mean squared error (RMSE) in all three spatial directions. In addition to increasing the robustness of

  2. Real-time 3D internal marker tracking during arc radiotherapy by the use of combined MV kV imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W.; Wiersma, R. D.; Mao, W.; Luxton, G.; Xing, L.

    2008-12-01

    To minimize the adverse dosimetric effect caused by tumor motion, it is desirable to have real-time knowledge of the tumor position throughout the beam delivery process. A promising technique to realize the real-time image guided scheme in external beam radiation therapy is through the combined use of MV and onboard kV beam imaging. The success of this MV-kV triangulation approach for fixed-gantry radiation therapy has been demonstrated. With the increasing acceptance of modern arc radiotherapy in the clinics, a timely and clinically important question is whether the image guidance strategy can be extended to arc therapy to provide the urgently needed real-time tumor motion information. While conceptually feasible, there are a number of theoretical and practical issues specific to the arc delivery that need to be resolved before clinical implementation. The purpose of this work is to establish a robust procedure of system calibration for combined MV and kV imaging for internal marker tracking during arc delivery and to demonstrate the feasibility and accuracy of the technique. A commercially available LINAC equipped with an onboard kV imager and electronic portal imaging device (EPID) was used for the study. A custom built phantom with multiple ball bearings was used to calibrate the stereoscopic MV-kV imaging system to provide the transformation parameters from imaging pixels to 3D world coordinates. The accuracy of the fiducial tracking system was examined using a 4D motion phantom capable of moving in accordance with a pre-programmed trajectory. Overall, spatial accuracy of MV-kV fiducial tracking during the arc delivery process for normal adult breathing amplitude and period was found to be better than 1 mm. For fast motion, the results depended on the imaging frame rates. The RMS error ranged from ~0.5 mm for the normal adult breathing pattern to ~1.5 mm for more extreme cases with a low imaging frame rate of 3.4 Hz. In general, highly accurate real

  3. Three-dimensional conformal setup (3D-CSU) of patients using the coordinate system provided by three internal fiducial markers and two orthogonal diagnostic X-ray systems in the treatment room

    SciTech Connect

    Shirato, Hiroki . E-mail: hshirato@radi.med.hokudai.ac.jp; Oita, Masataka; Fujita, Katsuhisa; Shimizu, Shinichi; Onimaru, Rikiya; Uegaki, Shinji; Watanabe, Yoshiharu; Kato, Norio; Miyasaka, Kazuo

    2004-10-01

    Purpose: To test the accuracy of a system for correcting for the rotational error of the clinical target volume (CTV) without having to reposition the patient using three fiducial markers and two orthogonal fluoroscopic images. We call this system 'three-dimensional conformal setup' (3D-CSU). Methods and materials: Three 2.0-mm gold markers are inserted into or adjacent to the CTV. On the treatment couch, the actual positions of the three markers are calculated based on two orthogonal fluoroscopies crossing at the isocenter of the linear accelerator. Discrepancy of the actual coordinates of gravity center of three markers from its planned coordinates is calculated. Translational setup error is corrected by adjustment of the treatment couch. The rotation angles ({alpha}, {beta}, {gamma}) of the coordinates of the actual CTV relative to the planned CTV are calculated around the lateral (x), craniocaudal (y), and anteroposterior (z) axes of the planned CTV. The angles of the gantry head, collimator, and treatment couch of the linear accelerator are adjusted according to the rotation of the actual coordinates of the tumor in relation to the planned coordinates. We have measured the accuracy of 3D-CSU using a static cubic phantom. Results: The gravity center of the phantom was corrected within 0.9 {+-} 0.3 mm (mean {+-} SD), 0.4 {+-} 0.2 mm, and 0.6 {+-} 0.2 mm for the rotation of the phantom from 0-30 degrees around the x, y, and z axes, respectively, every 5 degrees. Dose distribution was shown to be consistent with the planned dose distribution every 10 degrees of the rotation from 0-30 degrees. The mean rotational error after 3D-CSU was -0.4 {+-} 0.4 (mean {+-} SD), -0.2 {+-} 0.4, and 0.0 {+-} 0.5 degrees around the x, y, and z axis, respectively, for the rotation from 0-90 degrees. Conclusions: Phantom studies showed that 3D-CSU is useful for performing rotational correction of the target volume without correcting the position of the patient on the treatment couch

  4. Mobile viewer system for virtual 3D space using infrared LED point markers and camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Kunio; Taneji, Shoto

    2006-09-01

    The authors have developed a 3D workspace system using collaborative imaging devices. A stereoscopic display enables this system to project 3D information. In this paper, we describe the position detecting system for a see-through 3D viewer. A 3D display system is useful technology for virtual reality, mixed reality and augmented reality. We have researched spatial imaging and interaction system. We have ever proposed 3D displays using the slit as a parallax barrier, the lenticular screen and the holographic optical elements(HOEs) for displaying active image 1)2)3)4). The purpose of this paper is to propose the interactive system using these 3D imaging technologies. The observer can view virtual images in the real world when the user watches the screen of a see-through 3D viewer. The goal of our research is to build the display system as follows; when users see the real world through the mobile viewer, the display system gives users virtual 3D images, which is floating in the air, and the observers can touch these floating images and interact them such that kids can make play clay. The key technologies of this system are the position recognition system and the spatial imaging display. The 3D images are presented by the improved parallax barrier 3D display. Here the authors discuss the measuring method of the mobile viewer using infrared LED point markers and a camera in the 3D workspace (augmented reality world). The authors show the geometric analysis of the proposed measuring method, which is the simplest method using a single camera not the stereo camera, and the results of our viewer system.

  5. International "Intercomparison of 3-Dimensional (3D) Radiation Codes" (13RC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahalan, Robert F.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    An international "Intercomparison of 3-dimensional (3D) Radiation Codes" 13RC) has been initiated. It is endorsed by the GEWEX Radiation Panel, and funded jointly by the United States Department of Energy ARM program, and by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Radiation Sciences program. It is a 3-phase effort that has as its goals to: (1) understand the errors and limits of 3D methods; (2) provide 'baseline' cases for future 3D code development; (3) promote sharing of 3D tools; (4) derive guidelines for 3D tool selection; and (5) improve atmospheric science education in 3D radiation.

  6. Direct in vitro comparison of six 3D positive contrast methods for susceptibility marker imaging

    PubMed Central

    Vonken, Evert-jan P. A.; Schär, Michael; Yu, Jing; Bakker, Chris J. G.; Stuber, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To compare different techniques for positive contrast imaging of susceptibility markers with MRI for 3D visualization. As several different techniques have been reported, the choice of the suitable method depends on its properties with regard to the amount of positive contrast and the desired background suppression, as well as other imaging constraints needed for a specific application. Materials and methods Six different positive contrast techniques are investigated for their ability to image at 3T a single susceptibility marker in vitro. The white marker method (WM), susceptibility gradient mapping (SGM), inversion recovery with on-resonant water suppression (IRON), frequency selective excitation (FSX), fast low flip-angle positive contrast SSFP (FLAPS), and iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation (IDEAL) were implemented and investigated. Results The different methods were compared with respect to the volume of positive contrast, the product of volume and signal intensity, imaging time, and the level of background suppression. Quantitative results are provided and strengths and weaknesses of the different approaches are discussed. Conclusion The appropriate choice of positive contrast imaging technique depends on the desired level of background suppression, acquisition speed, and robustness against artifacts, for which in vitro comparative data is now available. PMID:23281151

  7. Verification of internal flow analyses in complex 3-D geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, S. K.; Buggeln, R. C.

    1992-11-01

    Analysis of internal flow in advanced rocket propulsion systems is complicated by hardware geometry, high Reynolds numbers, rotation, high frequency phenomena, and near incompressibility. Typical of such a problem is the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) hot gas manifold (HGM). Previous analyses of flow in the SSME HGM have been compared to air flow data and found to be inaccurate with respect to system losses, outer wall static pressures, and transfer duct environments. Such discrepancies could arise from flow measurement methodology, low order algorithms, turbulence modeling, and/or inadequate grid resolution. The objective of this work is to compare internal flow computational analyses to LDV flow measurements for the MSFC HGM pilot model configuration using two grids of different node density in the near wall region. Grids were generated with the EAGLE grid generator and calculations were made with the SRA MINT code. The calculated results were compared with HGM experimental data obtained in the MSFC water flow facility.

  8. The 3d International Workshop on Computational Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodnick, Stephen M.

    1994-09-01

    The Third International Workshop on Computational Electronics (IWCE) was held at the Benson Hotel in downtown Portland, Oregon, on May 18, 19, and 20, 1994. The workshop was devoted to a broad range of topics in computational electronics related to the simulation of electronic transport in semiconductors and semiconductor devices, particularly those which use large computational resources. The workshop was supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Office of Naval Research and the Army Research Office, as well as local support from the Oregon Joint Graduate Schools of Engineering and the Oregon Center for Advanced Technology Education. There were over 100 participants in the Portland workshop, of which more than one quarter represented research groups outside of the United States from Austria, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. There were a total 81 papers presented at the workshop, 9 invited talks, 26 oral presentations and 46 poster presentations. The emphasis of the contributions reflected the interdisciplinary nature of computational electronics with researchers from the Chemistry, Computer Science, Mathematics, Engineering, and Physics communities participating in the workshop.

  9. Combining marker-less patient setup and respiratory motion monitoring using low cost 3D camera technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahavori, F.; Adams, E.; Dabbs, M.; Aldridge, L.; Liversidge, N.; Donovan, E.; Jordan, T.; Evans, PM.; Wells, K.

    2015-03-01

    Patient set-up misalignment/motion can be a significant source of error within external beam radiotherapy, leading to unwanted dose to healthy tissues and sub-optimal dose to the target tissue. Such inadvertent displacement or motion of the target volume may be caused by treatment set-up error, respiratory motion or an involuntary movement potentially decreasing therapeutic benefit. The conventional approach to managing abdominal-thoracic patient set-up is via skin markers (tattoos) and laser-based alignment. Alignment of the internal target volume with its position in the treatment plan can be achieved using Deep Inspiration Breath Hold (DIBH) in conjunction with marker-based respiratory motion monitoring. We propose a marker-less single system solution for patient set-up and respiratory motion management based on low cost 3D depth camera technology (such as the Microsoft Kinect). In this new work we assess this approach in a study group of six volunteer subjects. Separate simulated treatment mimic treatment "fractions" or set-ups are compared for each subject, undertaken using conventional laser-based alignment and with intrinsic depth images produced by Kinect. Microsoft Kinect is also compared with the well-known RPM system for respiratory motion management in terms of monitoring free-breathing and DIBH. Preliminary results suggest that Kinect is able to produce mm-level surface alignment and a comparable DIBH respiratory motion management when compared to the popular RPM system. Such an approach may also yield significant benefits in terms of patient throughput as marker alignment and respiratory motion can be automated in a single system.

  10. 3D watershed-based segmentation of internal structures within MR brain images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno, Gloria; Musse, Olivier; Heitz, Fabrice; Armspach, Jean-Paul

    2000-06-01

    In this paper an image-based method founded on mathematical morphology is presented in order to facilitate the segmentation of cerebral structures on 3D magnetic resonance images (MRIs). The segmentation is described as an immersion simulation, applied to the modified gradient image, modeled by a generated 3D region adjacency graph (RAG). The segmentation relies on two main processes: homotopy modification and contour decision. The first one is achieved by a marker extraction stage where homogeneous 3D regions are identified in order to attribute an influence zone only to relevant minima of the image. This stage uses contrasted regions from morphological reconstruction and labeled flat regions constrained by the RAG. The goal of the decision stage is to precisely locate the contours of regions detected by the marker extraction. This decision is performed by a 3D extension of the watershed transform. Upon completion of the segmentation, the outcome of the preceding process is presented to the user for manual selection of the structures of interest (SOI). Results of this approach are described and illustrated with examples of segmented 3D MRIs of the human head.

  11. Critical assessment of intramodality 3D ultrasound imaging for prostate IGRT compared to fiducial markers

    SciTech Connect

    Meer, Skadi van der; Bloemen-van Gurp, Esther; Hermans, Jolanda; Voncken, Robert; Heuvelmans, Denys; Gubbels, Carol; Fontanarosa, Davide; Visser, Peter; Lutgens, Ludy; Gils, Francis van; Verhaegen, Frank

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: A quantitative 3D intramodality ultrasound (US) imaging system was verified for daily in-room prostate localization, and compared to prostate localization based on implanted fiducial markers (FMs).Methods: Thirteen prostate patients underwent multiple US scans during treatment. A total of 376 US-scans and 817 matches were used to determine the intra- and interoperator variability. Additionally, eight other patients underwent daily prostate localization using both US and electronic portal imaging (EPI) with FMs resulting in 244 combined US-EPI scans. Scanning was performed with minimal probe pressure and a correction for the speed of sound aberration was performed. Uncertainties of both US and FM methods were assessed. User variability of the US method was assessed.Results: The overall US user variability is 2.6 mm. The mean differences between US and FM are: 2.5 {+-} 4.0 mm (LR), 0.6 {+-} 4.9 mm (SI), and -2.3 {+-} 3.6 mm (AP). The intramodality character of this US system mitigates potential errors due to transducer pressure and speed of sound aberrations.Conclusions: The overall accuracy of US (3.0 mm) is comparable to our FM workflow (2.2 mm). Since neither US nor FM can be considered a gold standard no conclusions can be drawn on the superiority of either method. Because US imaging captures the prostate itself instead of surrogates no invasive procedure is required. It requires more effort to standardize US imaging than FM detection. Since US imaging does not involve a radiation burden, US prostate imaging offers an alternative for FM EPI positioning.

  12. On the Quality of Velocity Interpolation Schemes for Marker-In-Cell Methods on 3-D Staggered Grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaus, B.; Pusok, A. E.; Popov, A.

    2015-12-01

    The marker-in-cell method is generally considered to be a flexible and robust method to model advection of heterogenous non-diffusive properties (i.e. rock type or composition) in geodynamic problems or incompressible Stokes problems. In this method, Lagrangian points carrying compositional information are advected with the ambient velocity field on an immobile, Eulerian grid. However, velocity interpolation from grid points to marker locations is often performed without preserving the zero divergence of the velocity field at the interpolated locations (i.e. non-conservative). Such interpolation schemes can induce non-physical clustering of markers when strong velocity gradients are present (Jenny et al., 2001) and this may, eventually, result in empty grid cells, a serious numerical violation of the marker-in-cell method. Solutions to this problem include: using larger mesh resolutions and/or marker densities, or repeatedly controlling the marker distribution (i.e. inject/delete), but which does not have an established physical background. To remedy this at low computational costs, Jenny et al. (2001) and Meyer and Jenny (2004) proposed a simple, conservative velocity interpolation (CVI) scheme for 2-D staggered grid, while Wang et al. (2015) extended the formulation to 3-D finite element methods. Here, we follow up with these studies and report on the quality of velocity interpolation methods for 2-D and 3-D staggered grids. We adapt the formulations from both Jenny et al. (2001) and Wang et al. (2015) for use on 3-D staggered grids, where the velocity components have different node locations as compared to finite element, where they share the same node location. We test the different interpolation schemes (CVI and non-CVI) in combination with different advection schemes (Euler, RK2 and RK4) and with/out marker control on Stokes problems with strong velocity gradients, which are discretized using a finite difference method. We show that a conservative formulation

  13. Generation of nearly 3D-unpolarized evanescent optical near fields using total internal reflection.

    PubMed

    Hassinen, Timo; Popov, Sergei; Friberg, Ari T; Setälä, Tero

    2016-07-01

    We analyze the time-domain partial polarization of optical fields composed of two evanescent waves created in total internal reflection by random electromagnetic beams with orthogonal planes of incidence. We show that such a two-beam configuration enables to generate nearly unpolarized, genuine three-component (3D) near fields. This result complements earlier studies on spectral polarization, which state that at least three symmetrically propagating beams are required to produce a 3D-unpolarized near field. The degree of polarization of the near field can be controlled by adjusting the polarization states and mutual correlation of the incident beams. PMID:27367071

  14. 3D scanning of internal structure in gel engineering materials with visual scanning microscopic light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yosuke; Gong, Jing; Masato, Makino; Kabir, M. Hasnat; Furukawa, Hidemitsu

    2014-04-01

    The 3D printing technology, causing much attention from the beginning of 2013, will be possibly an alternative method to fabricate the biological soft tissues. Recently our group of Yamagata University has developed the world-first 3D Gel Printer to fabricate the complicated gel-materials with high-strength and biocompatibility. However, there are no 3D scanners that collect the data from the internal structure of complicated gel objects such as eye lens. It means that a new system for scanning the internal structure is needed now. In this study, firstly, we have tried to investigate the gel network of synthetic and biological gel with scanning microscopic light scattering (SMILS). We calculated the Young's modulus of synthetic gels with the SMILS and with the tensile test, and precisely compared the results between them. The temperature dependences of the inside structure and the transparency are observed in the pig crystalline lens. The quantitative analysis indicates the importance of the internal structure of real object. Secondary, we show the new system named Gel-scanner that can provide the 2-dimentional data of the internal structure. From examining our findings, the scanning of internal structure will enable us to expect physical properties of the real object. We convince that the gelscanner will play major role in the various fields.

  15. 3D reconstruction of internal structure of animal body using near-infrared light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Trung Nghia; Yamamoto, Kohei; Namita, Takeshi; Kato, Yuji; Shimizu, Koichi

    2014-03-01

    To realize three-dimensional (3D) optical imaging of the internal structure of animal body, we have developed a new technique to reconstruct CT images from two-dimensional (2D) transillumination images. In transillumination imaging, the image is blurred due to the strong scattering in the tissue. We had developed a scattering suppression technique using the point spread function (PSF) for a fluorescent light source in the body. In this study, we have newly proposed a technique to apply this PSF for a light source to the image of unknown light-absorbing structure. The effectiveness of the proposed technique was examined in the experiments with a model phantom and a mouse. In the phantom experiment, the absorbers were placed in the tissue-equivalent medium to simulate the light-absorbing organs in mouse body. Near-infrared light was illuminated from one side of the phantom and the image was recorded with CMOS camera from another side. Using the proposed techniques, the scattering effect was efficiently suppressed and the absorbing structure can be visualized in the 2D transillumination image. Using the 2D images obtained in many different orientations, we could reconstruct the 3D image. In the mouse experiment, an anesthetized mouse was held in an acrylic cylindrical holder. We can visualize the internal organs such as kidneys through mouse's abdomen using the proposed technique. The 3D image of the kidneys and a part of the liver were reconstructed. Through these experimental studies, the feasibility of practical 3D imaging of the internal light-absorbing structure of a small animal was verified.

  16. RESEARCH NOTE: Empirical 3-D basis for the internal density of a planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambat, Frédéric; Ricard, Yanick

    2005-07-01

    Various papers have discussed the forward relationships between internal density anomalies of a planet and its external gravity field. The inverse modelling, i.e. finding the internal density anomalies from the external potential is known to be highly non-unique. In this research note, we explain how a 3-D basis can be built to represent the internal density variations that includes a subset that explicitly spans the kernel of the forward gravity operator. This representation clarifies the origin of the non-uniqueness of the gravity sources and implies the existence of a natural minimal norm inverse for the internal density. We illustrate these ideas by comparing a tomographic model of the mantle to the minimal norm density.

  17. International Space Station (ISS) 3D Printer Performance and Material Characterization Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bean, Q. A.; Cooper, K. G.; Edmunson, J. E.; Johnston, M. M.; Werkheiser, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    In order for human exploration of the Solar System to be sustainable, manufacturing of necessary items on-demand in space or on planetary surfaces will be a requirement. As a first step towards this goal, the 3D Printing In Zero-G (3D Print) technology demonstration made the first items fabricated in space on the International Space Station. From those items, and comparable prints made on the ground, information about the microgravity effects on the printing process can be determined. Lessons learned from this technology demonstration will be applicable to other in-space manufacturing technologies, and may affect the terrestrial manufacturing industry as well. The flight samples were received at the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center on 6 April 2015. These samples will undergo a series of tests designed to not only thoroughly characterize the samples, but to identify microgravity effects manifested during printing by comparing their results to those of samples printed on the ground. Samples will be visually inspected, photographed, scanned with structured light, and analyzed with scanning electron microscopy. Selected samples will be analyzed with computed tomography; some will be assessed using ASTM standard tests. These tests will provide the information required to determine the effects of microgravity on 3D printing in microgravity.

  18. PREFACE: 7th International Conference on 3D Radiation Dosimetry (IC3DDose)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thwaites, David; Baldock, Clive

    2013-06-01

    IC3DDose 2013, the 7th International Conference on 3D Radiation Dosimetry held in Sydney, Australia from 4-8 November 2012, grew out of the DosGel series, which began as DosGel99, the 1st International Workshop on Radiation Therapy Gel Dosimetry in Lexington, Kentucky. Since 1999 subsequent DoSGel conferences were held in Brisbane, Australia (2001), Ghent, Belgium (2004), Sherbrooke, Canada (2006) and Crete, Greece (2008). In 2010 the conference was held on Hilton Head Island, South Carolina and underwent a name-change to IC3DDose. The aim of the first workshop was to bring together individuals, both researchers and users, with an interest in 3D radiation dosimetry techniques, with a mix of presentations from basic science to clinical applications, which has remained an objective for all of the meetings. One rationale of DosGel99 was stated as supporting the increasing clinical implementation of gel dosimetry, as the technique appeared, at that time, to be leaving the laboratories of gel dosimetry enthusiasts and entering clinical practice. Clearly by labelling the first workshop as the 1st, there was a vision of a continuing series, which has been fulfilled. On the other hand, the expectation of widespread clinical use of gel dosimetry has perhaps not been what was hoped for and anticipated. Nevertheless the rapidly increasing demand for advanced high-precision 3D radiotherapy technology and techniques has continued apace. The need for practical and accurate 3D dosimetry methods for development and quality assurance has only increased. By the 6th meeting, held in South Carolina in 2010, the Conference Scientific Committee recognised the wider developments in 3D systems and methods and decided to widen the scope, whilst keeping the same span from basic science to applications. This was signalled by a change of name from 'Dosgel' to 'IC3DDose', a name that has continued to this latest conference. The conference objectives were: to enhance the quality and accuracy of

  19. Prediction of 3D internal organ position from skin surface motion: results from electromagnetic tracking studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Kenneth H.; Tang, Jonathan; Zhang, Hui J.; Varghese, Emmanuel; Cleary, Kevin R.

    2005-04-01

    An effective treatment method for organs that move with respiration (such as the lungs, pancreas, and liver) is a major goal of radiation medicine. In order to treat such tumors, we need (1) real-time knowledge of the current location of the tumor, and (2) the ability to adapt the radiation delivery system to follow this constantly changing location. In this study, we used electromagnetic tracking in a swine model to address the first challenge, and to determine if movement of a marker attached to the skin could accurately predict movement of an internal marker embedded in an organ. Under approved animal research protocols, an electromagnetically tracked needle was inserted into a swine liver and an electromagnetically tracked guidewire was taped to the abdominal skin of the animal. The Aurora (Northern Digital Inc., Waterloo, Canada) electromagnetic tracking system was then used to monitor the position of both of these sensors every 40 msec. Position readouts from the sensors were then tested to see if any of the movements showed correlation. The strongest correlations were observed between external anterior-posterior motion and internal inferior-superior motion, with many other axes exhibiting only weak correlation. We also used these data to build a predictive model of internal motion by taking segments from the data and using them to derive a general functional relationship between the internal needle and the external guidewire. For the axis with the strongest correlation, this model enabled us to predict internal organ motion to within 1 mm.

  20. Microsurgical anatomy and internal architecture of the brainstem in 3D images: surgical considerations.

    PubMed

    Párraga, Richard Gonzalo; Possatti, Lucas Loss; Alves, Raphael Vicente; Ribas, Guilherme Carvalhal; Türe, Uğur; de Oliveira, Evandro

    2016-05-01

    OBJECT Brainstem surgery remains a challenge for the neurosurgeon despite recent improvements in neuroimaging, microsurgical techniques, and electrophysiological monitoring. A detailed knowledge of the microsurgical anatomy of the brainstem surface and its internal architecture is mandatory to plan appropriate approaches to the brainstem, to choose the safest point of entry, and to avoid potential surgical complications. METHODS An extensive review of the literature was performed regarding the brainstem surgical approaches, and their correlations with the pertinent anatomy were studied and illustrated through dissection of human brainstems properly fixed with 10% formalin. The specimens were dissected using the fiber dissection technique, under ×6 to ×40 magnification. 3D stereoscopic photographs were obtained (anaglyphic 3D) for better illustration of this study. RESULTS The main surgical landmarks and their relationship with the cerebellum and vascular structures were identified on the surface of the brainstem. The arrangements of the white matter (ascending and descending pathways as well as the cerebellar peduncles) were demonstrated on each part of the brainstem (midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata), with emphasis on their relationships with the surface. The gray matter, constituted mainly by nuclei of the cranial nerves, was also studied and illustrated. CONCLUSIONS The objective of this article is to review the microsurgical anatomy and the surgical approaches pertinent to the brainstem, providing a framework of its external and internal architecture to guide the neurosurgeon during its related surgical procedures. PMID:26517774

  1. PREFACE: 8th International Conference on 3D Radiation Dosimetry (IC3DDose)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsson, Lars E.; Bäck, S.; Ceberg, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    IC3DDose 2014, the 8th International Conference on 3D Radiation Dosimetry was held in Ystad, Sweden, from 4-7 September 2014. This grew out of the DosGel series, which began as DosGel99, the 1st International Workshop on Radiation Therapy Gel Dosimetry in Lexington, Kentucky. Since 1999 subsequent DoSGel conferences were held in Brisbane, Australia (2001), Ghent, Belgium (2004), Sherbrooke, Canada (2006) and Crete, Greece (2008). In 2010 the conference was held on Hilton Head Island, South Carolina and underwent a name-change to IC3DDose. The 7th and last meeting was held in Sydney, Australia from 4-8 November 2012. It is worth remembering that the conference series started at the very beginning of the intensity modulated radiotherapy era and that the dosimeters being developed then were, to some extent, ahead of the clinical need of radiotherapy. However, since then the technical developments in radiation therapy have been dramatic, with dynamic treatments, including tracking, gating and volumetric modulated arc therapy, widely introduced in the clinic with the need for 3D dosimetry thus endless. This was also reflected by the contributions at the meeting in Ystad. Accordingly the scope of the meeting has also broadened to IC3DDOSE - I See Three-Dimensional Dose. A multitude of dosimetry techniques and radiation detectors are now represented, all with the common denominator: three-dimensional or 3D. Additionally, quality assurance (QA) procedures and other aspects of clinical dosimetry are represented. The implementation of new dosimetric techniques in radiotherapy is a process that needs every kind of caution, carefulness and thorough validation. Therefore, the clinical needs, reformulated as the aims for IC3DDOSE - I See Three-Dimensional Dose, are: • Enhance the quality and accuracy of radiation therapy treatments through improved clinical dosimetry. • Investigate and understand the dosimetric challenges of modern radiation treatment techniques. • Provide

  2. X-Ray Nanofocus CT: Visualising Of Internal 3D-Structures With Submicrometer Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinekoetter, Christian

    2008-09-01

    High-resolution X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) allows the visualization and failure analysis of the internal micro structure of objects—even if they have complicated 3D-structures where 2D X-ray microscopy would give unclear information. During the past several years, computed tomography has progressed to higher resolution and quicker reconstruction of the 3D-volume. Most recently it even allows a three-dimensional look into the inside of materials with submicron resolution. With the use of nanofocus® tube technology, nanoCT®-systems are pushing forward into application fields that were exclusive to high cost and rare available synchrotron techniques. The study was performed with the new nanotom, a very compact laboratory system which allows the analysis of samples up to 120 mm in diameter and weighing up to 1 kg with exceptional voxel-resolution down to <500 nm (<0.5 microns). It is the first 180 kV nanofocus® computed tomography system in the world which is tailored specifically to the highest-resolution applications in the fields of material science, micro electronics, geology and biology. Therefore it is particularly suitable for nanoCT-examinations e.g. of synthetic materials, metals, ceramics, composite materials, mineral and organic samples. There are a few physical effects influencing the CT quality, such as beam-hardening within the sample or ring-artefacts, which can not be completely avoided. To optimize the quality of high resolution 3D volumes, the nanotom® includes a variety of effective software tools to reduce ring-artefacts and correct beam hardenings or drift effects which occurred during data acquisition. The resulting CT volume data set can be displayed in various ways, for example by virtual slicing and sectional views in any direction of the volume. By the fact that this requires only a mouse click, this technique will substitute destructive mechanical slicing and cutting in many applications. The initial CT results obtained with the

  3. Development, validation, and implementation of a patient-specific Monte Carlo 3D internal dosimetry platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besemer, Abigail E.

    Targeted radionuclide therapy is emerging as an attractive treatment option for a broad spectrum of tumor types because it has the potential to simultaneously eradicate both the primary tumor site as well as the metastatic disease throughout the body. Patient-specific absorbed dose calculations for radionuclide therapies are important for reducing the risk of normal tissue complications and optimizing tumor response. However, the only FDA approved software for internal dosimetry calculates doses based on the MIRD methodology which estimates mean organ doses using activity-to-dose scaling factors tabulated from standard phantom geometries. Despite the improved dosimetric accuracy afforded by direct Monte Carlo dosimetry methods these methods are not widely used in routine clinical practice because of the complexity of implementation, lack of relevant standard protocols, and longer dose calculation times. The main goal of this work was to develop a Monte Carlo internal dosimetry platform in order to (1) calculate patient-specific voxelized dose distributions in a clinically feasible time frame, (2) examine and quantify the dosimetric impact of various parameters and methodologies used in 3D internal dosimetry methods, and (3) develop a multi-criteria treatment planning optimization framework for multi-radiopharmaceutical combination therapies. This platform utilizes serial PET/CT or SPECT/CT images to calculate voxelized 3D internal dose distributions with the Monte Carlo code Geant4. Dosimetry can be computed for any diagnostic or therapeutic radiopharmaceutical and for both pre-clinical and clinical applications. In this work, the platform's dosimetry calculations were successfully validated against previously published reference doses values calculated in standard phantoms for a variety of radionuclides, over a wide range of photon and electron energies, and for many different organs and tumor sizes. Retrospective dosimetry was also calculated for various pre

  4. Internal Structure of Periglacial Landforms: Assessment using 3D Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmert, Adrian; Kneisel, Christof

    2015-04-01

    The occurrence of internal heterogeneities within periglacial landforms (e.g. frost table topography or varying ice content) is in most cases not inferable from the surface. Hence, to develop an enhanced understanding of the interaction between surface and subsurface processes, it is necessary to analyse the internal structure of different periglacial landforms and landform elements. The assessment of the internal structure is provided by the application of three-dimensional Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI). ERI is the technique of merging datum points from several parallel and perpendicular performed two-dimensional ERT (Electrical Resistivity Tomography) measurements and inverting the data set with a 3D inversion algorithm (sometimes also referred to as quasi-3D ERT). The application of this method has proven to be a valuable tool for mapping the spatial extent of isolated permafrost bodies and associated subsurface conditions. In this contribution, we present results from four ERI measurements, carried out in summer 2014 at different investigation sites in the Swiss Alps: Three measurements were performed on pebbly rockglaciers of different size and topographical position and one measurement was performed on a solifluction slope. Each of the 3D survey grids consists of 17 to 32 single 2D ERT surveys (Dipol-Dipol or Wenner-Schlumberger array) and covers an area of between 6000 m² and 7000 m², depending on the specific survey grid set-up. The inversions of the data sets were performed using the two different inversion algorithms of the software products "RES3DINV" and "BERT" (Boundless Electrical Resistivity Tomography) for a comparative analysis and to further support the geomorphological interpretation of the geophysical models. Each of the resulting resistivity models shows strong small-scale spatial heterogeneities between the investigated landforms but also within landform elements. For the investigated rockglacier sites, these structures include

  5. 3D Structure and Internal Circulation of Pancake Vortices in Rotating Stratified Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanzadeh, Pedram; Marcus, Philip; Aubert, Oriane; Le Bars, Michael; Le Gal, Patrice

    2011-11-01

    Jovian vortices, Atlantic meddies, and vortices of the protoplanetrary disks are examples of weakly-forced or unforced long-lived vortices in rotating stratified flows. Knowing the 3D structure and internal circulation of these vortices is essential in understanding their physics, which is not well-understood. For example, the aspect ratio of these vortices has been long thought to be f / N where f is the Coriolis parameter and N is the Brunt-Vaisala frequency. However, our recent theoretical and experimental study has shown that the aspect ratio in fact depends not only on f and N but also on the Rossby number and density mixing inside the vortex. The new scaling law also agrees with the available measurements of the meddies and Jupiter's Great Red Spot. High resolution 3D numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equation are carried out to confirm this new scaling law for a slowly (viscously) decaying anticyclonic vortex in which the Rossby number and stratification inside the vortex evolve in time. For a wide range of parameters and different distributions of density anomaly, the secondary circulations within the vortices are studied. The effect of a non-uniform background stratification is investigated, and the small cyclonic vortices that form above and below the anticyclone are studied.

  6. Use of x-ray microtomography for 3D imaging of internal structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hain, Miroslav; Bartl, Jan; Ševčík, Robert; Jacko, Vlado

    2012-01-01

    The article describes the basic principles and the use of X-ray microtomography which has emerged as a new promising method of measurement and non-destructive testing. X-ray microtomography (μCT) combines the principles of X-ray shadow microscopy together with the computed tomography CT. The current technical possibilities allow achieving submicron resolution by the use of experimental as well as commercial μCT facilities. Use of this method can be found particularly in materials research, precision engineering, and electronics industry. In all these areas there is a need for a non-destructive, high resolution visualization of internal microstructures, measurement of interior dimensions of 3D objects, materials testing for the presence of internal defects. Unlike the nondestructive μCT, the conventional testing methods require for the observation of internal structures mechanical cutting of the object and thus its destruction. Such damage of the object under study is often unacceptable, especially when it concerns an object of research, which should be preserved in integrity for its uniqueness or need to take further measurements and tests. Besides the materials research, there are also many other important areas of application of X-ray microtomography measuring method: electronics and precision mechanical engineering industry, mineralogy, geology, biology and archeology. In the experimental part of this article the results achieved in the microtomography laboratory of Slovak Academy of Sciences, equipped with the GE phoenix|x-ray nanotom 180 facility, will be presented.

  7. 3D data visualisation of the internal structure and bed morphology of Rutford Ice Stream, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, E. C.

    2009-04-01

    One of the distinctive indicators of the location of former ice stream tracks is the presence of extensive sets of highly-elongate bedforms known as mega-scale glacial lineations (MSGL). Knowledge of the conditions of formation of MSGL has been hampered by the lack of direct observation of such landforms beneath contemporary ice sheets. I conducted a detailed ground-penetrating radar survey of a fast-flowing area of the Rutford Ice Stream, West Antarctica, where repeated seismic surveys over a 13 year period have demonstrated the rapid formation of subglacial bedforms beneath 2.5 km of ice. The majority of the bed of the 18 x 18 km area is covered by MSGL. There is a strong correlation between the location of the MSGL and the presence of deforming till (which is several metres thick). The MSGL are absent from an area of the bed where stiff, non-dilatant till outcrops, although there is evidence that the MSGL are migrating onto the stiff-till area. These data provide the first direct test of the hypothesis that MSGL are formed beneath ice streams and the first opportunity to use observations to critically examine process models for their genesis. The data were collected with a 3 MHz ground radar (constructed at the British Antarctic Survey) on profiles separated by 500 m. Data processing used a simple, conventional workflow but the effective 3D visualisation of the bedforms required well-controlled gridding of the bed elevation data followed by the application of spatial filtering. To investigate the relationship between flow directions at the surface and at the bed, commercial seismic interpretation software (Schlumberger Petrel) has been used to visualise the internal layering within the ice stream. The ability to handle large 3-D data volumes in this way will significantly enhance our understanding of glacier dynamics.

  8. Elsevier Trophoblast Research Award Lecture: Searching for an early pregnancy 3-D morphometric ultrasound marker to predict fetal growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Collins, S L; Stevenson, G N; Noble, J A; Impey, L

    2013-03-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality, even in term babies. An effective screening test to identify pregnancies at risk of FGR, leading to increased antenatal surveillance with timely delivery, could decrease perinatal mortality and morbidity. Placental volume, measured with commercially available packages and a novel, semi-automated technique, has been shown to predict small for gestational age babies. Placental morphology measured in 2-D in the second trimester and ex-vivo post delivery, correlates with FGR. This has also been investigated using 2-D estimates of diameter and site of cord insertion obtained using the Virtual Organ Computer-aided AnaLysis (VOCAL) software. Data is presented describing a pilot study of a novel 3-D method for defining compactness of placental shape. We prospectively recruited women with a singleton pregnancy and BMI of <35. A 3-D ultrasound scan was performed between 11 and 13 + 6 weeks' gestation. The placental volume, total placental surface area and the area of the utero-placental interface were calculated using our validated technique. From these we generated dimensionless indices including sphericity (ψ), standardised placental volume (sPlaV) and standardised functional area (sFA) using Buckingham π theorem. The marker for FGR used was small for gestational age, defined as <10th customised birth weight centile (cSGA). Regression analysis examined which of the morphometric indices were independent predictors of cSGA. Data were collected for 143 women, 20 had cSGA babies. Only sPlaV and sFA were significantly correlated to birth weight (p < 0.001). Regression demonstrated all dimensionless indices were inter-dependent co-factors. ROC curves showed no advantage for using sFA over the simpler sPlaV. The generated placental indices are not independent of placental volume this early in gestation. It is hoped that another placental ultrasound marker based on vascularity can improve the

  9. Construction of Extended 3D Field of Views of the Internal Bladder Wall Surface: A Proof of Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Hamadou, Achraf; Daul, Christian; Soussen, Charles

    2016-09-01

    3D extended field of views (FOVs) of the internal bladder wall facilitate lesion diagnosis, patient follow-up and treatment traceability. In this paper, we propose a 3D image mosaicing algorithm guided by 2D cystoscopic video-image registration for obtaining textured FOV mosaics. In this feasibility study, the registration makes use of data from a 3D cystoscope prototype providing, in addition to each small FOV image, some 3D points located on the surface. This proof of concept shows that textured surfaces can be constructed with minimally modified cystoscopes. The potential of the method is demonstrated on numerical and real phantoms reproducing various surface shapes. Pig and human bladder textures are superimposed on phantoms with known shape and dimensions. These data allow for quantitative assessment of the 3D mosaicing algorithm based on the registration of images simulating bladder textures.

  10. Characterization of double modified internal gate pixel by 3D simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurola, A.; Marochkin, V.; Tuuva, T.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a novel detector concept based on Modified Internal Gate Field Effect Transistor (MIGFET) wherein a buried Modified Internal Gate (MIG) is implanted underneath a channel of a FET. In between the MIG and the channel of the FET there is a depleted semiconductor material forming a potential barrier between charges in the channel and similar type signal charges located in the MIG. The signal charges in the MIG have a measurable effect on the conductance of the channel. In this paper a double MIGFET pixel is investigated comprising two MIGFETs. By transferring the signal charges between the two MIGs Non-Destructive Correlated Double Sampling Readout (NDCDSR) is enabled. The proposed MIG radiation detector suits particularly well for low-light-level imaging, X-ray spectroscopy, as well as synchrotron and X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) facilities. The reason for the excellent X-ray detection performance stems from the fact that interface related issues can be considerably mitigated since interface generated dark noise can be completely avoided and interface generated 1/f and Random Telegraph Signal (RTS) noise can be considerably reduced due to a deep buried channel readout configuration. Electrical parameters of the double MIGFET pixel have been evaluated by 3D TCAD simulation study. Simulation results show the absence of interface generated dark noise, significantly reduced interface generated 1/f and RTS noise, well performing NDCDSR operation, and blooming protection due to an inherent vertical anti-blooming structure. In addition, the backside illuminated thick fully depleted pixel design provides a homogeneous radiation entry window, low crosstalk due to lack of diffusion, and good quantum efficiency for low energy X-rays and NIR light. These facts result in excellent Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and very low crosstalk enabling thus excellent X-ray energy and spatial resolution. The simulation demonstrates the charge to current conversion gain for

  11. Towards intraoperative monitoring of ablation using tracked 3D ultrasound elastography and internal palpation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foroughi, Pezhman; Burgner, Jessica; Choti, Michael A.; Webster, Robert J., III; Hager, Gregory D.; Boctor, Emad M.

    2012-03-01

    B-mode ultrasound is widely used in liver ablation. However, the necrosis zone is typically not visible under b-mode ultrasound, since ablation does not necessarily change the acoustic properties of the tissue. In contrast, the change in tissue stiffness makes elastography ideal for monitoring ablation. Tissue palpation for elastography is typically applied at the imaging probe, by indenting it slightly into the tissue surface. However, in this paper we propose an alternate approach, where palpation is applied by a surgical instrument located inside the tissue. In our approach, the ablation needle is placed inside a steerable device called an active cannula and inserted into the tissue. A controlled motion is applied to the center of the ablation zone via the active cannula. Since the type and direction of motion is known, displacement can then be computed from two frames with the desired motion. The elastography results show the ablated region around the needle. While internal palpation provides excellent local contrast, freehand palpation from outside of the tissue via the transducer can provide a more global view of the region of the interest. For this purpose, we used a tracked 3D transducer to generate volumetric elastography images covering the ablated region. The tracking information is employed to improve the elastography results by selecting volume pairs suitable for elastography. This is an extension of our 2D frame selection technique which can cope with uncertainties associated with intra-operative elastography. In our experiments with phantom and ex-vivo tissue, we were able to generate high-quality images depicting the boundaries of the hard lesions.

  12. Local and systemic activation of the whole complement cascade in human leukocytoclastic cutaneous vasculitis; C3d,g and terminal complement complex as sensitive markers.

    PubMed Central

    Dauchel, H; Joly, P; Delpech, A; Thomine, E; Sauger, F; Le Loet, X; Lauret, P; Tron, F; Fontaine, M; Ripoche, J

    1993-01-01

    We have studied complement activation both in plasma samples and in lesional skin from patients with leukocytoclastic cutaneous vasculitis (LCV). Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) quantification of the complement activation markers, C3d,g and the terminal complement complex (TCC) in plasma, showed that their levels were significantly increased in 66% and 55% of the patients, respectively (n = 29) compared with healthy controls, whereas the standard measurements of C3, factor B, C1q, C4 and C2 were generally within normal range. Elevations of C3d,g and TCC levels in plasma were significantly correlated. Importantly, a significant correlation was found between the severity of the vasculitis and both C3d,g and TCC plasma levels. Immunofluorescence studies of skin biopsy specimens demonstrated simultaneous presence of perivascular dermal deposits of C3d,g and TCC in lesional skin from 96% and 80% respectively of the patients (n = 25). There was a significant correlation between the intensity of the deposits of both markers. Clusterin, a TCC inhibitory protein, was always found at the same sites of perivascular TCC deposits. Immunofluorescence studies at the epidermal basement membrane zone (BMZ) revealed in each case deposits of C3d,g which were accompanied by TCC deposits in 52% of the biopsy specimens. These data demonstrate that there is a local and systemic activation of the whole complement cascade in human LCV. The presence of both C3d,g and clusterin-associated TCC perivascular deposits suggests an intervention of a regulatory mechanism of local complement activation in LCV. Finally, measurement of plasma C3d,g and TCC appears to be a sensitive indicator of systemic complement activation and disease severity in LCV. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8485913

  13. Fast high-resolution 3D total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy by incidence angle scanning and azimuthal averaging

    PubMed Central

    Boulanger, Jérôme; Gueudry, Charles; Münch, Daniel; Cinquin, Bertrand; Paul-Gilloteaux, Perrine; Bardin, Sabine; Guérin, Christophe; Senger, Fabrice; Blanchoin, Laurent; Salamero, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) is the method of choice to visualize a variety of cellular processes in particular events localized near the plasma membrane of live adherent cells. This imaging technique not relying on particular fluorescent probes provides a high sectioning capability. It is, however, restricted to a single plane. We present here a method based on a versatile design enabling fast multiwavelength azimuthal averaging and incidence angles scanning to computationally reconstruct 3D images sequences. We achieve unprecedented 50-nm axial resolution over a range of 800 nm above the coverslip. We apply this imaging modality to obtain structural and dynamical information about 3D actin architectures. We also temporally decipher distinct Rab11a-dependent exocytosis events in 3D at a rate of seven stacks per second. PMID:25404337

  14. Numerical simulation of internal and external inviscid and viscous 3-D flow fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leicher, Stefan

    1986-11-01

    A numerical method for solving the 3-D Euler equations in geometrical complex domains was developed. The approach divides the computational space into multiple blocks whose structure follows the natural lines of the conficuration. A systematic, multi-block grid generation scheme is used to produce the grid. The flow solutions are obtained by solving the Euler equations by a finite volume discretization and a Runge-Kutta time stepping scheme. The main advantage of this method is the applicability to complex geometries, for example complete aircraft configurations including wing, fuselage, canard and tail. The coupling with a 3-D boundary layer method allows to account for viscous effects. Another application for the method was the simulation of flows in the presence of a propeller.

  15. 3D reconstruction of internal organ surfaces for minimal invasive surgery.

    PubMed

    Hu, Mingxing; Penney, Graeme; Edwards, Philip; Figl, Michael; Hawkes, David

    2007-01-01

    While Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) offers great benefits to patients compared with open surgery surgeons suffer from a restricted field-of-view and obstruction from instruments. We present a novel method for 3D reconstruction of soft tissue, which can provide a wider field-of-view with 3D information for surgeons, including restoration of missing data. The paper focuses on the use of Structure from Motion (SFM) techniques to solve the missing data problem and application of competitive evolutionary agents to improve the robustness to missing data and outliers. The method has been evaluated with synthetic data, images from a phantom heart model, and in vivo MIS image sequences using the da Vinci telerobotic surgical system. PMID:18051045

  16. 3D simulation on the internal distributed properties of lithium-ion battery with planar tabbed configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Cheng, Yun; Ai, Lihua; Jia, Ming; Du, Shuanglong; Yin, Baohua; Woo, Stanley; Zhang, Hongliang

    2015-10-01

    The internal distributed physicochemical characteristics of a battery significantly affect its performance. However, these properties are difficult to measure experimentally. This study presents a validated three-dimensional (3D) battery model covering the conservation of charge, mass, and energy and the electrochemical reaction of a laminated 10 Ah lithium iron phosphate battery. Using this 3D battery model, the space and time distributions of the internal physicochemical properties of the battery are investigated. The results indicate that the maximum gradients of the properties are at the transition region between the tabs and electrode plates. Thus, the tabs in a battery should be reasonably designed. For this LiFePO4/Graphite battery, anode plays a more important role than cathode in the overall overpotential and is likely to be crucial in the sharp decrease of output voltage at the later discharge process. And a higher battery capacity can be obtained by increasing the amount of anode material.

  17. European Pressurized water Reactor (EPR) SAR ATWS Accident Analyses by using 3D Code Internal Coupling Method

    SciTech Connect

    Gagner, Renata; Lafitte, Helene; Dormeau, Pascal; Stoudt, Roger H.

    2004-07-01

    Anticipated Transients Without Scram (ATWS) accident analyses make part of the Safety Analysis Report of the European Pressurized water Reactor (EPR), covering Risk Reduction Category A (Core Melt Prevention) events. This paper deals with three of the most penalizing RRC-A sequences of ATWS caused by mechanical blockage of the control/shutdown rods, regarding their consequences on the Reactor Coolant System (RCS) and core integrity. A new 3D code internal coupling calculation method has been introduced. (authors)

  18. Reactor safety issues resolved by the 2D/3D Program. International Agreement Report

    SciTech Connect

    Damerell, P.S.; Simons, J.W.

    1993-07-01

    The 2D/3D Program studied multidimensional thermal-hydraulics in a PWR core and primary system during the end-of-blowdown and post-blowdown phases of a large-break LOCA (LBLOCA), and during selected small-break LOCA (SBLOCA) transients. The program included tests at the Cylindrical Core Test Facility (CCTF), the Slab Core Test Facility (SCTF), and the Upper Plenum Test Facility (UPTF), and computer analyses using TRAC. Tests at CCTF investigated core thermal-hydraulics and overall system behavior while tests at SCTF concentrated on multidimensional core thermal-hydraulics. The UPTF tests investigated two-phase flow behavior in the downcomer, upper plenum, tie plate region, and primary loops. TRAC analyses evaluated thermal-hydraulic behavior throughout the primary system in tests as well as in PWRs. This report summarizes the test and analysis results in each of the main areas where improved information was obtained in the 2D/3D Program. The discussion is organized in terms of the reactor safety issues investigated.

  19. Evaluation of trapezoidal-shaped 3-D plates for internal fixation of mandibular subcondylar fractures in adults

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Manoj; Pant, Harshvardhan; Singh, Manpreet; Vashistha, Arpit; Kaur, Gagandeep

    2015-01-01

    Aims The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical results and to assess the efficacy, stability, and rigidity of trapezoidal 3-D plates for osteosynthesis in adult mandibular subcondylar fracture patients. Methods This study included 15 cases of trauma having mandibular subcondylar fractures, in which open reduction and internal fixation are indicated. After selecting patient according to the inclusion criteria, all patients underwent open reduction and rigid fixation. Fracture was then stabilized using 4 hole, 2.0 mm trapezoidal-shaped 3-D titanium plates using retromandibular incision. Postoperative clinical examination was carried out on 3rd day; 1st, 2nd, and 4th weeks; and 3rd and 6th months. Results The results of this study suggest that the fixation of mandibular subcondylar fracture with trapezoidal-shaped 3-D plates provides three-dimensional stability and carries low morbidity. Conclusion Patients with gross displacement of condylar fragment, major reduction in posterior facial height, and deranged occlusion can be successfully managed by open reduction of condylar fracture and its fixation using 3-D plates. PMID:26587378

  20. Tracking the dynamic seroma cavity using fiducial markers in patients treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation using 3D conformal radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Ning J.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Goyal, Sharad

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to perform an analysis of the changes in the dynamic seroma cavity based on fiducial markers in early stage breast cancer patients treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using three-dimensional conformal external beam radiotherapy (3D-CRT). Methods: A prospective, single arm trial was designed to investigate the utility of gold fiducial markers in image guided APBI using 3D-CRT. At the time of lumpectomy, four to six suture-type gold fiducial markers were sutured to the walls of the cavity. Patients were treated with a fractionation scheme consisting of 15 fractions with a fractional dose of 333 cGy. Treatment design and planning followed NSABP/RTOG B-39 guidelines. During radiation treatment, daily kV imaging was performed and the markers were localized and tracked. The change in distance between fiducial markers was analyzed based on the planning CT and daily kV images. Results: Thirty-four patients were simulated at an average of 28 days after surgery, and started the treatment on an average of 39 days after surgery. The average intermarker distance (AiMD) between fiducial markers was strongly correlated to seroma volume. The average reduction in AiMD was 19.1% (range 0.0%-41.4%) and 10.8% (range 0.0%-35.6%) for all the patients between simulation and completion of radiotherapy, and between simulation and beginning of radiotherapy, respectively. The change of AiMD fits an exponential function with a half-life of seroma shrinkage. The average half-life for seroma shrinkage was 15 days. After accounting for the reduction which started to occur after surgery through CT simulation and treatment, radiation was found to have minimal impact on the distance change over the treatment course. Conclusions: Using the marker distance change as a surrogate for seroma volume, it appears that the seroma cavity experiences an exponential reduction in size. The change in seroma size has implications in the size of

  1. 3D Equilibrium Reconstruction with Internal Measurements on Madison Symmetric Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koliner, J. J.; Chapman, B. E.; Sarff, J. S.; Anderson, J. K.; Munaretto, S.; Capecchi, W.; Lin, L.; Hanson, J. D.; Cianciosa, M. R.

    2014-10-01

    Plasmas in the MST reversed field pinch (RFP) bifurcate to a helical equilibrium, forming a single helical axis (SHAx) at high plasma current (Ip ~ 500 kA) and low density (ne ~ 0.5 - 1019 m-3) . In order to understand the physics of confinement and self-organization in SHAx, 3D equilibrium reconstruction is needed. The V3FIT equilibrium reconstruction code is applied using measurements from the 11-chord interferometer-polarimeter, 22-point Thomson scattering system, 4-camera soft x-ray probes, and magnetics. Equilibria have been generated using a fixed plasma boundary with no external currents. Model signals fit well to observed signals, χ2 ~ 1, and the zero crossing of line-averaged neBz from Faraday rotation is matched by the model. External magnetics are shown to be an inadequate equilibrium constraint with the VMEC model, due to possible shear in the poloidal phase of the helical structure, as well as strong contribution to the edge magnetic field from currents in the conducting shell. To address this shortcoming, a filament current model has been created to simulate the conducting shell with many external currents for a free plasma boundary. Axisymmetric equilibria have been reconstructed using the filament model and compared to solutions obtained with the MSTFIT axisymmetric equilibrium reconstruction code. The filament model has been extended to allow reconstruction of helical equilibria. Supported by DoE.

  2. The internal density distribution of comet 67P/C-G based on 3D models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorda, Laurent; Hviid, Stubbe; Capanna, Claire; Gaskell, Robert; Gutierrez, Pedro; Preusker, Frank; Rodionov, Sergey; Scholten, Frank

    2016-04-01

    The OSIRIS camera aboard the Rosetta spacecraft observed the nucleus of comet 67P/C-G from the mapping phase in summer 2014 until now. The images have allowed the reconstruction in three-dimension of nucleus surface with stereophotogrammetry (Preusker et al., Astron. Astrophys.) and stereophotoclinometry (Jorda et al., submitted to Icarus) techniques. We use the reconstructed models to constrain the internal density distribution based on: (i) the measurement of the offset between the center of mass and center of figure of the object, and (ii) the assumption that flat areas observed at the surface of the comet correspond to iso-gravity surfaces. The results of our analysis will be presented, and the consequences for the internal structure and formation of the nucleus of comet 67P/C-G will be discussed.

  3. The internal geometry of salt structures - A first look using 3D seismic data from the Zechstein of the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Gent, Heijn; Urai, Janos L.; de Keijzer, Martin

    2011-03-01

    We present a first look at the large-scale, complexly folded and faulted internal structure of Zechstein salt bodies in NW Europe using 3D reflection seismic reflection data from two surveys on the Groningen High and the Cleaver Bank High. We focus on a relatively brittle, folded and boudinaged, claystone-carbonate-anhydrite layer (the Z3 stringer) enclosed in ductile salt. A first classification of the structures is presented and compared with observations from salt mines and analogue and numerical models. Z3 stringers not only are reservoirs for hydrocarbons but can also present a serious drilling problem in some areas. Results of this study could provide the basis for better prediction of zones of drilling problems. More generally, the techniques presented here can be used to predict the internal structure of salt bodies, to estimate the geometry of economic deposits of all kinds and locate zones suitable for storage caverns. Structures observed include an extensive network of zones with increased thickness of the stringer. These we infer to have formed by early diagenesis, karstification, gravitational sliding and associated local sedimentation. Later, this template was deformed into large-scale folds and boudins during salt tectonics. Salt flow was rarely plane strain, producing complex fold and boudin geometries. Deformation was further complicated by the stronger zones of increased thickness, which led to strongly non-cylindrical structures. We present some indications that the thicker zones also influence the locations of later suprasalt structures, suggesting a feedback between the early internal evolution of this salt giant and later salt tectonics. This study opens the possibility to study the internal structure of the Zechstein and other salt giants in 3D using this technique, exposing a previously poorly known structure which is comparable in size and complexity to the internal parts of some orogens.

  4. Internal wave attractors examined using laboratory experiments and 3D numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouzet, C.; Sibgatullin, I. N.; Scolan, H.; Ermanyuk, E. V.; Dauxois, T.

    2016-04-01

    In the present paper, we combine numerical and experimental approaches to study the dynamics of stable and unstable internal wave attractors. The problem is considered in a classic trapezoidal setup filled with a uniformly stratified fluid. Energy is injected into the system at global scale by the small-amplitude motion of a vertical wall. Wave motion in the test tank is measured with the help of conventional synthetic schlieren and PIV techniques. The numerical setup closely reproduces the experimental one in terms of geometry and the operational range of the Reynolds and Schmidt numbers. The spectral element method is used as a numerical tool to simulate the nonlinear dynamics of a viscous salt-stratified fluid. We show that the results of three-dimensional calculations are in excellent qualitative and quantitative agreement with the experimental data, including the spatial and temporal parameters of the secondary waves produced by triadic resonance instability. Further, we explore experimentally and numerically the effect of lateral walls on secondary currents and spanwise distribution of velocity amplitudes in the wave beams. Finally, we test the assumption of a bidimensional flow and estimate the error made in synthetic schlieren measurements due to this assumption.

  5. 3D CFD ELECTROCHEMICAL AND HEAT TRANSFER MODEL OF AN INTERNALLY MANIFOLDED SOLID OXIDE ELECTROLYSIS CELL

    SciTech Connect

    Grant L. Hawkes; James E. O'Brien; Greg Tao

    2011-11-01

    A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) electrochemical model has been created to model high-temperature electrolysis cell performance and steam electrolysis in an internally manifolded planar solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) stack. This design is being evaluated at the Idaho National Laboratory for hydrogen production from nuclear power and process heat. Mass, momentum, energy, and species conservation and transport are provided via the core features of the commercial CFD code FLUENT. A solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) model adds the electrochemical reactions and loss mechanisms and computation of the electric field throughout the cell. The FLUENT SOFC user-defined subroutine was modified for this work to allow for operation in the SOEC mode. Model results provide detailed profiles of temperature, operating potential, steam-electrode gas composition, oxygen-electrode gas composition, current density and hydrogen production over a range of stack operating conditions. Single-cell and five-cell results will be presented. Flow distribution through both models is discussed. Flow enters from the bottom, distributes through the inlet plenum, flows across the cells, gathers in the outlet plenum and flows downward making an upside-down ''U'' shaped flow pattern. Flow and concentration variations exist downstream of the inlet holes. Predicted mean outlet hydrogen and steam concentrations vary linearly with current density, as expected. Effects of variations in operating temperature, gas flow rate, oxygen-electrode and steam-electrode current density, and contact resistance from the base case are presented. Contour plots of local electrolyte temperature, current density, and Nernst potential indicate the effects of heat transfer, reaction cooling/heating, and change in local gas composition. Results are discussed for using this design in the electrolysis mode. Discussion of thermal neutral voltage, enthalpy of reaction, hydrogen production, cell thermal

  6. 3D tomographic reconstruction of the internal velocity field of an immiscible drop in a shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerdraon, Paul; Dalziel, Stuart B.; Goldstein, Raymond E.; Landel, Julien R.; Peaudecerf, Francois J.

    2015-11-01

    We study experimentally the internal flow of a drop attached to a flat substrate and immersed in an immiscible shear flow. Transport inside the drop can play a crucial role in cleaning applications. Internal advection can enhance the mass transfer across the drop surface, thus increasing the cleaning rate. We used microlitre water-glycerol drops on a hydrophobic substrate. The drops were spherical and did not deform significantly under the shear flow. An oil phase of relative viscosity 0.01 to 1 was flowed over the drop. Typical Reynolds numbers inside the drops were of the order of 0.1 to 10. Using confocal microscopy, we performed 3D tomographic reconstruction of the flow field in the drop. The in-plane velocity field was measured using micro-PIV, and the third velocity component was computed from incompressibility. To our knowledge, this study gives the first experimental measurement of the three-dimensional internal velocity field of a drop in a shear flow. Numerical simulations and theoretical models published in the past 30 years predict a toroidal internal recirculation flow, for which the entire surface flows streamwise. However, our measurements reveal a qualitatively different picture with a two-lobed recirculation, featuring two stagnation points at the surface and a reverse surface flow closer to the substrate. This finding appears to be independent of Reynolds number and viscosity ratio in the ranges studied; we conjecture that the observed flow is due to the effect of surfactants at the drop surface.

  7. Internal waves patterns in the wake of a 3D body towed in a two-layer fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacaze, Laurent; Mercier, Matthieu; Thual, Olivier; Paci, Alexandre

    2014-11-01

    Stratified flows over obstacles are important features in meteorology and oceanography. The characterization of these flows is crucial in order to propose models of geophysical processes such as mixing and ocean circulation or orographic drag in the atmosphere. For some specific stratification profiles, the energy of internal waves generated by the obstacle can be trapped at a given depth, at the base of the oceanic mixing layer or at the top of the atmospheric boundary layer for instance. This scenario can be modelled by a two-layer stratified fluid for which gravity waves spread at the interface between the two layers. The work presented here focuses on a two-layer flow over a 3D obstacle, or equivalently, an obstacle towed in a fluid at rest. Experiments performed both in the large-scale flume of CNRM-GAME Toulouse (METEO-FRANCE & CNRS) and in a smaller tank apparatus, are presented with a specific attention on the measurement of the 3D wave patterns. A non-hydrostatic linear analysis is used to describe the observed wave patterns. The experiments highlight the strong influence of the Froude number on the generated waves. More specifically, we investigate the nature of the wake angle obtained from the wave pattern, and discuss a transition from Kelvin to Mach angle.

  8. The myofibroblast markers α-SM actin and β-actin are differentially expressed in 2 and 3-D culture models of fibrotic and normal skin.

    PubMed

    Vozenin, M C; Lefaix, J L; Ridi, R; Biard, D S; Daburon, F; Martin, M

    1998-01-01

    To characterize the differences between fibrotic myofibroblasts and normal fibroblasts, we studied two differentiation markers: α-smooth muscle (SM) actin, a specific marker of myofibroblast differentiation, and β-actin, which is overexpressed in the fibrotic tissue. Experiments were performed on fibroblasts isolated from normal pig skin and on subcutaneous myofibroblasts isolated from pig radiation-induced fibrosis. Three culture models were used: cells in monolayers, equivalent dermis, consisting of fibroblasts embedded into a matrix composed of type I collagen, and in vitro reconstituted skin, in which the matrix and containing life fibroblasts were overlaid with keratinocytes. Samples were studied using immunofluorescence and western-blotting. In monolayers cultures, both fibrosis and normal cells expressed α-SM actin. Furthermore, similar amounts of β-actin protein were found. In these conditions, the resulting alterations in the phenotypes of cells made comparison of cultured fibrotic and normal cells irrelevant. Under the two 3-D culture models, normal fibroblasts no longer expressed α-SM actin. They expressed β-actin at the basal level. Moreover, the fibrotic myofibroblasts in both 3-D models retained their differentiation features, expressing α-SM actin and overexpressing β-actin. We found that this normalization was mainly related to the genomic programmation acquired by the cells in the tissue. Cellular motility and microenvironment were also involved, whereas cellular proliferation was not a major factor. Consequently, both three-dimensional models allowed the study of radiation-induced fibrosis in vitro, provided good extrapolations to in vivo conditions and avoided certain of culture artefacts. PMID:22359004

  9. Image-based analysis of the internal microstructure of bone replacement scaffolds fabricated by 3D printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irsen, Stephan H.; Leukers, Barbara; Bruckschen, Björn; Tille, Carsten; Seitz, Hermann; Beckmann, Felix; Müller, Bert

    2006-08-01

    Rapid Prototyping and especially the 3D printing, allows generating complex porous ceramic scaffolds directly from powders. Furthermore, these technologies allow manufacturing patient-specific implants of centimeter size with an internal pore network to mimic bony structures including vascularization. Besides the biocompatibility properties of the base material, a high degree of open, interconnected porosity is crucial for the success of the synthetic bone graft. Pores with diameters between 100 and 500 μm are the prerequisite for vascularization to supply the cells with nutrients and oxygen, because simple diffusion transport is ineffective. The quantification of porosity on the macro-, micro-, and nanometer scale using well-established techniques such as Hg-porosimetry and electron microscopy is restricted. Alternatively, we have applied synchrotron-radiation-based micro computed tomography (SRμCT) to determine the porosity with high precision and to validate the macroscopic internal structure of the scaffold. We report on the difficulties in intensity-based segmentation for nanoporous materials but we also elucidate the power of SRμCT in the quantitative analysis of the pores at the different length scales.

  10. A study of internal structure in components made by additive manufacturing process using 3 D X-ray tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raguvarun, K.; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Rajagopal, Prabhu; Palanisamy, Suresh; Nagarajah, Romesh; Hoye, Nicholas; Curiri, Dominic; Kapoor, Ajay

    2015-03-01

    Additive manufacturing methods are gaining increasing popularity for rapidly and efficiently manufacturing parts and components in the industrial context, as well as for domestic applications. However, except when used for prototyping or rapid visualization of components, industries are concerned with the load carrying capacity and strength achievable by additive manufactured parts. In this paper, the wire-arc additive manufacturing (AM) process based on gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) has been examined for the internal structure and constitution of components generated by the process. High-resolution 3D X-ray tomography is used to gain cut-views through wedge-shaped parts created using this GTAW additive manufacturing process with titanium alloy materials. In this work, two different control conditions for the GTAW process are considered. The studies reveal clusters of porosities, located in periodic spatial intervals along the sample cross-section. Such internal defects can have a detrimental effect on the strength of the resulting AM components, as shown in destructive testing studies. Closer examination of this phenomenon shows that defect clusters are preferentially located at GTAW traversal path intervals. These results highlight the strong need for enhanced control of process parameters in ensuring components with minimal defects and higher strength.

  11. A study of internal structure in components made by additive manufacturing process using 3 D X-ray tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Raguvarun, K. Balasubramaniam, Krishnan Rajagopal, Prabhu; Palanisamy, Suresh; Nagarajah, Romesh; Kapoor, Ajay; Hoye, Nicholas; Curiri, Dominic

    2015-03-31

    Additive manufacturing methods are gaining increasing popularity for rapidly and efficiently manufacturing parts and components in the industrial context, as well as for domestic applications. However, except when used for prototyping or rapid visualization of components, industries are concerned with the load carrying capacity and strength achievable by additive manufactured parts. In this paper, the wire-arc additive manufacturing (AM) process based on gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) has been examined for the internal structure and constitution of components generated by the process. High-resolution 3D X-ray tomography is used to gain cut-views through wedge-shaped parts created using this GTAW additive manufacturing process with titanium alloy materials. In this work, two different control conditions for the GTAW process are considered. The studies reveal clusters of porosities, located in periodic spatial intervals along the sample cross-section. Such internal defects can have a detrimental effect on the strength of the resulting AM components, as shown in destructive testing studies. Closer examination of this phenomenon shows that defect clusters are preferentially located at GTAW traversal path intervals. These results highlight the strong need for enhanced control of process parameters in ensuring components with minimal defects and higher strength.

  12. Internal structure and volcanic hazard potential of Mt Tongariro, New Zealand, from 3D gravity and magnetic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Craig A.; Williams-Jones, Glyn

    2016-06-01

    A new 3D geophysical model of the Mt Tongariro Volcanic Massif (TgVM), New Zealand, provides a high resolution view of the volcano's internal structure and hydrothermal system, from which we derive implications for volcanic hazards. Geologically constrained 3D inversions of potential field data provides a greater level of insight into the volcanic structure than is possible from unconstrained models. A complex region of gravity highs and lows (± 6 mGal) is set within a broader, ~ 20 mGal gravity low. A magnetic high (1300 nT) is associated with Mt Ngauruhoe, while a substantial, thick, demagnetised area occurs to the north, coincident with a gravity low and interpreted as representing the hydrothermal system. The hydrothermal system is constrained to the west by major faults, interpreted as an impermeable barrier to fluid migration and extends to basement depth. These faults are considered low probability areas for future eruption sites, as there is little to indicate they have acted as magmatic pathways. Where the hydrothermal system coincides with steep topographic slopes, an increased likelihood of landslides is present and the newly delineated hydrothermal system maps the area most likely to have phreatic eruptions. Such eruptions, while small on a global scale, are important hazards at the TgVM as it is a popular hiking area with hundreds of visitors per day in close proximity to eruption sites. The model shows that the volume of volcanic material erupted over the lifespan of the TgVM is five to six times greater than previous estimates, suggesting a higher rate of magma supply, in line with global rates of andesite production. We suggest that our model of physical property distribution can be used to provide constraints for other models of dynamic geophysical processes occurring at the TgVM.

  13. Treatment techniques for 3D conformal radiation to breast and chest wall including the internal mammary chain

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnik, Deborah; Selvaraj, Raj N. . E-mail: selvarajrn@upmc.edu; Faul, Clare; Gerszten, Kristina; Heron, Dwight E.; King, Gwendolyn C.

    2007-04-01

    Breast, chest wall, and regional nodal irradiation have been associated with an improved outcome in high-risk breast cancer patients. Complex treatment planning is often utilized to ensure complete coverage of the target volume while minimizing the dose to surrounding normal tissues. The 2 techniques evaluated in this report are the partially wide tangent fields (PWTFs) and the 4-field photon/electron combination (the modified 'Kuske Technique'). These 2 techniques were evaluated in 10 consecutive breast cancer patients. All patients had computerized tomographic (CT) scans for 3D planning supine on a breast board. The breast was defined clinically by the physician and confirmed radiographically with radiopaque bebes. The resulting dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of normal and target tissues were then compared. The deep tangent field with blocks resulted in optimal coverage of the target and the upper internal mammary chain (IMC) while sparing of critical and nontarget tissues. The wide tangent technique required less treatment planning and delivery time. We compared the 2 techniques and their resultant DVHs and feasibility in a busy clinic.

  14. Cerebral Blood Flow Alterations as Assessed by 3D ASL in Cognitive Impairment in Patients with Subcortical Vascular Cognitive Impairment: A Marker for Disease Severity

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yawen; Cao, Wenwei; Ding, Weina; Wang, Yao; Han, Xu; Zhou, Yan; Xu, Qun; Zhang, Yong; Xu, Jianrong

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal reductions in cortical cerebral blood flow (CBF) have been identified in subcortical vascular cognitive impairment (SVCI). However, little is known about the pattern of CBF reduction in relation with the degree of cognitive impairment. CBF measured with three-dimensional (3D) Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) helps detect functional changes in subjects with SVCI. We aimed to compare CBF maps in subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD) subjects with and without cognitive impairment and to detect the relationship of the regions of CBF reduction in the brain with the degree of cognitive impairment according to the z-score. A total of 53 subjects with SVCI and 23 matched SIVD subjects without cognitive impairment (controls), underwent a whole-brain 3D ASL MRI in the resting state. Regional CBF (rCBF) was compared voxel wise by using an analysis of variance design in a statistical parametric mapping program, with patient age and sex as covariates. Correlations were calculated between the rCBF value in the whole brain and the z-score in the 53 subjects with SVCI. Compared with the control subjects, SVCI group demonstrated diffuse decreased CBF in the brain. Significant positive correlations were determined in the rCBF values in the left hippocampus, left superior temporal pole gyrus, right superior frontal orbital lobe, right medial frontal orbital lobe, right middle temporal lobe, left thalamus and right insula with the z-scores in SVCI group. The noninvasively quantified resting CBF demonstrated altered CBF distributions in the SVCI brain. The deficit brain perfusions in the temporal and frontal lobe, hippocampus, thalamus and insula was related to the degree of cognitive impairment. Its relationship to cognition indicates the clinical relevance of this functional marker. Thus, our results provide further evidence for the mechanisms underlying the cognitive deficit in patients with SVCI.

  15. The DOSIS and DOSIS 3D Experiments onboard the International Space Station - Results from the Active DOSTEL Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burmeister, Soenke; Berger, Thomas; Reitz, Guenther; Beaujean, Rudolf; Boehme, Matthias; Haumann, Lutz; Labrenz, Johannes; Kortmann, Onno

    2012-07-01

    Besides the effects of the microgravity environment, and the psychological and psychosocial problems experienced in confined spaces, radiation is the main health detriment for long duration human space missions. The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature from that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones present on earth for occupational radiation workers. Accurate knowledge of the physical characteristics of the space radiation field in dependence on the solar activity, the orbital parameters and the different shielding configurations of the International Space Station ISS is therefore needed. For the investigation of the spatial and temporal distribution of the radiation field inside the European COLUMBUS module the experiment DOSIS (Dose Distribution Inside the ISS) under the lead of DLR was launched on July 15th 2009 with STS-127 to the ISS. The experimental package was transferred from the Space Shuttle into COLUMBUS on July 18th. It consists of a combination of passive detector packages (PDP) distributed at 11 locations inside the European Columbus Laboratory and two active radiation detectors (DOSTELs) with a DDPU (DOSTEL Data and Power Unit) in a nomex pouch (DOSIS MAIN BOX) mounted at a fixed location beneath the European Physiology Module rack (EPM) inside COLUMBUS. The DOSTELs measured during the lowest solar minimum conditions in the space age from July 18th 2009 to June 16th 2011. In July 2011 the active hardware was transferred to ground for refurbishment and preparation for the DOSIS-3D experiment. The hardware will be launched with the Soyuz 30S flight to the ISS on May 15th 2012 and activated approximately ten days later. Data will be transferred from the DOSTEL units to ground via the EPM rack which is activated approximately every four weeks for this action. First Results for the active DOSIS-3D measurements such as count rate profiles

  16. Airborne & SAR Synergy Reveals the 3D Structure of Air Bubble Entrainment in Internal Waves and Frontal Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, J. C. B.; Magalhaes, J. M.; Batista, M.; Gostiaux, L.; Gerkema, T.; New, A. L.

    2013-03-01

    spectral range 8-12 μm. With a nominal ground resolution of approximately 1.5 meters (at an altitude of 500 meters) it is capable to detect fine structure associated to turbulence. The LiDAR system that has been used is the Leica ALS50-II (1064nm) with a hit rate greater than 1 hit per square meter and a vertical resolution of approximately 15 cm. Both systems were available simultaneously, together with the hyperspectral system and the RCD105 39Mpx digital camera, integrated with the LiDAR navigation system. We analyse the airborne data together with a comprehensive dataset of satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) that includes ENVISAT and TerraSAR-X images. In addition, in situ observations in the near-shore zone were obtained in a previous experiment (Project SPOTIWAVE-II POCI/MAR/57836/2004 funded by the Portuguese FCT) during the summer period in 2006. These included thermistor chain measurements along the water column that captured the vertical structure of shoaling internal (tidal) waves and ISWs close to the breaking point. The SAR and airborne images were obtained in light wind conditions, in the near-shore zone, and in the presence of ISWs. The LiDAR images revealed sub-surface structures (some 1-2 m below the sea surface) that were co-located with surface films. These film slicks were induced by the convergent fields of internal waves and upwelling fronts. Some of the sub-surface features were located over the front slopes of the internal waves, which coincides with the internal wave slick band visible in the aerial photos and hyperspectral systems. Our flight measurements revealed thermal features similar to “boils” of cold water within the wake of (admittedly breaking) internal waves. These features are consistent with the previous in situ measurements of breaking ISWs. In this paper we will show coincident multi-sensor airborne and satellite SAR observations that reveal the 3D structure of air bubble entrainment in the internal wave field and frontal

  17. Structural requirements for C3d,g/Epstein-Barr virus receptor (CR2/CD21) ligand binding, internalization, and viral infection.

    PubMed

    Carel, J C; Myones, B L; Frazier, B; Holers, V M

    1990-07-25

    The structure of CR2, the human C3d,g/EBV receptor (CR2/CD21) consists of 15 or 16 60-70 amino acid repeats called short consensus repeats (SCRs) followed by a transmembrane and a 34-amino acid intracytoplasmic domain. Functions of CR2 include binding the human complement component C3d,g when it is covalently attached to targets or cross-linked in the fluid phase. In addition, CR2 binds the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and mediates internalization of EBV and subsequent infection of cells. In order to explore functional roles of the repetitive extracytoplasmic SCR structure and the intracytoplasmic domain of CR2, we have created truncated CR2 (rCR2) mutants bearing serial deletions of extracytoplasmic SCRs and also the intracytoplasmic tail. We then stably transfected these rCR2 mutants into two cell lines, murine fibroblast L cells and human erythroleukemic K562 cells. Phenotypic analysis of these expressed mutants revealed that 1) The C3d,g- and EBV-binding sites are found in the two amino-terminal SCRs of CR2, 2) expression of SCRs 3 and 4 is further required for high affinity binding to soluble cross-linked C3d,g, 3) the intracytoplasmic domain of CR2 is not required for binding C3d,g or EBV but is necessary for internalization of cross-linked C3d,g as well as for EBV infection of cells, 4) monoclonal anti-CR2 antibodies with similar activities react with single widely separated epitopes, and 5) no functional roles can yet be clearly assigned to SCRs 5-15, as rCR2 mutants not containing these SCRs show no major differences from wild-type rCR2 in binding or internalizing cross-linked C3d,g or mediating EBV binding and infection. PMID:1695627

  18. X-Ray Magnetic Resonance Fusion to Internal Markers and Utility in Congenital Heart Disease Catheterization

    PubMed Central

    Dori, Yoav; Sarmiento, Marily; Glatz, Andrew C.; Gillespie, Matthew J.; Jones, Virginia M.; Harris, Matthew A.; Whitehead, Kevin K.; Fogel, Mark A.; Rome, Jonathan J.

    2012-01-01

    Background X-ray magnetic resonance fusion (XMRF) allows for use of 3D data during cardiac catheterization. However, to date, technical requirements have limited the use of this modality in clinical practice. We report on a new internal-marker XMRF method that we have developed and describe how we used XMRF during cardiac catheterization in congenital heart disease. Methods and Results XMRF was performed in a phantom and in 23 patients presenting for cardiac catheterization who also needed cardiac MRI for clinical reasons. The registration process was performed in <5 minutes per patient, with minimal radiation (0.004 to 0.024 mSv) and without contrast. Registration error was calculated in a phantom and in 8 patients using the maximum distance between angiographic and 3D model boundaries. In the phantom, the measured error in the anteroposterior projection had a mean of 1.15 mm (standard deviation, 0.73). The measured error in patients had a median of 2.15 mm (interquartile range, 1.65 to 2.56 mm). Internal markers included bones, airway, image artifact, calcifications, and the heart and vessel borders. The MRI data were used for road mapping in 17 of 23 (74%) cases and camera angle selection in 11 of 23 (48%) cases. Conclusions Internal marker–based registration can be performed quickly, with minimal radiation, without the need for contrast, and with clinically acceptable accuracy using commercially available software. We have also demonstrated several potential uses for XMRF in routine clinical practice. This modality has the potential to reduce radiation exposure and improve catheterization outcomes. PMID:21536785

  19. FLT3/D835Y mutation knock-in mice display less aggressive disease compared with FLT3/internal tandem duplication (ITD) mice

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Emily; Li, Li; Duffield, Amy S.; Ma, Hayley S.; Huso, David L.; Small, Don

    2013-01-01

    FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) is mutated in approximately one third of acute myeloid leukemia cases. The most common FLT3 mutations in acute myeloid leukemia are internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutations in the juxtamembrane domain (23%) and point mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain (10%). The mutation substituting the aspartic acid at position 838 (equivalent to the human aspartic acid residue at position 835) with a tyrosine (referred to as FLT3/D835Y hereafter) is the most frequent kinase domain mutation, converting aspartic acid to tyrosine. Although both of these mutations constitutively activate FLT3, patients with an ITD mutation have a significantly poorer prognosis. To elucidate the mechanisms behind this prognostic difference, we have generated a knock-in mouse model with a D838Y point mutation in FLT3 that corresponds to the FLT3/D835Y mutation described in humans. Compared with FLT3/ITD knock-in mice, the FLT3/D835Y knock-in mice survive significantly longer. The majority of these mice develop myeloproliferative neoplasms with a less-aggressive phenotype. In addition, FLT3/D835Y mice have distinct hematopoietic development patterns. Unlike the tremendous depletion of the hematopoietic stem cell compartment we have observed in FLT3/ITD mice, FLT3/D835Y mutant mice are not depleted in hematopoietic stem cells. Further comparisons of these FLT3/D835Y knock-in mice with FLT3/ITD mice should provide an ideal platform for dissecting the molecular mechanisms that underlie the prognostic differences between the two different types of FLT3 mutations. PMID:24255108

  20. Identification of couple-stress moduli of vertebral trabecular bone based on the 3D internal architectures.

    PubMed

    Goda, Ibrahim; Ganghoffer, Jean-François

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a homogeneous, orthotropic couple-stress continuum model as a substitute of the 3D periodic heterogeneous cellular solid model of vertebral trabecular bone. Vertebral trabecular bone is modeled as a porous material with an idealized periodic structure made of 3D open cubic cells, which is effectively orthotropic. The chosen architecture is based on studies of samples taken from the central part of vertebral bodies. The effective properties are obtained based on the response of the representative volume element under prescribed boundary conditions. Mixed boundary conditions comprising both traction and displacement boundary conditions are applied on the structure boundaries. In this contribution, the effective mechanical constants of the effective couple-stress continuum are deduced by an equivalent strain energy method. The characteristic lengths for bending and torsion are identified from the resulting homogenized orthotropic moduli. We conduct this study computationally using a finite element approach. Vertebral trabecular bone is modeled either as a cellular solid or as a two-phase material consisting of bone tissue (stiff phase) forming a trabecular network, and a surrounding soft tissue referring to the bone marrow present in the pores. Both the bone tissue forming the network and the pores are assumed to be homogeneous linear elastic, and isotropic media. The scale effects on the predicted couple stress moduli of these networks are investigated by varying the size of the bone specimens over which the boundary conditions are applied. The analysis using mixed boundary conditions gives results that are independent of unit cell size when computing the first couple stress tensor, while it is dependent on the cell size as to the second couple stress tensor moduli. This study provides overall guidance on how the size of the trabecular specimen influence couple stresses elastic moduli of cellular materials, with focus on bones

  1. Unravelling internal structures of an alkaline and carbonatite igneous complex by 3D modelling of gravity and magnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Magnus; Malehmir, Alireza

    2015-04-01

    Alnö igneous complex in central Sweden is among the few rare and largest alkaline and carbonatite ring-shaped intrusions in the world. Recent high-resolution reflection seismic profiles (Andersson et al., 2013) suggest a saucer-shaped magma chamber at about 3 km depth. Study of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) from a number of carbonatite dykes in the complex suggests a combination of laminar magma flow and sheet closure in the waning stage of magma transport for their emplacement (Andersson et al., 2015). Since 2010 and in conjunction with the above-mentioned studies, more than 400 gravity data points have been measured on land and partly on sea-ice. In addition, the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU) provided about 100 data points. Petrophysical measurements including density and bulk magnetic susceptibility were carried out for more than 250 rock samples; magnetic remanence was measured on 39 of those samples. The measurements for example indicate that induced magnetisation is dominant in the complex and only a few rock samples show high remanent magnetisation (Q ≥ 1). SGU also provided airborne magnetic data (60 m flight altitude and 200 m flight line spacing) covering the complex on land and areas around it in the sea. These data show the complex as (i) a strong positive Bouguer anomaly, around 20 mGal, one of the strongest gravity gradients observed in Sweden, and (ii) a strong positive magnetic anomaly, around 2400 nT, additionally showing clear magnetic structures within the complex and adjacent to it in the sea. 3D inversion of the gravity and magnetic data was then performed using 100 m by 100 m meshes in the lateral direction and vertically varying meshes starting from 10 m at surface and increasing to 100 m in the depth interval 4250 - 8250 m. The inversion models cover an area of 17 km by 18 km. Regional fields were removed using a first-order polynomial surface for the gravity data and a constant (IGRF) for the magnetic data. Background

  2. Turbofan forced mixer-nozzle internal flowfield. Volume 3: A computer code for 3-D mixing in axisymmetric nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreskovsky, J. P.; Briley, W. R.; Mcdonald, H.

    1982-01-01

    A finite difference method is developed for making detailed predictions of three dimensional subsonic turbulent flow in turbofan lobe mixers. The governing equations are solved by a forward-marching solution procedure which corrects an inviscid potential flow solution for viscous and thermal effects, secondary flows, total pressure distortion and losses, internal flow blockage and pressure drop. Test calculations for a turbulent coaxial jet flow verify that the turbulence model performs satisfactorily for this relatively simple flow. Lobe mixer flows are presented for two geometries typical of current mixer design. These calculations included both hot and cold flow conditions, and both matched and mismatched Mach number and total pressure in the fan and turbine streams.

  3. SU-C-201-06: Utility of Quantitative 3D SPECT/CT Imaging in Patient Specific Internal Dosimetry of 153-Samarium with GATE Monte Carlo Package

    SciTech Connect

    Fallahpoor, M; Abbasi, M; Sen, A; Parach, A; Kalantari, F

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Patient-specific 3-dimensional (3D) internal dosimetry in targeted radionuclide therapy is essential for efficient treatment. Two major steps to achieve reliable results are: 1) generating quantitative 3D images of radionuclide distribution and attenuation coefficients and 2) using a reliable method for dose calculation based on activity and attenuation map. In this research, internal dosimetry for 153-Samarium (153-Sm) was done by SPECT-CT images coupled GATE Monte Carlo package for internal dosimetry. Methods: A 50 years old woman with bone metastases from breast cancer was prescribed 153-Sm treatment (Gamma: 103keV and beta: 0.81MeV). A SPECT/CT scan was performed with the Siemens Simbia-T scanner. SPECT and CT images were registered using default registration software. SPECT quantification was achieved by compensating for all image degrading factors including body attenuation, Compton scattering and collimator-detector response (CDR). Triple energy window method was used to estimate and eliminate the scattered photons. Iterative ordered-subsets expectation maximization (OSEM) with correction for attenuation and distance-dependent CDR was used for image reconstruction. Bilinear energy mapping is used to convert Hounsfield units in CT image to attenuation map. Organ borders were defined by the itk-SNAP toolkit segmentation on CT image. GATE was then used for internal dose calculation. The Specific Absorbed Fractions (SAFs) and S-values were reported as MIRD schema. Results: The results showed that the largest SAFs and S-values are in osseous organs as expected. S-value for lung is the highest after spine that can be important in 153-Sm therapy. Conclusion: We presented the utility of SPECT-CT images and Monte Carlo for patient-specific dosimetry as a reliable and accurate method. It has several advantages over template-based methods or simplified dose estimation methods. With advent of high speed computers, Monte Carlo can be used for treatment planning

  4. Long term dose monitoring onboard the European Columbus module of the International Space Station (ISS) in the frame of the DOSIS and DOSIS 3D project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Thomas

    The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature from that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones present on earth for occupational radiation workers. Accurate knowledge of the physical characteristics of the space radiation field in dependence on the solar activity, the orbital parameters and the different shielding configurations of the International Space Station (ISS) is therefore needed. For the investigation of the spatial and temporal distribution of the radiation field inside the European Columbus module the experiment “Dose Distribution Inside the ISS” (DOSIS), under the project and science lead of the German Aerospace Center (DLR), was launched on July 15th 2009 with STS-127 to the ISS. The DOSIS experiment consists of a combination of “Passive Detector Packages” (PDP) distributed at eleven locations inside Columbus for the measurement of the spatial variation of the radiation field and two active Dosimetry Telescopes (DOSTELs) with a Data and Power Unit (DDPU) in a dedicated nomex pouch mounted at a fixed location beneath the European Physiology Module rack (EPM) for the measurement of the temporal variation of the radiation field parameters. The DOSIS experiment suite measured during the lowest solar minimum conditions in the space age from July 2009 to June 2011. In July 2011 the active hardware was transferred to ground for refurbishment and preparation for the follow up DOSIS 3D experiment. The hardware for DOSIS 3D was launched with Soyuz 30S to the ISS on May 15th 2012. The PDPs are replaced with each even number Soyuz flight starting with Soyuz 30S. Data from the active detectors is transferred to ground via the EPM rack which is activated once a month for this action. The presentation will give an overview of the DOSIS and DOSIS 3D experiment and focus on the results from the passive radiation detectors from the DOSIS 3D experiment

  5. 3D dosimetry estimation for selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) using SPECT/CT images: a phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debebe, Senait A.; Franquiz, Juan; McGoron, Anthony J.

    2015-03-01

    Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT) is a common way to treat liver cancer that cannot be treated surgically. SIRT involves administration of Yttrium - 90 (90Y) microspheres via the hepatic artery after a diagnostic procedure using 99mTechnetium (Tc)-macroaggregated albumin (MAA) to detect extrahepatic shunting to the lung or the gastrointestinal tract. Accurate quantification of radionuclide administered to patients and radiation dose absorbed by different organs is of importance in SIRT. Accurate dosimetry for SIRT allows optimization of dose delivery to the target tumor and may allow for the ability to assess the efficacy of the treatment. In this study, we proposed a method that can efficiently estimate radiation absorbed dose from 90Y bremsstrahlung SPECT/CT images of liver and the surrounding organs. Bremsstrahlung radiation from 90Y was simulated using the Compton window of 99mTc (78keV at 57%). 99mTc images acquired at the photopeak energy window were used as a standard to examine the accuracy of dosimetry prediction by the simulated bremsstrahlung images. A Liqui-Phil abdominal phantom with liver, stomach and two tumor inserts was imaged using a Philips SPECT/CT scanner. The Dose Point Kernel convolution method was used to find the radiation absorbed dose at a voxel level for a three dimensional dose distribution. This method will allow for a complete estimate of the distribution of radiation absorbed dose by tumors, liver, stomach and other surrounding organs at the voxel level. The method provides a quantitative predictive method for SIRT treatment outcome and administered dose response for patients who undergo the treatment.

  6. The international marker assisted selection program for cacao

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2000, the USDA and Mars Inc. initiated a program combining traditional and Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) breeding methodologies with the long-term objective of genetically improving Theobroma cacao L. Molecular markers and genetic linkage maps were developed and used to verify parentage, germpl...

  7. Europeana and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletinckx, D.

    2011-09-01

    The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  8. 3D finite element simulation of microstructure evolution in blade forging of Ti-6Al-4V alloy based on the internal state variable models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jiao; Wu, Bin; Li, Miao-Quan

    2012-02-01

    The physically-based internal state variable (ISV) models were used to describe the changes of dislocation density, grain size, and flow stress in the high temperature deformation of titanium alloys in this study. The constants of the present models could be identified based on experimental results, which were conducted at deformation temperatures ranging from 1093 K to 1303 K, height reductions ranging from 20% to 60%, and the strain rates of 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 s-1. The physically-based internal state variable models were implemented into the commercial finite element (FE) code. Then, a three-dimensional (3D) FE simulation system coupling of deformation, heat transfer, and microstructure evolution was developed for the blade forging of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. FE analysis was carried out to simulate the microstructure evolution in the blade forging of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Finally, the blade forging tests of Ti-6Al-4V alloy were performed to validate the results of FE simulation. According to the tensile tests, it is seen that the mechanical properties, such as tensile strength and elongation, satisfy the application requirements well. The maximum and minimum differences between the calculated and experimental grain size of primary α phase are 11.71% and 4.23%, respectively. Thus, the industrial trials show a good agreement with FE simulation of blade forging.

  9. 3D Tomography of Accretionary Lapilli From The Island of Stromboli (Aeolian Archipelago, Italy): Spatial Arrangement, Internal Structure, Grain Size Distribution and Chemical Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgavi, D.; Ielpo, M.; Valentini, L.; Laeger, K.; Paredes, J.; Petrelli, M.; Costa, A.; Perugini, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Secche di Lazzaro formation (7 Ka) is a phreatomagmatic deposit in the south-western part of the island of Stromboli (Aeolian Archipelago, Italy). The volcanic sequence is constituted by three main sub-units. In two of them abundant accretionary lapilli are present. We performed granulometric analysis to describe the spatial arrangement and the grain-size distribution of the lapilli inside the deposit. Lapilli were characterized by SEM investigations (BSE images). EMPA and LA-ICP-MS analyses of major and trace elements on glasses and minerals were performed. Although BSE images provide accurate morphological information, they do not allow the real 3D microstructure to be accessed. Therefore, non-invasive 3D imaging of the lapilli was performed by X-ray micro-tomography (X-mCT). The results of the X-mCT measurements provided a set of 2D cross-sectional slices stacked along the vertical axis, with a voxel size varying between 2.7 and 4.1 mm, depending on the size of the sample. The X-mCT images represent a mapping of X-ray attenuation, which in turn depends on the density of the phases distributed within the sample. This technique helped us to better constrain the particle and crystal distribution inside the accretionary lapilli. The recognized phases are: glass, clinopyroxene, plagioclase and Ti-Fe minerals. We discover also a high concentration of Na, Cl and SO3 in the ash matrix. This evidence is ubiquitous in all the accretionary lapilli. The work presented here could define a new route for future studies in the field of physical volcanology as X-ray micro-tomography could be a useful, non destructive technique to better characterize the internal structure of accretionary lapilli helping us to describe grain-size distribution of component particles and their spatial distribution within aggregates.

  10. Medical Devices; General and Plastic Surgery Devices; Classification of the Internal Tissue Marker. Final order.

    PubMed

    2015-08-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the internal tissue marker into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the internal tissue marker's classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device. PMID:26245004

  11. Internal Fiducial Markers and Susceptibility Effects in MRI-Simulation and Measurement of Spatial Accuracy

    SciTech Connect

    Jonsson, Joakim H.; Garpebring, Anders; Karlsson, Magnus G.; Nyholm, Tufve

    2012-04-01

    Background: It is well-known that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is preferable to computed tomography (CT) in radiotherapy target delineation. To benefit from this, there are two options available: transferring the MRI delineated target volume to the planning CT or performing the treatment planning directly on the MRI study. A precondition for excluding the CT study is the possibility to define internal structures visible on both the planning MRI and on the images used to position the patient at treatment. In prostate cancer radiotherapy, internal gold markers are commonly used, and they are visible on CT, MRI, x-ray, and portal images. The depiction of the markers in MRI are, however, dependent on their shape and orientation relative the main magnetic field because of susceptibility effects. In the present work, these effects are investigated and quantified using both simulations and phantom measurements. Methods and Materials: Software that simulated the magnetic field distortions around user defined geometries of variable susceptibilities was constructed. These magnetic field perturbation maps were then reconstructed to images that were evaluated. The simulation software was validated through phantom measurements of four commercially available gold markers of different shapes and one in-house gold marker. Results: Both simulations and phantom measurements revealed small position deviations of the imaged marker positions relative the actual marker positions (<1 mm). Conclusion: Cylindrical gold markers can be used as internal fiducial markers in MRI.

  12. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Hee-Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d {N}=2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. We also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  13. Simultaneous measurement of the geometry and the internal 3D velocity field of a micron sized droplet confined in a channel using Astigmatism-PTV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mack, Tobias; Cierpka, Christian; Kähler, Christian J.

    2012-11-01

    Astigmatism-PTV is a method that allows to measure with a single camera the fully three-dimensional, three-component velocity field. The technique is ideally suited for microfluidic velocity measurements without errors due to in-plane and out-of-plane averaging (Cierpka et al. Meas Scie Tech 21, 2010). Recently it was shown, that the interface between two fluids or the surrounding fluid and droplets or bubbles can be estimated as well with the technique (Rossi et al., Meas Scie Tech 22, 2010). In this contribution the advantages of both techniques are combined to measure the shape of a droplet inside a micro channel along with the internal 3D flow field of the droplet induced by the surrounding fluid. For the current investigation, particles were only distributed within oil-droplets. Therefore the shape of the droplet could be later reconstructed by the volumetric particle positions and the velocity can be estimated tracking the same particles in consecutive frames of the same dataset. The procedure allows the simultaneous determination of the shape and the droplet velocity as well as the inner flow field and offers a great potential for current research.

  14. Using the Flow-3D General Moving Object Model to Simulate Coupled Liquid Slosh - Container Dynamics on the SPHERES Slosh Experiment: Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulman, Richard; Kirk, Daniel; Marsell, Brandon; Roth, Jacob; Schallhorn, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The SPHERES Slosh Experiment (SSE) is a free floating experimental platform developed for the acquisition of long duration liquid slosh data aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The data sets collected will be used to benchmark numerical models to aid in the design of rocket and spacecraft propulsion systems. Utilizing two SPHERES Satellites, the experiment will be moved through different maneuvers designed to induce liquid slosh in the experiment's internal tank. The SSE has a total of twenty-four thrusters to move the experiment. In order to design slosh generating maneuvers, a parametric study with three maneuvers types was conducted using the General Moving Object (GMO) model in Flow-30. The three types of maneuvers are a translation maneuver, a rotation maneuver and a combined rotation translation maneuver. The effectiveness of each maneuver to generate slosh is determined by the deviation of the experiment's trajectory as compared to a dry mass trajectory. To fully capture the effect of liquid re-distribution on experiment trajectory, each thruster is modeled as an independent force point in the Flow-3D simulation. This is accomplished by modifying the total number of independent forces in the GMO model from the standard five to twenty-four. Results demonstrate that the most effective slosh generating maneuvers for all motions occurs when SSE thrusters are producing the highest changes in SSE acceleration. The results also demonstrate that several centimeters of trajectory deviation between the dry and slosh cases occur during the maneuvers; while these deviations seem small, they are measureable by SSE instrumentation.

  15. Markers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2011

    2011-01-01

    Dry erase whiteboards come with toxic dry erase markers and toxic cleaning products. Dry erase markers labeled "nontoxic" are not free of toxic chemicals and can cause health problems. Children are especially vulnerable to environmental health hazards; moreover, schools commonly have problems with indoor air pollution, as they are more densely…

  16. 3D and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  17. Molecular characterization of an International cocoa collection using microsallte markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High levels of redundancy and limited information on genetic structure hinder the efficient conservation and utilization of cacao germplasm. The present study targeted the assessment of genetic identity and population structure in an international cocoa collection maintained in Costa Rica. Using a c...

  18. 3D Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)

  19. Imaging a Sustainable Future in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuhr, W.; Lee, J. D.; Kanngieser, E.

    2012-07-01

    It is the intention of this paper, to contribute to a sustainable future by providing objective object information based on 3D photography as well as promoting 3D photography not only for scientists, but also for amateurs. Due to the presentation of this article by CIPA Task Group 3 on "3D Photographs in Cultural Heritage", the presented samples are masterpieces of historic as well as of current 3D photography concentrating on cultural heritage. In addition to a report on exemplarily access to international archives of 3D photographs, samples for new 3D photographs taken with modern 3D cameras, as well as by means of a ground based high resolution XLITE staff camera and also 3D photographs taken from a captive balloon and the use of civil drone platforms are dealt with. To advise on optimum suited 3D methodology, as well as to catch new trends in 3D, an updated synoptic overview of the 3D visualization technology, even claiming completeness, has been carried out as a result of a systematic survey. In this respect, e.g., today's lasered crystals might be "early bird" products in 3D, which, due to lack in resolution, contrast and color, remember to the stage of the invention of photography.

  20. TACO3D. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer Code

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, W.E.

    1992-03-04

    TACO3D is a three-dimensional, finite-element program for heat transfer analysis. An extension of the two-dimensional TACO program, it can perform linear and nonlinear analyses and can be used to solve either transient or steady-state problems. The program accepts time-dependent or temperature-dependent material properties, and materials may be isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions and loadings are available including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation boundary conditions and internal heat generation. Additional specialized features treat enclosure radiation, bulk nodes, and master/slave internal surface conditions (e.g., contact resistance). Data input via a free-field format is provided. A user subprogram feature allows for any type of functional representation of any independent variable. A profile (bandwidth) minimization option is available. The code is limited to implicit time integration for transient solutions. TACO3D has no general mesh generation capability. Rows of evenly-spaced nodes and rows of sequential elements may be generated, but the program relies on separate mesh generators for complex zoning. TACO3D does not have the ability to calculate view factors internally. Graphical representation of data in the form of time history and spatial plots is provided through links to the POSTACO and GRAPE postprocessor codes.

  1. New 3D bathymetry and sediment distribution in Lake Vostok: Implication for pre-glacial origin and numerical modeling of the internal processes within the lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filina, Irina Y.; Blankenship, Donald D.; Thoma, Malte; Lukin, Valery V.; Masolov, Valery N.; Sen, Mrinal K.

    2008-11-01

    A new distribution of water and unconsolidated sediments in subglacial Lake Vostok, East Antarctica was developed via inversion of airborne gravity data constrained by 60 seismic soundings. A model was developed for host rock with a density of 2550 kg/m 3 that was inferred from prior 2D modeling. Our 3D bathymetry model of Lake Vostok corresponds better with seismic data (RMS of 125 m) than two previous models based on the same gravity dataset. The good match in both water and sediment thicknesses between the gravity model and seismic measurements confirms two major facts about Lake Vostok: (1) the lake is hosted by sedimentary rocks, and (2) the bottom of the lake is covered with a layer of unconsolidated sediments that does not exceed 300 m in the southern basin and thickens almost to 400 m in the northern basin. Our new bathymetry model suggests much shallower water thicknesses (up to twice the previous estimates) in the middle and northern parts of the lake, while the water layer is thicker in the southern basin. Numerical modeling of the internal processes in the lake reveals the relevance of our new bathymetry model to the basal mass balance. A significant decrease in transport is observed in the shallower northern basin, as well as a decrease of 33% in the turbulent kinetic energy. However, only minor differences were observed in the distribution of the calculated freezing and melting zones compared to previous models. Estimates for the sedimentation rates for six possible mechanisms were made. Possible sedimentation mechanisms are: (1) fluvial and periglacial, i.e. those that are active prior to the establishment of a large subglacial lake; (2) deposition due to overlying ice sheet, including melting out of the ice, as well as bulldozering by the overriding ice; and (3) suspended sediments from subglacial water flow including those deposited by periodical subglacial outbursts. The estimates for these mechanisms show that unconsolidated sediments of the

  2. TRACE 3-D documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, K.R.

    1987-08-01

    TRACE 3-D is an interactive beam-dynamics program that calculates the envelopes of a bunched beam, including linear space-charge forces, through a user-defined transport system. TRACE 3-D provides an immediate graphics display of the envelopes and the phase-space ellipses and allows nine types of beam-matching options. This report describes the beam-dynamics calculations and gives detailed instruction for using the code. Several examples are described in detail.

  3. Proceedings of the second international symposium on molecular markers in horticulture Acta Horticulturae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The second International Symposium on Molecular Markers in Horticulture was held at the CH2M Hill Alumni Center at Oregon State University (OSU), Corvallis (Oregon, US), from July 29 to August 1st, 2009. This symposium was convened by a scientist at the National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR) of...

  4. Radiochromic 3D Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.

  5. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-03-01

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions < ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge C T . We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N . We also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  6. JAR3D Webserver: Scoring and aligning RNA loop sequences to known 3D motifs.

    PubMed

    Roll, James; Zirbel, Craig L; Sweeney, Blake; Petrov, Anton I; Leontis, Neocles

    2016-07-01

    Many non-coding RNAs have been identified and may function by forming 2D and 3D structures. RNA hairpin and internal loops are often represented as unstructured on secondary structure diagrams, but RNA 3D structures show that most such loops are structured by non-Watson-Crick basepairs and base stacking. Moreover, different RNA sequences can form the same RNA 3D motif. JAR3D finds possible 3D geometries for hairpin and internal loops by matching loop sequences to motif groups from the RNA 3D Motif Atlas, by exact sequence match when possible, and by probabilistic scoring and edit distance for novel sequences. The scoring gauges the ability of the sequences to form the same pattern of interactions observed in 3D structures of the motif. The JAR3D webserver at http://rna.bgsu.edu/jar3d/ takes one or many sequences of a single loop as input, or else one or many sequences of longer RNAs with multiple loops. Each sequence is scored against all current motif groups. The output shows the ten best-matching motif groups. Users can align input sequences to each of the motif groups found by JAR3D. JAR3D will be updated with every release of the RNA 3D Motif Atlas, and so its performance is expected to improve over time. PMID:27235417

  7. 3D Dynamic Echocardiography with a Digitizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshiro, Osamu; Matani, Ayumu; Chihara, Kunihiro

    1998-05-01

    In this paper,a three-dimensional (3D) dynamic ultrasound (US) imaging system,where a US brightness-mode (B-mode) imagetriggered with an R-wave of electrocardiogram (ECG)was obtained with an ultrasound diagnostic deviceand the location and orientation of the US probewere simultaneously measured with a 3D digitizer, is described.The obtained B-mode imagewas then projected onto a virtual 3D spacewith the proposed interpolation algorithm using a Gaussian operator.Furthermore, a 3D image was presented on a cathode ray tube (CRT)and stored in virtual reality modeling language (VRML).We performed an experimentto reconstruct a 3D heart image in systole using this system.The experimental results indicatethat the system enables the visualization ofthe 3D and internal structure of a heart viewed from any angleand has potential for use in dynamic imaging,intraoperative ultrasonography and tele-medicine.

  8. 3D whiteboard: collaborative sketching with 3D-tracked smart phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lue, James; Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2014-02-01

    We present the results of our investigation of the feasibility of a new approach for collaborative drawing in 3D, based on Android smart phones. Our approach utilizes a number of fiduciary markers, placed in the working area where they can be seen by the smart phones' cameras, in order to estimate the pose of each phone in the room. Our prototype allows two users to draw 3D objects with their smart phones by moving their phones around in 3D space. For example, 3D lines are drawn by recording the path of the phone as it is moved around in 3D space, drawing line segments on the screen along the way. Each user can see the virtual drawing space on their smart phones' displays, as if the display was a window into this space. Besides lines, our prototype application also supports 3D geometry creation, geometry transformation operations, and it shows the location of the other user's phone.

  9. High-resolution 3D analyses of the shape and internal constituents of small volcanic ash particles: The contribution of SEM micro-computed tomography (SEM micro-CT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vonlanthen, Pierre; Rausch, Juanita; Ketcham, Richard A.; Putlitz, Benita; Baumgartner, Lukas P.; Grobéty, Bernard

    2015-02-01

    The morphology of small volcanic ash particles is fundamental to our understanding of magma fragmentation, and in transport modeling of volcanic plumes and clouds. Until recently, the analysis of 3D features in small objects (< 250 μm) was either restricted to extrapolations from 2D approaches, partial stereo-imaging, or CT methods having limited spatial resolution and/or accessibility. In this study, an X-ray computed-tomography technique known as SEM micro-CT, also called 3D X-ray ultramicroscopy (3D XuM), was used to investigate the 3D morphology of small volcanic ash particles (125-250 μm sieve fraction), as well as their vesicle and microcrystal distribution. The samples were selected from four stratigraphically well-established tephra layers of the Meerfelder Maar (West Eifel Volcanic Field, Germany). Resolution tests performed on a Beametr v1 pattern sample along with Monte Carlo simulations of X-ray emission volumes indicated that a spatial resolution of 0.65 μm was obtained for X-ray shadow projections using a standard thermionic SEM and a bulk brass target as X-ray source. Analysis of a smaller volcanic ash particle (64-125 μm sieve fraction) showed that features with volumes > 20 μm3 (~ 3.5 μm in diameter) can be successfully reconstructed and quantified. In addition, new functionalities of the Blob3D software were developed to allow the particle shape factors frequently used as input parameters in ash transport and dispersion models to be calculated. This study indicates that SEM micro-CT is very well suited to quantify the various aspects of shape in fine volcanic ash, and potentially also to investigate the 3D morphology and internal structure of any object < 0.1 mm3.

  10. Calculation of three-dimensional (3-D) internal flow by means of the velocity-vorticity formulation on a staggered grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stremel, Paul M.

    1995-01-01

    A method has been developed to accurately compute the viscous flow in three-dimensional (3-D) enclosures. This method is the 3-D extension of a two-dimensional (2-D) method developed for the calculation of flow over airfoils. The 2-D method has been tested extensively and has been shown to accurately reproduce experimental results. As in the 2-D method, the 3-D method provides for the non-iterative solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations by means of a fully coupled implicit technique. The solution is calculated on a body fitted computational mesh incorporating a staggered grid methodology. In the staggered grid method, the three components of vorticity are defined at the centers of the computational cell sides, while the velocity components are defined as normal vectors at the centers of the computational cell faces. The staggered grid orientation provides for the accurate definition of the vorticity components at the vorticity locations, the divergence of vorticity at the mesh cell nodes and the conservation of mass at the mesh cell centers. The solution is obtained by utilizing a fractional step solution technique in the three coordinate directions. The boundary conditions for the vorticity and velocity are calculated implicitly as part of the solution. The method provides for the non-iterative solution of the flow field and satisfies the conservation of mass and divergence of vorticity to machine zero at each time step. To test the method, the calculation of simple driven cavity flows have been computed. The driven cavity flow is defined as the flow in an enclosure driven by a moving upper plate at the top of the enclosure. To demonstrate the ability of the method to predict the flow in arbitrary cavities, results will he shown for both cubic and curved cavities.

  11. 3D microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizuka, Keigo

    2008-02-01

    In order to circumvent the fact that only one observer can view the image from a stereoscopic microscope, an attachment was devised for displaying the 3D microscopic image on a large LCD monitor for viewing by multiple observers in real time. The principle of operation, design, fabrication, and performance are presented, along with tolerance measurements relating to the properties of the cellophane half-wave plate used in the design.

  12. Evaluating the Ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) as a Candidate Dinoflagellate Barcode Marker

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Rowena F.; Andersen, Robert A.; Jameson, Ian; Küpper, Frithjof C.; Coffroth, Mary-Alice; Vaulot, Daniel; Le Gall, Florence; Véron, Benoît; Brand, Jerry J.; Skelton, Hayley; Kasai, Fumai; Lilly, Emily L.; Keeling, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    Background DNA barcoding offers an efficient way to determine species identification and to measure biodiversity. For dinoflagellates, an ancient alveolate group of about 2000 described extant species, DNA barcoding studies have revealed large amounts of unrecognized species diversity, most of which is not represented in culture collections. To date, two mitochondrial gene markers, Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) and Cytochrome b oxidase (COB), have been used to assess DNA barcoding in dinoflagellates, and both failed to amplify all taxa and suffered from low resolution. Nevertheless, both genes yielded many examples of morphospecies showing cryptic speciation and morphologically distinct named species being genetically similar, highlighting the need for a common marker. For example, a large number of cultured Symbiodinium strains have neither taxonomic identification, nor a common measure of diversity that can be used to compare this genus to other dinoflagellates. Methodology/Principal Findings The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Internal Transcribed Spacer units 1 and 2 (ITS) of the rDNA operon, as a high resolution marker for distinguishing species dinoflagellates in culture. In our study, from 78 different species, the ITS barcode clearly differentiated species from genera and could identify 96% of strains to a known species or sub-genus grouping. 8.3% showed evidence of being cryptic species. A quarter of strains identified had no previous species identification. The greatest levels of hidden biodiversity came from Scrippsiella and the Pfiesteriaceae family, whilst Heterocapsa strains showed a high level of mismatch to their given species name. Conclusions/Significance The ITS marker was successful in confirming species, revealing hidden diversity in culture collections. This marker, however, may have limited use for environmental barcoding due to paralogues, the potential for unidentifiable chimaeras and priming across taxa. In these cases ITS would

  13. Multiviewer 3D monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrzewski, Andrew A.; Aye, Tin M.; Kim, Dai Hyun; Esterkin, Vladimir; Savant, Gajendra D.

    1998-09-01

    Physical Optics Corporation has developed an advanced 3-D virtual reality system for use with simulation tools for training technical and military personnel. This system avoids such drawbacks of other virtual reality (VR) systems as eye fatigue, headaches, and alignment for each viewer, all of which are due to the need to wear special VR goggles. The new system is based on direct viewing of an interactive environment. This innovative holographic multiplexed screen technology makes it unnecessary for the viewer to wear special goggles.

  14. 3D Audio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of 3D audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.

  15. 3D modelling of interaction of strongly nonlinear internal seiches with a concave lake topography and a phenomenon of the "lake monsters".

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terletska, Kateryna; Maderich, Vladimir; Brovchenko, Igor; Jung, Kyung Tae

    2013-04-01

    In the freshwater lakes in moderate latitudes stratification occurs as a result of the seasonal warming of the surface water layer. Than the intense wind surges (usually in autumn) tilt the surface and generate long basin-scale low-frequency standing internal waves (seiches). Depending on the initial interface tilt and stratification wide spectra of possible flow regimes can be observed [1]-[2].They varied from small amplitude symmetric seiches to large amplitude nonlinear waves.Nonlinearity leads to an asymmetry of internal waves and appearance of the surge or bore and further disintegration of it on a sequence of solitary waves. In present study degeneration of the strongly nonlinear internal seiches in elongated lakes with a concave "spoon-like" topography is investigated.Two different three-dimensional non-hydrostatic free-surface numerical models are used to investigate degeneration of large internal waves and its subsequent interaction with the concave lake slope. One of this model is non-hydrostatic model [3] and the other is a well-known MIT model. At first we consider idealized elongated elliptic-shape lake with the dimension of 5 km X 1 km with the maximal depth 30 m. The stratification in lake is assumed to be given in a form of the tangent function with a density difference between upper and lower layers 2 kgm-3 . It is assumed that motion in such lake is initiated by inclination of thermocline on a certain angle. Than lake adjusts to return to its original state producing internal seiches which begin interacting with a bottom topography. The process of degeneration of internal seiches in the lake with concave ends consist of chain of elementary processes: 1) steeping of long basin scale large amplitude wave, that evolve into internal surge, 2) surge interact with concave lake ends that leads the concentration of the flow and formation of down slope bottom jet along the lake axis, 3) due to cumulative effect local velocity in the jet accelerates up to

  16. 3D Surgical Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intra-operative guidance. The system provides further intra-operative assistance with the help of a computer display showing jaw positions and 3D positioning guides updated in real-time during the surgical procedure. The CAS system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures prior to the surgery. CAS has the potential to make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. Supported by NIDCR DE017727, and DE018962 PMID:20816308

  17. 3-D seismology in the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Husseini, M.; Chimblo, R.

    1995-08-01

    Since 1977 when Aramco and GSI (Geophysical Services International) pioneered the first 3-D seismic survey in the Arabian Gulf, under the guidance of Aramco`s Chief Geophysicist John Hoke, 3-D seismology has been effectively used to map many complex subsurface geological phenomena. By the mid-1990s extensive 3-D surveys were acquired in Abu Dhabi, Oman, Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Also in the mid-1990`s Bahrain, Kuwait and Dubai were preparing to record surveys over their fields. On the structural side 3-D has refined seismic maps, focused faults and fractures systems, as well as outlined the distribution of facies, porosity and fluid saturation. In field development, 3D has not only reduced drilling costs significantly, but has also improved the understanding of fluid behavior in the reservoir. In Oman, Petroleum Development Oman (PDO) has now acquired the first Gulf 4-D seismic survey (time-lapse 3D survey) over the Yibal Field. The 4-D survey will allow PDO to directly monitor water encroachment in the highly-faulted Cretaceous Shu`aiba reservoir. In exploration, 3-D seismology has resolved complex prospects with structural and stratigraphic complications and reduced the risk in the selection of drilling locations. The many case studies from Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates, which are reviewed in this paper, attest to the effectiveness of 3D seismology in exploration and producing, in clastics and carbonates reservoirs, and in the Mesozoic and Paleozoic.

  18. Ratiometric electrochemical immunoassay based on internal reference value for reproducible and sensitive detection of tumor marker.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiaohui; Weng, Shaohuang; Guo, Rubin; Lin, Liqing; Chen, Wei; Zheng, Zongfu; Huang, Zhengjun; Lin, Xinhua

    2016-07-15

    A ratiometric assay in an electrochemical immunosensor for tumor marker, herein carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was chosen as a model analyte, was developed to improve simplicity and accuracy. The immunosensor was fabricated via the simple expedient way of using Polythionine-gold (PTh-Au) as electrode modified material to be an internal reference signal and K3[Fe(CN)6] in electrolyte as an indicator signal. When the CEA was fixed on the modified electrode via immunoreaction, only the indicator signal sensitively altered; by contrast, the internal reference signal of PTh-Au remained constant at a suitable pH of the electrolyte. The ratio between the alterations of the indicator signal of K3[Fe(CN)6] and the constant internal reference signal can be used to monitor the concentration of CEA reliably, reproducibly, and sensitively. The prepared ratiometric electrochemical immunosensor could detect CEA with good specificity within a wide linear range from 0.005ng/ml to 40ng/ml with a detection limit of 2.2pg/ml. Additionally, experimental results confirm that our proposed method is practical. Thus, this method can expand to recognize and test other protein markers. PMID:26945184

  19. 3D imaging of flow patterns in an internally-pumped microfluidic device: redox magnetohydrodynamics and electrochemically-generated density gradients.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Kreidermacher, Adam; Fritsch, Ingrid; Heyes, Colin D

    2013-05-01

    Redox magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is a promising technique for developing new electrochemical-based microfluidic flow devices with unique capabilities, such as easily switching flow direction and adjusting flow speeds and flow patterns as well as avoiding bubble formation. However, a detailed description of all the forces involved and predicting flow patterns in confined geometries is lacking. In addition to redox-MHD, density gradients caused by the redox reactions also play important roles. Flow in these devices with small fluid volumes has mainly been characterized by following microbead motion by optical microscopy either by particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) or by processing the microbead images by particle image velocimetry (PIV) software. This approach has limitations in spatial resolution and dimensionality. Here we use fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) to quantitatively and accurately measure flow speeds and patterns in the ~5-50 μm/s range in redox-MHD-based microfluidic devices, from which 3D flow maps are obtained with a spatial resolution down to 2 μm. The 2 μm spatial resolution flow speeds map revealed detailed flow profiles during redox-MHD in which the velocity increases linearly from above the electrode and reaches a plateau across the center of the cell. By combining FCS and video-microscopy (with PTV and PIV processing approaches), we are able to quantify a vertical flow of ~10 μm/s above the electrodes as a result of density gradients caused by the redox reactions and follow convection flow patterns. Overall, combining FCS, PIV, and PTV analysis of redox-MHD is a powerful combination to more thoroughly characterize the underlying forces in these promising microfluidic devices. PMID:23537496

  20. 3D Imaging of Flow Patterns in an Internally-Pumped Microfluidic Device: Redox Magnetohydrodynamics and Electrochemically-Generated Density Gradients

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Feng; Kreidermacher, Adam; Fritsch, Ingrid; Heyes, Colin D.

    2013-01-01

    Redox magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is a promising technique for developing new electrochemical-based microfluidic flow devices with unique capabilities, such as easily switching flow direction, adjusting flow speeds and flow patterns as well as avoiding bubble formation. However, a detailed description of all the forces involved and predicting flow patterns in confined geometries is lacking. In addition to redox-MHD, density gradients caused by the redox reactions also play important roles. Flow in these devices with small fluid volumes has mainly been characterized by following microbead motion by optical microscopy either by particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) or by processing the microbead images by particle image velocimetry (PIV) software. This approach has limitations in spatial resolution and dimensionality. Here we use fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) to quantitatively and accurately measure flow speeds and patterns in the ~5-50 μm/s range in redox-MHD-based microfluidic devices, from which 3D flow maps are obtained with a spatial resolution down to 2 μm. The 2 μm spatial resolution flow speeds map revealed detailed flow profiles during redox-MHD in which the velocity increases linearly from above the electrode, and reaches a plateau across the center of the channel. By combining FCS and video-microscopy (with PTV and PIV processing approaches), we are able to quantify a vertical flow of ~10 μm/s above the electrodes as a result of density gradients caused by the redox reactions and follow convection flow patterns. Overall, combining FCS, PIV and PTV analysis of redox-MHD is a powerful combination to more thoroughly characterize the underlying forces in these promising microfluidic devices. PMID:23537496

  1. A 3D Monte Carlo Method for Estimation of Patient-specific Internal Organs Absorbed Dose for (99m)Tc-hynic-Tyr(3)-octreotide Imaging.

    PubMed

    Momennezhad, Mehdi; Nasseri, Shahrokh; Zakavi, Seyed Rasoul; Parach, Ali Asghar; Ghorbani, Mahdi; Asl, Ruhollah Ghahraman

    2016-01-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-based tracers are easily available and more widely used than positron emission tomography (PET)-based tracers, and SPECT imaging still remains the most prevalent nuclear medicine imaging modality worldwide. The aim of this study is to implement an image-based Monte Carlo method for patient-specific three-dimensional (3D) absorbed dose calculation in patients after injection of (99m)Tc-hydrazinonicotinamide (hynic)-Tyr(3)-octreotide as a SPECT radiotracer. (99m)Tc patient-specific S values and the absorbed doses were calculated with GATE code for each source-target organ pair in four patients who were imaged for suspected neuroendocrine tumors. Each patient underwent multiple whole-body planar scans as well as SPECT imaging over a period of 1-24 h after intravenous injection of (99m)hynic-Tyr(3)-octreotide. The patient-specific S values calculated by GATE Monte Carlo code and the corresponding S values obtained by MIRDOSE program differed within 4.3% on an average for self-irradiation, and differed within 69.6% on an average for cross-irradiation. However, the agreement between total organ doses calculated by GATE code and MIRDOSE program for all patients was reasonably well (percentage difference was about 4.6% on an average). Normal and tumor absorbed doses calculated with GATE were slightly higher than those calculated with MIRDOSE program. The average ratio of GATE absorbed doses to MIRDOSE was 1.07 ± 0.11 (ranging from 0.94 to 1.36). According to the results, it is proposed that when cross-organ irradiation is dominant, a comprehensive approach such as GATE Monte Carlo dosimetry be used since it provides more reliable dosimetric results. PMID:27134562

  2. A 3D Monte Carlo Method for Estimation of Patient-specific Internal Organs Absorbed Dose for 99mTc-hynic-Tyr3-octreotide Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Momennezhad, Mehdi; Nasseri, Shahrokh; Zakavi, Seyed Rasoul; Parach, Ali Asghar; Ghorbani, Mahdi; Asl, Ruhollah Ghahraman

    2016-01-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-based tracers are easily available and more widely used than positron emission tomography (PET)-based tracers, and SPECT imaging still remains the most prevalent nuclear medicine imaging modality worldwide. The aim of this study is to implement an image-based Monte Carlo method for patient-specific three-dimensional (3D) absorbed dose calculation in patients after injection of 99mTc-hydrazinonicotinamide (hynic)-Tyr3-octreotide as a SPECT radiotracer. 99mTc patient-specific S values and the absorbed doses were calculated with GATE code for each source-target organ pair in four patients who were imaged for suspected neuroendocrine tumors. Each patient underwent multiple whole-body planar scans as well as SPECT imaging over a period of 1-24 h after intravenous injection of 99mhynic-Tyr3-octreotide. The patient-specific S values calculated by GATE Monte Carlo code and the corresponding S values obtained by MIRDOSE program differed within 4.3% on an average for self-irradiation, and differed within 69.6% on an average for cross-irradiation. However, the agreement between total organ doses calculated by GATE code and MIRDOSE program for all patients was reasonably well (percentage difference was about 4.6% on an average). Normal and tumor absorbed doses calculated with GATE were slightly higher than those calculated with MIRDOSE program. The average ratio of GATE absorbed doses to MIRDOSE was 1.07 ± 0.11 (ranging from 0.94 to 1.36). According to the results, it is proposed that when cross-organ irradiation is dominant, a comprehensive approach such as GATE Monte Carlo dosimetry be used since it provides more reliable dosimetric results. PMID:27134562

  3. 3D polarimetric purity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, José J.; San José, Ignacio

    2010-11-01

    From our previous definition of the indices of polarimetric purity for 3D light beams [J.J. Gil, J.M. Correas, P.A. Melero and C. Ferreira, Monogr. Semin. Mat. G. de Galdeano 31, 161 (2004)], an analysis of their geometric and physical interpretation is presented. It is found that, in agreement with previous results, the first parameter is a measure of the degree of polarization, whereas the second parameter (called the degree of directionality) is a measure of the mean angular aperture of the direction of propagation of the corresponding light beam. This pair of invariant, non-dimensional, indices of polarimetric purity contains complete information about the polarimetric purity of a light beam. The overall degree of polarimetric purity is obtained as a weighted quadratic average of the degree of polarization and the degree of directionality.

  4. 3D field harmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Helm, M.; Laslett, L.J.

    1991-03-30

    We have developed an harmonic representation for the three dimensional field components within the windings of accelerator magnets. The form by which the field is presented is suitable for interfacing with other codes that make use of the 3D field components (particle tracking and stability). The field components can be calculated with high precision and reduced cup time at any location (r,{theta},z) inside the magnet bore. The same conductor geometry which is used to simulate line currents is also used in CAD with modifications more readily available. It is our hope that the format used here for magnetic fields can be used not only as a means of delivering fields but also as a way by which beam dynamics can suggest correction to the conductor geometry. 5 refs., 70 figs.

  5. 'Bonneville' in 3-D!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this 3-D navigation camera mosaic of the crater called 'Bonneville' after driving approximately 13 meters (42.7 feet) to get a better vantage point. Spirit's current position is close enough to the edge to see the interior of the crater, but high enough and far enough back to get a view of all of the walls. Because scientists and rover controllers are so pleased with this location, they will stay here for at least two more martian days, or sols, to take high resolution panoramic camera images of 'Bonneville' in its entirety. Just above the far crater rim, on the left side, is the rover's heatshield, which is visible as a tiny reflective speck.

  6. 3-D Relativistic MHD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikaw, K.-I.; Frank, J.; Christodoulou, D. M.; Koide, S.; Sakai, J.-I.; Sol, H.; Mutel, R. L.

    1998-12-01

    We present 3-D numerical simulations of moderately hot, supersonic jets propagating initially along or obliquely to the field lines of a denser magnetized background medium with Lorentz factors of W=4.56 and evolving in a four-dimensional spacetime. The new results are understood as follows: Relativistic simulations have consistently shown that these jets are effectively heavy and so they do not suffer substantial momentum losses and are not decelerated as efficiently as their nonrelativistic counterparts. In addition, the ambient magnetic field, however strong, can be pushed aside with relative ease by the beam, provided that the degrees of freedom associated with all three spatial dimensions are followed self-consistently in the simulations. This effect is analogous to pushing Japanese ``noren'' or vertical Venetian blinds out of the way while the slats are allowed to bend in 3-D space rather than as a 2-D slab structure. We also simulate jets with the more realistic initial conditions for injecting jets for helical mangetic field, perturbed density, velocity, and internal energy, which are supposed to be caused in the process of jet generation. Three possible explanations for the observed variability are (i) tidal disruption of a star falling into the black hole, (ii) instabilities in the relativistic accretion disk, and (iii) jet-related PRocesses. New results will be reported at the meeting.

  7. 3D Position and Velocity Vector Computations of Objects Jettisoned from the International Space Station Using Close-Range Photogrammetry Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papanyan, Valeri; Oshle, Edward; Adamo, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Measurement of the jettisoned object departure trajectory and velocity vector in the International Space Station (ISS) reference frame is vitally important for prompt evaluation of the object s imminent orbit. We report on the first successful application of photogrammetric analysis of the ISS imagery for the prompt computation of the jettisoned object s position and velocity vectors. As post-EVA analyses examples, we present the Floating Potential Probe (FPP) and the Russian "Orlan" Space Suit jettisons, as well as the near-real-time (provided in several hours after the separation) computations of the Video Stanchion Support Assembly Flight Support Assembly (VSSA-FSA) and Early Ammonia Servicer (EAS) jettisons during the US astronauts space-walk. Standard close-range photogrammetry analysis was used during this EVA to analyze two on-board camera image sequences down-linked from the ISS. In this approach the ISS camera orientations were computed from known coordinates of several reference points on the ISS hardware. Then the position of the jettisoned object for each time-frame was computed from its image in each frame of the video-clips. In another, "quick-look" approach used in near-real time, orientation of the cameras was computed from their position (from the ISS CAD model) and operational data (pan and tilt) then location of the jettisoned object was calculated only for several frames of the two synchronized movies. Keywords: Photogrammetry, International Space Station, jettisons, image analysis.

  8. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region as a universal DNA barcode marker for Fungi.

    PubMed

    Schoch, Conrad L; Seifert, Keith A; Huhndorf, Sabine; Robert, Vincent; Spouge, John L; Levesque, C André; Chen, Wen

    2012-04-17

    Six DNA regions were evaluated as potential DNA barcodes for Fungi, the second largest kingdom of eukaryotic life, by a multinational, multilaboratory consortium. The region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 used as the animal barcode was excluded as a potential marker, because it is difficult to amplify in fungi, often includes large introns, and can be insufficiently variable. Three subunits from the nuclear ribosomal RNA cistron were compared together with regions of three representative protein-coding genes (largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, and minichromosome maintenance protein). Although the protein-coding gene regions often had a higher percent of correct identification compared with ribosomal markers, low PCR amplification and sequencing success eliminated them as candidates for a universal fungal barcode. Among the regions of the ribosomal cistron, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region has the highest probability of successful identification for the broadest range of fungi, with the most clearly defined barcode gap between inter- and intraspecific variation. The nuclear ribosomal large subunit, a popular phylogenetic marker in certain groups, had superior species resolution in some taxonomic groups, such as the early diverging lineages and the ascomycete yeasts, but was otherwise slightly inferior to the ITS. The nuclear ribosomal small subunit has poor species-level resolution in fungi. ITS will be formally proposed for adoption as the primary fungal barcode marker to the Consortium for the Barcode of Life, with the possibility that supplementary barcodes may be developed for particular narrowly circumscribed taxonomic groups. PMID:22454494

  9. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region as a universal DNA barcode marker for Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Schoch, Conrad L.; Seifert, Keith A.; Huhndorf, Sabine; Robert, Vincent; Spouge, John L.; Levesque, C. André; Chen, Wen; Bolchacova, Elena; Voigt, Kerstin; Crous, Pedro W.; Miller, Andrew N.; Wingfield, Michael J.; Aime, M. Catherine; An, Kwang-Deuk; Bai, Feng-Yan; Barreto, Robert W.; Begerow, Dominik; Bergeron, Marie-Josée; Blackwell, Meredith; Boekhout, Teun; Bogale, Mesfin; Boonyuen, Nattawut; Burgaz, Ana R.; Buyck, Bart; Cai, Lei; Cai, Qing; Cardinali, G.; Chaverri, Priscila; Coppins, Brian J.; Crespo, Ana; Cubas, Paloma; Cummings, Craig; Damm, Ulrike; de Beer, Z. Wilhelm; de Hoog, G. Sybren; Del-Prado, Ruth; Dentinger, Bryn; Diéguez-Uribeondo, Javier; Divakar, Pradeep K.; Douglas, Brian; Dueñas, Margarita; Duong, Tuan A.; Eberhardt, Ursula; Edwards, Joan E.; Elshahed, Mostafa S.; Fliegerova, Katerina; Furtado, Manohar; García, Miguel A.; Ge, Zai-Wei; Griffith, Gareth W.; Griffiths, K.; Groenewald, Johannes Z.; Groenewald, Marizeth; Grube, Martin; Gryzenhout, Marieka; Guo, Liang-Dong; Hagen, Ferry; Hambleton, Sarah; Hamelin, Richard C.; Hansen, Karen; Harrold, Paul; Heller, Gregory; Herrera, Cesar; Hirayama, Kazuyuki; Hirooka, Yuuri; Ho, Hsiao-Man; Hoffmann, Kerstin; Hofstetter, Valérie; Högnabba, Filip; Hollingsworth, Peter M.; Hong, Seung-Beom; Hosaka, Kentaro; Houbraken, Jos; Hughes, Karen; Huhtinen, Seppo; Hyde, Kevin D.; James, Timothy; Johnson, Eric M.; Johnson, Joan E.; Johnston, Peter R.; Jones, E.B. Gareth; Kelly, Laura J.; Kirk, Paul M.; Knapp, Dániel G.; Kõljalg, Urmas; Kovács, Gábor M.; Kurtzman, Cletus P.; Landvik, Sara; Leavitt, Steven D.; Liggenstoffer, Audra S.; Liimatainen, Kare; Lombard, Lorenzo; Luangsa-ard, J. Jennifer; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten; Maganti, Harinad; Maharachchikumbura, Sajeewa S. N.; Martin, María P.; May, Tom W.; McTaggart, Alistair R.; Methven, Andrew S.; Meyer, Wieland; Moncalvo, Jean-Marc; Mongkolsamrit, Suchada; Nagy, László G.; Nilsson, R. Henrik; Niskanen, Tuula; Nyilasi, Ildikó; Okada, Gen; Okane, Izumi; Olariaga, Ibai; Otte, Jürgen; Papp, Tamás; Park, Duckchul; Petkovits, Tamás; Pino-Bodas, Raquel; Quaedvlieg, William; Raja, Huzefa A.; Redecker, Dirk; Rintoul, Tara L.; Ruibal, Constantino; Sarmiento-Ramírez, Jullie M.; Schmitt, Imke; Schüßler, Arthur; Shearer, Carol; Sotome, Kozue; Stefani, Franck O.P.; Stenroos, Soili; Stielow, Benjamin; Stockinger, Herbert; Suetrong, Satinee; Suh, Sung-Oui; Sung, Gi-Ho; Suzuki, Motofumi; Tanaka, Kazuaki; Tedersoo, Leho; Telleria, M. Teresa; Tretter, Eric; Untereiner, Wendy A.; Urbina, Hector; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Vialle, Agathe; Vu, Thuy Duong; Walther, Grit; Wang, Qi-Ming; Wang, Yan; Weir, Bevan S.; Weiß, Michael; White, Merlin M.; Xu, Jianping; Yahr, Rebecca; Yang, Zhu L.; Yurkov, Andrey; Zamora, Juan-Carlos; Zhang, Ning; Zhuang, Wen-Ying; Schindel, David

    2012-01-01

    Six DNA regions were evaluated as potential DNA barcodes for Fungi, the second largest kingdom of eukaryotic life, by a multinational, multilaboratory consortium. The region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 used as the animal barcode was excluded as a potential marker, because it is difficult to amplify in fungi, often includes large introns, and can be insufficiently variable. Three subunits from the nuclear ribosomal RNA cistron were compared together with regions of three representative protein-coding genes (largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, and minichromosome maintenance protein). Although the protein-coding gene regions often had a higher percent of correct identification compared with ribosomal markers, low PCR amplification and sequencing success eliminated them as candidates for a universal fungal barcode. Among the regions of the ribosomal cistron, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region has the highest probability of successful identification for the broadest range of fungi, with the most clearly defined barcode gap between inter- and intraspecific variation. The nuclear ribosomal large subunit, a popular phylogenetic marker in certain groups, had superior species resolution in some taxonomic groups, such as the early diverging lineages and the ascomycete yeasts, but was otherwise slightly inferior to the ITS. The nuclear ribosomal small subunit has poor species-level resolution in fungi. ITS will be formally proposed for adoption as the primary fungal barcode marker to the Consortium for the Barcode of Life, with the possibility that supplementary barcodes may be developed for particular narrowly circumscribed taxonomic groups. PMID:22454494

  10. Prominent rocks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, is at lower right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  11. 'Diamond' in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time.

    Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

    On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.

    The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.

  12. Spacecraft 3D Augmented Reality Mobile App

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussey, Kevin J.; Doronila, Paul R.; Kumanchik, Brian E.; Chan, Evan G.; Ellison, Douglas J.; Boeck, Andrea; Moore, Justin M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spacecraft 3D application allows users to learn about and interact with iconic NASA missions in a new and immersive way using common mobile devices. Using Augmented Reality (AR) techniques to project 3D renditions of the mission spacecraft into real-world surroundings, users can interact with and learn about Curiosity, GRAIL, Cassini, and Voyager. Additional updates on future missions, animations, and information will be ongoing. Using a printed AR Target and camera on a mobile device, users can get up close with these robotic explorers, see how some move, and learn about these engineering feats, which are used to expand knowledge and understanding about space. The software receives input from the mobile device's camera to recognize the presence of an AR marker in the camera's field of view. It then displays a 3D rendition of the selected spacecraft in the user's physical surroundings, on the mobile device's screen, while it tracks the device's movement in relation to the physical position of the spacecraft's 3D image on the AR marker.

  13. Markerless motion capture can provide reliable 3D gait kinematics in the sagittal and frontal plane.

    PubMed

    Sandau, Martin; Koblauch, Henrik; Moeslund, Thomas B; Aanæs, Henrik; Alkjær, Tine; Simonsen, Erik B

    2014-09-01

    Estimating 3D joint rotations in the lower extremities accurately and reliably remains unresolved in markerless motion capture, despite extensive studies in the past decades. The main problems have been ascribed to the limited accuracy of the 3D reconstructions. Accordingly, the purpose of the present study was to develop a new approach based on highly detailed 3D reconstructions in combination with a translational and rotational unconstrained articulated model. The highly detailed 3D reconstructions were synthesized from an eight camera setup using a stereo vision approach. The subject specific articulated model was generated with three rotational and three translational degrees of freedom for each limb segment and without any constraints to the range of motion. This approach was tested on 3D gait analysis and compared to a marker based method. The experiment included ten healthy subjects in whom hip, knee and ankle joint were analysed. Flexion/extension angles as well as hip abduction/adduction closely resembled those obtained from the marker based system. However, the internal/external rotations, knee abduction/adduction and ankle inversion/eversion were less reliable. PMID:25085672

  14. Forensic botany II, DNA barcode for land plants: Which markers after the international agreement?

    PubMed

    Ferri, G; Corradini, B; Ferrari, F; Santunione, A L; Palazzoli, F; Alu', M

    2015-03-01

    The ambitious idea of using a short piece of DNA for large-scale species identification (DNA barcoding) is already a powerful tool for scientists and the application of this standard technique seems promising in a range of fields including forensic genetics. While DNA barcoding enjoyed a remarkable success for animal identification through cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) analysis, the attempts to identify a single barcode for plants remained a vain hope for a longtime. From the beginning, the Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL) showed a lack of agreement on a core plant barcode, reflecting the diversity of viewpoints. Different research groups advocated various markers with divergent set of criteria until the recent publication by the CBOL-Plant Working Group. After a four-year effort, in 2009 the International Team concluded to agree on standard markers promoting a multilocus solution (rbcL and matK), with 70-75% of discrimination to the species level. In 2009 our group firstly proposed the broad application of DNA barcoding principles as a tool for identification of trace botanical evidence through the analysis of two chloroplast loci (trnH-psbA and trnL-trnF) in plant species belonging to local flora. Difficulties and drawbacks that were encountered included a poor coverage of species in specific databases and the lack of authenticated reference sequences for the selected markers. Successful preliminary results were obtained providing an approach to progressively identify unknown plant specimens to a given taxonomic rank, usable by any non-specialist botanist or in case of a shortage of taxonomic expertise. Now we considered mandatory to update and to compare our previous findings with the new selected plastid markers (matK+rbcL), taking into account forensic requirements. Features of all the four loci (the two previously analyzed trnH-psbA+trnL-trnF and matK+rbcL) were compared singly and in multilocus solutions to assess the most suitable combination for

  15. Long term dose monitoring onboard the European Columbus module of the international space station (ISS) in the frame of DOSIS and DOSIS 3D project - results from the active instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burmeister, Soenke; Berger, Thomas; Reitz, Guenther; Boehme, Matthias; Haumann, Lutz; Labrenz, Johannes

    Besides the effects of the microgravity environment, and the psychological and psychosocial problems encountered in confined spaces, radiation is the main health detriment for long duration human space missions. The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature from that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones encountered on earth for occupational radiation workers. Accurate knowledge of the physical characteristics of the space radiation field in dependence on the solar activity, the orbital parameters and the different shielding configurations of the International Space Station ISS is therefore needed. For the investigation of the spatial and temporal distribution of the radiation field inside the European COLUMBUS module the experiment DOSIS (Dose Distribution Inside the ISS) under the lead of DLR has been launched on July 15 (th) 2009 with STS-127 to the ISS. The experimental package was transferred from the Space Shuttle into COLUMBUS on July 18 (th) . It consists of a combination of passive detector packages (PDP) distributed at 11 locations inside the European Columbus Laboratory and two active radiation detectors (Dosimetry Telescopes = DOSTELs) with a DDPU (DOSTEL Data and Power Unit) in a Nomex pouch (DOSIS MAIN BOX) mounted at a fixed location beneath the European Physiology Module rack (EPM) inside COLUMBUS. The active components of the DOSIS experiment were operational from July 18 (th) 2009 to June 16 (th) 2011. After refurbishment the hardware has been reactivated on May 15 (th) 2012 as active part of the DOSIS 3D experiment and provides continuous data since this activation. The presentation will focus on the latest results from the two DOSTEL instruments as absorbed dose, dose equivalent and the related LET spectra gathered within the DOSIS (2009 - 2011) and DOSIS 3D (2012 - 2014) experiment. The CAU contributions to DOSIS and DOSIS 3D are

  16. Examining markers of safety in homecare using the international classification for patient safety

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Homecare is a growth enterprise. The nature of the care provided in the home is growing in complexity. This growth has necessitated both examination and generation of evidence around patient safety in homecare. The purpose of this paper is to examine the findings of a recent scoping review of the homecare literature 2004-2011 using the World Health Organization International Classification for Patient Safety (ICPS), which was developed for use across all care settings, and discuss the utility of the ICPS in the home setting. The scoping review focused on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and Congestive Heart Failure (CHF); two chronic illnesses commonly managed at home and that represent frequent hospital readmissions. The scoping review identified seven safety markers for homecare: Medication mania; Home alone; A fixed agenda in a foreign language; Strangers in the home; The butcher, the baker, the candlestick maker; Out of pocket: the cost of caring at home; and My health for yours: declining caregiver health. Methods The safety markers from the scoping review were mapped to the 10 ICPS high-level classes that comprise 48 concepts and address the continuum of health care: Incident Type, Patient Outcomes, Patient Characteristics, Incident Characteristics, Contributing Factors/Hazards, Organizational Outcomes, Detection, Mitigating Factors, Ameliorating Actions, and Actions Taken to Reduce Risk. Results Safety markers identified in the scoping review of the homecare literature mapped to three of the ten ICPS classes: Incident Characteristics, Contributing Factors, and Patient Outcomes. Conclusion The ICPS does have applicability to the homecare setting, however there were aspects of safety that were overlooked. A notable example is that the health of the caregiver is inextricably linked to the wellbeing of the patient within the homecare setting. The current concepts within the ICPS classes do not capture this, nor do they capture how care

  17. Real-time 3D surface-image-guided beam setup in radiotherapy of breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Djajaputra, David; Li Shidong

    2005-01-01

    We describe an approach for external beam radiotherapy of breast cancer that utilizes the three-dimensional (3D) surface information of the breast. The surface data of the breast are obtained from a 3D optical camera that is rigidly mounted on the ceiling of the treatment vault. This 3D camera utilizes light in the visible range therefore it introduces no ionization radiation to the patient. In addition to the surface topographical information of the treated area, the camera also captures gray-scale information that is overlaid on the 3D surface image. This allows us to visualize the skin markers and automatically determine the isocenter position and the beam angles in the breast tangential fields. The field sizes and shapes of the tangential, supraclavicular, and internal mammary gland fields can all be determined according to the 3D surface image of the target. A least-squares method is first introduced for the tangential-field setup that is useful for compensation of the target shape changes. The entire process of capturing the 3D surface data and subsequent calculation of beam parameters typically requires less than 1 min. Our tests on phantom experiments and patient images have achieved the accuracy of 1 mm in shift and 0.5 deg. in rotation. Importantly, the target shape and position changes in each treatment session can both be corrected through this real-time image-guided system.

  18. The behavior of internal markers in Ti-6Al-4V deformed in superplastic tension

    SciTech Connect

    Blackwell, P.L.; Bate, P.S.

    1996-11-01

    In the current work, internal markers were introduced into one of the best known superplastic materials, Ti-6 wt pct Al-4 wt pct V. Two sheets of 0.7-mm thickness were pressed into intimate contact after first cleaning the contacting surfaces and spraying a thin layer of an aqueous solution of Ca(OH){sub 2} onto one of those surfaces and allowing it to dry. The edges were joined using argon microplasma fusion welding and the assembly hot isostatically pressed at 900 C in a high purity argon atmosphere at 100 MPa for 90 minutes. Decomposition leaves particles of CaO at the interface, the remaining hydrogen and oxygen as well as any trapped atmospheric nitrogen and oxygen diffusing rapidly away from the interface into the bulk titanium. Specimens with a 35-mm parallel gage of 9.5-mm width were cut from the bonded sheet. These were tested in uniaxial tension at 920 C in air, with a layer of proprietary glaze to minimize the uptake of atmospheric elements. Extensions to strains of 0.4 and 1.0 were made at a strain rate of 10{sup {minus}4} s{sup {minus}1}. The strain rate was actually switched between values of 0.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} s{sup {minus}1} and 1.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} s{sup {minus}1}, with strain periods of 0.025 at each rate, to allow the strain rate sensitivity to be measured. The internal marker particles developed into small voids at the test temperature, even in the absence of deformation. The experimental observations are not consistent in the authors view, with grain boundary sliding having made any significant contribution to the deformation in the tensile tests.

  19. 3D deformation field throughout the interior of materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Huiqing; Lu, Wei-Yang

    2013-09-01

    This report contains the one-year feasibility study for our three-year LDRD proposal that is aimed to develop an experimental technique to measure the 3D deformation fields inside a material body. In this feasibility study, we first apply Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) algorithm to pre-existing in-situ Xray Computed Tomography (XCT) image sets with pure rigid body translation. The calculated displacement field has very large random errors and low precision that are unacceptable. Then we enhance these tomography images by setting threshold of the intensity of each slice. DVC algorithm is able to obtain accurate deformation fields from these enhanced image sets and the deformation fields are consistent with the global mechanical loading that is applied to the specimen. Through this study, we prove that the internal markers inside the pre-existing tomography images of aluminum alloy can be enhanced and are suitable for DVC to calculate the deformation field throughout the material body.

  20. A 3D radiative transfer framework. VI. PHOENIX/3D example applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauschildt, P. H.; Baron, E.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: We demonstrate the application of our 3D radiative transfer framework in the model atmosphere code PHOENIX for a number of spectrum synthesis calculations for very different conditions. Methods: The 3DRT framework discussed in the previous papers of this series was added to our general-purpose model atmosphere code PHOENIX/1D and an extended 3D version PHOENIX/3D was created. The PHOENIX/3D code is parallelized via the MPI library using a hierarchical domain decomposition and displays very good strong scaling. Results: We present the results of several test cases for widely different atmosphere conditions and compare the 3D calculations with equivalent 1D models to assess the internal accuracy of the 3D modeling. In addition, we show the results for a number of parameterized 3D structures. Conclusions: With presently available computational resources it is possible to solve the full 3D radiative transfer (including scattering) problem with the same micro-physics as included in 1D modeling.

  1. SU-E-J-123: Assessing Segmentation Accuracy of Internal Volumes and Sub-Volumes in 4D PET/CT of Lung Tumors Using a Novel 3D Printed Phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Soultan, D; Murphy, J; James, C; Hoh, C; Moiseenko, V; Cervino, L; Gill, B

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To assess the accuracy of internal target volume (ITV) segmentation of lung tumors for treatment planning of simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) radiotherapy as seen in 4D PET/CT images, using a novel 3D-printed phantom. Methods: The insert mimics high PET tracer uptake in the core and 50% uptake in the periphery, by using a porous design at the periphery. A lung phantom with the insert was placed on a programmable moving platform. Seven breathing waveforms of ideal and patient-specific respiratory motion patterns were fed to the platform, and 4D PET/CT scans were acquired of each of them. CT images were binned into 10 phases, and PET images were binned into 5 phases following the clinical protocol. Two scenarios were investigated for segmentation: a gate 30–70 window, and no gating. The radiation oncologist contoured the outer ITV of the porous insert with on CT images, while the internal void volume with 100% uptake was contoured on PET images for being indistinguishable from the outer volume in CT images. Segmented ITVs were compared to the expected volumes based on known target size and motion. Results: 3 ideal breathing patterns, 2 regular-breathing patient waveforms, and 2 irregular-breathing patient waveforms were used for this study. 18F-FDG was used as the PET tracer. The segmented ITVs from CT closely matched the expected motion for both no gating and gate 30–70 window, with disagreement of contoured ITV with respect to the expected volume not exceeding 13%. PET contours were seen to overestimate volumes in all the cases, up to more than 40%. Conclusion: 4DPET images of a novel 3D printed phantom designed to mimic different uptake values were obtained. 4DPET contours overestimated ITV volumes in all cases, while 4DCT contours matched expected ITV volume values. Investigation of the cause and effects of the discrepancies is undergoing.

  2. 3D Spectroscopy in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mediavilla, Evencio; Arribas, Santiago; Roth, Martin; Cepa-Nogué, Jordi; Sánchez, Francisco

    2011-09-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Introductory review and technical approaches Martin M. Roth; 2. Observational procedures and data reduction James E. H. Turner; 3. 3D Spectroscopy instrumentation M. A. Bershady; 4. Analysis of 3D data Pierre Ferruit; 5. Science motivation for IFS and galactic studies F. Eisenhauer; 6. Extragalactic studies and future IFS science Luis Colina; 7. Tutorials: how to handle 3D spectroscopy data Sebastian F. Sánchez, Begona García-Lorenzo and Arlette Pécontal-Rousset.

  3. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  4. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-02-01

    TOPAZ3D is a three-dimensional implicit finite element computer code for heat transfer analysis. TOPAZ3D can be used to solve for the steady-state or transient temperature field on three-dimensional geometries. Material properties may be temperature-dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation. By implementing the user subroutine feature, users can model chemical reaction kinetics and allow for any type of functionalmore » representation of boundary conditions and internal heat generation. TOPAZ3D can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in the material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluids, phase change, and energy balances.« less

  5. Modular 3-D Transport model

    EPA Science Inventory

    MT3D was first developed by Chunmiao Zheng in 1990 at S.S. Papadopulos & Associates, Inc. with partial support from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Starting in 1990, MT3D was released as a pubic domain code from the USEPA. Commercial versions with enhanced capab...

  6. Market study: 3-D eyetracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A market study of a proposed version of a 3-D eyetracker for initial use at NASA's Ames Research Center was made. The commercialization potential of a simplified, less expensive 3-D eyetracker was ascertained. Primary focus on present and potential users of eyetrackers, as well as present and potential manufacturers has provided an effective means of analyzing the prospects for commercialization.

  7. LLNL-Earth3D

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-10-01

    Earth3D is a computer code designed to allow fast calculation of seismic rays and travel times through a 3D model of the Earth. LLNL is using this for earthquake location and global tomography efforts and such codes are of great interest to the Earth Science community.

  8. [3-D ultrasound in gastroenterology].

    PubMed

    Zoller, W G; Liess, H

    1994-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) sonography represents a development of noninvasive diagnostic imaging by real-time two-dimensional (2D) sonography. The use of transparent rotating scans, comparable to a block of glass, generates a 3D effect. The objective of the present study was to optimate 3D presentation of abdominal findings. Additional investigations were made with a new volumetric program to determine the volume of selected findings of the liver. The results were compared with the estimated volumes of 2D sonography and 2D computer tomography (CT). For the processing of 3D images, typical parameter constellations were found for the different findings, which facilitated processing of 3D images. In more than 75% of the cases examined we found an optimal 3D presentation of sonographic findings with respect to the evaluation criteria developed by us for the 3D imaging of processed data. Great differences were found for the estimated volumes of the findings of the liver concerning the three different techniques applied. 3D ultrasound represents a valuable method to judge morphological appearance in abdominal findings. The possibility of volumetric measurements enlarges its potential diagnostic significance. Further clinical investigations are necessary to find out if definite differentiation between benign and malign findings is possible. PMID:7919882

  9. 3D World Building System

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-30

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  10. 3D World Building System

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-02-26

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  11. Euro3D Science Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. R.

    2004-02-01

    The Euro3D RTN is an EU funded Research Training Network to foster the exploitation of 3D spectroscopy in Europe. 3D spectroscopy is a general term for spectroscopy of an area of the sky and derives its name from its two spatial + one spectral dimensions. There are an increasing number of instruments which use integral field devices to achieve spectroscopy of an area of the sky, either using lens arrays, optical fibres or image slicers, to pack spectra of multiple pixels on the sky (``spaxels'') onto a 2D detector. On account of the large volume of data and the special methods required to reduce and analyse 3D data, there are only a few centres of expertise and these are mostly involved with instrument developments. There is a perceived lack of expertise in 3D spectroscopy spread though the astronomical community and its use in the armoury of the observational astronomer is viewed as being highly specialised. For precisely this reason the Euro3D RTN was proposed to train young researchers in this area and develop user tools to widen the experience with this particular type of data in Europe. The Euro3D RTN is coordinated by Martin M. Roth (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam) and has been running since July 2002. The first Euro3D science conference was held in Cambridge, UK from 22 to 23 May 2003. The main emphasis of the conference was, in keeping with the RTN, to expose the work of the young post-docs who are funded by the RTN. In addition the team members from the eleven European institutes involved in Euro3D also presented instrumental and observational developments. The conference was organized by Andy Bunker and held at the Institute of Astronomy. There were over thirty participants and 26 talks covered the whole range of application of 3D techniques. The science ranged from Galactic planetary nebulae and globular clusters to kinematics of nearby galaxies out to objects at high redshift. Several talks were devoted to reporting recent observations with newly

  12. PLOT3D user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.

  13. 3D printing in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery. PMID:26657435

  14. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  15. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  16. Kinematic 3-D Retro-Modeling of an Orogenic Bend in the South Limón Fold-and-Thrust Belt, Eastern Costa Rica: Prediction of the Incremental Internal Strain Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandes, Christian; Tanner, David C.; Winsemann, Jutta

    2016-03-01

    The South Limón fold-and-thrust belt, in the back-arc area of southern Costa Rica, is characterized by a 90° curvature of the strike of the thrust planes and is therefore a natural laboratory for the analysis of curved orogens. The analysis of curved fold-and-thrust belts is a challenge because of the varying structural orientations within the belt. Based on seismic reflection lines, we created a 3-D subsurface model containing three major thrust faults and three stratigraphic horizons. 3-D kinematic retro-deformation modeling was carried out to analyze the spatial evolution of the fold-and-thrust belt. The maximum amount of displacement on each of the faults is (from hinterland to foreland); thrust 1: 800 m; thrust 2: 600 m; thrust 3: 250 m. The model was restored sequentially to its pre-deformational state. The strain history of the stratigraphic horizons in the model was calculated at every step. This shows that the internal strain pattern has an abrupt change at the orogenic bend. Contractional strain occurs in the forelimbs of the hanging-wall anticlines, while a zone of dilative strain spreads from the anticline crests to the backlimbs. The modeling shows that a NNE-directed transport direction best explains the structural evolution of the bend. This would require a left-lateral strike-slip zone in the North to compensate for the movement and thereby decoupling the South Limón fold-and-thrust belt from northern Costa Rica. Therefore, our modeling supports the presence of the Trans-Isthmic fault system, at least during the Plio-Pleistocene.

  17. Automated classification of RNA 3D motifs and the RNA 3D Motif Atlas

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, Anton I.; Zirbel, Craig L.; Leontis, Neocles B.

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of atomic-resolution RNA three-dimensional (3D) structures reveals that many internal and hairpin loops are modular, recurrent, and structured by conserved non-Watson–Crick base pairs. Structurally similar loops define RNA 3D motifs that are conserved in homologous RNA molecules, but can also occur at nonhomologous sites in diverse RNAs, and which often vary in sequence. To further our understanding of RNA motif structure and sequence variability and to provide a useful resource for structure modeling and prediction, we present a new method for automated classification of internal and hairpin loop RNA 3D motifs and a new online database called the RNA 3D Motif Atlas. To classify the motif instances, a representative set of internal and hairpin loops is automatically extracted from a nonredundant list of RNA-containing PDB files. Their structures are compared geometrically, all-against-all, using the FR3D program suite. The loops are clustered into motif groups, taking into account geometric similarity and structural annotations and making allowance for a variable number of bulged bases. The automated procedure that we have implemented identifies all hairpin and internal loop motifs previously described in the literature. All motif instances and motif groups are assigned unique and stable identifiers and are made available in the RNA 3D Motif Atlas (http://rna.bgsu.edu/motifs), which is automatically updated every four weeks. The RNA 3D Motif Atlas provides an interactive user interface for exploring motif diversity and tools for programmatic data access. PMID:23970545

  18. Metrological characterization of 3D imaging devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidi, G.

    2013-04-01

    Manufacturers often express the performance of a 3D imaging device in various non-uniform ways for the lack of internationally recognized standard requirements for metrological parameters able to identify the capability of capturing a real scene. For this reason several national and international organizations in the last ten years have been developing protocols for verifying such performance. Ranging from VDI/VDE 2634, published by the Association of German Engineers and oriented to the world of mechanical 3D measurements (triangulation-based devices), to the ASTM technical committee E57, working also on laser systems based on direct range detection (TOF, Phase Shift, FM-CW, flash LADAR), this paper shows the state of the art about the characterization of active range devices, with special emphasis on measurement uncertainty, accuracy and resolution. Most of these protocols are based on special objects whose shape and size are certified with a known level of accuracy. By capturing the 3D shape of such objects with a range device, a comparison between the measured points and the theoretical shape they should represent is possible. The actual deviations can be directly analyzed or some derived parameters can be obtained (e.g. angles between planes, distances between barycenters of spheres rigidly connected, frequency domain parameters, etc.). This paper shows theoretical aspects and experimental results of some novel characterization methods applied to different categories of active 3D imaging devices based on both principles of triangulation and direct range detection.

  19. 3D GPR Imaging of Wooden Logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halabe, Udaya B.; Pyakurel, Sandeep

    2007-03-01

    There has been a lack of an effective NDE technique to locate internal defects within wooden logs. The few available elastic wave propagation based techniques are limited to predicting E values. Other techniques such as X-rays have not been very successful in detecting internal defects in logs. If defects such as embedded metals could be identified before the sawing process, the saw mills could significantly increase their production by reducing the probability of damage to the saw blade and the associated downtime and the repair cost. Also, if the internal defects such as knots and decayed areas could be identified in logs, the sawing blade can be oriented to exclude the defective portion and optimize the volume of high valued lumber that can be obtained from the logs. In this research, GPR has been successfully used to locate internal defects (knots, decays and embedded metals) within the logs. This paper discusses GPR imaging and mapping of the internal defects using both 2D and 3D interpretation methodology. Metal pieces were inserted in a log and the reflection patterns from these metals were interpreted from the radargrams acquired using 900 MHz antenna. Also, GPR was able to accurately identify the location of knots and decays. Scans from several orientations of the log were collected to generate 3D cylindrical volume. The actual location of the defects showed good correlation with the interpreted defects in the 3D volume. The time/depth slices from 3D cylindrical volume data were useful in understanding the extent of defects inside the log.

  20. Bioprinting of 3D hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Stanton, M M; Samitier, J; Sánchez, S

    2015-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting has recently emerged as an extension of 3D material printing, by using biocompatible or cellular components to build structures in an additive, layer-by-layer methodology for encapsulation and culture of cells. These 3D systems allow for cell culture in a suspension for formation of highly organized tissue or controlled spatial orientation of cell environments. The in vitro 3D cellular environments simulate the complexity of an in vivo environment and natural extracellular matrices (ECM). This paper will focus on bioprinting utilizing hydrogels as 3D scaffolds. Hydrogels are advantageous for cell culture as they are highly permeable to cell culture media, nutrients, and waste products generated during metabolic cell processes. They have the ability to be fabricated in customized shapes with various material properties with dimensions at the micron scale. 3D hydrogels are a reliable method for biocompatible 3D printing and have applications in tissue engineering, drug screening, and organ on a chip models. PMID:26066320

  1. Unassisted 3D camera calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.

    2012-03-01

    With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

  2. Arena3D: visualization of biological networks in 3D

    PubMed Central

    Pavlopoulos, Georgios A; O'Donoghue, Seán I; Satagopam, Venkata P; Soldatos, Theodoros G; Pafilis, Evangelos; Schneider, Reinhard

    2008-01-01

    Background Complexity is a key problem when visualizing biological networks; as the number of entities increases, most graphical views become incomprehensible. Our goal is to enable many thousands of entities to be visualized meaningfully and with high performance. Results We present a new visualization tool, Arena3D, which introduces a new concept of staggered layers in 3D space. Related data – such as proteins, chemicals, or pathways – can be grouped onto separate layers and arranged via layout algorithms, such as Fruchterman-Reingold, distance geometry, and a novel hierarchical layout. Data on a layer can be clustered via k-means, affinity propagation, Markov clustering, neighbor joining, tree clustering, or UPGMA ('unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean'). A simple input format defines the name and URL for each node, and defines connections or similarity scores between pairs of nodes. The use of Arena3D is illustrated with datasets related to Huntington's disease. Conclusion Arena3D is a user friendly visualization tool that is able to visualize biological or any other network in 3D space. It is free for academic use and runs on any platform. It can be downloaded or lunched directly from . Java3D library and Java 1.5 need to be pre-installed for the software to run. PMID:19040715

  3. Fdf in US3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otis, Collin; Ferrero, Pietro; Candler, Graham; Givi, Peyman

    2013-11-01

    The scalar filtered mass density function (SFMDF) methodology is implemented into the computer code US3D. This is an unstructured Eulerian finite volume hydrodynamic solver and has proven very effective for simulation of compressible turbulent flows. The resulting SFMDF-US3D code is employed for large eddy simulation (LES) on unstructured meshes. Simulations are conducted of subsonic and supersonic flows under non-reacting and reacting conditions. The consistency and the accuracy of the simulated results are assessed along with appraisal of the overall performance of the methodology. The SFMDF-US3D is now capable of simulating high speed flows in complex configurations.

  4. 3-D Cavern Enlargement Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    EHGARTNER, BRIAN L.; SOBOLIK, STEVEN R.

    2002-03-01

    Three-dimensional finite element analyses simulate the mechanical response of enlarging existing caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The caverns are located in Gulf Coast salt domes and are enlarged by leaching during oil drawdowns as fresh water is injected to displace the crude oil from the caverns. The current criteria adopted by the SPR limits cavern usage to 5 drawdowns (leaches). As a base case, 5 leaches were modeled over a 25 year period to roughly double the volume of a 19 cavern field. Thirteen additional leaches where then simulated until caverns approached coalescence. The cavern field approximated the geometries and geologic properties found at the West Hackberry site. This enabled comparisons are data collected over nearly 20 years to analysis predictions. The analyses closely predicted the measured surface subsidence and cavern closure rates as inferred from historic well head pressures. This provided the necessary assurance that the model displacements, strains, and stresses are accurate. However, the cavern field has not yet experienced the large scale drawdowns being simulated. Should they occur in the future, code predictions should be validated with actual field behavior at that time. The simulations were performed using JAS3D, a three dimensional finite element analysis code for nonlinear quasi-static solids. The results examine the impacts of leaching and cavern workovers, where internal cavern pressures are reduced, on surface subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The results suggest that the current limit of 5 oil drawdowns may be extended with some mitigative action required on the wells and later on to surface structure due to subsidence strains. The predicted stress state in the salt shows damage to start occurring after 15 drawdowns with significant failure occurring at the 16th drawdown, well beyond the current limit of 5 drawdowns.

  5. Wavefront construction in 3-D

    SciTech Connect

    Chilcoat, S.R. Hildebrand, S.T.

    1995-12-31

    Travel time computation in inhomogeneous media is essential for pre-stack Kirchhoff imaging in areas such as the sub-salt province in the Gulf of Mexico. The 2D algorithm published by Vinje, et al, has been extended to 3D to compute wavefronts in complicated inhomogeneous media. The 3D wavefront construction algorithm provides many advantages over conventional ray tracing and other methods of computing travel times in 3D. The algorithm dynamically maintains a reasonably consistent ray density without making a priori guesses at the number of rays to shoot. The determination of caustics in 3D is a straight forward geometric procedure. The wavefront algorithm also enables the computation of multi-valued travel time surfaces.

  6. Heterodyne 3D ghost imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xu; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Chenghua; Xu, Lu; Wang, Qiang; Zhao, Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Conventional three dimensional (3D) ghost imaging measures range of target based on pulse fight time measurement method. Due to the limit of data acquisition system sampling rate, range resolution of the conventional 3D ghost imaging is usually low. In order to take off the effect of sampling rate to range resolution of 3D ghost imaging, a heterodyne 3D ghost imaging (HGI) system is presented in this study. The source of HGI is a continuous wave laser instead of pulse laser. Temporal correlation and spatial correlation of light are both utilized to obtain the range image of target. Through theory analysis and numerical simulations, it is demonstrated that HGI can obtain high range resolution image with low sampling rate.

  7. Combinatorial 3D Mechanical Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulais, Corentin; Teomy, Eial; de Reus, Koen; Shokef, Yair; van Hecke, Martin

    2015-03-01

    We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit 3D-folding motion. Our structures consist of cubic lattices of anisotropic unit cells that can be tiled in a complex combinatorial fashion. We design and 3d-print this complex ordered mechanism, in which we combine elastic hinges and defects to tailor the mechanics of the material. Finally, we use this large design space to encode smart functionalities such as surface patterning and multistability.

  8. Teat Morphology Characterization With 3D Imaging.

    PubMed

    Vesterinen, Heidi M; Corfe, Ian J; Sinkkonen, Ville; Iivanainen, Antti; Jernvall, Jukka; Laakkonen, Juha

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to visualize, in a novel way, the morphological characteristics of bovine teats to gain a better understanding of the detailed teat morphology. We applied silicone casting and 3D digital imaging in order to obtain a more detailed image of the teat structures than that seen in previous studies. Teat samples from 65 dairy cows over 12 months of age were obtained from cows slaughtered at an abattoir. The teats were classified according to the teat condition scoring used in Finland and the lengths of the teat canals were measured. Silicone molds were made from the external teat surface surrounding the teat orifice and from the internal surface of the teat consisting of the papillary duct, Fürstenberg's rosette, and distal part of the teat cistern. The external and internal surface molds of 35 cows were scanned with a 3D laser scanner. The molds and the digital 3D models were used to evaluate internal and external teat surface morphology. A number of measurements were taken from the silicone molds. The 3D models reproduced the morphology of the teats accurately with high repeatability. Breed didn't correlate with the teat classification score. The rosette was found to have significant variation in its size and number of mucosal folds. The internal surface morphology of the rosette did not correlate with the external surface morphology of the teat implying that it is relatively independent of milking parameters that may impact the teat canal and the external surface of the teat. PMID:25382725

  9. TACO (2D AND 3D). Taco

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, W.E.

    1983-03-01

    A set of finite element codes for the solution of nonlinear, two-dimensional (TACO2D) and three-dimensional (TACO3D) heat transfer problems. Performs linear and nonlinear analyses of both transient and steady state heat transfer problems. Has the capability to handle time or temperature dependent material properties. Materials may be either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time and temperature dependent boundary conditions and loadings are available including temperature, flux, convection, radiation, and internal heat generation.

  10. The EISCAT_3D Science Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjulin, A.; Mann, I.; McCrea, I.; Aikio, A. T.

    2013-05-01

    EISCAT_3D will be a world-leading international research infrastructure using the incoherent scatter technique to study the atmosphere in the Fenno-Scandinavian Arctic and to investigate how the Earth's atmosphere is coupled to space. The EISCAT_3D phased-array multistatic radar system will be operated by EISCAT Scientific Association and thus be an integral part of an organisation that has successfully been running incoherent scatter radars for more than thirty years. The baseline design of the radar system contains a core site with transmitting and receiving capabilities located close to the intersection of the Swedish, Norwegian and Finnish borders and five receiving sites located within 50 to 250 km from the core. The EISCAT_3D project is currently in its Preparatory Phase and can smoothly transit into implementation in 2014, provided sufficient funding. Construction can start 2016 and first operations in 2018. The EISCAT_3D Science Case is prepared as part of the Preparatory Phase. It is regularly updated with annual new releases, and it aims at being a common document for the whole future EISCAT_3D user community. The areas covered by the Science Case are atmospheric physics and global change; space and plasma physics; solar system research; space weather and service applications; and radar techniques, new methods for coding and analysis. Two of the aims for EISCAT_3D are to understand the ways natural variability in the upper atmosphere, imposed by the Sun-Earth system, can influence the middle and lower atmosphere, and to improve the predictivity of atmospheric models by providing higher resolution observations to replace the current parametrised input. Observations by EISCAT_3D will also be used to monitor the direct effects from the Sun on the ionosphere-atmosphere system and those caused by solar wind magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction. In addition, EISCAT_3D will be used for remote sensing the large-scale behaviour of the magnetosphere from its

  11. Random-Profiles-Based 3D Face Recognition System

    PubMed Central

    Joongrock, Kim; Sunjin, Yu; Sangyoun, Lee

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a noble nonintrusive three-dimensional (3D) face modeling system for random-profile-based 3D face recognition is presented. Although recent two-dimensional (2D) face recognition systems can achieve a reliable recognition rate under certain conditions, their performance is limited by internal and external changes, such as illumination and pose variation. To address these issues, 3D face recognition, which uses 3D face data, has recently received much attention. However, the performance of 3D face recognition highly depends on the precision of acquired 3D face data, while also requiring more computational power and storage capacity than 2D face recognition systems. In this paper, we present a developed nonintrusive 3D face modeling system composed of a stereo vision system and an invisible near-infrared line laser, which can be directly applied to profile-based 3D face recognition. We further propose a novel random-profile-based 3D face recognition method that is memory-efficient and pose-invariant. The experimental results demonstrate that the reconstructed 3D face data consists of more than 50 k 3D point clouds and a reliable recognition rate against pose variation. PMID:24691101

  12. From 3D view to 3D print

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  13. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  14. Remote 3D Medical Consultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Greg; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Fuchs, Henry; Cairns, Bruce; Mayer-Patel, Ketan; Yang, Ruigang; State, Andrei; Towles, Herman; Ilie, Adrian; Krishnan, Srinivas; Söderholm, Hanna M.

    Two-dimensional (2D) video-based telemedical consultation has been explored widely in the past 15-20 years. Two issues that seem to arise in most relevant case studies are the difficulty associated with obtaining the desired 2D camera views, and poor depth perception. To address these problems we are exploring the use of a small array of cameras to synthesize a spatially continuous range of dynamic three-dimensional (3D) views of a remote environment and events. The 3D views can be sent across wired or wireless networks to remote viewers with fixed displays or mobile devices such as a personal digital assistant (PDA). The viewpoints could be specified manually or automatically via user head or PDA tracking, giving the remote viewer virtual head- or hand-slaved (PDA-based) remote cameras for mono or stereo viewing. We call this idea remote 3D medical consultation (3DMC). In this article we motivate and explain the vision for 3D medical consultation; we describe the relevant computer vision/graphics, display, and networking research; we present a proof-of-concept prototype system; and we present some early experimental results supporting the general hypothesis that 3D remote medical consultation could offer benefits over conventional 2D televideo.

  15. Speaking Volumes About 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.

  16. The use of biochemical markers of bone remodeling in multiple myeloma: a report of the International Myeloma Working Group.

    PubMed

    Terpos, E; Dimopoulos, M A; Sezer, O; Roodman, D; Abildgaard, N; Vescio, R; Tosi, P; Garcia-Sanz, R; Davies, F; Chanan-Khan, A; Palumbo, A; Sonneveld, P; Drake, M T; Harousseau, J-L; Anderson, K C; Durie, B G M

    2010-10-01

    Lytic bone disease is a frequent complication of multiple myeloma (MM). Lytic lesions rarely heal and X-rays are of limited value in monitoring bone destruction during anti-myeloma or anti-resorptive treatment. Biochemical markers of bone resorption (amino- and carboxy-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX and CTX, respectively) or CTX generated by matrix metalloproteinases (ICTP)) and bone formation provide information on bone dynamics and reflect disease activity in bone. These markers have been investigated as tools for evaluating the extent of bone disease, risk of skeletal morbidity and response to anti-resorptive treatment in MM. Urinary NTX, serum CTX and serum ICTP are elevated in myeloma patients with osteolytic lesions and correlate with advanced disease stage. Furthermore, urinary NTX and serum ICTP correlate with risk for skeletal complications, disease progression and overall survival. Bone markers have also been used for the early diagnosis of bone lesions. This International Myeloma Working Group report summarizes the existing data for the role of bone markers in assessing the extent of MM bone disease and in monitoring bone turnover during anti-myeloma therapies and provides information on novel markers that may be of particular interest in the near future. PMID:20811404

  17. 3D-Printed Microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Au, Anthony K; Huynh, Wilson; Horowitz, Lisa F; Folch, Albert

    2016-03-14

    The advent of soft lithography allowed for an unprecedented expansion in the field of microfluidics. However, the vast majority of PDMS microfluidic devices are still made with extensive manual labor, are tethered to bulky control systems, and have cumbersome user interfaces, which all render commercialization difficult. On the other hand, 3D printing has begun to embrace the range of sizes and materials that appeal to the developers of microfluidic devices. Prior to fabrication, a design is digitally built as a detailed 3D CAD file. The design can be assembled in modules by remotely collaborating teams, and its mechanical and fluidic behavior can be simulated using finite-element modeling. As structures are created by adding materials without the need for etching or dissolution, processing is environmentally friendly and economically efficient. We predict that in the next few years, 3D printing will replace most PDMS and plastic molding techniques in academia. PMID:26854878

  18. 3D Printing in Zero-G ISS Technology Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werkheiser, Niki; Cooper, Kenneth C.; Edmunson, Jennifer E.; Dunn, Jason; Snyder, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has a long term strategy to fabricate components and equipment on-demand for manned missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. To support this strategy, NASA's Marshall Space Fligth Center (MSFC) and Made in Space, Inc. are developing the 3D Printing In Zero-G payload as a Technology Demonstration for the International Space Station (ISS). The 3D Printing In Zero-G experiment ('3D Print') will be the frst machine to perform 3D printing in space.

  19. 3D Computations and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D

    2004-04-05

    This project consists of two activities. Task A, Simulations and Measurements, combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. The goal of this effort is to provide an improved understanding of dynamic material properties and to provide accurate numerical representations of those properties for use in analysis codes. Task B, ALE3D Development, involves general development activities in the ALE3D code with the focus of improving simulation capabilities for problems of mutual interest to DoD and DOE. Emphasis is on problems involving multi-phase flow, blast loading of structures and system safety/vulnerability studies.

  20. 3D Computations and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D

    2003-05-12

    This project is in its first full year after the combining of two previously funded projects: ''3D Code Development'' and ''Dynamic Material Properties''. The motivation behind this move was to emphasize and strengthen the ties between the experimental work and the computational model development in the materials area. The next year's activities will indicate the merging of the two efforts. The current activity is structured in two tasks. Task A, ''Simulations and Measurements'', combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. Task B, ''ALE3D Development'', is a continuation of the non-materials related activities from the previous project.

  1. Uncertainty in 3D gel dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Deene, Yves; Jirasek, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) gel dosimetry has a unique role to play in safeguarding conformal radiotherapy treatments as the technique can cover the full treatment chain and provides the radiation oncologist with the integrated dose distribution in 3D. It can also be applied to benchmark new treatment strategies such as image guided and tracking radiotherapy techniques. A major obstacle that has hindered the wider dissemination of gel dosimetry in radiotherapy centres is a lack of confidence in the reliability of the measured dose distribution. Uncertainties in 3D dosimeters are attributed to both dosimeter properties and scanning performance. In polymer gel dosimetry with MRI readout, discrepancies in dose response of large polymer gel dosimeters versus small calibration phantoms have been reported which can lead to significant inaccuracies in the dose maps. The sources of error in polymer gel dosimetry with MRI readout are well understood and it has been demonstrated that with a carefully designed scanning protocol, the overall uncertainty in absolute dose that can currently be obtained falls within 5% on an individual voxel basis, for a minimum voxel size of 5 mm3. However, several research groups have chosen to use polymer gel dosimetry in a relative manner by normalizing the dose distribution towards an internal reference dose within the gel dosimeter phantom. 3D dosimetry with optical scanning has also been mostly applied in a relative way, although in principle absolute calibration is possible. As the optical absorption in 3D dosimeters is less dependent on temperature it can be expected that the achievable accuracy is higher with optical CT. The precision in optical scanning of 3D dosimeters depends to a large extend on the performance of the detector. 3D dosimetry with X-ray CT readout is a low contrast imaging modality for polymer gel dosimetry. Sources of error in x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry (XCT) are currently under investigation and include inherent

  2. SNL3dFace

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial featuresmore » of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.« less

  3. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…

  4. SNL3dFace

    SciTech Connect

    Russ, Trina; Koch, Mark; Koudelka, Melissa; Peters, Ralph; Little, Charles; Boehnen, Chris; Peters, Tanya

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial features of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.

  5. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  6. 3D gesture recognition from serial range image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Yasuyuki; Miyasaka, Takeo; Hirose, Makoto; Araki, Kazuo

    2001-10-01

    In this research, the recognition of gesture in 3D space is examined by using serial range images obtained by a real-time 3D measurement system developed in our laboratory. Using this system, it is possible to obtain time sequences of range, intensity and color data for a moving object in real-time without assigning markers to the targets. At first, gestures are tracked in 2D space by calculating 2D flow vectors at each points using an ordinal optical flow estimation method, based on time sequences of the intensity data. Then, location of each point after 2D movement is detected on the x-y plane using thus obtained 2D flow vectors. Depth information of each point after movement is then obtained from the range data and 3D flow vectors are assigned to each point. Time sequences of thus obtained 3D flow vectors allow us to track the 3D movement of the target. So, based on time sequences of 3D flow vectors of the targets, it is possible to classify the movement of the targets using continuous DP matching technique. This tracking of 3D movement using time sequences of 3D flow vectors may be applicable for a robust gesture recognition system.

  7. Generation of 3D characterization databases in vector format

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkosz, Aaron; Williams, Bryan L.; Motz, Steve

    2001-09-01

    We discuss the methodology and techniques employed in transforming our 3D characterization databases and 3D target models from our internal 3D format to a more universal 3D format. Currently our 3D characterization databases and target models are encoded in an internal custom file format that targets specific simulators set up to receive out data. In order to make our databases available to a wider audience within the modeling and simulation community, we have developed techniques to transform our databases into the more common Open Flight file format. We outline the steps taken to accomplish this. We discuss the methodology and show examples of backgrounds, object discretes, and target models. The developed characterization databases are used in digital simulations by various customers within the US Army Aviation and Missile Command (AMCOM). These databases are used in closed loop dynamic simulations to evaluate the performance of various missile systems.

  8. Correlation between internal fiducial tumor motion and external marker motion for liver tumors imaged with 4D-CT

    SciTech Connect

    Beddar, A. Sam . E-mail: abeddar@mdanderson.org; Kainz, Kristofer; Briere, Tina Marie; Tsunashima, Yoshikazu; Pan Tinsu; Prado, Karl; Mohan, Radhe; Gillin, Michael; Krishnan, Sunil

    2007-02-01

    Purpose: We investigated the correlation between the motions of an external marker and internal fiducials implanted in the liver for 8 patients undergoing respiratory-based computed tomography (four-dimensional CT [4D-CT]) procedures. Methods and Materials: The internal fiducials were gold seeds, 3 mm in length and 1.2 mm in diameter. Four patients each had one implanted fiducial, and the other four had three implanted fiducials. The external marker was a plastic box, which is part of the Real-Time Position Management System (RPM) used to track the patient's respiration. Each patient received a standard helical CT scan followed by a time-correlated CT-image acquisition (4D-CT). The 4D-CT images were reconstructed in 10 separate phases covering the entire respiratory cycle. Results: The internal fiducial motion is predominant in the superior-inferior direction, with a range of 7.5-17.5 mm. The correlation between external respiration and internal fiducial motion is best during expiration. For 2 patients with their three fiducials separated by a maximum of 3.2 cm, the motions of the fiducials were well correlated, whereas for 2 patients with more widely spaced fiducials, there was less correlation. Conclusions: In general, there is a good correlation between internal fiducial motion imaged by 4D-CT and external marker motion. We have demonstrated that gating may be best performed at the end of the respiratory cycle. Special attention should be paid to gating for patients whose fiducials do not move in synchrony, because targeting on the correct respiratory amplitude alone would not guarantee that the entire tumor volume is within the treatment field.

  9. Improved vision in forensic documentation: forensic 3D/CAD-supported photogrammetry of bodily injury external surfaces combined with volumetric radiologic scanning of bodily injury internal structures provides more investigative leads and stronger forensic evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thali, Michael J.; Braun, Marcel; Kneubuehl, Beat P.; Brueschweiler, Walter; Vock, Peter; Dirnhofer, Richard

    2000-05-01

    In the field of the documentation of forensics-relevant injuries, from the reconstructive point of view, the Forensic, 3D/CAD-supported Photometry plays an important role; particularly so when a detailed 3D reconstruction is vital. This was demonstrated with an experimentally-produced 'injury' to a head model, the 'skin-skull-brain model'. The injury-causing instrument, drawn from a real forensic case, was a specifically formed weapon.

  10. USM3D Predictions of Supersonic Nozzle Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Melissa B.; Elmiligui, Alaa A.; Campbell, Richard L.; Nayani, Sudheer N.

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on the NASA Tetrahedral Unstructured Software System CFD code (USM3D) capability to predict supersonic plume flow. Previous studies, published in 2004 and 2009, investigated USM3D's results versus historical experimental data. This current study continued that comparison however focusing on the use of the volume souring to capture the shear layers and internal shock structure of the plume. This study was conducted using two benchmark axisymmetric supersonic jet experimental data sets. The study showed that with the use of volume sourcing, USM3D was able to capture and model a jet plume's shear layer and internal shock structure.

  11. Optoplasmonics: hybridization in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, L.; Gervinskas, G.; Žukauskas, A.; Malinauskas, M.; Brasselet, E.; Juodkazis, S.

    2013-12-01

    Femtosecond laser fabrication has been used to make hybrid refractive and di ractive micro-optical elements in photo-polymer SZ2080. For applications in micro- uidics, axicon lenses were fabricated (both single and arrays), for generation of light intensity patterns extending through the entire depth of a typically tens-of-micrometers deep channel. Further hybridisation of an axicon with a plasmonic slot is fabricated and demonstrated nu- merically. Spiralling chiral grooves were inscribed into a 100-nm-thick gold coating sputtered over polymerized micro-axicon lenses, using a focused ion beam. This demonstrates possibility of hybridisation between optical and plasmonic 3D micro-optical elements. Numerical modelling of optical performance by 3D-FDTD method is presented.

  12. 3-D Relativistic MHD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Frank, J.; Koide, S.; Sakai, J.-I.; Christodoulou, D. M.; Sol, H.; Mutel, R. L.

    1998-12-01

    We present 3-D numerical simulations of moderately hot, supersonic jets propagating initially along or obliquely to the field lines of a denser magnetized background medium with Lorentz factors of W = 4.56 and evolving in a four-dimensional spacetime. The new results are understood as follows: Relativistic simulations have consistently shown that these jets are effectively heavy and so they do not suffer substantial momentum losses and are not decelerated as efficiently as their nonrelativistic counterparts. In addition, the ambient magnetic field, however strong, can be pushed aside with relative ease by the beam, provided that the degrees of freedom associated with all three spatial dimensions are followed self-consistently in the simulations. This effect is analogous to pushing Japanese ``noren'' or vertical Venetian blinds out of the way while the slats are allowed to bend in 3-D space rather than as a 2-D slab structure.

  13. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

    1999-10-12

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  14. Forensic 3D scene reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Charles Q.; Small, Daniel E.; Peters, Ralph R.; Rigdon, J. B.

    2000-05-01

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a fieldable prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  15. 360-degree 3D profilometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yuanhe; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Wenyi; Tan, Yushan

    1997-12-01

    A new method of 360 degree turning 3D shape measurement in which light sectioning and phase shifting techniques are both used is presented in this paper. A sine light field is applied in the projected light stripe, meanwhile phase shifting technique is used to calculate phases of the light slit. Thereafter wrapped phase distribution of the slit is formed and the unwrapping process is made by means of the height information based on the light sectioning method. Therefore phase measuring results with better precision can be obtained. At last the target 3D shape data can be produced according to geometric relationships between phases and the object heights. The principles of this method are discussed in detail and experimental results are shown in this paper.

  16. 3D Printable Graphene Composite.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-01-01

    In human being's history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today's personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite's linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C(-1) from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673

  17. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  18. 3D light scanning macrography.

    PubMed

    Huber, D; Keller, M; Robert, D

    2001-08-01

    The technique of 3D light scanning macrography permits the non-invasive surface scanning of small specimens at magnifications up to 200x. Obviating both the problem of limited depth of field inherent to conventional close-up macrophotography and the metallic coating required by scanning electron microscopy, 3D light scanning macrography provides three-dimensional digital images of intact specimens without the loss of colour, texture and transparency information. This newly developed technique offers a versatile, portable and cost-efficient method for the non-invasive digital and photographic documentation of small objects. Computer controlled device operation and digital image acquisition facilitate fast and accurate quantitative morphometric investigations, and the technique offers a broad field of research and educational applications in biological, medical and materials sciences. PMID:11489078

  19. 3D-graphite structure

    SciTech Connect

    Belenkov, E. A. Ali-Pasha, V. A.

    2011-01-15

    The structure of clusters of some new carbon 3D-graphite phases have been calculated using the molecular-mechanics methods. It is established that 3D-graphite polytypes {alpha}{sub 1,1}, {alpha}{sub 1,3}, {alpha}{sub 1,5}, {alpha}{sub 2,1}, {alpha}{sub 2,3}, {alpha}{sub 3,1}, {beta}{sub 1,2}, {beta}{sub 1,4}, {beta}{sub 1,6}, {beta}{sub 2,1}, and {beta}{sub 3,2} consist of sp{sup 2}-hybridized atoms, have hexagonal unit cells, and differ in regards to the structure of layers and order of their alternation. A possible way to experimentally synthesize new carbon phases is proposed: the polymerization and carbonization of hydrocarbon molecules.

  20. 3-D magnetic field calculations for wiggglers using MAGNUS-3D

    SciTech Connect

    Pissanetzky, S.; Tompkins, P.

    1988-01-01

    The recent but steady trend toward increased magnetic and geometric complexity in the design of wigglers and undulators, of which tapered wigglers, hybrid structures, laced electromagnetic wigglers, magnetic cladding, twisters and magic structures are examples, has caused a need for reliable 3-D computer models and a better understanding of the behavior of magnetic systems in three dimensions. The capabilities of the MAGNUS-3D Group of Programs are ideally suited to solve this class of problems and provide insight into 3-D effects. MAGNUS-3D can solve any problem of Magnetostatics involving permanent magnets, linear or nonlinear ferromagnetic materials and electric conductors of any shape in space. The magnetic properties of permanent magnets are described by the complete nonlinear demagnetization curve as provided by the manufacturer, or, at the user's choice, by a simpler approximation involving the coercive force, the residual induction and the direction of magnetization. The ferromagnetic materials are described by a magnetization table and an accurate interpolation relation. An internal library with properties of common industrial steels is available. The conductors are independent of the mesh and are described in terms of conductor elements from an internal library.

  1. A 3-d modular gripper design tool

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.G.; Brost, R.C.

    1997-02-01

    Modular fixturing kits are sets of components used for flexible, rapid construction of fixtures. A modular vise is a parallel-jaw vise, each jaw of which is a modular fixture plate with a regular grid of precisely positioned holes. To fixture a part, one places pins in some of the holes so that when the vise is closed, the part is reliably located and completely constrained. The modular vise concept can be adapted easily to the design of modular parallel-jaw grippers for robots. By attaching a grid-plate to each jaw of a parallel-jaw gripper, one gains the ability to easily construct high-quality grasps for a wide variety of parts from a standard set of hardware. Wallack and Canny developed an algorithm for planning planar grasp configurations for the modular vise. In this paper, the authors expand this work to produce a 3-d fixture/gripper design tool. They describe several analyses they have added to the planar algorithm, including a 3-d grasp quality metric based on force information, 3-d geometric loading analysis, and inter-gripper interference analysis. Finally, the authors describe two applications of their code. One of these is an internal application at Sandia, while the other shows a potential use of the code for designing part of an agile assembly line.

  2. 3D object retrieval using salient views.

    PubMed

    Atmosukarto, Indriyati; Shapiro, Linda G

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a method for selecting salient 2D views to describe 3D objects for the purpose of retrieval. The views are obtained by first identifying salient points via a learning approach that uses shape characteristics of the 3D points (Atmosukarto and Shapiro in International workshop on structural, syntactic, and statistical pattern recognition, 2008; Atmosukarto and Shapiro in ACM multimedia information retrieval, 2008). The salient views are selected by choosing views with multiple salient points on the silhouette of the object. Silhouette-based similarity measures from Chen et al. (Comput Graph Forum 22(3):223-232, 2003) are then used to calculate the similarity between two 3D objects. Retrieval experiments were performed on three datasets: the Heads dataset, the SHREC2008 dataset, and the Princeton dataset. Experimental results show that the retrieval results using the salient views are comparable to the existing light field descriptor method (Chen et al. in Comput Graph Forum 22(3):223-232, 2003), and our method achieves a 15-fold speedup in the feature extraction computation time. PMID:23833704

  3. 3D object retrieval using salient views

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Linda G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a method for selecting salient 2D views to describe 3D objects for the purpose of retrieval. The views are obtained by first identifying salient points via a learning approach that uses shape characteristics of the 3D points (Atmosukarto and Shapiro in International workshop on structural, syntactic, and statistical pattern recognition, 2008; Atmosukarto and Shapiro in ACM multimedia information retrieval, 2008). The salient views are selected by choosing views with multiple salient points on the silhouette of the object. Silhouette-based similarity measures from Chen et al. (Comput Graph Forum 22(3):223–232, 2003) are then used to calculate the similarity between two 3D objects. Retrieval experiments were performed on three datasets: the Heads dataset, the SHREC2008 dataset, and the Princeton dataset. Experimental results show that the retrieval results using the salient views are comparable to the existing light field descriptor method (Chen et al. in Comput Graph Forum 22(3):223–232, 2003), and our method achieves a 15-fold speedup in the feature extraction computation time. PMID:23833704

  4. Filling gaps in cultural heritage documentation by 3D photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuhr, W.; Lee, J. D.

    2015-08-01

    This contribution promotes 3D photography as an important tool to obtain objective object information. Keeping mainly in mind World Heritage documentation as well as Heritage protection, it is another intention of this paper, to stimulate the interest in applications of 3D photography for professionals as well as for amateurs. In addition this is also an activity report of the international CIPA task group 3. The main part of this paper starts with "Digging the treasure of existing international 3D photography". This does not only belong to tangible but also to intangible Cultural Heritage. 3D photography clearly supports the recording, the visualization, the preservation and the restoration of architectural and archaeological objects. Therefore the use of 3D photography in C.H. should increase on an international level. The presented samples in 3D represent a voluminous, almost partly "forgotten treasure" of international archives for 3D photography. The next chapter is on "Promoting new 3D photography in Cultural Heritage". Though 3D photographs are a well-established basic photographic and photogrammetric tool, even suited to provide "near real" documentation, they are still a matter of research and improvement. Beside the use of 3D cameras even single lenses cameras are very much suited for photographic 3D documentation purposes in Cultural Heritage. Currently at the Faculty of Civil Engineering of the University of Applied Sciences Magdeburg-Stendal, low altitude aerial photography is exposed from a maximum height of 13m, using a hand hold carbon telescope rod. The use of this "huge selfie stick" is also an (international) recommendation, to expose high resolution 3D photography of monuments under expedition conditions. In addition to the carbon rod recently a captive balloon and a hexacopter UAV- platform is in use, mainly to take better synoptically (extremely low altitude, ground truth) aerial photography. Additional experiments with respect to "easy

  5. [Real time 3D echocardiography].

    PubMed

    Bauer, F; Shiota, T; Thomas, J D

    2001-07-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients. PMID:11494630

  6. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  7. Framework for quantitative evaluation of 3D vessel segmentation approaches using vascular phantoms in conjunction with 3D landmark localization and registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wörz, Stefan; Hoegen, Philipp; Liao, Wei; Müller-Eschner, Matthias; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; von Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik; Rohr, Karl

    2016-03-01

    We introduce a framework for quantitative evaluation of 3D vessel segmentation approaches using vascular phantoms. Phantoms are designed using a CAD system and created with a 3D printer, and comprise realistic shapes including branches and pathologies such as abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). To transfer ground truth information to the 3D image coordinate system, we use a landmark-based registration scheme utilizing fiducial markers integrated in the phantom design. For accurate 3D localization of the markers we developed a novel 3D parametric intensity model that is directly fitted to the markers in the images. We also performed a quantitative evaluation of different vessel segmentation approaches for a phantom of an AAA.

  8. 3D documentation and visualization of external injury findings by integration of simple photography in CT/MRI data sets (IprojeCT).

    PubMed

    Campana, Lorenzo; Breitbeck, Robert; Bauer-Kreuz, Regula; Buck, Ursula

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of documenting patterned injury using three dimensions and true colour photography without complex 3D surface documentation methods. This method is based on a generated 3D surface model using radiologic slice images (CT) while the colour information is derived from photographs taken with commercially available cameras. The external patterned injuries were documented in 16 cases using digital photography as well as highly precise photogrammetry-supported 3D structured light scanning. The internal findings of these deceased were recorded using CT and MRI. For registration of the internal with the external data, two different types of radiographic markers were used and compared. The 3D surface model generated from CT slice images was linked with the photographs, and thereby digital true-colour 3D models of the patterned injuries could be created (Image projection onto CT/IprojeCT). In addition, these external models were merged with the models of the somatic interior. We demonstrated that 3D documentation and visualization of external injury findings by integration of digital photography in CT/MRI data sets is suitable for the 3D documentation of individual patterned injuries to a body. Nevertheless, this documentation method is not a substitution for photogrammetry and surface scanning, especially when the entire bodily surface is to be recorded in three dimensions including all external findings, and when precise data is required for comparing highly detailed injury features with the injury-inflicting tool. PMID:26496803

  9. GPU-Accelerated Denoising in 3D (GD3D)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-10-01

    The raw computational power GPU Accelerators enables fast denoising of 3D MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. This software addresses two facets of this promising application: what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? And what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? To answer the first question, the software performs an autotuning step to empirically determine optimal memory blocking on the GPU. To answer themore » second, it performs a sweep of algorithm parameters to determine the combination that best reduces the mean squared error relative to a noiseless reference image.« less

  10. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region as a universal DNA barcode marker for Fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Six DNA regions were evaluated in a multi-national, multi-laboratory consortium as potential DNA barcodes for Fungi, the second largest kingdom of eukaryotic life. The region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 used as the animal barcode was excluded as a potential marker, because it...

  11. 3D Imaging with Holographic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Colin J. R.; Kou, Shan Shan

    2010-04-01

    There are two main types of tomography that enable the 3D internal structures of objects to be reconstructed from scattered data. The commonly known computerized tomography (CT) give good results in the x-ray wavelength range where the filtered back-projection theorem and Radon transform can be used. These techniques rely on the Fourier projection-slice theorem where rays are considered to propagate straight through the object. Another type of tomography called `diffraction tomography' applies in applications in optics and acoustics where diffraction and scattering effects must be taken into account. The latter proves to be a more difficult problem, as light no longer travels straight through the sample. Holographic tomography is a popular way of performing diffraction tomography and there has been active experimental research on reconstructing complex refractive index data using this approach recently. However, there are two distinct ways of doing tomography: either by rotation of the object or by rotation of the illumination while fixing the detector. The difference between these two setups is intuitive but needs to be quantified. From Fourier optics and information transformation point of view, we use 3D transfer function analysis to quantitatively describe how spatial frequencies of the object are mapped to the Fourier domain. We first employ a paraxial treatment by calculating the Fourier transform of the defocused OTF. The shape of the calculated 3D CTF for tomography, by scanning the illumination in one direction only, takes on a form that we might call a 'peanut,' compared to the case of object rotation, where a diablo is formed, the peanut exhibiting significant differences and non-isotropy. In particular, there is a line singularity along one transverse direction. Under high numerical aperture conditions, the paraxial treatment is not accurate, and so we make use of 3D analytical geometry to calculate the behaviour in the non-paraxial case. This time, we

  12. Magmatic Systems in 3-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bazin, S.; Singh, S.; Detrick, R. S.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Diebold, J.

    2002-12-01

    Multichannel seismic (MCS) images of crustal magma chambers are ideal targets for advanced visualization techniques. In the mid-ocean ridge environment, reflections originating at the melt-lens are well separated from other reflection boundaries, such as the seafloor, layer 2A and Moho, which enables the effective use of transparency filters. 3-D visualization of seismic reflectivity falls into two broad categories: volume and surface rendering. Volumetric-based visualization is an extremely powerful approach for the rapid exploration of very dense 3-D datasets. These 3-D datasets are divided into volume elements or voxels, which are individually color coded depending on the assigned datum value; the user can define an opacity filter to reject plotting certain voxels. This transparency allows the user to peer into the data volume, enabling an easy identification of patterns or relationships that might have geologic merit. Multiple image volumes can be co-registered to look at correlations between two different data types (e.g., amplitude variation with offsets studies), in a manner analogous to draping attributes onto a surface. In contrast, surface visualization of seismic reflectivity usually involves producing "fence" diagrams of 2-D seismic profiles that are complemented with seafloor topography, along with point class data, draped lines and vectors (e.g. fault scarps, earthquake locations and plate-motions). The overlying seafloor can be made partially transparent or see-through, enabling 3-D correlations between seafloor structure and seismic reflectivity. Exploration of 3-D datasets requires additional thought when constructing and manipulating these complex objects. As numbers of visual objects grow in a particular scene, there is a tendency to mask overlapping objects; this clutter can be managed through the effective use of total or partial transparency (i.e., alpha-channel). In this way, the co-variation between different datasets can be investigated

  13. Interactive 3D Mars Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.

  14. A Clean Adirondack (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a 3-D anaglyph showing a microscopic image taken of an area measuring 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across on the rock called Adirondack. The image was taken at Gusev Crater on the 33rd day of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's journey (Feb. 5, 2004), after the rover used its rock abrasion tool brush to clean the surface of the rock. Dust, which was pushed off to the side during cleaning, can still be seen to the left and in low areas of the rock.

  15. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manos, Harry

    2016-03-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the TPT theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity well tailored to specific class lessons. Most of the supplies are readily available in the home or at school: rubbing alcohol, a rag, two colors of spray paint, art brushes, and masking tape. The cost of these supplies, if you don't have them, is less than 20.

  16. What Lies Ahead (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D cylindrical-perspective mosaic taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 82 shows the view south of the large crater dubbed 'Bonneville.' The rover will travel toward the Columbia Hills, seen here at the upper left. The rock dubbed 'Mazatzal' and the hole the rover drilled in to it can be seen at the lower left. The rover's position is referred to as 'Site 22, Position 32.' This image was geometrically corrected to make the horizon appear flat.

  17. Vacant Lander in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D image captured by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's rear hazard-identification camera shows the now-empty lander that carried the rover 283 million miles to Meridiani Planum, Mars. Engineers received confirmation that Opportunity's six wheels successfully rolled off the lander and onto martian soil at 3:01 a.m. PST, January 31, 2004, on the seventh martian day, or sol, of the mission. The rover is approximately 1 meter (3 feet) in front of the lander, facing north.

  18. Positional Awareness Map 3D (PAM3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Monica; Allen, Earl L.; Yount, John W.; Norcross, April Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Western Aeronautical Test Range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center needed to address the aging software and hardware of its current situational awareness display application, the Global Real-Time Interactive Map (GRIM). GRIM was initially developed in the late 1980s and executes on older PC architectures using a Linux operating system that is no longer supported. Additionally, the software is difficult to maintain due to its complexity and loss of developer knowledge. It was decided that a replacement application must be developed or acquired in the near future. The replacement must provide the functionality of the original system, the ability to monitor test flight vehicles in real-time, and add improvements such as high resolution imagery and true 3-dimensional capability. This paper will discuss the process of determining the best approach to replace GRIM, and the functionality and capabilities of the first release of the Positional Awareness Map 3D.

  19. The PRISM3D paleoenvironmental reconstruction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dowsett, H.; Robinson, M.; Haywood, A.M.; Salzmann, U.; Hill, Daniel; Sohl, L.E.; Chandler, M.; Williams, Mark; Foley, K.; Stoll, D.K.

    2010-01-01

    The Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) paleoenvironmental reconstruction is an internally consistent and comprehensive global synthesis of a past interval of relatively warm and stable climate. It is regularly used in model studies that aim to better understand Pliocene climate, to improve model performance in future climate scenarios, and to distinguish model-dependent climate effects. The PRISM reconstruction is constantly evolving in order to incorporate additional geographic sites and environmental parameters, and is continuously refined by independent research findings. The new PRISM three dimensional (3D) reconstruction differs from previous PRISM reconstructions in that it includes a subsurface ocean temperature reconstruction, integrates geochemical sea surface temperature proxies to supplement the faunal-based temperature estimates, and uses numerical models for the first time to augment fossil data. Here we describe the components of PRISM3D and describe new findings specific to the new reconstruction. Highlights of the new PRISM3D reconstruction include removal of Hudson Bay and the Great Lakes and creation of open waterways in locations where the current bedrock elevation is less than 25m above modern sea level, due to the removal of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and the reduction of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. The mid-Piacenzian oceans were characterized by a reduced east-west temperature gradient in the equatorial Pacific, but PRISM3D data do not imply permanent El Niño conditions. The reduced equator-to-pole temperature gradient that characterized previous PRISM reconstructions is supported by significant displacement of vegetation belts toward the poles, is extended into the Arctic Ocean, and is confirmed by multiple proxies in PRISM3D. Arctic warmth coupled with increased dryness suggests the formation of warm and salty paleo North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) and a more vigorous thermohaline circulation system that may

  20. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-07-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C-1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.

  1. 3D acoustic atmospheric tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Kevin; Finn, Anthony

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a method for tomographically reconstructing spatially varying 3D atmospheric temperature profiles and wind velocity fields based. Measurements of the acoustic signature measured onboard a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) are compared to ground-based observations of the same signals. The frequency-shifted signal variations are then used to estimate the acoustic propagation delay between the UAV and the ground microphones, which are also affected by atmospheric temperature and wind speed vectors along each sound ray path. The wind and temperature profiles are modelled as the weighted sum of Radial Basis Functions (RBFs), which also allow local meteorological measurements made at the UAV and ground receivers to supplement any acoustic observations. Tomography is used to provide a full 3D reconstruction/visualisation of the observed atmosphere. The technique offers observational mobility under direct user control and the capacity to monitor hazardous atmospheric environments, otherwise not justifiable on the basis of cost or risk. This paper summarises the tomographic technique and reports on the results of simulations and initial field trials. The technique has practical applications for atmospheric research, sound propagation studies, boundary layer meteorology, air pollution measurements, analysis of wind shear, and wind farm surveys.

  2. 3D Printed Bionic Ears

    PubMed Central

    Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  3. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  4. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-01-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C−1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673

  5. 3D medical thermography device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghadam, Peyman

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a novel handheld 3D medical thermography system is introduced. The proposed system consists of a thermal-infrared camera, a color camera and a depth camera rigidly attached in close proximity and mounted on an ergonomic handle. As a practitioner holding the device smoothly moves it around the human body parts, the proposed system generates and builds up a precise 3D thermogram model by incorporating information from each new measurement in real-time. The data is acquired in motion, thus it provides multiple points of view. When processed, these multiple points of view are adaptively combined by taking into account the reliability of each individual measurement which can vary due to a variety of factors such as angle of incidence, distance between the device and the subject and environmental sensor data or other factors influencing a confidence of the thermal-infrared data when captured. Finally, several case studies are presented to support the usability and performance of the proposed system.

  6. 3D Ion Temperature Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Hiroshi; You, Setthivoine; Balandin, Alexander; Inomoto, Michiaki; Ono, Yasushi

    2009-11-01

    The TS-4 experiment at the University of Tokyo collides two spheromaks to form a single high-beta compact toroid. Magnetic reconnection during the merging process heats and accelerates the plasma in toroidal and poloidal directions. The reconnection region has a complex 3D topology determined by the pitch of the spheromak magnetic fields at the merging plane. A pair of multichord passive spectroscopic diagnostics have been established to measure the ion temperature and velocity in the reconnection volume. One setup measures spectral lines across a poloidal plane, retrieving velocity and temperature from Abel inversion. The other, novel setup records spectral lines across another section of the plasma and reconstructs velocity and temperature from 3D vector and 2D scalar tomography techniques. The magnetic field linking both measurement planes is determined from in situ magnetic probe arrays. The ion temperature is then estimated within the volume between the two measurement planes and at the reconnection region. The measurement is followed over several repeatable discharges to follow the heating and acceleration process during the merging reconnection.

  7. LOTT RANCH 3D PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Lawrence; Bruce Miller

    2004-09-01

    The Lott Ranch 3D seismic prospect located in Garza County, Texas is a project initiated in September of 1991 by the J.M. Huber Corp., a petroleum exploration and production company. By today's standards the 126 square mile project does not seem monumental, however at the time it was conceived it was the most intensive land 3D project ever attempted. Acquisition began in September of 1991 utilizing GEO-SEISMIC, INC., a seismic data contractor. The field parameters were selected by J.M. Huber, and were of a radical design. The recording instruments used were GeoCor IV amplifiers designed by Geosystems Inc., which record the data in signed bit format. It would not have been practical, if not impossible, to have processed the entire raw volume with the tools available at that time. The end result was a dataset that was thought to have little utility due to difficulties in processing the field data. In 1997, Yates Energy Corp. located in Roswell, New Mexico, formed a partnership to further develop the project. Through discussions and meetings with Pinnacle Seismic, it was determined that the original Lott Ranch 3D volume could be vastly improved upon reprocessing. Pinnacle Seismic had shown the viability of improving field-summed signed bit data on smaller 2D and 3D projects. Yates contracted Pinnacle Seismic Ltd. to perform the reprocessing. This project was initiated with high resolution being a priority. Much of the potential resolution was lost through the initial summing of the field data. Modern computers that are now being utilized have tremendous speed and storage capacities that were cost prohibitive when this data was initially processed. Software updates and capabilities offer a variety of quality control and statics resolution, which are pertinent to the Lott Ranch project. The reprocessing effort was very successful. The resulting processed data-set was then interpreted using modern PC-based interpretation and mapping software. Production data, log data

  8. FR3D: finding local and composite recurrent structural motifs in RNA 3D structures.

    PubMed

    Sarver, Michael; Zirbel, Craig L; Stombaugh, Jesse; Mokdad, Ali; Leontis, Neocles B

    2008-01-01

    New methods are described for finding recurrent three-dimensional (3D) motifs in RNA atomic-resolution structures. Recurrent RNA 3D motifs are sets of RNA nucleotides with similar spatial arrangements. They can be local or composite. Local motifs comprise nucleotides that occur in the same hairpin or internal loop. Composite motifs comprise nucleotides belonging to three or more different RNA strand segments or molecules. We use a base-centered approach to construct efficient, yet exhaustive search procedures using geometric, symbolic, or mixed representations of RNA structure that we implement in a suite of MATLAB programs, "Find RNA 3D" (FR3D). The first modules of FR3D preprocess structure files to classify base-pair and -stacking interactions. Each base is represented geometrically by the position of its glycosidic nitrogen in 3D space and by the rotation matrix that describes its orientation with respect to a common frame. Base-pairing and base-stacking interactions are calculated from the base geometries and are represented symbolically according to the Leontis/Westhof basepairing classification, extended to include base-stacking. These data are stored and used to organize motif searches. For geometric searches, the user supplies the 3D structure of a query motif which FR3D uses to find and score geometrically similar candidate motifs, without regard to the sequential position of their nucleotides in the RNA chain or the identity of their bases. To score and rank candidate motifs, FR3D calculates a geometric discrepancy by rigidly rotating candidates to align optimally with the query motif and then comparing the relative orientations of the corresponding bases in the query and candidate motifs. Given the growing size of the RNA structure database, it is impossible to explicitly compute the discrepancy for all conceivable candidate motifs, even for motifs with less than ten nucleotides. The screening algorithm that we describe finds all candidate motifs whose

  9. Advanced Data Visualization in Astrophysics: The X3D Pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Frédéric P. A.; Owen, Chris I.; Verdes-Montenegro, Lourdes; Borthakur, Sanchayeeta

    2016-02-01

    Most modern astrophysical data sets are multi-dimensional; a characteristic that can nowadays generally be conserved and exploited scientifically during the data reduction/simulation and analysis cascades. However, the same multi-dimensional data sets are systematically cropped, sliced, and/or projected to printable two-dimensional diagrams at the publication stage. In this article, we introduce the concept of the “X3D pathway” as a mean of simplifying and easing the access to data visualization and publication via three-dimensional (3D) diagrams. The X3D pathway exploits the facts that (1) the X3D 3D file format lies at the center of a product tree that includes interactive HTML documents, 3D printing, and high-end animations, and (2) all high-impact-factor and peer-reviewed journals in astrophysics are now published (some exclusively) online. We argue that the X3D standard is an ideal vector for sharing multi-dimensional data sets because it provides direct access to a range of different data visualization techniques, is fully open source, and is a well-defined standard from the International Organization for Standardization. Unlike other earlier propositions to publish multi-dimensional data sets via 3D diagrams, the X3D pathway is not tied to specific software (prone to rapid and unexpected evolution), but instead is compatible with a range of open-source software already in use by our community. The interactive HTML branch of the X3D pathway is also actively supported by leading peer-reviewed journals in the field of astrophysics. Finally, this article provides interested readers with a detailed set of practical astrophysical examples designed to act as a stepping stone toward the implementation of the X3D pathway for any other data set.

  10. Identifying novel sequence variants of RNA 3D motifs

    PubMed Central

    Zirbel, Craig L.; Roll, James; Sweeney, Blake A.; Petrov, Anton I.; Pirrung, Meg; Leontis, Neocles B.

    2015-01-01

    Predicting RNA 3D structure from sequence is a major challenge in biophysics. An important sub-goal is accurately identifying recurrent 3D motifs from RNA internal and hairpin loop sequences extracted from secondary structure (2D) diagrams. We have developed and validated new probabilistic models for 3D motif sequences based on hybrid Stochastic Context-Free Grammars and Markov Random Fields (SCFG/MRF). The SCFG/MRF models are constructed using atomic-resolution RNA 3D structures. To parameterize each model, we use all instances of each motif found in the RNA 3D Motif Atlas and annotations of pairwise nucleotide interactions generated by the FR3D software. Isostericity relations between non-Watson–Crick basepairs are used in scoring sequence variants. SCFG techniques model nested pairs and insertions, while MRF ideas handle crossing interactions and base triples. We use test sets of randomly-generated sequences to set acceptance and rejection thresholds for each motif group and thus control the false positive rate. Validation was carried out by comparing results for four motif groups to RMDetect. The software developed for sequence scoring (JAR3D) is structured to automatically incorporate new motifs as they accumulate in the RNA 3D Motif Atlas when new structures are solved and is available free for download. PMID:26130723

  11. Identifying novel sequence variants of RNA 3D motifs.

    PubMed

    Zirbel, Craig L; Roll, James; Sweeney, Blake A; Petrov, Anton I; Pirrung, Meg; Leontis, Neocles B

    2015-09-01

    Predicting RNA 3D structure from sequence is a major challenge in biophysics. An important sub-goal is accurately identifying recurrent 3D motifs from RNA internal and hairpin loop sequences extracted from secondary structure (2D) diagrams. We have developed and validated new probabilistic models for 3D motif sequences based on hybrid Stochastic Context-Free Grammars and Markov Random Fields (SCFG/MRF). The SCFG/MRF models are constructed using atomic-resolution RNA 3D structures. To parameterize each model, we use all instances of each motif found in the RNA 3D Motif Atlas and annotations of pairwise nucleotide interactions generated by the FR3D software. Isostericity relations between non-Watson-Crick basepairs are used in scoring sequence variants. SCFG techniques model nested pairs and insertions, while MRF ideas handle crossing interactions and base triples. We use test sets of randomly-generated sequences to set acceptance and rejection thresholds for each motif group and thus control the false positive rate. Validation was carried out by comparing results for four motif groups to RMDetect. The software developed for sequence scoring (JAR3D) is structured to automatically incorporate new motifs as they accumulate in the RNA 3D Motif Atlas when new structures are solved and is available free for download. PMID:26130723

  12. NoSQL Based 3D City Model Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, B.; Harrie, L.; Cao, J.; Wu, Z.; Shen, J.

    2014-04-01

    To manage increasingly complicated 3D city models, a framework based on NoSQL database is proposed in this paper. The framework supports import and export of 3D city model according to international standards such as CityGML, KML/COLLADA and X3D. We also suggest and implement 3D model analysis and visualization in the framework. For city model analysis, 3D geometry data and semantic information (such as name, height, area, price and so on) are stored and processed separately. We use a Map-Reduce method to deal with the 3D geometry data since it is more complex, while the semantic analysis is mainly based on database query operation. For visualization, a multiple 3D city representation structure CityTree is implemented within the framework to support dynamic LODs based on user viewpoint. Also, the proposed framework is easily extensible and supports geoindexes to speed up the querying. Our experimental results show that the proposed 3D city management system can efficiently fulfil the analysis and visualization requirements.

  13. An elliptic calculation procedure for 3-D viscous flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, J. G.

    1985-05-01

    The computation of 3-D internal transonic flows by means of a 3-D Euler Code is discussed. A multidomain approach for time hyperbolic system is presented. This technique, based on the decomposition of the computational domain into several subdomains which may overlap one another, makes it possible to simplify some mesh generation problems and to fit discontinuities such as shocks and slip surfaces. A description of the 3-D Euler Code is given. The space discretization method and the treatment of boundary conditions are emphasized. Various applications of this code in turbomachinery are discussed.

  14. 3D X-ray tomography to evaluate volumetric objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Luís. F.; Lopes, Ricardo T.; de Jesus, Edgar F. O.; Braz, Delson

    2003-06-01

    The 3D-CT and stereological techniques are used concomitantly. The quantitative stereology yields measurements that reflects areas, volumes, lengths, rates and frequencies of the test body. Two others quantification, connectivity and anisotropy, can be used as well to complete the analysis. In this paper, it is presented the application of 3D-CT and the stereological quantification to analyze a special kind of test body: ceramic filters which have an internal structure similar to cancellous bone. The stereology is adapted to work with the 3D nature of the tomographic data. It is presented too the results of connectivity and anisotropy.

  15. 3D Lasers Increase Efficiency, Safety of Moving Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Canadian company Neptec Design Group Ltd. developed its Laser Camera System, used by shuttles to render 3D maps of their hulls for assessing potential damage. Using NASA funding, the firm incorporated LiDAR technology and created the TriDAR 3D sensor. Its commercial arm, Neptec Technologies Corp., has sold the technology to Orbital Sciences, which uses it to guide its Cygnus spacecraft during rendezvous and dock operations at the International Space Station.

  16. 3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong

    2016-04-01

    3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction. PMID:26861680

  17. ShowMe3D

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from themore » displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.« less

  18. ShowMe3D

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.

  19. 3D Elastic Wavefield Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guasch, L.; Warner, M.; Stekl, I.; Umpleby, A.; Shah, N.

    2010-12-01

    Wavefield tomography, or waveform inversion, aims to extract the maximum information from seismic data by matching trace by trace the response of the solid earth to seismic waves using numerical modelling tools. Its first formulation dates from the early 80's, when Albert Tarantola developed a solid theoretical basis that is still used today with little change. Due to computational limitations, the application of the method to 3D problems has been unaffordable until a few years ago, and then only under the acoustic approximation. Although acoustic wavefield tomography is widely used, a complete solution of the seismic inversion problem requires that we account properly for the physics of wave propagation, and so must include elastic effects. We have developed a 3D tomographic wavefield inversion code that incorporates the full elastic wave equation. The bottle neck of the different implementations is the forward modelling algorithm that generates the synthetic data to be compared with the field seismograms as well as the backpropagation of the residuals needed to form the direction update of the model parameters. Furthermore, one or two extra modelling runs are needed in order to calculate the step-length. Our approach uses a FD scheme explicit time-stepping by finite differences that are 4th order in space and 2nd order in time, which is a 3D version of the one developed by Jean Virieux in 1986. We chose the time domain because an explicit time scheme is much less demanding in terms of memory than its frequency domain analogue, although the discussion of wich domain is more efficient still remains open. We calculate the parameter gradients for Vp and Vs by correlating the normal and shear stress wavefields respectively. A straightforward application would lead to the storage of the wavefield at all grid points at each time-step. We tackled this problem using two different approaches. The first one makes better use of resources for small models of dimension equal

  20. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

    The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

    This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

    High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these

  1. Clinical Applications of 3-D Conformal Radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miralbell, Raymond

    Although a significant improvement in cancer cure (i.e. 20% increment) has been obtained in the last 2-3 decades, 30-40% of patients still fail locally after curative radiotherapy. In order to improve local tumor control rates with radiotherapy high doses to the tumor volume are frequently necessary. Three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3-D CRT) is used to denote a spectrum of radiation planning and delivery techniques that rely on three-dimensional imaging to define the target (tumor) and to distinguish it from normal tissues. Modern, high-precision radiotherapy (RT) techniques are needed in order to implement the goal of optimal tumor destruction delivering minimal dose to the non-target normal tissues. A better target definition is nowadays possible with contemporary imaging (computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography) and image registration technology. A highly precise dose distributions can be obtained with optimal 3-D CRT treatment delivery techniques such as stereotactic RT, intensity modulated RT (IMRT), or protontherapy (the latter allowing for in-depth conformation). Patient daily set-up repositioning and internal organ immobilization systems are necessary before considering to undertake any of the above mentioned high-precision treatment approaches. Prostate cancer, brain tumors, and base of skull malignancies are among the sites most benefitting of dose escalation approaches. Nevertheless, a significant dose reduction to the normal tissues in the vicinity of the irradiated tumor also achievable with optimal 3-D CRT may also be a major issue in the treatment of pediatric tumors in order to preserve growth, normal development, and to reduce the risk of developing radiation induced diseases such as cancer or endocrinologic disorders.

  2. 3-D Imaging Systems for Agricultural Applications-A Review.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Arellano, Manuel; Griepentrog, Hans W; Reiser, David; Paraforos, Dimitris S

    2016-01-01

    Efficiency increase of resources through automation of agriculture requires more information about the production process, as well as process and machinery status. Sensors are necessary for monitoring the status and condition of production by recognizing the surrounding structures such as objects, field structures, natural or artificial markers, and obstacles. Currently, three dimensional (3-D) sensors are economically affordable and technologically advanced to a great extent, so a breakthrough is already possible if enough research projects are commercialized. The aim of this review paper is to investigate the state-of-the-art of 3-D vision systems in agriculture, and the role and value that only 3-D data can have to provide information about environmental structures based on the recent progress in optical 3-D sensors. The structure of this research consists of an overview of the different optical 3-D vision techniques, based on the basic principles. Afterwards, their application in agriculture are reviewed. The main focus lays on vehicle navigation, and crop and animal husbandry. The depth dimension brought by 3-D sensors provides key information that greatly facilitates the implementation of automation and robotics in agriculture. PMID:27136560

  3. 3-D Imaging Systems for Agricultural Applications—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Arellano, Manuel; Griepentrog, Hans W.; Reiser, David; Paraforos, Dimitris S.

    2016-01-01

    Efficiency increase of resources through automation of agriculture requires more information about the production process, as well as process and machinery status. Sensors are necessary for monitoring the status and condition of production by recognizing the surrounding structures such as objects, field structures, natural or artificial markers, and obstacles. Currently, three dimensional (3-D) sensors are economically affordable and technologically advanced to a great extent, so a breakthrough is already possible if enough research projects are commercialized. The aim of this review paper is to investigate the state-of-the-art of 3-D vision systems in agriculture, and the role and value that only 3-D data can have to provide information about environmental structures based on the recent progress in optical 3-D sensors. The structure of this research consists of an overview of the different optical 3-D vision techniques, based on the basic principles. Afterwards, their application in agriculture are reviewed. The main focus lays on vehicle navigation, and crop and animal husbandry. The depth dimension brought by 3-D sensors provides key information that greatly facilitates the implementation of automation and robotics in agriculture. PMID:27136560

  4. FR3D: finding local and composite recurrent structural motifs in RNA 3D structures

    PubMed Central

    Sarver, Michael; Stombaugh, Jesse; Mokdad, Ali; Leontis, Neocles B.

    2010-01-01

    New methods are described for finding recurrent three-dimensional (3D) motifs in RNA atomic-resolution structures. Recurrent RNA 3D motifs are sets of RNA nucleotides with similar spatial arrangements. They can be local or composite. Local motifs comprise nucleotides that occur in the same hairpin or internal loop. Composite motifs comprise nucleotides belonging to three or more different RNA strand segments or molecules. We use a base-centered approach to construct efficient, yet exhaustive search procedures using geometric, symbolic, or mixed representations of RNA structure that we implement in a suite of MATLAB programs, “Find RNA 3D” (FR3D). The first modules of FR3D preprocess structure files to classify base-pair and -stacking interactions. Each base is represented geometrically by the position of its glycosidic nitrogen in 3D space and by the rotation matrix that describes its orientation with respect to a common frame. Base-pairing and base-stacking interactions are calculated from the base geometries and are represented symbolically according to the Leontis/Westhof basepairing classification, extended to include base-stacking. These data are stored and used to organize motif searches. For geometric searches, the user supplies the 3D structure of a query motif which FR3D uses to find and score geometrically similar candidate motifs, without regard to the sequential position of their nucleotides in the RNA chain or the identity of their bases. To score and rank candidate motifs, FR3D calculates a geometric discrepancy by rigidly rotating candidates to align optimally with the query motif and then comparing the relative orientations of the corresponding bases in the query and candidate motifs. Given the growing size of the RNA structure database, it is impossible to explicitly compute the discrepancy for all conceivable candidate motifs, even for motifs with less than ten nucleotides. The screening algorithm that we describe finds all candidate motifs

  5. Automatic respiration tracking for radiotherapy using optical 3D camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tuotuo; Geng, Jason; Li, Shidong

    2013-03-01

    Rapid optical three-dimensional (O3D) imaging systems provide accurate digitized 3D surface data in real-time, with no patient contact nor radiation. The accurate 3D surface images offer crucial information in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) treatments for accurate patient repositioning and respiration management. However, applications of O3D imaging techniques to image-guided radiotherapy have been clinically challenged by body deformation, pathological and anatomical variations among individual patients, extremely high dimensionality of the 3D surface data, and irregular respiration motion. In existing clinical radiation therapy (RT) procedures target displacements are caused by (1) inter-fractional anatomy changes due to weight, swell, food/water intake; (2) intra-fractional variations from anatomy changes within any treatment session due to voluntary/involuntary physiologic processes (e.g. respiration, muscle relaxation); (3) patient setup misalignment in daily reposition due to user errors; and (4) changes of marker or positioning device, etc. Presently, viable solution is lacking for in-vivo tracking of target motion and anatomy changes during the beam-on time without exposing patient with additional ionized radiation or high magnet field. Current O3D-guided radiotherapy systems relay on selected points or areas in the 3D surface to track surface motion. The configuration of the marks or areas may change with time that makes it inconsistent in quantifying and interpreting the respiration patterns. To meet the challenge of performing real-time respiration tracking using O3D imaging technology in IGRT, we propose a new approach to automatic respiration motion analysis based on linear dimensionality reduction technique based on PCA (principle component analysis). Optical 3D image sequence is decomposed with principle component analysis into a limited number of independent (orthogonal) motion patterns (a low dimension eigen-space span by eigen-vectors). New

  6. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

    The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

    This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

    High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these

  7. The rDNA Internal Transcribed Spacer Region as a Taxonomic Marker for Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Powers, T. O.; Todd, T. C.; Burnell, A. M.; Murray, P. C. B.; Fleming, C. C.; Szalanski, A. L.; Adams, B. A.; Harris, T. S.

    1997-01-01

    The ITS region from a wide taxonomic range of nematodes, including secernentean and adenophorean taxa, and free-living, entomopathogenic, and plant-parasitic species, was evaluated as a taxonomic marker. Size of the amplified product aided in the initial determination of group membership, and also suggested groups that may require taxonomic reevaluation. Congeneric species often displayed identically sized ITS regions, but genera such as Pratylenchus and Tylenchorhynchus had species with large differences in size. ITS heterogeneity in individuals and populations was identified in several nematode taxa. PCR-RFLP of ITS1 is advocated as a method of taxonomic analysis in genera such as Helicotylenchus that contain numerous species with few diagnostic morphological characteristics. PMID:19274180

  8. Minimal SNP overlap among multiple panels of ancestry informative markers argues for more international collaboration.

    PubMed

    Soundararajan, Usha; Yun, Libing; Shi, Meisen; Kidd, Kenneth K

    2016-07-01

    The century-old use of genetic markers to determine population relationships has morphed in modern forensics into use of markers to determine the ancestry of an individual from a DNA sample. Researchers have identified sets of SNPs that have frequency differences among populations and many sets of SNPs have been published for the purpose of inferring ancestry. Such inference also requires reference datasets for the particular set of SNPs selected. We have identified 21 largely independent published panels of ancestry informative SNPs (AISNPs) and examined their union of 1397 SNPs. No SNP occurs in more than 6 panels. The 1397 SNPs in 21 panels yield a largely empty matrix that is inhibiting progress on more refined ability to infer ancestry for a forensic sample. The most common set of reference populations is the HGDP set of 52 small population samples totaling a thousand individuals. Only 46 (3%) of the 1397 SNPs occur in three or more panels. We assembled a new dataset for 44 of those SNPs involving 4,559 individuals from 73 populations. Analyses of this dataset provided clear differentiation of only five biogeographic regions: sub-Saharan Africa, Europe and SW Asia, South Asia, East Asia, and the Americas. This is an inadequate level of biogeographic resolution already exceeded by other panels. We conclude that more such AISNP panels are not needed and that the forensic community must collaborate to develop a common set of highly differentiating AISNPs typed on a very large number of population samples. How that can be accomplished will be the subject of future discussion. PMID:26977931

  9. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  10. NIF Ignition Target 3D Point Design

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, O; Marinak, M; Milovich, J; Callahan, D

    2008-11-05

    We have developed an input file for running 3D NIF hohlraums that is optimized such that it can be run in 1-2 days on parallel computers. We have incorporated increasing levels of automation into the 3D input file: (1) Configuration controlled input files; (2) Common file for 2D and 3D, different types of capsules (symcap, etc.); and (3) Can obtain target dimensions, laser pulse, and diagnostics settings automatically from NIF Campaign Management Tool. Using 3D Hydra calculations to investigate different problems: (1) Intrinsic 3D asymmetry; (2) Tolerance to nonideal 3D effects (e.g. laser power balance, pointing errors); and (3) Synthetic diagnostics.

  11. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-21

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K(+) channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44(+) EGFR(+) KV1.1(+) MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44(-) EGFR(-) KV1.1(+) 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third

  12. 3D reconstruction based on CT image and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianxun; Zhang, Mingmin

    2004-03-01

    Reconstitute the 3-D model of the liver and its internal piping system and simulation of the liver surgical operation can increase the accurate and security of the liver surgical operation, attain a purpose for the biggest limit decrease surgical operation wound, shortening surgical operation time, increasing surgical operation succeeding rate, reducing medical treatment expenses and promoting patient recovering from illness. This text expatiated technology and method that the author constitutes 3-D the model of the liver and its internal piping system and simulation of the liver surgical operation according to the images of CT. The direct volume rendering method establishes 3D the model of the liver. Under the environment of OPENGL adopt method of space point rendering to display liver's internal piping system and simulation of the liver surgical operation. Finally, we adopt the wavelet transform method compressed the medical image data.

  13. Elucidating genetic identities of cacao germplam in an international cacao collection using molecular markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The conservation of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) germplasm requires maintaining living trees in field genebanks in tropical regions. The International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad is one of the largest cacao germplasm collections in the world. The objective of the present study was to elucidate the extent...

  14. Flexible geometrical calibration for fringe-reflection 3D measurement.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yong-Liang; Su, Xianyu; Chen, Wenjing

    2012-02-15

    System geometrical calibration is a challenging task in fringe-reflection 3D measurement because the fringe displayed on the LCD screen does not lie within the camera's field of view. Commonly, a flat mirror with markers can accomplish system geometrical calibration. However, the position of the markers must be precisely located by photogrammetry in advance. In this Letter, we introduce a calibration method by use of a markerless flat mirror. Experiments in phase measuring deflectometry demonstrate that the proposed method is simple and flexible. PMID:22344126

  15. 3D Multigroup Sn Neutron Transport Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2001-02-14

    ATTILA is a 3D multigroup transport code with arbitrary order ansotropic scatter. The transport equation is solved in first order form using a tri-linear discontinuous spatial differencing on an arbitrary tetrahedral mesh. The overall solution technique is source iteration with DSA acceleration of the scattering source. Anisotropic boundary and internal sources may be entered in the form of spherical harmonics moments. Alpha and k eigenvalue problems are allowed, as well as fixed source problems. Forwardmore » and adjoint solutions are available. Reflective, vacumn, and source boundary conditions are available. ATTILA can perform charged particle transport calculations using slowing down (CSD) terms. ATTILA can also be used to peform infra-red steady-state calculations for radiative transfer purposes.« less

  16. 3D Multigroup Sn Neutron Transport Code

    SciTech Connect

    McGee, John; Wareing, Todd; Pautz, Shawn

    2001-02-14

    ATTILA is a 3D multigroup transport code with arbitrary order ansotropic scatter. The transport equation is solved in first order form using a tri-linear discontinuous spatial differencing on an arbitrary tetrahedral mesh. The overall solution technique is source iteration with DSA acceleration of the scattering source. Anisotropic boundary and internal sources may be entered in the form of spherical harmonics moments. Alpha and k eigenvalue problems are allowed, as well as fixed source problems. Forward and adjoint solutions are available. Reflective, vacumn, and source boundary conditions are available. ATTILA can perform charged particle transport calculations using slowing down (CSD) terms. ATTILA can also be used to peform infra-red steady-state calculations for radiative transfer purposes.

  17. Reconstructing 3-D skin surface motion for the DIET breast cancer screening system.

    PubMed

    Botterill, Tom; Lotz, Thomas; Kashif, Amer; Chase, J Geoffrey

    2014-05-01

    Digital image-based elasto-tomography (DIET) is a prototype system for breast cancer screening. A breast is imaged while being vibrated, and the observed surface motion is used to infer the internal stiffness of the breast, hence identifying tumors. This paper describes a computer vision system for accurately measuring 3-D surface motion. A model-based segmentation is used to identify the profile of the breast in each image, and the 3-D surface is reconstructed by fitting a model to the profiles. The surface motion is measured using a modern optical flow implementation customized to the application, then trajectories of points on the 3-D surface are given by fusing the optical flow with the reconstructed surfaces. On data from human trials, the system is shown to exceed the performance of an earlier marker-based system at tracking skin surface motion. We demonstrate that the system can detect a 10 mm tumor in a silicone phantom breast. PMID:24770915

  18. 3D Kitaev spin liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanns, Maria

    The Kitaev honeycomb model has become one of the archetypal spin models exhibiting topological phases of matter, where the magnetic moments fractionalize into Majorana fermions interacting with a Z2 gauge field. In this talk, we discuss generalizations of this model to three-dimensional lattice structures. Our main focus is the metallic state that the emergent Majorana fermions form. In particular, we discuss the relation of the nature of this Majorana metal to the details of the underlying lattice structure. Besides (almost) conventional metals with a Majorana Fermi surface, one also finds various realizations of Dirac semi-metals, where the gapless modes form Fermi lines or even Weyl nodes. We introduce a general classification of these gapless quantum spin liquids using projective symmetry analysis. Furthermore, we briefly outline why these Majorana metals in 3D Kitaev systems provide an even richer variety of Dirac and Weyl phases than possible for electronic matter and comment on possible experimental signatures. Work done in collaboration with Kevin O'Brien and Simon Trebst.

  19. Yogi the rock - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Yogi, a rock taller than rover Sojourner, is the subject of this image, taken in stereo by the deployed Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The soil in the foreground has been the location of multiple soil mechanics experiments performed by Sojourner's cleated wheels. Pathfinder scientists were able to control the force inflicted on the soil beneath the rover's wheels, giving them insight into the soil's mechanical properties. The soil mechanics experiments were conducted after this image was taken.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  20. 3D ultrafast laser scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahjoubfar, A.; Goda, K.; Wang, C.; Fard, A.; Adam, J.; Gossett, D. R.; Ayazi, A.; Sollier, E.; Malik, O.; Chen, E.; Liu, Y.; Brown, R.; Sarkhosh, N.; Di Carlo, D.; Jalali, B.

    2013-03-01

    Laser scanners are essential for scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and medical practice. Unfortunately, often times the speed of conventional laser scanners (e.g., galvanometric mirrors and acousto-optic deflectors) falls short for many applications, resulting in motion blur and failure to capture fast transient information. Here, we present a novel type of laser scanner that offers roughly three orders of magnitude higher scan rates than conventional methods. Our laser scanner, which we refer to as the hybrid dispersion laser scanner, performs inertia-free laser scanning by dispersing a train of broadband pulses both temporally and spatially. More specifically, each broadband pulse is temporally processed by time stretch dispersive Fourier transform and further dispersed into space by one or more diffractive elements such as prisms and gratings. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, we perform 1D line scans at a record high scan rate of 91 MHz and 2D raster scans and 3D volumetric scans at an unprecedented scan rate of 105 kHz. The method holds promise for a broad range of scientific, industrial, and biomedical applications. To show the utility of our method, we demonstrate imaging, nanometer-resolved surface vibrometry, and high-precision flow cytometry with real-time throughput that conventional laser scanners cannot offer due to their low scan rates.

  1. Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.

    2016-06-01

    Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  2. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  3. Improving Semantic Updating Method on 3d City Models Using Hybrid Semantic-Geometric 3d Segmentation Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkawi, K.-H.; Abdul-Rahman, A.

    2013-09-01

    Cities and urban areas entities such as building structures are becoming more complex as the modern human civilizations continue to evolve. The ability to plan and manage every territory especially the urban areas is very important to every government in the world. Planning and managing cities and urban areas based on printed maps and 2D data are getting insufficient and inefficient to cope with the complexity of the new developments in big cities. The emergence of 3D city models have boosted the efficiency in analysing and managing urban areas as the 3D data are proven to represent the real world object more accurately. It has since been adopted as the new trend in buildings and urban management and planning applications. Nowadays, many countries around the world have been generating virtual 3D representation of their major cities. The growing interest in improving the usability of 3D city models has resulted in the development of various tools for analysis based on the 3D city models. Today, 3D city models are generated for various purposes such as for tourism, location-based services, disaster management and urban planning. Meanwhile, modelling 3D objects are getting easier with the emergence of the user-friendly tools for 3D modelling available in the market. Generating 3D buildings with high accuracy also has become easier with the availability of airborne Lidar and terrestrial laser scanning equipments. The availability and accessibility to this technology makes it more sensible to analyse buildings in urban areas using 3D data as it accurately represent the real world objects. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) has accepted CityGML specifications as one of the international standards for representing and exchanging spatial data, making it easier to visualize, store and manage 3D city models data efficiently. CityGML able to represents the semantics, geometry, topology and appearance of 3D city models in five well-defined Level-of-Details (LoD), namely LoD0

  4. Steering knuckle diameter measurement based on optical 3D scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Li-mei; Li, Da-peng; Chang, Yu-lan; Xi, Jiang-tao; Guo, Qing-hua

    2014-11-01

    To achieve accurate measurements, the creating a fitting hole for internal diameter (CFHID) measurement method and the establishing multi-sectional curve for external diameter (EMCED) measurement method are proposed in this paper, which are based on computer vision principle and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction. The methods are able to highlight the 3D characteristics of the scanned object and to achieve the accurate measurement of 3D data. It can create favorable conditions for realizing the reverse design and 3D reconstruction of scanned object. These methods can also be applied to dangerous work environment or the occasion that traditional contact measurement can not meet the demands, and they can improve the security in measurement.

  5. Hypocortisolism as a potential marker of allostatic load in children: Associations with family risk and internalizing disorders

    PubMed Central

    Watamura, Sarah Enos; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2014-01-01

    Although the majority of research attention to the HPA-axis in stress-related disorders and as a marker of allostatic load has focused on over-activation of this stress system, theory and data clearly indicate that under-activation is also an important type of dysregulation. In the current study, we focused on low cortisol, exploring a constellation of risk factors comprised of stress exposure, maternal depression, and attenuated basal and stress reactive cortisol in two samples of children. The first sample is 110 preschoolers living in high stress environments. Cortisol was assessed across the day at home and at child care as well as across two stress paradigms. These data were used to classify whether children’s HPA-axis activity was attenuated. Serious family financial strain, maternal depression, and attenuated cortisol all made unique contributions in models predicting current clinical levels of internalizing symptoms as rated by mothers and teachers. The second sample was 166 3rd, 6th, and 9th graders studied 5 times across a 1-year period. Maternal and child depression were determined through structured clinical interviews, and stress exposure was assessed via checklist and interview techniques with the child and the parent. Cortisol was assessed multiple times across a lab visit at time 1, and these data were combined into a single continuous measure. Cortisol concentrations across the lab visit interacted with stress exposure across the year such that children with lower average cortisol at time 1, maternal depressive symptoms, and increased stress across the 12 months showed increasing levels of internalizing symptoms. Based on these and related data we propose that prior to puberty, low cortisol may be an important marker of allostatic load, particularly for risk of depression and anxiety. PMID:21756439

  6. Teaching Geography with 3-D Visualization Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthamatten, Peter; Ziegler, Susy S.

    2006-01-01

    Technology that helps students view images in three dimensions (3-D) can support a broad range of learning styles. "Geo-Wall systems" are visualization tools that allow scientists, teachers, and students to project stereographic images and view them in 3-D. We developed and presented 3-D visualization exercises in several undergraduate courses.…

  7. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology. PMID:26028997

  8. 3D Flow Visualization Using Texture Advection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Kwansik; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Texture advection is an effective tool for animating and investigating 2D flows. In this paper, we discuss how this technique can be extended to 3D flows. In particular, we examine the use of 3D and 4D textures on 3D synthetic and computational fluid dynamics flow fields.

  9. 3D Elastic Seismic Wave Propagation Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1998-09-23

    E3D is capable of simulating seismic wave propagation in a 3D heterogeneous earth. Seismic waves are initiated by earthquake, explosive, and/or other sources. These waves propagate through a 3D geologic model, and are simulated as synthetic seismograms or other graphical output.

  10. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology. PMID:26028997

  11. HII Galaxies in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telles, E.

    2016-06-01

    In this contribution I review some results of the integral field spectroscopy of HII galaxies. The two main topics are related to their internal kinematics and the distribution of physical conditions. HII galaxies present a L-σ relation similar to elliptical galaxies. However, the origin of supersonic motions of the ionized gas (σ) is still a matter of debate. We show that the core of the star forming region dominates the internal kinematics and probes the underlying turbulent motions. The show our latest calibration of the L-sigma relation of local HII galaxies. We also show that the physical conditions are very uniform throughout the whole extent of the star forming region, once you account for the levels of ionization. HII galaxies are excellent laboratories for constraining the ionization power of high mass stars at low metallicities.

  12. Segment-interaction in sprint start: Analysis of 3D angular velocity and kinetic energy in elite sprinters.

    PubMed

    Slawinski, J; Bonnefoy, A; Ontanon, G; Leveque, J M; Miller, C; Riquet, A; Chèze, L; Dumas, R

    2010-05-28

    The aim of the present study was to measure during a sprint start the joint angular velocity and the kinetic energy of the different segments in elite sprinters. This was performed using a 3D kinematic analysis of the whole body. Eight elite sprinters (10.30+/-0.14s 100 m time), equipped with 63 passive reflective markers, realised four maximal 10 m sprints start on an indoor track. An opto-electronic Motion Analysis system consisting of 12 digital cameras (250 Hz) was used to collect the 3D marker trajectories. During the pushing phase on the blocks, the 3D angular velocity vector and its norm were calculated for each joint. The kinetic energy of 16 segments of the lower and upper limbs and of the total body was calculated. The 3D kinematic analysis of the whole body demonstrated that joints such as shoulders, thoracic or hips did not reach their maximal angular velocity with a movement of flexion-extension, but with a combination of flexion-extension, abduction-adduction and internal-external rotation. The maximal kinetic energy of the total body was reached before clearing block (respectively, 537+/-59.3 J vs. 514.9+/-66.0 J; p< or =0.01). These results suggested that a better synchronization between the upper and lower limbs could increase the efficiency of pushing phase on the blocks. Besides, to understand low interindividual variances in the sprint start performance in elite athletes, a 3D complete body kinematic analysis shall be used. PMID:20226465

  13. 3-D Perspective Pasadena, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada, Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U.S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency

  14. The Esri 3D city information model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitz, T.; Schubiger-Banz, S.

    2014-02-01

    With residential and commercial space becoming increasingly scarce, cities are going vertical. Managing the urban environments in 3D is an increasingly important and complex undertaking. To help solving this problem, Esri has released the ArcGIS for 3D Cities solution. The ArcGIS for 3D Cities solution provides the information model, tools and apps for creating, analyzing and maintaining a 3D city using the ArcGIS platform. This paper presents an overview of the 3D City Information Model and some sample use cases.

  15. Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handy Turner, Tara

    2010-02-01

    From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.

  16. 3D laptop for defense applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmondson, Richard; Chenault, David

    2012-06-01

    Polaris Sensor Technologies has developed numerous 3D display systems using a US Army patented approach. These displays have been developed as prototypes for handheld controllers for robotic systems and closed hatch driving, and as part of a TALON robot upgrade for 3D vision, providing depth perception for the operator for improved manipulation and hazard avoidance. In this paper we discuss the prototype rugged 3D laptop computer and its applications to defense missions. The prototype 3D laptop combines full temporal and spatial resolution display with the rugged Amrel laptop computer. The display is viewed through protective passive polarized eyewear, and allows combined 2D and 3D content. Uses include robot tele-operation with live 3D video or synthetically rendered scenery, mission planning and rehearsal, enhanced 3D data interpretation, and simulation.

  17. C3d adjuvant effects are mediated through the activation of C3d-specific autoreactive T cells

    PubMed Central

    De Groot, Anne S.; Ross, Ted M.; Levitz, Lauren; Messitt, Timothy J.; Tassone, Ryan; Boyle, Christine M.; Vincelli, Amber J.; Moise, Leonard; Martin, William; Knopf, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Complement fragment C3d covalently attached to antigens enhances immune responses, particularly for antigens lacking T cell epitopes. Enhancement has been attributed to receptor cross-linking between complement receptor CR2 (CD21) and polysaccharide antigen to surface IgM on naïve B cells. Paradoxically, C3d has still been shown to increase immune responses in CD21 KO mice, suggesting that an auxiliary activation pathway exists. In prior studies, we demonstrated the CD21-independent C3d adjuvant effect might be due to T cell recognition of C3d T helper epitopes processed and presented by MHC class II on the B cell surface. C3d peptide sequences containing concentrated clusters of putative human C3 T cell epitopes were identified using the epitope-mapping algorithm, EpiMatrix. These peptide sequences were synthesized and shown in vitro to bind multiple HLA-DR alleles with high affinity, and induce IFNγ responses in healthy donor PBMCs. In the present studies, we establish further correlations between HLA binding and HLA-specific lymphocyte reactions with select epitope clusters. Additionally, we show that the T cell phenotype of C3d-specific reactive T cells is CD4+CD45RO+ memory T cells. Finally, mutation of a single T cell epitope residing within the P28 peptide segment of C3d resulted in significantly diminished adjuvant activity in BALB/c mice. Collectively, these studies support the hypothesis that the paradoxical enhancement of immune responses by C3d in the absence of CD21 is due to internalization and processing of C3d into peptides that activate autoreactive CD4+ T helper cells in the context of HLA class II. PMID:25385064

  18. 3D Vortices in Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal, Samy; Barranco, Joseph; Marcus, Philip

    2010-11-01

    Like the atmosphere of Jupiter, protoplanetary disks (thin disks of gas & dust in orbit around newly-formed stars) are characterized by rapid rotation and intense shear, inspiring proposals that disks may also be populated with long-lived, robust storms analogous to the Great Red Spot. Such vortices may play key roles in the formation of stars and planets by transporting angular momentum, as well as trapping and concentrating dust grains, seeding the formation of planetesimals, the "building blocks" of planets. In our previous work (Barranco & Marcus 2005), we showed via numerical simulation (with an anelastic spectral code) that vortices near the midplane of the disk suffer an antisymmetric instability and are destroyed. However, internal gravity waves propagate away from the midplane, amplify and break, creating bands of vorticity that roll-up into new long-lived, stable vortices above and below the midplane. We will present new results on 3D vortex dynamics in protoplanetary disks, exploring the role of factors unique to this context: the Coriolis parameter f, the shear rate σ, and the Brunt-Väisälä frequency N are all of the same order of magnitude. In the region around the midplane Nf. This leads to strong refraction of internal gravity waves, causing the waves to amplify and break, generating vorticity.

  19. Collaboration of 3D context and extracellular matrix in the development of glioma stemness in a 3D model.

    PubMed

    Ma, Nina K L; Lim, Jia Kai; Leong, Meng Fatt; Sandanaraj, Edwin; Ang, Beng Ti; Tang, Carol; Wan, Andrew C A

    2016-02-01

    A hierarchy of cellular stemness exists in certain cancers, and any successful strategy to treat such cancers would have to eliminate the self-renewing tumor-initiating cells at the apex of the hierarchy. The cellular microenvironment, in particular the extracellular matrix (ECM), is believed to have a role in regulating stemness. In this work, U251 glioblastoma cells are cultured on electrospun polystyrene (ESPS) scaffolds coated with an array of 7 laminin isoforms to provide a 3D model for stem cell-related genes and proteins expression studies. We observed collaboration between 3D context and laminins in promoting glioma stemness. Depending on the laminin isoform presented, U251 cells cultured on ESPS scaffolds (3D) exhibited increased expression of stemness markers compared to those cultured on tissue culture polystyrene (2D). Our results indicate the influence of 3D (versus 2D) context on integrin expression, specifically, the upregulation of the laminin-binding integrins alpha 6 and beta 4. By a colony forming assay, we showed enhanced clonogenicity of cells grown on ESPS scaffolds in collaboration with laminins 411, 421, 511 and 521. Evaluation of patient glioma databases demonstrated significant enrichment of integrin and ECM pathway networks in tumors of worse prognosis, consistent with our observations. The present results demonstrate how 3D versus 2D context profoundly affects ECM signaling, leading to stemness. PMID:26684838

  20. Precision and accuracy of 3D lower extremity residua measurement systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Commean, Paul K.; Smith, Kirk E.; Vannier, Michael W.; Hildebolt, Charles F.; Pilgram, Thomas K.

    1996-04-01

    Accurate and reproducible geometric measurement of lower extremity residua is required for custom prosthetic socket design. We compared spiral x-ray computed tomography (SXCT) and 3D optical surface scanning (OSS) with caliper measurements and evaluated the precision and accuracy of each system. Spiral volumetric CT scanned surface and subsurface information was used to make external and internal measurements, and finite element models (FEMs). SXCT and OSS were used to measure lower limb residuum geometry of 13 below knee (BK) adult amputees. Six markers were placed on each subject's BK residuum and corresponding plaster casts and distance measurements were taken to determine precision and accuracy for each system. Solid models were created from spiral CT scan data sets with the prosthesis in situ under different loads using p-version finite element analysis (FEA). Tissue properties of the residuum were estimated iteratively and compared with values taken from the biomechanics literature. The OSS and SXCT measurements were precise within 1% in vivo and 0.5% on plaster casts, and accuracy was within 3.5% in vivo and 1% on plaster casts compared with caliper measures. Three-dimensional optical surface and SXCT imaging systems are feasible for capturing the comprehensive 3D surface geometry of BK residua, and provide distance measurements statistically equivalent to calipers. In addition, SXCT can readily distinguish internal soft tissue and bony structure of the residuum. FEM can be applied to determine tissue material properties interactively using inverse methods.

  1. Fast Mode Decision for 3D-HEVC Depth Intracoding

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nana; Wu, Qinggang

    2014-01-01

    The emerging international standard of high efficiency video coding based 3D video coding (3D-HEVC) is a successor to multiview video coding (MVC). In 3D-HEVC depth intracoding, depth modeling mode (DMM) and high efficiency video coding (HEVC) intraprediction mode are both employed to select the best coding mode for each coding unit (CU). This technique achieves the highest possible coding efficiency, but it results in extremely large encoding time which obstructs the 3D-HEVC from practical application. In this paper, a fast mode decision algorithm based on the correlation between texture video and depth map is proposed to reduce 3D-HEVC depth intracoding computational complexity. Since the texture video and its associated depth map represent the same scene, there is a high correlation among the prediction mode from texture video and depth map. Therefore, we can skip some specific depth intraprediction modes rarely used in related texture CU. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can significantly reduce computational complexity of 3D-HEVC depth intracoding while maintaining coding efficiency. PMID:24963512

  2. The use of 3D information in face recognition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang Hong; Ward, James

    2006-03-01

    Effects of shading in face recognition have often alluded to 3D shape processing. However, research to date has failed to demonstrate any use of important 3D information. Stereopsis adds no advantage in face encoding [Liu, C. H., Ward, J., & Young, A. W. (in press). Transfer between 2D and 3D representations of faces. Visual Cognition], and perspective transformation impairs rather than assists recognition performance [Liu, C. H. (2003). Is face recognition in pictures affected by the center of projection? In IEEE international workshop on analysis and modeling of faces and gestures (pp. 53-59). Nice, France: IEEE Computer Society]. Although evidence tends to rule out involvement of 3D information in face processing, it remains possible that the usefulness of this information depends on certain combinations of cues. We tested this hypothesis in a recognition task, where face stimuli with several levels of perspective transformation were either presented in stereo or without stereo. We found that even at a moderate level of perspective transformation where training and test faces were separated by just 30 cm, the stereo condition produced better performance. This provides the first evidence that stereo information can facilitate face recognition. We conclude that 3D information plays a role in face processing but only when certain types of 3D cues are properly combined. PMID:16298412

  3. 3-D Printed Ultem 9085 Testing and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguilar, Daniel; Christensen, Sean; Fox, Emmet J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to analyze the mechanical properties of 3-D printed Ultem 9085. This document will focus on the capabilities, limitations, and complexities of 3D printing in general, and explain the methods by which this material is tested. Because 3-D printing is a relatively new process that offers an innovative means to produce hardware, it is important that the aerospace community understands its current advantages and limitations, so that future endeavors involving 3-D printing may be completely safe. This document encompasses three main sections: a Slosh damage assessment, a destructive test of 3-D printed Ultem 9085 samples, and a test to verify simulation for the 3-D printed SDP (SPHERES Docking Port). Described below, 'Slosh' and 'SDP' refer to two experiments that are built using Ultem 9085 for use with the SPHERES (Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites) program onboard the International Space Station (ISS) [16]. The SPHERES Facility is managed out of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center in California.

  4. 3-D Technology Approaches for Biological Ecologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liyu; Austin, Robert; U. S-China Physical-Oncology Sciences Alliance (PS-OA) Team

    Constructing three dimensional (3-D) landscapes is an inevitable issue in deep study of biological ecologies, because in whatever scales in nature, all of the ecosystems are composed by complex 3-D environments and biological behaviors. Just imagine if a 3-D technology could help complex ecosystems be built easily and mimic in vivo microenvironment realistically with flexible environmental controls, it will be a fantastic and powerful thrust to assist researchers for explorations. For years, we have been utilizing and developing different technologies for constructing 3-D micro landscapes for biophysics studies in in vitro. Here, I will review our past efforts, including probing cancer cell invasiveness with 3-D silicon based Tepuis, constructing 3-D microenvironment for cell invasion and metastasis through polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft lithography, as well as explorations of optimized stenting positions for coronary bifurcation disease with 3-D wax printing and the latest home designed 3-D bio-printer. Although 3-D technologies is currently considered not mature enough for arbitrary 3-D micro-ecological models with easy design and fabrication, I hope through my talk, the audiences will be able to sense its significance and predictable breakthroughs in the near future. This work was supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No. 2013CB837200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474345) and the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 7154221).

  5. RT3D tutorials for GMS users

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, T.P.; Jones, N.L.

    1998-02-01

    RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is a computer code that solves coupled partial differential equations that describe reactive-flow and transport of multiple mobile and/or immobile species in a three dimensional saturated porous media. RT3D was developed from the single-species transport code, MT3D (DoD-1.5, 1997 version). As with MT3D, RT3D also uses the USGS groundwater flow model MODFLOW for computing spatial and temporal variations in groundwater head distribution. This report presents a set of tutorial problems that are designed to illustrate how RT3D simulations can be performed within the Department of Defense Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). GMS serves as a pre- and post-processing interface for RT3D. GMS can be used to define all the input files needed by RT3D code, and later the code can be launched from within GMS and run as a separate application. Once the RT3D simulation is completed, the solution can be imported to GMS for graphical post-processing. RT3D v1.0 supports several reaction packages that can be used for simulating different types of reactive contaminants. Each of the tutorials, described below, provides training on a different RT3D reaction package. Each reaction package has different input requirements, and the tutorials are designed to describe these differences. Furthermore, the tutorials illustrate the various options available in GMS for graphical post-processing of RT3D results. Users are strongly encouraged to complete the tutorials before attempting to use RT3D and GMS on a routine basis.

  6. Cloud Property Retrieval and 3D Radiative Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahalan, Robert F.

    2003-01-01

    Cloud thickness and photon mean-free-path together determine the scale of "radiative smoothing" of cloud fluxes and radiances. This scale is observed as a change in the spatial spectrum of cloud radiances, and also as the "halo size" seen by off beam lidar such as THOR and WAIL. Such of beam lidar returns are now being used to retrieve cloud layer thickness and vertical scattering extinction profile. We illustrate with recent measurements taken at the Oklahoma ARM site, comparing these to the-dependent 3D simulations. These and other measurements sensitive to 3D transfer in clouds, coupled with Monte Carlo and other 3D transfer methods, are providing a better understanding of the dependence of radiation on cloud inhomogeneity, and to suggest new retrieval algorithms appropriate for inhomogeneous clouds. The international "Intercomparison of 3D Radiation Codes" or I3RC, program is coordinating and evaluating the variety of 3D radiative transfer methods now available, and to make them more widely available. Information is on the Web at: http://i3rc.gsfc.nasa.gov/. Input consists of selected cloud fields derived from data sources such as radar, microwave and satellite, and from models involved in the GEWEX Cloud Systems Studies. Output is selected radiative quantities that characterize the large-scale properties of the fields of radiative fluxes and heating. Several example cloud fields will be used to illustrate. I3RC is currently implementing an "open source" 3d code capable of solving the baseline cases. Maintenance of this effort is one of the goals of a new 3DRT Working Group under the International Radiation Commission. It is hoped that the 3DRT WG will include active participation by land and ocean modelers as well, such as 3D vegetation modelers participating in RAMI.

  7. 3D Printing and Digital Rock Physics for Geomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, M. J.; Yoon, H.; Dewers, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    Imaging techniques for the analysis of porous structures have revolutionized our ability to quantitatively characterize geomaterials. Digital representations of rock from CT images and physics modeling based on these pore structures provide the opportunity to further advance our quantitative understanding of fluid flow, geomechanics, and geochemistry, and the emergence of coupled behaviors. Additive manufacturing, commonly known as 3D printing, has revolutionized production of custom parts with complex internal geometries. For the geosciences, recent advances in 3D printing technology may be co-opted to print reproducible porous structures derived from CT-imaging of actual rocks for experimental testing. The use of 3D printed microstructure allows us to surmount typical problems associated with sample-to-sample heterogeneity that plague rock physics testing and to test material response independent from pore-structure variability. Together, imaging, digital rocks and 3D printing potentially enables a new workflow for understanding coupled geophysical processes in a real, but well-defined setting circumventing typical issues associated with reproducibility, enabling full characterization and thus connection of physical phenomena to structure. In this talk we will discuss the possibilities that these technologies can bring to geosciences and present early experiences with coupled multiscale experimental and numerical analysis using 3D printed fractured rock specimens. In particular, we discuss the processes of selection and printing of transparent fractured specimens based on 3D reconstruction of micro-fractured rock to study fluid flow characterization and manipulation. Micro-particle image velocimetry is used to directly visualize 3D single and multiphase flow velocity in 3D fracture networks. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U

  8. NASA VERVE: Interactive 3D Visualization Within Eclipse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Tamar; Allan, Mark B.

    2014-01-01

    At NASA, we develop myriad Eclipse RCP applications to provide situational awareness for remote systems. The Intelligent Robotics Group at NASA Ames Research Center has developed VERVE - a high-performance, robot user interface that provides scientists, robot operators, and mission planners with powerful, interactive 3D displays of remote environments.VERVE includes a 3D Eclipse view with an embedded Java Ardor3D scenario, including SWT and mouse controls which interact with the Ardor3D camera and objects in the scene. VERVE also includes Eclipse views for exploring and editing objects in the Ardor3D scene graph, and a HUD (Heads Up Display) framework allows Growl-style notifications and other textual information to be overlayed onto the 3D scene. We use VERVE to listen to telemetry from robots and display the robots and associated scientific data along the terrain they are exploring; VERVE can be used for any interactive 3D display of data.VERVE is now open source. VERVE derives from the prior Viz system, which was developed for Mars Polar Lander (2001) and used for the Mars Exploration Rover (2003) and the Phoenix Lander (2008). It has been used for ongoing research with IRG's K10 and KRex rovers in various locations. VERVE was used on the International Space Station during two experiments in 2013 - Surface Telerobotics, in which astronauts controlled robots on Earth from the ISS, and SPHERES, where astronauts control a free flying robot on board the ISS.We will show in detail how to code with VERVE, how to interact between SWT controls to the Ardor3D scenario, and share example code.

  9. MAGNUS-3D: Accelerator magnet calculations in 3-dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pissanetzky, S.

    1988-12-01

    point in space, when iron is not present. HARMON performs the spherical harmonic analysis of magnetic fields in 3D, and is used for the design of passive and active shims and correction coils for high-precision magnets. This paper deals with the latest extensions of MAGNUS-3D. Descriptions of the features and internal libraries of MAGNUS-3D are included. Emphasis is placed on the new features recently developed, which will become available to users in the next update.

  10. 3D Scientific Visualization with Blender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Brian R.

    2015-03-01

    This is the first book written on using Blender for scientific visualization. It is a practical and interesting introduction to Blender for understanding key parts of 3D rendering and animation that pertain to the sciences via step-by-step guided tutorials. 3D Scientific Visualization with Blender takes you through an understanding of 3D graphics and modelling for different visualization scenarios in the physical sciences.

  11. Software for 3D radiotherapy dosimetry. Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozicki, Marek; Maras, Piotr; Karwowski, Andrzej C.

    2014-08-01

    The subject of this work is polyGeVero® software (GeVero Co., Poland), which has been developed to fill the requirements of fast calculations of 3D dosimetry data with the emphasis on polymer gel dosimetry for radiotherapy. This software comprises four workspaces that have been prepared for: (i) calculating calibration curves and calibration equations, (ii) storing the calibration characteristics of the 3D dosimeters, (iii) calculating 3D dose distributions in irradiated 3D dosimeters, and (iv) comparing 3D dose distributions obtained from measurements with the aid of 3D dosimeters and calculated with the aid of treatment planning systems (TPSs). The main features and functions of the software are described in this work. Moreover, the core algorithms were validated and the results are presented. The validation was performed using the data of the new PABIGnx polymer gel dosimeter. The polyGeVero® software simplifies and greatly accelerates the calculations of raw 3D dosimetry data. It is an effective tool for fast verification of TPS-generated plans for tumor irradiation when combined with a 3D dosimeter. Consequently, the software may facilitate calculations by the 3D dosimetry community. In this work, the calibration characteristics of the PABIGnx obtained through four calibration methods: multi vial, cross beam, depth dose, and brachytherapy, are discussed as well.

  12. Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

    2014-03-01

    3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

  13. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-03-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The current paper describes the modern stereo 3-D technologies that are applicable to various tasks in teaching physics in schools, colleges, and universities. Examples of stereo 3-D simulations developed by the author can be observed on online.

  14. Accuracy in Quantitative 3D Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bassel, George W.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative 3D imaging is becoming an increasingly popular and powerful approach to investigate plant growth and development. With the increased use of 3D image analysis, standards to ensure the accuracy and reproducibility of these data are required. This commentary highlights how image acquisition and postprocessing can introduce artifacts into 3D image data and proposes steps to increase both the accuracy and reproducibility of these analyses. It is intended to aid researchers entering the field of 3D image processing of plant cells and tissues and to help general readers in understanding and evaluating such data. PMID:25804539

  15. FastScript3D - A Companion to Java 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, Patti

    2005-01-01

    FastScript3D is a computer program, written in the Java 3D(TM) programming language, that establishes an alternative language that helps users who lack expertise in Java 3D to use Java 3D for constructing three-dimensional (3D)-appearing graphics. The FastScript3D language provides a set of simple, intuitive, one-line text-string commands for creating, controlling, and animating 3D models. The first word in a string is the name of a command; the rest of the string contains the data arguments for the command. The commands can also be used as an aid to learning Java 3D. Developers can extend the language by adding custom text-string commands. The commands can define new 3D objects or load representations of 3D objects from files in formats compatible with such other software systems as X3D. The text strings can be easily integrated into other languages. FastScript3D facilitates communication between scripting languages [which enable programming of hyper-text markup language (HTML) documents to interact with users] and Java 3D. The FastScript3D language can be extended and customized on both the scripting side and the Java 3D side.

  16. 3D video-based deformation measurement of the pelvis bone under dynamic cyclic loading

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Dynamic three-dimensional (3D) deformation of the pelvic bones is a crucial factor in the successful design and longevity of complex orthopaedic oncological implants. The current solutions are often not very promising for the patient; thus it would be interesting to measure the dynamic 3D-deformation of the whole pelvic bone in order to get a more realistic dataset for a better implant design. Therefore we hypothesis if it would be possible to combine a material testing machine with a 3D video motion capturing system, used in clinical gait analysis, to measure the sub millimetre deformation of a whole pelvis specimen. Method A pelvis specimen was placed in a standing position on a material testing machine. Passive reflective markers, traceable by the 3D video motion capturing system, were fixed to the bony surface of the pelvis specimen. While applying a dynamic sinusoidal load the 3D-movement of the markers was recorded by the cameras and afterwards the 3D-deformation of the pelvis specimen was computed. The accuracy of the 3D-movement of the markers was verified with 3D-displacement curve with a step function using a manual driven 3D micro-motion-stage. Results The resulting accuracy of the measurement system depended on the number of cameras tracking a marker. The noise level for a marker seen by two cameras was during the stationary phase of the calibration procedure ± 0.036 mm, and ± 0.022 mm if tracked by 6 cameras. The detectable 3D-movement performed by the 3D-micro-motion-stage was smaller than the noise level of the 3D-video motion capturing system. Therefore the limiting factor of the setup was the noise level, which resulted in a measurement accuracy for the dynamic test setup of ± 0.036 mm. Conclusion This 3D test setup opens new possibilities in dynamic testing of wide range materials, like anatomical specimens, biomaterials, and its combinations. The resulting 3D-deformation dataset can be used for a better estimation of material

  17. 3D PDF - a means of public access to geological 3D - objects, using the example of GTA3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaby, Mark-Fabian; Reimann, Rüdiger

    2013-04-01

    In geology, 3D modeling has become very important. In the past, two-dimensional data such as isolines, drilling profiles, or cross-sections based on those, were used to illustrate the subsurface geology, whereas now, we can create complex digital 3D models. These models are produced with special software, such as GOCAD ®. The models can be viewed, only through the software used to create them, or through viewers available for free. The platform-independent PDF (Portable Document Format), enforced by Adobe, has found a wide distribution. This format has constantly evolved over time. Meanwhile, it is possible to display CAD data in an Adobe 3D PDF file with the free Adobe Reader (version 7). In a 3D PDF, a 3D model is freely rotatable and can be assembled from a plurality of objects, which can thus be viewed from all directions on their own. In addition, it is possible to create moveable cross-sections (profiles), and to assign transparency to the objects. Based on industry-standard CAD software, 3D PDFs can be generated from a large number of formats, or even be exported directly from this software. In geoinformatics, different approaches to creating 3D PDFs exist. The intent of the Authority for Mining, Energy and Geology to allow free access to the models of the Geotectonic Atlas (GTA3D), could not be realized with standard software solutions. A specially designed code converts the 3D objects to VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language). VRML is one of the few formats that allow using image files (maps) as textures, and to represent colors and shapes correctly. The files were merged in Acrobat X Pro, and a 3D PDF was generated subsequently. A topographic map, a display of geographic directions and horizontal and vertical scales help to facilitate the use.

  18. 3D Buildings Extraction from Aerial Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnikova, O.; Prandi, F.

    2011-09-01

    This paper introduces a semi-automatic method for buildings extraction through multiple-view aerial image analysis. The advantage of the used semi-automatic approach is that it allows processing of each building individually finding the parameters of buildings features extraction more precisely for each area. On the early stage the presented technique uses an extraction of line segments that is done only inside of areas specified manually. The rooftop hypothesis is used further to determine a subset of quadrangles, which could form building roofs from a set of extracted lines and corners obtained on the previous stage. After collecting of all potential roof shapes in all images overlaps, the epipolar geometry is applied to find matching between images. This allows to make an accurate selection of building roofs removing false-positive ones and to identify their global 3D coordinates given camera internal parameters and coordinates. The last step of the image matching is based on geometrical constraints in contrast to traditional correlation. The correlation is applied only in some highly restricted areas in order to find coordinates more precisely, in such a way significantly reducing processing time of the algorithm. The algorithm has been tested on a set of Milan's aerial images and shows highly accurate results.

  19. Cryogenic 3-D Detectors for Solar Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, R. A.; Martinez-Galarce, D.; Rausch, A.; Shing, L.; Deiker, S.; Boerner, P.; Metcalf, T.; Cabrera, B.; Leman, S. W.; Brink, P.; Irwin, K.; Alexander, D.

    2005-05-01

    Cryogenic microcalorimeters operating in the sub-Kelvin temperature range provide non-dispersive energy resolution at optical through gamma ray energies (e.g, E/Δ E ~ 1500 at 6 keV). Microcalorimeters also have high time resolution (msec or better), and can be made into imaging arrays through SQUID multiplexing of individual pixels or employing position sensitive detector structures. The application of such "3-D" detector technology to solar physics will lead to significant advances in our understanding of magnetic reconnection in the Sun, including X-ray jet phenomena, and active region heating and dynamics. An Explorer-class solar mission within the next 5-10 years, based upon these detectors, is rapidly becoming technically feasible. LMSAL currently has an internally funded laboratory research program to investigate TES (Transition Edge Sensor) microcalorimeters; we recently saw our first X-ray photons using TES detectors supplied by NIST. In addition, we have recently been funded by NASA to begin work with NIST on position-sensitive X-ray strip detectors for solar physics applications. Finally, we are collaborating with with Stanford and NIST on a solar sounding rocket. In this presentation, we will discuss the current status of these programs and their applicability to future Explorer missions and Roadmap missions such as RAM.

  20. An aerial 3D printing test mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.

  1. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Esteban Arango, Juan; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra—and inter-observer variability.

  2. 3D simulation studies of tokamak plasmas using MHD and extended-MHD models

    SciTech Connect

    Park, W.; Chang, Z.; Fredrickson, E.; Fu, G.Y.

    1996-12-31

    The M3D (Multi-level 3D) tokamak simulation project aims at the simulation of tokamak plasmas using a multi-level tokamak code package. Several current applications using MHD and Extended-MHD models are presented; high-{beta} disruption studies in reversed shear plasmas using the MHD level MH3D code, {omega}{sub *i} stabilization and nonlinear island saturation of TAE mode using the hybrid particle/MHD level MH3D-K code, and unstructured mesh MH3D{sup ++} code studies. In particular, three internal mode disruption mechanisms are identified from simulation results which agree which agree well with experimental data.

  3. Topology dictionary for 3D video understanding.

    PubMed

    Tung, Tony; Matsuyama, Takashi

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents a novel approach that achieves 3D video understanding. 3D video consists of a stream of 3D models of subjects in motion. The acquisition of long sequences requires large storage space (2 GB for 1 min). Moreover, it is tedious to browse data sets and extract meaningful information. We propose the topology dictionary to encode and describe 3D video content. The model consists of a topology-based shape descriptor dictionary which can be generated from either extracted patterns or training sequences. The model relies on 1) topology description and classification using Reeb graphs, and 2) a Markov motion graph to represent topology change states. We show that the use of Reeb graphs as the high-level topology descriptor is relevant. It allows the dictionary to automatically model complex sequences, whereas other strategies would require prior knowledge on the shape and topology of the captured subjects. Our approach serves to encode 3D video sequences, and can be applied for content-based description and summarization of 3D video sequences. Furthermore, topology class labeling during a learning process enables the system to perform content-based event recognition. Experiments were carried out on various 3D videos. We showcase an application for 3D video progressive summarization using the topology dictionary. PMID:22745004

  4. A 3D Geostatistical Mapping Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-02-09

    This software provides accurate 3D reservoir modeling tools and high quality 3D graphics for PC platforms enabling engineers and geologists to better comprehend reservoirs and consequently improve their decisions. The mapping algorithms are fractals, kriging, sequential guassian simulation, and three nearest neighbor methods.

  5. 3D, or Not to Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Keith

    2012-01-01

    It may be too soon for students to be showing up for class with popcorn and gummy bears, but technology similar to that behind the 3D blockbuster movie "Avatar" is slowly finding its way into college classrooms. 3D classroom projectors are taking students on fantastic voyages inside the human body, to the ruins of ancient Greece--even to faraway…

  6. Stereoscopic Investigations of 3D Coulomb Balls

    SciTech Connect

    Kaeding, Sebastian; Melzer, Andre; Arp, Oliver; Block, Dietmar; Piel, Alexander

    2005-10-31

    In dusty plasmas particles are arranged due to the influence of external forces and the Coulomb interaction. Recently Arp et al. were able to generate 3D spherical dust clouds, so-called Coulomb balls. Here, we present measurements that reveal the full 3D particle trajectories from stereoscopic imaging.

  7. 3-D structures of planetary nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, W.

    2016-07-01

    Recent advances in the 3-D reconstruction of planetary nebulae are reviewed. We include not only results for 3-D reconstructions, but also the current techniques in terms of general methods and software. In order to obtain more accurate reconstructions, we suggest to extend the widely used assumption of homologous nebula expansion to map spectroscopically measured velocity to position along the line of sight.

  8. Wow! 3D Content Awakens the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Dan

    2010-01-01

    From her first encounter with stereoscopic 3D technology designed for classroom instruction, Megan Timme, principal at Hamilton Park Pacesetter Magnet School in Dallas, sensed it could be transformative. Last spring, when she began pilot-testing 3D content in her third-, fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms, Timme wasn't disappointed. Students…

  9. 3D Printed Block Copolymer Nanostructures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Turner, C. Heath; Rupar, Paul A.; Jenkins, Alexander H.; Bara, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of 3D printing has dramatically advanced the availability of tangible molecular and extended solid models. Interestingly, there are few nanostructure models available both commercially and through other do-it-yourself approaches such as 3D printing. This is unfortunate given the importance of nanotechnology in science today. In this…

  10. Static & Dynamic Response of 3D Solids

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1996-07-15

    NIKE3D is a large deformations 3D finite element code used to obtain the resulting displacements and stresses from multi-body static and dynamic structural thermo-mechanics problems with sliding interfaces. Many nonlinear and temperature dependent constitutive models are available.

  11. Immersive 3D Geovisualization in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate how immersive 3D geovisualization can be used in higher education. Based on MacEachren and Kraak's geovisualization cube, we examine the usage of immersive 3D geovisualization and its usefulness in a research-based learning module on flood risk, called GEOSimulator. Results of a survey among participating students…

  12. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-01-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The…

  13. Pathways for Learning from 3D Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if 3D stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from 3D presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion" in that 3D…

  14. Clinical applications of 3-D dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuu, Cheng-Shie

    2015-01-01

    Both 3-D gels and radiochromic plastic dosimeters, in conjunction with dose image readout systems (MRI or optical-CT), have been employed to measure 3-D dose distributions in many clinical applications. The 3-D dose maps obtained from these systems can provide a useful tool for clinical dose verification for complex treatment techniques such as IMRT, SRS/SBRT, brachytherapy, and proton beam therapy. These complex treatments present high dose gradient regions in the boundaries between the target and surrounding critical organs. Dose accuracy in these areas can be critical, and may affect treatment outcome. In this review, applications of 3-D gels and PRESAGE dosimeter are reviewed and evaluated in terms of their performance in providing information on clinical dose verification as well as commissioning of various treatment modalities. Future interests and clinical needs on studies of 3-D dosimetry are also discussed.

  15. Biocompatible 3D Matrix with Antimicrobial Properties.

    PubMed

    Ion, Alberto; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Rădulescu, Dragoș; Rădulescu, Marius; Iordache, Florin; Vasile, Bogdan Ștefan; Surdu, Adrian Vasile; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Maniu, Horia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Holban, Alina Maria

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop, characterize and assess the biological activity of a new regenerative 3D matrix with antimicrobial properties, based on collagen (COLL), hydroxyapatite (HAp), β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and usnic acid (UA). The prepared 3D matrix was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Microscopy (FT-IRM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). In vitro qualitative and quantitative analyses performed on cultured diploid cells demonstrated that the 3D matrix is biocompatible, allowing the normal development and growth of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells and exhibited an antimicrobial effect, especially on the Staphylococcus aureus strain, explained by the particular higher inhibitory activity of usnic acid (UA) against Gram positive bacterial strains. Our data strongly recommend the obtained 3D matrix to be used as a successful alternative for the fabrication of three dimensional (3D) anti-infective regeneration matrix for bone tissue engineering. PMID:26805790

  16. Fabrication of 3D Silicon Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; Kenney, C.; Hasi, J.; Da Via, C.; Parker, S.I.; /Hawaii U.

    2012-06-06

    Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (3-D) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of 3D sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on 3D fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) 3D detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided 3D detectors is also briefly reported.

  17. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lazerson, Samuel

    2014-04-14

    With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.

  18. 3D Visualization Development of SIUE Campus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nellutla, Shravya

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has progressed from the traditional map-making to the modern technology where the information can be created, edited, managed and analyzed. Like any other models, maps are simplified representations of real world. Hence visualization plays an essential role in the applications of GIS. The use of sophisticated visualization tools and methods, especially three dimensional (3D) modeling, has been rising considerably due to the advancement of technology. There are currently many off-the-shelf technologies available in the market to build 3D GIS models. One of the objectives of this research was to examine the available ArcGIS and its extensions for 3D modeling and visualization and use them to depict a real world scenario. Furthermore, with the advent of the web, a platform for accessing and sharing spatial information on the Internet, it is possible to generate interactive online maps. Integrating Internet capacity with GIS functionality redefines the process of sharing and processing the spatial information. Enabling a 3D map online requires off-the-shelf GIS software, 3D model builders, web server, web applications and client server technologies. Such environments are either complicated or expensive because of the amount of hardware and software involved. Therefore, the second objective of this research was to investigate and develop simpler yet cost-effective 3D modeling approach that uses available ArcGIS suite products and the free 3D computer graphics software for designing 3D world scenes. Both ArcGIS Explorer and ArcGIS Online will be used to demonstrate the way of sharing and distributing 3D geographic information on the Internet. A case study of the development of 3D campus for the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville is demonstrated.

  19. 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative real-time imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in three dimensions based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32×32 matrix-array probe. Its capability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3-D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3-D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging and finally 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3-D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3-D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, for the first time, the complex 3-D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, and the 3-D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3-D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3-D real-time mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra- and inter-observer variability. PMID:25207828

  20. The psychology of the 3D experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicke, Sophie H.; Ellis, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    With 3D televisions expected to reach 50% home saturation as early as 2016, understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the user response to 3D technology is critical for content providers, educators and academics. Unfortunately, research examining the effects of 3D technology has not kept pace with the technology's rapid adoption, resulting in large-scale use of a technology about which very little is actually known. Recognizing this need for new research, we conducted a series of studies measuring and comparing many of the variables and processes underlying both 2D and 3D media experiences. In our first study, we found narratives within primetime dramas had the power to shift viewer attitudes in both 2D and 3D settings. However, we found no difference in persuasive power between 2D and 3D content. We contend this lack of effect was the result of poor conversion quality and the unique demands of 3D production. In our second study, we found 3D technology significantly increased enjoyment when viewing sports content, yet offered no added enjoyment when viewing a movie trailer. The enhanced enjoyment of the sports content was shown to be the result of heightened emotional arousal and attention in the 3D condition. We believe the lack of effect found for the movie trailer may be genre-related. In our final study, we found 3D technology significantly enhanced enjoyment of two video games from different genres. The added enjoyment was found to be the result of an increased sense of presence.

  1. Optical fabrication of lightweighted 3D printed mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzog, Harrison; Segal, Jacob; Smith, Jeremy; Bates, Richard; Calis, Jacob; De La Torre, Alyssa; Kim, Dae Wook; Mici, Joni; Mireles, Jorge; Stubbs, David M.; Wicker, Ryan

    2015-09-01

    Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) and Electron Beam Melting (EBM) 3D printing technologies were utilized to create lightweight, optical grade mirrors out of AlSi10Mg aluminum and Ti6Al4V titanium alloys at the University of Arizona in Tucson. The mirror prototypes were polished to meet the λ/20 RMS and λ/4 P-V surface figure requirements. The intent of this project was to design topologically optimized mirrors that had a high specific stiffness and low surface displacement. Two models were designed using Altair Inspire software, and the mirrors had to endure the polishing process with the necessary stiffness to eliminate print-through. Mitigating porosity of the 3D printed mirror blanks was a challenge in the face of reconciling new printing technologies with traditional optical polishing methods. The prototypes underwent Hot Isostatic Press (HIP) and heat treatment to improve density, eliminate porosity, and relieve internal stresses. Metal 3D printing allows for nearly unlimited topological constraints on design and virtually eliminates the need for a machine shop when creating an optical quality mirror. This research can lead to an increase in mirror mounting support complexity in the manufacturing of lightweight mirrors and improve overall process efficiency. The project aspired to have many future applications of light weighted 3D printed mirrors, such as spaceflight. This paper covers the design/fab/polish/test of 3D printed mirrors, thermal/structural finite element analysis, and results.

  2. Validation for 2D/3D registration I: A new gold standard data set

    PubMed Central

    Pawiro, S. A.; Markelj, P.; Pernuš, F.; Gendrin, C.; Figl, M.; Weber, C.; Kainberger, F.; Nöbauer-Huhmann, I.; Bergmeister, H.; Stock, M.; Georg, D.; Bergmann, H.; Birkfellner, W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose In this article, the authors propose a new gold standard data set for the validation of two-dimensional/three-dimensional (2D/3D) and 3D/3D image registration algorithms. Methods A gold standard data set was produced using a fresh cadaver pig head with attached fiducial markers. The authors used several imaging modalities common in diagnostic imaging or radiotherapy, which include 64-slice computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging using Tl, T2, and proton density sequences, and cone beam CT imaging data. Radiographic data were acquired using kilovoltage and megavoltage imaging techniques. The image information reflects both anatomy and reliable fiducial marker information and improves over existing data sets by the level of anatomical detail, image data quality, and soft-tissue content. The markers on the 3D and 2D image data were segmented using analyze 10.0 (AnalyzeDirect, Inc., Kansas City, KN) and an in-house software. Results The projection distance errors and the expected target registration errors over all the image data sets were found to be less than 2.71 and 1.88 mm, respectively. Conclusions The gold standard data set, obtained with state-of-the-art imaging technology, has the potential to improve the validation of 2D/3D and 3D/3D registration algorithms for image guided therapy. PMID:21520860

  3. Validation for 2D/3D registration I: A new gold standard data set

    SciTech Connect

    Pawiro, S. A.; Markelj, P.; Pernus, F.; Gendrin, C.; Figl, M.; Weber, C.; Kainberger, F.; Noebauer-Huhmann, I.; Bergmeister, H.; Stock, M.; Georg, D.; Bergmann, H.; Birkfellner, W.

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: In this article, the authors propose a new gold standard data set for the validation of two-dimensional/three-dimensional (2D/3D) and 3D/3D image registration algorithms. Methods: A gold standard data set was produced using a fresh cadaver pig head with attached fiducial markers. The authors used several imaging modalities common in diagnostic imaging or radiotherapy, which include 64-slice computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging using Tl, T2, and proton density sequences, and cone beam CT imaging data. Radiographic data were acquired using kilovoltage and megavoltage imaging techniques. The image information reflects both anatomy and reliable fiducial marker information and improves over existing data sets by the level of anatomical detail, image data quality, and soft-tissue content. The markers on the 3D and 2D image data were segmented using ANALYZE 10.0 (AnalyzeDirect, Inc., Kansas City, KN) and an in-house software. Results: The projection distance errors and the expected target registration errors over all the image data sets were found to be less than 2.71 and 1.88 mm, respectively. Conclusions: The gold standard data set, obtained with state-of-the-art imaging technology, has the potential to improve the validation of 2D/3D and 3D/3D registration algorithms for image guided therapy.

  4. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.

    PubMed

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:26562233

  5. 3D bioprinting of tissues and organs.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Sean V; Atala, Anthony

    2014-08-01

    Additive manufacturing, otherwise known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, is driving major innovations in many areas, such as engineering, manufacturing, art, education and medicine. Recent advances have enabled 3D printing of biocompatible materials, cells and supporting components into complex 3D functional living tissues. 3D bioprinting is being applied to regenerative medicine to address the need for tissues and organs suitable for transplantation. Compared with non-biological printing, 3D bioprinting involves additional complexities, such as the choice of materials, cell types, growth and differentiation factors, and technical challenges related to the sensitivities of living cells and the construction of tissues. Addressing these complexities requires the integration of technologies from the fields of engineering, biomaterials science, cell biology, physics and medicine. 3D bioprinting has already been used for the generation and transplantation of several tissues, including multilayered skin, bone, vascular grafts, tracheal splints, heart tissue and cartilaginous structures. Other applications include developing high-throughput 3D-bioprinted tissue models for research, drug discovery and toxicology. PMID:25093879

  6. Optically rewritable 3D liquid crystal displays.

    PubMed

    Sun, J; Srivastava, A K; Zhang, W; Wang, L; Chigrinov, V G; Kwok, H S

    2014-11-01

    Optically rewritable liquid crystal display (ORWLCD) is a concept based on the optically addressed bi-stable display that does not need any power to hold the image after being uploaded. Recently, the demand for the 3D image display has increased enormously. Several attempts have been made to achieve 3D image on the ORWLCD, but all of them involve high complexity for image processing on both hardware and software levels. In this Letter, we disclose a concept for the 3D-ORWLCD by dividing the given image in three parts with different optic axis. A quarter-wave plate is placed on the top of the ORWLCD to modify the emerging light from different domains of the image in different manner. Thereafter, Polaroid glasses can be used to visualize the 3D image. The 3D image can be refreshed, on the 3D-ORWLCD, in one-step with proper ORWLCD printer and image processing, and therefore, with easy image refreshing and good image quality, such displays can be applied for many applications viz. 3D bi-stable display, security elements, etc. PMID:25361316

  7. An International Reference Consensus Genetic Map with 897 Marker Loci Based on 11 Mapping Populations for Tetraploid Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Manish K.; Moretzsohn, Márcio C.; Sujay, Venkataswamy; Qin, Hongde; Hong, Yanbin; Faye, Issa; Chen, Xiaoping; BhanuPrakash, Amindala; Shah, Trushar M.; Gowda, Makanahally V. C.; Nigam, Shyam N.; Liang, Xuanqiang; Hoisington, Dave A.; Guo, Baozhu; Bertioli, David J.; Rami, Jean-Francois; Varshney, Rajeev K.

    2012-01-01

    Only a few genetic maps based on recombinant inbred line (RIL) and backcross (BC) populations have been developed for tetraploid groundnut. The marker density, however, is not very satisfactory especially in the context of large genome size (2800 Mb/1C) and 20 linkage groups (LGs). Therefore, using marker segregation data for 10 RILs and one BC population from the international groundnut community, with the help of common markers across different populations, a reference consensus genetic map has been developed. This map is comprised of 897 marker loci including 895 simple sequence repeat (SSR) and 2 cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) loci distributed on 20 LGs (a01–a10 and b01–b10) spanning a map distance of 3, 863.6 cM with an average map density of 4.4 cM. The highest numbers of markers (70) were integrated on a01 and the least number of markers (21) on b09. The marker density, however, was lowest (6.4 cM) on a08 and highest (2.5 cM) on a01. The reference consensus map has been divided into 20 cM long 203 BINs. These BINs carry 1 (a10_02, a10_08 and a10_09) to 20 (a10_04) loci with an average of 4 marker loci per BIN. Although the polymorphism information content (PIC) value was available for 526 markers in 190 BINs, 36 and 111 BINs have at least one marker with >0.70 and >0.50 PIC values, respectively. This information will be useful for selecting highly informative and uniformly distributed markers for developing new genetic maps, background selection and diversity analysis. Most importantly, this reference consensus map will serve as a reliable reference for aligning new genetic and physical maps, performing QTL analysis in a multi-populations design, evaluating the genetic background effect on QTL expression, and serving other genetic and molecular breeding activities in groundnut. PMID:22815973

  8. Molecular Predictors of 3D Morphogenesis by Breast Cancer Cell Lines in 3D Culture

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Ju; Chang, Hang; Giricz, Orsi; Lee, Genee; Baehner, Frederick; Gray, Joe; Bissell, Mina; Kenny, Paraic; Parvin, Bahram

    2010-02-01

    Correlative analysis of molecular markers with phenotypic signatures is the simplest model for hypothesis generation. In this paper, a panel of 24 breast cell lines was grown in 3D culture, their morphology was imaged through phase contrast microscopy, and computational methods were developed to segment and represent each colony at multiple dimensions. Subsequently, subpopulations from these morphological responses were identified through consensus clustering to reveal three clusters of round, grape-like, and stellate phenotypes. In some cases, cell lines with particular pathobiological phenotypes clustered together (e.g., ERBB2 amplified cell lines sharing the same morphometric properties as the grape-like phenotype). Next, associations with molecular features were realized through (i) differential analysis within each morphological cluster, and (ii) regression analysis across the entire panel of cell lines. In both cases, the dominant genes that are predictive of the morphological signatures were identified. Specifically, PPAR? has been associated with the invasive stellate morphological phenotype, which corresponds to triple-negative pathobiology. PPAR? has been validated through two supporting biological assays.

  9. Extra Dimensions: 3D in PDF Documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Norman A.

    2012-12-01

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) and the ISO PRC file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. Until recently, Adobe's Acrobat software was also capable of incorporating 3D content into PDF files from a variety of 3D file formats, including proprietary CAD formats. However, this functionality is no longer available in Acrobat X, having been spun off to a separate company. Incorporating 3D content now requires the additional purchase of a separate plug-in. In this talk we present alternatives based on open source libraries which allow the programmatic creation of 3D content in PDF format. While not providing the same level of access to CAD files as the commercial software, it does provide physicists with an alternative path to incorporate 3D content into PDF files from such disparate applications as detector geometries from Geant4, 3D data sets, mathematical surfaces or tesselated volumes.

  10. FUN3D Manual: 12.7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.7, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  11. FUN3D Manual: 12.9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.9, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  12. FUN3D Manual: 13.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bill; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.0, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  13. FUN3D Manual: 12.8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.8, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  14. 3D packaging for integrated circuit systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, D.; Palmer, D.W.

    1996-11-01

    A goal was set for high density, high performance microelectronics pursued through a dense 3D packing of integrated circuits. A {open_quotes}tool set{close_quotes} of assembly processes have been developed that enable 3D system designs: 3D thermal analysis, silicon electrical through vias, IC thinning, mounting wells in silicon, adhesives for silicon stacking, pretesting of IC chips before commitment to stacks, and bond pad bumping. Validation of these process developments occurred through both Sandia prototypes and subsequent commercial examples.

  15. A high capacity 3D steganography algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chao, Min-Wen; Lin, Chao-hung; Yu, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a very high-capacity and low-distortion 3D steganography scheme. Our steganography approach is based on a novel multilayered embedding scheme to hide secret messages in the vertices of 3D polygon models. Experimental results show that the cover model distortion is very small as the number of hiding layers ranges from 7 to 13 layers. To the best of our knowledge, this novel approach can provide much higher hiding capacity than other state-of-the-art approaches, while obeying the low distortion and security basic requirements for steganography on 3D models. PMID:19147891

  16. New method of 3-D object recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, An-Zhi; Li, Qun Z.; Miao, Peng C.

    1991-12-01

    In this paper, a new method of 3-D object recognition using optical techniques and a computer is presented. We perform 3-D object recognition using moire contour to obtain the object's 3- D coordinates, projecting drawings of the object in three coordinate planes to describe it and using a method of inquiring library of judgement to match objects. The recognition of a simple geometrical entity is simulated by computer and studied experimentally. The recognition of an object which is composed of a few simple geometrical entities is discussed.

  17. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2000-11-07

    DYNA3D is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, includingmore » frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation.« less

  18. How We 3D-Print Aerogel

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-23

    A new type of graphene aerogel will make for better energy storage, sensors, nanoelectronics, catalysis and separations. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory researchers have made graphene aerogel microlattices with an engineered architecture via a 3D printing technique known as direct ink writing. The research appears in the April 22 edition of the journal, Nature Communications. The 3D printed graphene aerogels have high surface area, excellent electrical conductivity, are lightweight, have mechanical stiffness and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90 percent compressive strain). In addition, the 3D printed graphene aerogel microlattices show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials and much better mass transport.

  19. An Improved Version of TOPAZ 3D

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnykh, Anatoly

    2003-07-29

    An improved version of the TOPAZ 3D gun code is presented as a powerful tool for beam optics simulation. In contrast to the previous version of TOPAZ 3D, the geometry of the device under test is introduced into TOPAZ 3D directly from a CAD program, such as Solid Edge or AutoCAD. In order to have this new feature, an interface was developed, using the GiD software package as a meshing code. The article describes this method with two models to illustrate the results.

  20. FUN3D Manual: 12.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.4, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixedelement unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  1. FUN3D Manual: 12.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.5, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational uid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables ecient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  2. FUN3D Manual: 12.6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.6, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  3. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect

    2000-11-07

    DYNA3D is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, including frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation.

  4. XML3D and Xflow: combining declarative 3D for the Web with generic data flows.

    PubMed

    Klein, Felix; Sons, Kristian; Rubinstein, Dmitri; Slusallek, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have combined XML3D, which provides declarative, interactive 3D scene descriptions based on HTML5, with Xflow, a language for declarative, high-performance data processing. The result lets Web developers combine a 3D scene graph with data flows for dynamic meshes, animations, image processing, and postprocessing. PMID:24808080

  5. An Overview of 3d Topology for Ladm-Based Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkifli, N. A.; Rahman, A. A.; van Oosterom, P.

    2015-10-01

    This paper reviews 3D topology within Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) international standard. It is important to review characteristic of the different 3D topological models and to choose the most suitable model for certain applications. The characteristic of the different 3D topological models are based on several main aspects (e.g. space or plane partition, used primitives, constructive rules, orientation and explicit or implicit relationships). The most suitable 3D topological model depends on the type of application it is used for. There is no single 3D topology model best suitable for all types of applications. Therefore, it is very important to define the requirements of the 3D topology model. The context of this paper is a 3D topology for LADM-based objects.

  6. A comparison of 3D scapular kinematics between dominant and nondominant shoulders during multiplanar arm motion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Ki; Yang, Dae Suk; Kim, Ha Yong; Choy, Won Sik

    2013-01-01

    Background: Generally, the scapular motions of pathologic and contralateral normal shoulders are compared to characterize shoulder disorders. However, the symmetry of scapular motion of normal shoulders remains undetermined. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare 3dimensinal (3D) scapular motion between dominant and nondominant shoulders during three different planes of arm motion by using an optical tracking system. Materials and Methods: Twenty healthy subjects completed five repetitions of elevation and lowering in sagittal plane flexion, scapular plane abduction, and coronal plane abduction. The 3D scapular motion was measured using an optical tracking system, after minimizing reflective marker skin slippage using ultrasonography. The dynamic 3D motion of the scapula of dominant and nondominant shoulders, and the scapulohumeral rhythm (SHR) were analyzed at each 10° increment during the three planes of arm motion. Results: There was no significant difference in upward rotation or internal rotation (P > 0.05) of the scapula between dominant and nondominant shoulders during the three planes of arm motion. However, there was a significant difference in posterior tilting (P = 0.018) during coronal plane abduction. The SHR was a large positive or negative number in the initial phase of sagittal plane flexion and scapular plane abduction. However, the SHR was a small positive or negative number in the initial phase of coronal plane abduction. Conclusions: Only posterior tilting of the scapula during coronal plane abduction was asymmetrical in our healthy subjects, and depending on the plane of arm motion, the pattern of the SHR differed as well. These differences should be considered in the clinical assessment of shoulder pathology. PMID:23682174

  7. 3D-printed bioanalytical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Gregory W.; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E.; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F.

    2016-07-01

    While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.

  8. Nonlaser-based 3D surface imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shin-yee; Johnson, R.K.; Sherwood, R.J.

    1994-11-15

    3D surface imaging refers to methods that generate a 3D surface representation of objects of a scene under viewing. Laser-based 3D surface imaging systems are commonly used in manufacturing, robotics and biomedical research. Although laser-based systems provide satisfactory solutions for most applications, there are situations where non laser-based approaches are preferred. The issues that make alternative methods sometimes more attractive are: (1) real-time data capturing, (2) eye-safety, (3) portability, and (4) work distance. The focus of this presentation is on generating a 3D surface from multiple 2D projected images using CCD cameras, without a laser light source. Two methods are presented: stereo vision and depth-from-focus. Their applications are described.

  9. Tropical Cyclone Jack in Satellite 3-D

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby from NASA's TRMM satellite of Tropical Cyclone Jack on April 21 shows that some of the thunderstorms were shown by TRMM PR were still reaching height of at least 17 km (10.5 miles). ...

  10. 3D Printing for Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jia; Yao, Hai; Mei, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Tissue engineering aims to fabricate functional tissue for applications in regenerative medicine and drug testing. More recently, 3D printing has shown great promise in tissue fabrication with a structural control from micro- to macro-scale by using a layer-by-layer approach. Whether through scaffold-based or scaffold-free approaches, the standard for 3D printed tissue engineering constructs is to provide a biomimetic structural environment that facilitates tissue formation and promotes host tissue integration (e.g., cellular infiltration, vascularization, and active remodeling). This review will cover several approaches that have advanced the field of 3D printing through novel fabrication methods of tissue engineering constructs. It will also discuss the applications of synthetic and natural materials for 3D printing facilitated tissue fabrication. PMID:26869728

  11. 3D Visualization of Recent Sumatra Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Atul; Kilb, Debi

    2005-04-01

    Scientists and visualization experts at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography have created an interactive three-dimensional visualization of the 28 March 2005 magnitude 8.7 earthquake in Sumatra. The visualization shows the earthquake's hypocenter and aftershocks recorded until 29 March 2005, and compares it with the location of the 26 December 2004 magnitude 9 event and the consequent seismicity in that region. The 3D visualization was created using the Fledermaus software developed by Interactive Visualization Systems (http://www.ivs.unb.ca/) and stored as a ``scene'' file. To view this visualization, viewers need to download and install the free viewer program iView3D (http://www.ivs3d.com/products/iview3d).

  12. Future Engineers 3-D Print Timelapse

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Challenges K-12 students to create a model of a container for space using 3-D modeling software. Astronauts need containers of all kinds - from advanced containers that can study fruit flies t...

  13. 3-D Flyover Visualization of Veil Nebula

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D visualization flies across a small portion of the Veil Nebula as photographed by the Hubble Space Telescope. This region is a small part of a huge expanding remnant from a star that explod...

  14. Quantifying Modes of 3D Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Meghan K; Danuser, Gaudenz

    2015-12-01

    Although it is widely appreciated that cells migrate in a variety of diverse environments in vivo, we are only now beginning to use experimental workflows that yield images with sufficient spatiotemporal resolution to study the molecular processes governing cell migration in 3D environments. Since cell migration is a dynamic process, it is usually studied via microscopy, but 3D movies of 3D processes are difficult to interpret by visual inspection. In this review, we discuss the technologies required to study the diversity of 3D cell migration modes with a focus on the visualization and computational analysis tools needed to study cell migration quantitatively at a level comparable to the analyses performed today on cells crawling on flat substrates. PMID:26603943

  15. 3D-patterned polymer brush surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xuechang; Liu, Xuqing; Xie, Zhuang; Zheng, Zijian

    2011-12-01

    Polymer brush-based three-dimensional (3D) structures are emerging as a powerful platform to engineer a surface by providing abundant spatially distributed chemical and physical properties. In this feature article, we aim to give a summary of the recent progress on the fabrication of 3D structures with polymer brushes, with a particular focus on the micro- and nanoscale. We start with a brief introduction on polymer brushes and the challenges to prepare their 3D structures. Then, we highlight the recent advances of the fabrication approaches on the basis of traditional polymerization time and grafting density strategies, and a recently developed feature density strategy. Finally, we provide some perspective outlooks on the future directions of engineering the 3D structures with polymer brushes.

  16. Modeling Cellular Processes in 3-D

    PubMed Central

    Mogilner, Alex; Odde, David

    2011-01-01

    Summary Recent advances in photonic imaging and fluorescent protein technology offer unprecedented views of molecular space-time dynamics in living cells. At the same time, advances in computing hardware and software enable modeling of ever more complex systems, from global climate to cell division. As modeling and experiment become more closely integrated, we must address the issue of modeling cellular processes in 3-D. Here, we highlight recent advances related to 3-D modeling in cell biology. While some processes require full 3-D analysis, we suggest that others are more naturally described in 2-D or 1-D. Keeping the dimensionality as low as possible reduces computational time and makes models more intuitively comprehensible; however, the ability to test full 3-D models will build greater confidence in models generally and remains an important emerging area of cell biological modeling. PMID:22036197

  17. Eyes on the Earth 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulikov, anton I.; Doronila, Paul R.; Nguyen, Viet T.; Jackson, Randal K.; Greene, William M.; Hussey, Kevin J.; Garcia, Christopher M.; Lopez, Christian A.

    2013-01-01

    Eyes on the Earth 3D software gives scientists, and the general public, a realtime, 3D interactive means of accurately viewing the real-time locations, speed, and values of recently collected data from several of NASA's Earth Observing Satellites using a standard Web browser (climate.nasa.gov/eyes). Anyone with Web access can use this software to see where the NASA fleet of these satellites is now, or where they will be up to a year in the future. The software also displays several Earth Science Data sets that have been collected on a daily basis. This application uses a third-party, 3D, realtime, interactive game engine called Unity 3D to visualize the satellites and is accessible from a Web browser.

  18. 3-D Animation of Typhoon Bopha

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D animation of NASA's TRMM satellite data showed Typhoon Bopha tracking over the Philippines on Dec. 3 and moving into the Sulu Sea on Dec. 4, 2012. TRMM saw heavy rain (red) was falling at ...

  19. 3-D TRMM Flyby of Hurricane Amanda

    NASA Video Gallery

    The TRMM satellite flew over Hurricane Amanda on Tuesday, May 27 at 1049 UTC (6:49 a.m. EDT) and captured rainfall rates and cloud height data that was used to create this 3-D simulated flyby. Cred...

  20. Cyclone Rusty's Landfall in 3-D

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D image derived from NASA's TRMM satellite Precipitation Radar data on February 26, 2013 at 0654 UTC showed that the tops of some towering thunderstorms in Rusty's eye wall were reaching hei...

  1. TRMM 3-D Flyby of Ingrid

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby of Tropical Storm Ingrid's rainfall was created from TRMM satellite data for Sept. 16. Heaviest rainfall appears in red towers over the Gulf of Mexico, while moderate rainfall stretc...

  2. 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Gregory W; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F

    2016-07-15

    While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices. PMID:27250897

  3. Palacios field: A 3-D case history

    SciTech Connect

    McWhorter, R.; Torguson, B.

    1994-12-31

    In late 1992, Mitchell Energy Corporation acquired a 7.75 sq mi (20.0 km{sup 2}) 3-D seismic survey over Palacios field. Matagorda County, Texas. The company shot the survey to help evaluate the field for further development by delineating the fault pattern of the producing Middle Oligocene Frio interval. They compare the mapping of the field before and after the 3-D survey. This comparison shows that the 3-D volume yields superior fault imaging and interpretability compared to the dense 2-D data set. The problems with the 2-D data set are improper imaging of small and oblique faults and insufficient coverage over a complex fault pattern. Whereas the 2-D data set validated a simple fault model, the 3-D volume revealed a more complex history of faulting that includes three different fault systems. This discovery enabled them to reconstruct the depositional and structural history of Palacios field.

  4. Radiosity diffusion model in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Jason D.; Arridge, Simon R.; Chrysanthou, Yiorgos; Dehghani, Hamid; Hillman, Elizabeth M. C.; Schweiger, Martin

    2001-11-01

    We present the Radiosity-Diffusion model in three dimensions(3D), as an extension to previous work in 2D. It is a method for handling non-scattering spaces in optically participating media. We present the extension of the model to 3D including an extension to the model to cope with increased complexity of the 3D domain. We show that in 3D more careful consideration must be given to the issues of meshing and visibility to model the transport of light within reasonable computational bounds. We demonstrate the model to be comparable to Monte-Carlo simulations for selected geometries, and show preliminary results of comparisons to measured time-resolved data acquired on resin phantoms.

  5. Four-Dimensional Measurement of the Displacement of Internal Fiducial and Skin Markers During 320-Multislice Computed Tomography Scanning of Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yamashita, Hideomi; Okuma, Kae; Tada, Keiichiro; Shiraishi, Kenshiro; Takahashi, Wataru; Shibata-Mobayashi, Shino; Sakumi, Akira; Saotome, Naoya; Haga, Akihiro; Onoe, Tsuyoshi; Ino, Kenji; Akahane, Masaaki; Ohtomo, Kuni; Nakagawa, Keiichi

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To study the three-dimensional movement of internal tumor bed fiducial and breast skin markers, using 320-multislice computed tomography (CT); and to analyze intrafractional errors for breast cancer patients undergoing breast irradiation. Methods and Materials: This study examined 280 markers on the skin of the breast (200 markers) and on the primary tumor bed (80 markers) of 20 patients treated by external-beam photon radiotherapy. Motion assessment was analyzed in 41 respiratory phases during 20 s of cine CT in the radiotherapy position. To assess intrafractional errors resulting from respiratory motion, four-dimensional CT scans were acquired for 20 patients. Results: Motion in the anterior-posterior (A/P) and superior-inferior (S/I) directions showed a strong correlation (|r| > 0.7) with the respiratory curve for most markers (79% and 70%, respectively). The average marker displacements between maximum and minimum value during 20 s for the 200 breast skin metal markers were 1.1 {+-} 0.3 mm, 2.1 {+-} 0.6 mm, and 1.6 {+-} 0.4 mm in the left-right, A/P, and S/I directions, respectively. For the 80 tumor bed clips, displacements were 0.9 {+-} 0.2 mm in left-right, 1.7 {+-} 0.5 mm in A/P, and 1.1 {+-} 0.3 mm in S/I. There was no significant difference in the motion between breast quadrant regions or between the primary site and the other regions. Conclusions: Motion in primary breast tumors was evaluated with 320-multislice CT. Very little change was detected during individual radiation treatment fractions.

  6. 3D-HST results and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dokkum, Pieter G.

    2015-01-01

    The 3D-HST survey is providing a comprehensive census of the distant Universe, combining HST WFC3 imaging and grism spectroscopy with a myriad of other ground- and space-based datasets. This talk constitutes an overview of science results from the survey, with a focus on ongoing work and ways to exploit the rich public release of the 3D-HST data.

  7. Engineering EMT using 3D micro-scaffold to promote hepatic functions for drug hepatotoxicity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyu; Chen, Fengling; Liu, Longwei; Qi, Chunxiao; Wang, Bingjie; Yan, Xiaojun; Huang, Chenyu; Hou, Wei; Zhang, Michael Q; Chen, Yang; Du, Yanan

    2016-06-01

    Accompanied by decreased hepatic functions, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was observed in two dimensional (2D) cultured hepatocytes with elongated morphology, loss of polarity and weakened cell-cell interaction, while upgrading to 3D culture has been considered as significant improvement of its 2D counterpart for hepatocyte maintenance. Here we hypothesize that 3D culture enhances hepatic functions through regulating the EMT status. Biomaterial-engineered EMT was achieved by culturing HepaRG as 3D spheroids (SP-3D) or 3D stretched cells (ST-3D) in non-adherent and adherent micro-scaffold respectively. In SP-3D, constrained EMT of HepaRG, a hepatic stem cell line, as represented by increased epithelial markers and decreased mesenchymal markers, was echoed by improved hepatic functions. To investigate the relationship between EMT status and hepatic functions, time-series RNA-Seq and gene network analysis were used for comparing different cell culture models, which identified histone deacetylases (HDACs) as key mediating factors. Protein analysis confirmed that high HDAC activity was correlated with high expression of Cadherin-1 (CDH1) and hepatic function genes, which were decreased upon HDAC inhibitor treatment in SP-3D, suggesting HDACs may play positive role in regulating EMT and hepatic functions. To illustrate the application of 3D micro-scaffold culture in drug safety evaluation, hepatotoxicity and metabolism assays of two hepatotoxins (i.e. N-acetyl-p-aminophenol and Doxorubicin) were performed and SP-3D showed more biomimetic toxicity response, indicating regulation of EMT as a vital consideration in designing 3D hepatocyte culture configuration. PMID:26994875

  8. Custom 3D Printers Revolutionize Space Supply Chain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Under a series of SBIR contracts with Marshall Space Flight Center, start-up company Made In Space, located on the center's campus, developed a high-precision 3D printer capable of manufacturing items in microgravity. The company will soon have a printer installed on the International Space Station, altering the space supply chain. It will print supplies and tools for NASA, as well as nanosatellite shells and other items for public and private entities.

  9. Assessing 3d Photogrammetry Techniques in Craniometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshobane, M. C.; de Bruyn, P. J. N.; Bester, M. N.

    2016-06-01

    Morphometrics (the measurement of morphological features) has been revolutionized by the creation of new techniques to study how organismal shape co-varies with several factors such as ecophenotypy. Ecophenotypy refers to the divergence of phenotypes due to developmental changes induced by local environmental conditions, producing distinct ecophenotypes. None of the techniques hitherto utilized could explicitly address organismal shape in a complete biological form, i.e. three-dimensionally. This study investigates the use of the commercial software, Photomodeler Scanner® (PMSc®) three-dimensional (3D) modelling software to produce accurate and high-resolution 3D models. Henceforth, the modelling of Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis) and Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) skulls which could allow for 3D measurements. Using this method, sixteen accurate 3D skull models were produced and five metrics were determined. The 3D linear measurements were compared to measurements taken manually with a digital caliper. In addition, repetitive measurements were recorded by varying researchers to determine repeatability. To allow for comparison straight line measurements were taken with the software, assuming that close accord with all manually measured features would illustrate the model's accurate replication of reality. Measurements were not significantly different demonstrating that realistic 3D skull models can be successfully produced to provide a consistent basis for craniometrics, with the additional benefit of allowing non-linear measurements if required.

  10. 3D model reconstruction of underground goaf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yuanmin; Zuo, Xiaoqing; Jin, Baoxuan

    2005-10-01

    Constructing 3D model of underground goaf, we can control the process of mining better and arrange mining work reasonably. However, the shape of goaf and the laneway among goafs are very irregular, which produce great difficulties in data-acquiring and 3D model reconstruction. In this paper, we research on the method of data-acquiring and 3D model construction of underground goaf, building topological relation among goafs. The main contents are as follows: a) The paper proposed an efficient encoding rule employed to structure the field measurement data. b) A 3D model construction method of goaf is put forward, which by means of combining several TIN (triangulated irregular network) pieces, and an efficient automatic processing algorithm of boundary of TIN is proposed. c) Topological relation of goaf models is established. TIN object is the basic modeling element of goaf 3D model, and the topological relation among goaf is created and maintained by building the topological relation among TIN objects. Based on this, various 3D spatial analysis functions can be performed including transect and volume calculation of goaf. A prototype is developed, which can realized the model and algorithm proposed in this paper.

  11. 3D steerable wavelets in practice.

    PubMed

    Chenouard, Nicolas; Unser, Michael

    2012-11-01

    We introduce a systematic and practical design for steerable wavelet frames in 3D. Our steerable wavelets are obtained by applying a 3D version of the generalized Riesz transform to a primary isotropic wavelet frame. The novel transform is self-reversible (tight frame) and its elementary constituents (Riesz wavelets) can be efficiently rotated in any 3D direction by forming appropriate linear combinations. Moreover, the basis functions at a given location can be linearly combined to design custom (and adaptive) steerable wavelets. The features of the proposed method are illustrated with the processing and analysis of 3D biomedical data. In particular, we show how those wavelets can be used to characterize directional patterns and to detect edges by means of a 3D monogenic analysis. We also propose a new inverse-problem formalism along with an optimization algorithm for reconstructing 3D images from a sparse set of wavelet-domain edges. The scheme results in high-quality image reconstructions which demonstrate the feature-reduction ability of the steerable wavelets as well as their potential for solving inverse problems. PMID:22752138

  12. DYNA3D example problem manual

    SciTech Connect

    Lovejoy, S.C.; Whirley, R.G.

    1990-10-10

    This manual describes in detail the solution of ten example problems using the explicit nonlinear finite element code DYNA3D. The sample problems include solid, shell, and beam element types, and a variety of linear and nonlinear material models. For each example, there is first an engineering description of the physical problem to be studied. Next, the analytical techniques incorporated in the model are discussed and key features of DYNA3D are highlighted. INGRID commands used to generate the mesh are listed, and sample plots from the DYNA3D analysis are given. Finally, there is a description of the TAURUS post-processing commands used to generate the plots of the solution. This set of example problems is useful in verifying the installation of DYNA3D on a new computer system. In addition, these documented analyses illustrate the application of DYNA3D to a variety of engineering problems, and thus this manual should be helpful to new analysts getting started with DYNA3D. 7 refs., 56 figs., 9 tabs.

  13. Recording stereoscopic 3D neurosurgery with a head-mounted 3D camera system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Brian; Chen, Brian R; Chen, Beverly B; Lu, James Y; Giannotta, Steven L

    2015-06-01

    Stereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) imaging can present more information to the viewer and further enhance the learning experience over traditional two-dimensional (2D) video. Most 3D surgical videos are recorded from the operating microscope and only feature the crux, or the most important part of the surgery, leaving out other crucial parts of surgery including the opening, approach, and closing of the surgical site. In addition, many other surgeries including complex spine, trauma, and intensive care unit procedures are also rarely recorded. We describe and share our experience with a commercially available head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system to obtain stereoscopic 3D recordings of these seldom recorded aspects of neurosurgery. The strengths and limitations of using the GoPro(®) 3D system as a head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system in the operating room are reviewed in detail. Over the past several years, we have recorded in stereoscopic 3D over 50 cranial and spinal surgeries and created a library for education purposes. We have found the head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system to be a valuable asset to supplement 3D footage from a 3D microscope. We expect that these comprehensive 3D surgical videos will become an important facet of resident education and ultimately lead to improved patient care. PMID:25620087

  14. RAG-3D: a search tool for RNA 3D substructures.

    PubMed

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-10-30

    To address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D-a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool-designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally described in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding. PMID:26304547

  15. 3-D SAR image formation from sparse aperture data using 3-D target grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalla, Rajan; Li, Junfei; Ling, Hao

    2005-05-01

    The performance of ATR systems can potentially be improved by using three-dimensional (3-D) SAR images instead of the traditional two-dimensional SAR images or one-dimensional range profiles. 3-D SAR image formation of targets from radar backscattered data collected on wide angle, sparse apertures has been identified by AFRL as fundamental to building an object detection and recognition capability. A set of data has been released as a challenge problem. This paper describes a technique based on the concept of 3-D target grids aimed at the formation of 3-D SAR images of targets from sparse aperture data. The 3-D target grids capture the 3-D spatial and angular scattering properties of the target and serve as matched filters for SAR formation. The results of 3-D SAR formation using the backhoe public release data are presented.

  16. Rapid 360 degree imaging and stitching of 3D objects using multiple precision 3D cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Thomas; Yin, Stuart; Zhang, Jianzhong; Li, Jiangan; Wu, Frank

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, we present the system architecture of a 360 degree view 3D imaging system. The system consists of multiple 3D sensors synchronized to take 3D images around the object. Each 3D camera employs a single high-resolution digital camera and a color-coded light projector. The cameras are synchronized to rapidly capture the 3D and color information of a static object or a live person. The color encoded structure lighting ensures the precise reconstruction of the depth of the object. A 3D imaging system architecture is presented. The architecture employs the displacement of the camera and the projector to triangulate the depth information. The 3D camera system has achieved high depth resolution down to 0.1mm on a human head sized object and 360 degree imaging capability.

  17. CFL3D, FUN3d, and NSU3D Contributions to the Fifth Drag Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Michael A.; Laflin, Kelly R.; Chaffin, Mark S.; Powell, Nicholas; Levy, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Results presented at the Fifth Drag Prediction Workshop using CFL3D, FUN3D, and NSU3D are described. These are calculations on the workshop provided grids and drag adapted grids. The NSU3D results have been updated to reflect an improvement to skin friction calculation on skewed grids. FUN3D results generated after the workshop are included for custom participant generated grids and a grid from a previous workshop. Uniform grid refinement at the design condition shows a tight grouping in calculated drag, where the variation in the pressure component of drag is larger than the skin friction component. At this design condition, A fine-grid drag value was predicted with a smaller drag adjoint adapted grid via tetrahedral adaption to a metric and mixed-element subdivision. The buffet study produced larger variation than the design case, which is attributed to large differences in the predicted side-of-body separation extent. Various modeling and discretization approaches had a strong impact on predicted side-of-body separation. This large wing root separation bubble was not observed in wind tunnel tests indicating that more work is necessary in modeling wing root juncture flows to predict experiments.

  18. 3-D Volumetric Evaluation of Human Mandibular Growth

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Mathew; Reynolds, Michael; Adeeb, Samer; El-Bialy, Tarek

    2011-01-01

    Bone growth is a complex process that is controlled by a multitude of mechanisms that are not fully understood.Most of the current methods employed to measure the growth of bones focus on either studying cadaveric bones from different individuals of different ages, or successive two-dimensional (2D) radiographs. Both techniques have their known limitations. The purpose of this study was to explore a technique for quantifying the three dimensional (3D) growth of an adolescent human mandible over the period of one year utilizing cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans taken for regular orthodontic records. Three -dimensional virtual models were created from the CBCT data using mainstream medical imaging software. A comparison between computer-generated surface meshes of successive 3-D virtual models illustrates the magnitude of relative mandible growth. The results of this work are in agreement with previously reported data from human cadaveric studies and implantable marker studies. The presented method provides a new relatively simple basis (utilizing commercially available software) to visualize and evaluate individualized 3D (mandibular) growth in vivo. PMID:22046201

  19. PLOT3D Export Tool for Tecplot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The PLOT3D export tool for Tecplot solves the problem of modified data being impossible to output for use by another computational science solver. The PLOT3D Exporter add-on enables the use of the most commonly available visualization tools to engineers for output of a standard format. The exportation of PLOT3D data from Tecplot has far reaching effects because it allows for grid and solution manipulation within a graphical user interface (GUI) that is easily customized with macro language-based and user-developed GUIs. The add-on also enables the use of Tecplot as an interpolation tool for solution conversion between different grids of different types. This one add-on enhances the functionality of Tecplot so significantly, it offers the ability to incorporate Tecplot into a general suite of tools for computational science applications as a 3D graphics engine for visualization of all data. Within the PLOT3D Export Add-on are several functions that enhance the operations and effectiveness of the add-on. Unlike Tecplot output functions, the PLOT3D Export Add-on enables the use of the zone selection dialog in Tecplot to choose which zones are to be written by offering three distinct options - output of active, inactive, or all zones (grid blocks). As the user modifies the zones to output with the zone selection dialog, the zones to be written are similarly updated. This enables the use of Tecplot to create multiple configurations of a geometry being analyzed. For example, if an aircraft is loaded with multiple deflections of flaps, by activating and deactivating different zones for a specific flap setting, new specific configurations of that aircraft can be easily generated by only writing out specific zones. Thus, if ten flap settings are loaded into Tecplot, the PLOT3D Export software can output ten different configurations, one for each flap setting.

  20. A microfluidic device for 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D cell navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamloo, Amir; Amirifar, Leyla

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidic devices have received wide attention and shown great potential in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Investigating cell response to various stimulations is much more accurate and comprehensive with the aid of microfluidic devices. In this study, we introduced a microfluidic device by which the matrix density as a mechanical property and the concentration profile of a biochemical factor as a chemical property could be altered. Our microfluidic device has a cell tank and a cell culture chamber to mimic both 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D migration of three types of cells. Fluid shear stress is negligible on the cells and a stable concentration gradient can be obtained by diffusion. The device was designed by a numerical simulation so that the uniformity of the concentration gradients throughout the cell culture chamber was obtained. Adult neural cells were cultured within this device and they showed different branching and axonal navigation phenotypes within varying nerve growth factor (NGF) concentration profiles. Neural stem cells were also cultured within varying collagen matrix densities while exposed to NGF concentrations and they experienced 3D to 3D collective migration. By generating vascular endothelial growth factor concentration gradients, adult human dermal microvascular endothelial cells also migrated in a 2D to 3D manner and formed a stable lumen within a specific collagen matrix density. It was observed that a minimum absolute concentration and concentration gradient were required to stimulate migration of all types of the cells. This device has the advantage of changing multiple parameters simultaneously and is expected to have wide applicability in cell studies.

  1. RAG-3D: A search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-08-24

    In this study, to address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally describedmore » in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding.« less

  2. RAG-3D: A search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    SciTech Connect

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-08-24

    In this study, to address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally described in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding.

  3. RAG-3D: a search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    PubMed Central

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    To address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally described in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding. PMID:26304547

  4. Automatic needle segmentation in 3D ultrasound images using 3D Hough transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hua; Qiu, Wu; Ding, Mingyue; Zhang, Songgeng

    2007-12-01

    3D ultrasound (US) is a new technology that can be used for a variety of diagnostic applications, such as obstetrical, vascular, and urological imaging, and has been explored greatly potential in the applications of image-guided surgery and therapy. Uterine adenoma and uterine bleeding are the two most prevalent diseases in Chinese woman, and a minimally invasive ablation system using an RF button electrode which is needle-like is being used to destroy tumor cells or stop bleeding currently. Now a 3D US guidance system has been developed to avoid accidents or death of the patient by inaccurate localizations of the electrode and the tumor position during treatment. In this paper, we described two automated techniques, the 3D Hough Transform (3DHT) and the 3D Randomized Hough Transform (3DRHT), which is potentially fast, accurate, and robust to provide needle segmentation in 3D US image for use of 3D US imaging guidance. Based on the representation (Φ , θ , ρ , α ) of straight lines in 3D space, we used the 3DHT algorithm to segment needles successfully assumed that the approximate needle position and orientation are known in priori. The 3DRHT algorithm was developed to detect needles quickly without any information of the 3D US images. The needle segmentation techniques were evaluated using the 3D US images acquired by scanning water phantoms. The experiments demonstrated the feasibility of two 3D needle segmentation algorithms described in this paper.

  5. Detection of Esophageal Fiducial Marker Displacement During Radiation Therapy With a 2-dimensional On-board Imager: Analysis of Internal Margin for Esophageal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Fukada, Junichi; Hanada, Takashi; Kawaguchi, Osamu; Ohashi, Toshio; Takeuchi, Hiroya; Kitagawa, Yuko; Seki, Satoshi; Shiraishi, Yutaka; Ogata, Haruhiko; Shigematsu, Naoyuki

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To quantify the interfraction displacement of esophageal fiducial markers for primary esophageal cancer radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Orthogonal 2-dimensional (2D) matching records fused to vertebrae were analyzed in clinically staged T1/2N0 esophageal cancer patients undergoing endoscopic clipping as fiducial metal markers. Displacement of the markers between the digitally reconstructed radiographs and on-board kilovoltage images during radiation therapy was analyzed according to direction and esophageal site. Results: Forty-four patients, with 81 markers (10 proximal, 42 middle, and 29 distal), underwent 367 2D matching sessions during radiation therapy. The mean (SD) absolute marker displacement was 0.26 (0.30) cm in the right–left (RL), 0.50 (0.39) cm in the superior–inferior (SI), and 0.24 (0.21) cm in the anterior–posterior (AP) direction. Displacement was significantly larger in the SI than in the RL and AP directions (P<.0001). In the SI direction, mean absolute displacements of the distal, middle, and proximal esophagus were 0.67 (0.45) cm, 0.42 (0.32) cm, and 0.36 (0.30) cm, respectively. Distal esophagus displacement was significantly larger than those of the middle and proximal esophagus (P<.0001). The estimated internal margin to cover 95% of the cases was 0.75 cm in the RL and AP directions. In the SI direction, the margin was 1.25 cm for the proximal and middle esophagus and 1.75 cm for the distal esophagus. Conclusions: The magnitude of interfraction displacement of esophageal clips was larger in the SI direction, particularly in the distal esophagus, but substantial displacement was observed in other directions and at other esophageal sites. It is practical to take estimated movements into account with internal margins, even if vertebrae-based 2D matching is performed.

  6. ICER-3D Hyperspectral Image Compression Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xie, Hua; Kiely, Aaron; Klimesh, matthew; Aranki, Nazeeh

    2010-01-01

    Software has been developed to implement the ICER-3D algorithm. ICER-3D effects progressive, three-dimensional (3D), wavelet-based compression of hyperspectral images. If a compressed data stream is truncated, the progressive nature of the algorithm enables reconstruction of hyperspectral data at fidelity commensurate with the given data volume. The ICER-3D software is capable of providing either lossless or lossy compression, and incorporates an error-containment scheme to limit the effects of data loss during transmission. The compression algorithm, which was derived from the ICER image compression algorithm, includes wavelet-transform, context-modeling, and entropy coding subalgorithms. The 3D wavelet decomposition structure used by ICER-3D exploits correlations in all three dimensions of sets of hyperspectral image data, while facilitating elimination of spectral ringing artifacts, using a technique summarized in "Improving 3D Wavelet-Based Compression of Spectral Images" (NPO-41381), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 3 (March 2009), page 7a. Correlation is further exploited by a context-modeling subalgorithm, which exploits spectral dependencies in the wavelet-transformed hyperspectral data, using an algorithm that is summarized in "Context Modeler for Wavelet Compression of Hyperspectral Images" (NPO-43239), which follows this article. An important feature of ICER-3D is a scheme for limiting the adverse effects of loss of data during transmission. In this scheme, as in the similar scheme used by ICER, the spatial-frequency domain is partitioned into rectangular error-containment regions. In ICER-3D, the partitions extend through all the wavelength bands. The data in each partition are compressed independently of those in the other partitions, so that loss or corruption of data from any partition does not affect the other partitions. Furthermore, because compression is progressive within each partition, when data are lost, any data from that partition received

  7. Shim3d Helmholtz Solution Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2009-01-29

    This suite of codes solves the Helmholtz Equation for the steady-state propagation of single-frequency electromagnetic radiation in an arbitrary 2D or 3D dielectric medium. Materials can be either transparent or absorptive (including metals) and are described entirely by their shape and complex dielectric constant. Dielectric boundaries are assumed to always fall on grid boundaries and the material within a single grid cell is considered to be uniform. Input to the problem is in the formmore » of a Dirichlet boundary condition on a single boundary, and may be either analytic (Gaussian) in shape, or a mode shape computed using a separate code (such as the included eigenmode solver vwave20), and written to a file. Solution is via the finite difference method using Jacobi iteration for 3D problems or direct matrix inversion for 2D problems. Note that 3D problems that include metals will require different iteration parameters than described in the above reference. For structures with curved boundaries not easily modeled on a rectangular grid, the auxillary codes helmholtz11(2D), helm3d (semivectoral), and helmv3d (full vectoral) are provided. For these codes the finite difference equations are specified on a topological regular triangular grid and solved using Jacobi iteration or direct matrix inversion as before. An automatic grid generator is supplied.« less

  8. 3D Spray Droplet Distributions in Sneezes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Techet, Alexandra; Scharfman, Barry; Bourouiba, Lydia

    2015-11-01

    3D spray droplet clouds generated during human sneezing are investigated using the Synthetic Aperture Feature Extraction (SAFE) method, which relies on light field imaging (LFI) and synthetic aperture (SA) refocusing computational photographic techniques. An array of nine high-speed cameras are used to image sneeze droplets and tracked the droplets in 3D space and time (3D + T). An additional high-speed camera is utilized to track the motion of the head during sneezing. In the SAFE method, the raw images recorded by each camera in the array are preprocessed and binarized, simplifying post processing after image refocusing and enabling the extraction of feature sizes and positions in 3D + T. These binary images are refocused using either additive or multiplicative methods, combined with thresholding. Sneeze droplet centroids, radii, distributions and trajectories are determined and compared with existing data. The reconstructed 3D droplet centroids and radii enable a more complete understanding of the physical extent and fluid dynamics of sneeze ejecta. These measurements are important for understanding the infectious disease transmission potential of sneezes in various indoor environments.

  9. T-HEMP3D user manual

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D.

    1983-08-01

    The T-HEMP3D (Transportable HEMP3D) computer program is a derivative of the STEALTH three-dimensional thermodynamics code developed by Science Applications, Inc., under the direction of Ron Hofmann. STEALTH, in turn, is based entirely on the original HEMP3D code written at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The primary advantage STEALTH has over its predecessors is that it was designed using modern structured design techniques, with rigorous programming standards enforced. This yields two benefits. First, the code is easily changeable; this is a necessity for a physics code used for research. The second benefit is that the code is easily transportable between different types of computers. The STEALTH program was transferred to LLNL under a cooperative development agreement. Changes were made primarily in three areas: material specification, coordinate generation, and the addition of sliding surface boundary conditions. The code was renamed T-HEMP3D to avoid confusion with other versions of STEALTH. This document summarizes the input to T-HEMP3D, as used at LLNL. It does not describe the physics simulated by the program, nor the numerical techniques employed. Furthermore, it does not describe the separate job steps of coordinate generation and post-processing, including graphical display of results. (WHK)

  10. Magnetic Properties of 3D Printed Toroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollig, Lindsey; Otto, Austin; Hilpisch, Peter; Mowry, Greg; Nelson-Cheeseman, Brittany; Renewable Energy; Alternatives Lab (REAL) Team

    Transformers are ubiquitous in electronics today. Although toroidal geometries perform most efficiently, transformers are traditionally made with rectangular cross-sections due to the lower manufacturing costs. Additive manufacturing techniques (3D printing) can easily achieve toroidal geometries by building up a part through a series of 2D layers. To get strong magnetic properties in a 3D printed transformer, a composite filament is used containing Fe dispersed in a polymer matrix. How the resulting 3D printed toroid responds to a magnetic field depends on two structural factors of the printed 2D layers: fill factor (planar density) and fill pattern. In this work, we investigate how the fill factor and fill pattern affect the magnetic properties of 3D printed toroids. The magnetic properties of the printed toroids are measured by a custom circuit that produces a hysteresis loop for each toroid. Toroids with various fill factors and fill patterns are compared to determine how these two factors can affect the magnetic field the toroid can produce. These 3D printed toroids can be used for numerous applications in order to increase the efficiency of transformers by making it possible for manufacturers to make a toroidal geometry.

  11. 3D dynamic roadmapping for abdominal catheterizations.

    PubMed

    Bender, Frederik; Groher, Martin; Khamene, Ali; Wein, Wolfgang; Heibel, Tim Hauke; Navab, Nassir

    2008-01-01

    Despite rapid advances in interventional imaging, the navigation of a guide wire through abdominal vasculature remains, not only for novice radiologists, a difficult task. Since this navigation is mostly based on 2D fluoroscopic image sequences from one view, the process is slowed down significantly due to missing depth information and patient motion. We propose a novel approach for 3D dynamic roadmapping in deformable regions by predicting the location of the guide wire tip in a 3D vessel model from the tip's 2D location, respiratory motion analysis, and view geometry. In a first step, the method compensates for the apparent respiratory motion in 2D space before backprojecting the 2D guide wire tip into three dimensional space, using a given projection matrix. To countervail the error connected to the projection parameters and the motion compensation, as well as the ambiguity caused by vessel deformation, we establish a statistical framework, which computes a reliable estimate of the guide wire tip location within the 3D vessel model. With this 2D-to-3D transfer, the navigation can be performed from arbitrary viewing angles, disconnected from the static perspective view of the fluoroscopic sequence. Tests on a realistic breathing phantom and on synthetic data with a known ground truth clearly reveal the superiority of our approach compared to naive methods for 3D roadmapping. The concepts and information presented in this paper are based on research and are not commercially available. PMID:18982662

  12. Lifting Object Detection Datasets into 3D.

    PubMed

    Carreira, Joao; Vicente, Sara; Agapito, Lourdes; Batista, Jorge

    2016-07-01

    While data has certainly taken the center stage in computer vision in recent years, it can still be difficult to obtain in certain scenarios. In particular, acquiring ground truth 3D shapes of objects pictured in 2D images remains a challenging feat and this has hampered progress in recognition-based object reconstruction from a single image. Here we propose to bypass previous solutions such as 3D scanning or manual design, that scale poorly, and instead populate object category detection datasets semi-automatically with dense, per-object 3D reconstructions, bootstrapped from:(i) class labels, (ii) ground truth figure-ground segmentations and (iii) a small set of keypoint annotations. Our proposed algorithm first estimates camera viewpoint using rigid structure-from-motion and then reconstructs object shapes by optimizing over visual hull proposals guided by loose within-class shape similarity assumptions. The visual hull sampling process attempts to intersect an object's projection cone with the cones of minimal subsets of other similar objects among those pictured from certain vantage points. We show that our method is able to produce convincing per-object 3D reconstructions and to accurately estimate cameras viewpoints on one of the most challenging existing object-category detection datasets, PASCAL VOC. We hope that our results will re-stimulate interest on joint object recognition and 3D reconstruction from a single image. PMID:27295458

  13. 3D camera tracking from disparity images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kiyoung; Woo, Woontack

    2005-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a robust camera tracking method that uses disparity images computed from known parameters of 3D camera and multiple epipolar constraints. We assume that baselines between lenses in 3D camera and intrinsic parameters are known. The proposed method reduces camera motion uncertainty encountered during camera tracking. Specifically, we first obtain corresponding feature points between initial lenses using normalized correlation method. In conjunction with matching features, we get disparity images. When the camera moves, the corresponding feature points, obtained from each lens of 3D camera, are robustly tracked via Kanade-Lukas-Tomasi (KLT) tracking algorithm. Secondly, relative pose parameters of each lens are calculated via Essential matrices. Essential matrices are computed from Fundamental matrix calculated using normalized 8-point algorithm with RANSAC scheme. Then, we determine scale factor of translation matrix by d-motion. This is required because the camera motion obtained from Essential matrix is up to scale. Finally, we optimize camera motion using multiple epipolar constraints between lenses and d-motion constraints computed from disparity images. The proposed method can be widely adopted in Augmented Reality (AR) applications, 3D reconstruction using 3D camera, and fine surveillance systems which not only need depth information, but also camera motion parameters in real-time.

  14. Full-color holographic 3D printer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Masami; Shigeta, Hiroaki; Nishihara, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Takahashi, Susumu; Ohyama, Nagaaki; Kobayashi, Akihiko; Iwata, Fujio

    2003-05-01

    A holographic 3D printer is a system that produces a direct hologram with full-parallax information using the 3-dimensional data of a subject from a computer. In this paper, we present a proposal for the reproduction of full-color images with the holographic 3D printer. In order to realize the 3-dimensional color image, we selected the 3 laser wavelength colors of red (λ=633nm), green (λ=533nm), and blue (λ=442nm), and we built a one-step optical system using a projection system and a liquid crystal display. The 3-dimensional color image is obtained by synthesizing in a 2D array the multiple exposure with these 3 wavelengths made on each 250mm elementary hologram, and moving recording medium on a x-y stage. For the natural color reproduction in the holographic 3D printer, we take the approach of the digital processing technique based on the color management technology. The matching between the input and output colors is performed by investigating first, the relation between the gray level transmittance of the LCD and the diffraction efficiency of the hologram and second, by measuring the color displayed by the hologram to establish a correlation. In our first experimental results a non-linear functional relation for single and multiple exposure of the three components were found. These results are the first step in the realization of a natural color 3D image produced by the holographic color 3D printer.

  15. Extra dimensions: 3D in PDF documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, Norman A.

    2011-01-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.

  16. Extra dimensions: 3D in PDF documentation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Graf, Norman A.

    2011-01-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universalmore » 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.« less

  17. The importance of 3D dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy has been getting progressively more complex for the past 20 years. Early radiation therapy techniques needed only basic dosimetry equipment; motorized water phantoms, ionization chambers, and basic radiographic film techniques. As intensity modulated radiation therapy and image guided therapy came into widespread practice, medical physicists were challenged with developing effective and efficient dose measurement techniques. The complex 3-dimensional (3D) nature of the dose distributions that were being delivered demanded the development of more quantitative and more thorough methods for dose measurement. The quality assurance vendors developed a wide array of multidetector arrays that have been enormously useful for measuring and characterizing dose distributions, and these have been made especially useful with the advent of 3D dose calculation systems based on the array measurements, as well as measurements made using film and portal imagers. Other vendors have been providing 3D calculations based on data from the linear accelerator or the record and verify system, providing thorough evaluation of the dose but lacking quality assurance (QA) of the dose delivery process, including machine calibration. The current state of 3D dosimetry is one of a state of flux. The vendors and professional associations are trying to determine the optimal balance between thorough QA, labor efficiency, and quantitation. This balance will take some time to reach, but a necessary component will be the 3D measurement and independent calculation of delivered radiation therapy dose distributions.

  18. Visual inertia of rotating 3-D objects.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Y; Pantle, A J; Mark, L S

    1998-02-01

    Five experiments were designed to determine whether a rotating, transparent 3-D cloud of dots (simulated sphere) could influence the perceived direction of rotation of a subsequent sphere. Experiment 1 established conditions under which the direction of rotation of a virtual sphere was perceived unambiguously. When a near-far luminance difference and perspective depth cues were present, observers consistently saw the sphere rotate in the intended direction. In Experiment 2, a near-far luminance difference was used to create an unambiguous rotation sequence that was followed by a directionally ambiguous rotation sequence that lacked both the near-far luminance cue and the perspective cue. Observers consistently saw the second sequence as rotating in the same direction as the first, indicating the presence of 3-D visual inertia. Experiment 3 showed that 3-D visual inertia was sufficiently powerful to bias the perceived direction of a rotation sequence made unambiguous by a near-far luminance cue. Experiment 5 showed that 3-D visual inertia could be obtained using an occlusion depth cue to create an unambiguous inertia-inducing sequence. Finally, Experiments 2, 4, and 5 all revealed a fast-decay phase of inertia that lasted for approximately 800 msec, followed by an asymptotic phase that lasted for periods as long as 1,600 msec. The implications of these findings are examined with respect to motion mechanisms of 3-D visual inertia. PMID:9529911

  19. Integral 3D display using multiple LCDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okaichi, Naoto; Miura, Masato; Arai, Jun; Mishina, Tomoyuki

    2015-03-01

    The quality of the integral 3D images created by a 3D imaging system was improved by combining multiple LCDs to utilize a greater number of pixels than that possible with one LCD. A prototype of the display device was constructed by using four HD LCDs. An integral photography (IP) image displayed by the prototype is four times larger than that reconstructed by a single display. The pixel pitch of the HD display used is 55.5 μm, and the number of elemental lenses is 212 horizontally and 119 vertically. The 3D image pixel count is 25,228, and the viewing angle is 28°. Since this method is extensible, it is possible to display an integral 3D image of higher quality by increasing the number of LCDs. Using this integral 3D display structure makes it possible to make the whole device thinner than a projector-based display system. It is therefore expected to be applied to the home television in the future.

  20. 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues.

    PubMed

    Mandrycky, Christian; Wang, Zongjie; Kim, Keekyoung; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Bioprinting is a 3D fabrication technology used to precisely dispense cell-laden biomaterials for the construction of complex 3D functional living tissues or artificial organs. While still in its early stages, bioprinting strategies have demonstrated their potential use in regenerative medicine to generate a variety of transplantable tissues, including skin, cartilage, and bone. However, current bioprinting approaches still have technical challenges in terms of high-resolution cell deposition, controlled cell distributions, vascularization, and innervation within complex 3D tissues. While no one-size-fits-all approach to bioprinting has emerged, it remains an on-demand, versatile fabrication technique that may address the growing organ shortage as well as provide a high-throughput method for cell patterning at the micrometer scale for broad biomedical engineering applications. In this review, we introduce the basic principles, materials, integration strategies and applications of bioprinting. We also discuss the recent developments, current challenges and future prospects of 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues. Combined with recent advances in human pluripotent stem cell technologies, 3D-bioprinted tissue models could serve as an enabling platform for high-throughput predictive drug screening and more effective regenerative therapies. PMID:26724184

  1. Miniaturized 3D microscope imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Yung-Sung; Chang, Chir-Weei; Sung, Hsin-Yueh; Wang, Yen-Chang; Chang, Cheng-Yi

    2015-05-01

    We designed and assembled a portable 3-D miniature microscopic image system with the size of 35x35x105 mm3 . By integrating a microlens array (MLA) into the optical train of a handheld microscope, the biological specimen's image will be captured for ease of use in a single shot. With the light field raw data and program, the focal plane can be changed digitally and the 3-D image can be reconstructed after the image was taken. To localize an object in a 3-D volume, an automated data analysis algorithm to precisely distinguish profundity position is needed. The ability to create focal stacks from a single image allows moving or specimens to be recorded. Applying light field microscope algorithm to these focal stacks, a set of cross sections will be produced, which can be visualized using 3-D rendering. Furthermore, we have developed a series of design rules in order to enhance the pixel using efficiency and reduce the crosstalk between each microlens for obtain good image quality. In this paper, we demonstrate a handheld light field microscope (HLFM) to distinguish two different color fluorescence particles separated by a cover glass in a 600um range, show its focal stacks, and 3-D position.

  2. 3D optical measuring technologies and systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chugui, Yuri V.

    2005-02-01

    The results of the R & D activity of TDI SIE SB RAS in the field of the 3D optical measuring technologies and systems for noncontact 3D optical dimensional inspection applied to atomic and railway industry safety problems are presented. This activity includes investigations of diffraction phenomena on some 3D objects, using the original constructive calculation method. The efficient algorithms for precise determining the transverse and longitudinal sizes of 3D objects of constant thickness by diffraction method, peculiarities on formation of the shadow and images of the typical elements of the extended objects were suggested. Ensuring the safety of nuclear reactors and running trains as well as their high exploitation reliability requires a 100% noncontact precise inspection of geometrical parameters of their components. To solve this problem we have developed methods and produced the technical vision measuring systems LMM, CONTROL, PROFIL, and technologies for noncontact 3D dimensional inspection of grid spacers and fuel elements for the nuclear reactor VVER-1000 and VVER-440, as well as automatic laser diagnostic COMPLEX for noncontact inspection of geometric parameters of running freight car wheel pairs. The performances of these systems and the results of industrial testing are presented and discussed. The created devices are in pilot operation at Atomic and Railway Companies.

  3. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Matthew; Lazerson, Samuel A.

    2014-09-01

    With the advent of applied 3D fields in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous slowing down, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database. Elementary benchmark calculations are presented to verify the collisionless particle orbits, NBI model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields. Notice: this manuscript has been authored by Princeton University under Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466 with the US Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

  4. Tissuelike 3D Assemblies of Human Broncho-Epithelial Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) tissuelike assemblies (TLAs) of human broncho-epithelial (HBE) cells have been developed for use in in vitro research on infection of humans by respiratory viruses. The 2D monolayer HBE cell cultures heretofore used in such research lack the complex cell structures and interactions characteristic of in vivo tissues and, consequently, do not adequately emulate the infection dynamics of in-vivo microbial adhesion and invasion. In contrast, the 3D HBE TLAs are characterized by more-realistic reproductions of the geometrical and functional complexity, differentiation of cells, cell-to-cell interactions, and cell-to-matrix interactions characteristic of human respiratory epithelia. Hence, the 3D HBE TLAs are expected to make it possible to perform at least some of the research in vitro under more-realistic conditions, without need to infect human subjects. The TLAs are grown on collagen-coated cyclodextran microbeads under controlled conditions in a nutrient liquid in the simulated microgravitational environment of a bioreactor of the rotating- wall-vessel type. Primary human mesenchymal bronchial-tracheal cells are used as a foundation matrix, while adult human bronchial epithelial immortalized cells are used as the overlying component. The beads become coated with cells, and cells on adjacent beads coalesce into 3D masses. The resulting TLAs have been found to share significant characteristics with in vivo human respiratory epithelia including polarization, tight junctions, desmosomes, and microvilli. The differentiation of the cells in these TLAs into tissues functionally similar to in vivo tissues is confirmed by the presence of compounds, including villin, keratins, and specific lung epithelium marker compounds, and by the production of tissue mucin. In a series of initial infection tests, TLA cultures were inoculated with human respiratory syncytial viruses and parainfluenza type 3 viruses. Infection was confirmed by photomicrographs that

  5. 3D Numerical simulations of oblique subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malatesta, C.; Gerya, T.; Scambelluri, M.; Crispini, L.; Federico, L.; Capponi, G.

    2012-04-01

    In the past 2D numerical studies (e.g. Gerya et al., 2002; Gorczyk et al., 2007; Malatesta et al., 2012) provided evidence that during intraoceanic subduction a serpentinite channel forms above the downgoing plate. This channel forms as a result of hydration of the mantle wedge by uprising slab-fluids. Rocks buried at high depths are finally exhumed within this buoyant low-viscosity medium. Convergence rate in these 2D models was described by a trench-normal component of velocity. Several present and past subduction zones worldwide are however driven by oblique convergence between the plates, where trench-normal motion of the subducting slab is coupled with trench-parallel displacement of the plates. Can the exhumation mechanism and the exhumation rates of high-pressure rocks be affected by the shear component of subduction? And how uprise of these rocks can vary along the plate margin? We tried to address these questions performing 3D numerical models that simulate an intraoceanic oblique subduction. The models are based on thermo-mechanical equations that are solved with finite differences method and marker-in-cell techniques combined with multigrid approach (Gerya, 2010). In most of the models a narrow oceanic basin (500 km-wide) surrounded by continental margins is depicted. The basin is floored by either layered or heterogeneous oceanic lithosphere with gabbro as discrete bodies in serpentinized peridotite and a basaltic layer on the top. A weak zone in the mantle is prescribed to control the location of subduction initiation and therefore the plate margins geometry. Finally, addition of a third dimension in the simulations allowed us to test the role of different plate margin geometries on oblique subduction dynamics. In particular in each model we modified the dip angle of the weak zone and its "lateral" geometry (e.g. continuous, segmented). We consider "continuous" weak zones either parallel or increasingly moving away from the continental margins

  6. SRB-3D Solid Rocket Booster performance prediction program. Volume 1: Engineering description/users information manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkler, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    The modified Solid Rocket Booster Performance Evaluation Model (SRB-3D) was developed as an extension to the internal ballistics module of the SRB-2 performance program. This manual contains the engineering description of SRB-3D which describes the approach used to develop the 3D concept and an explanation of the modifications which were necessary to implement these concepts.

  7. 3D View of Death Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This 3-D perspective view looking north over Death Valley, California, was produced by draping ASTER nighttime thermal infrared data over topographic data from the US Geological Survey. The ASTER data were acquired April 7, 2000 with the multi-spectral thermal infrared channels, and cover an area of 60 by 80 km (37 by 50 miles). Bands 13, 12, and 10 are displayed in red, green and blue respectively. The data have been computer enhanced to exaggerate the color variations that highlight differences in types of surface materials. Salt deposits on the floor of Death Valley appear in shades of yellow, green, purple, and pink, indicating presence of carbonate, sulfate, and chloride minerals. The Panamint Mtns. to the west, and the Black Mtns. to the east, are made up of sedimentary limestones, sandstones, shales, and metamorphic rocks. The bright red areas are dominated by the mineral quartz, such as is found in sandstones; green areas are limestones. In the lower center part of the image is Badwater, the lowest point in North America.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER

  8. Real-time monitoring of 3D cell culture using a 3D capacitance biosensor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Mi; Han, Nalae; Lee, Rimi; Choi, In-Hong; Park, Yong-Beom; Shin, Jeon-Soo; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa

    2016-03-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures have recently received attention because they represent a more physiologically relevant environment compared to conventional two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures. However, 2D-based imaging techniques or cell sensors are insufficient for real-time monitoring of cellular behavior in 3D cell culture. Here, we report investigations conducted with a 3D capacitance cell sensor consisting of vertically aligned pairs of electrodes. When GFP-expressing human breast cancer cells (GFP-MCF-7) encapsulated in alginate hydrogel were cultured in a 3D cell culture system, cellular activities, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis at different heights, could be monitored non-invasively and in real-time by measuring the change in capacitance with the 3D capacitance sensor. Moreover, we were able to monitor cell migration of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with our 3D capacitance sensor. PMID:26386332

  9. 3D scene reconstruction based on 3D laser point cloud combining UAV images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huiyun; Yan, Yangyang; Zhang, Xitong; Wu, Zhenzhen

    2016-03-01

    It is a big challenge capturing and modeling 3D information of the built environment. A number of techniques and technologies are now in use. These include GPS, and photogrammetric application and also remote sensing applications. The experiment uses multi-source data fusion technology for 3D scene reconstruction based on the principle of 3D laser scanning technology, which uses the laser point cloud data as the basis and Digital Ortho-photo Map as an auxiliary, uses 3DsMAX software as a basic tool for building three-dimensional scene reconstruction. The article includes data acquisition, data preprocessing, 3D scene construction. The results show that the 3D scene has better truthfulness, and the accuracy of the scene meet the need of 3D scene construction.

  10. 3D face analysis for demographic biometrics

    SciTech Connect

    Tokola, Ryan A; Mikkilineni, Aravind K; Boehnen, Chris Bensing

    2015-01-01

    Despite being increasingly easy to acquire, 3D data is rarely used for face-based biometrics applications beyond identification. Recent work in image-based demographic biometrics has enjoyed much success, but these approaches suffer from the well-known limitations of 2D representations, particularly variations in illumination, texture, and pose, as well as a fundamental inability to describe 3D shape. This paper shows that simple 3D shape features in a face-based coordinate system are capable of representing many biometric attributes without problem-specific models or specialized domain knowledge. The same feature vector achieves impressive results for problems as diverse as age estimation, gender classification, and race classification.

  11. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve.

    PubMed

    Keating, Steven J; Gariboldi, Maria Isabella; Patrick, William G; Sharma, Sunanda; Kong, David S; Oxman, Neri

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics. PMID:27525809

  12. Angular description for 3D scattering centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalla, Rajan; Raynal, Ann Marie; Ling, Hao; Moore, John; Velten, Vincent J.

    2006-05-01

    The electromagnetic scattered field from an electrically large target can often be well modeled as if it is emanating from a discrete set of scattering centers (see Fig. 1). In the scattering center extraction tool we developed previously based on the shooting and bouncing ray technique, no correspondence is maintained amongst the 3D scattering center extracted at adjacent angles. In this paper we present a multi-dimensional clustering algorithm to track the angular and spatial behaviors of 3D scattering centers and group them into features. The extracted features for the Slicy and backhoe targets are presented. We also describe two metrics for measuring the angular persistence and spatial mobility of the 3D scattering centers that make up these features in order to gather insights into target physics and feature stability. We find that features that are most persistent are also the most mobile and discuss implications for optimal SAR imaging.

  13. Ames Lab 101: 3D Metals Printer

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, Ryan

    2014-02-13

    To meet one of the biggest energy challenges of the 21st century - finding alternatives to rare-earth elements and other critical materials - scientists will need new and advanced tools. The Critical Materials Institute at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory has a new one: a 3D printer for metals research. 3D printing technology, which has captured the imagination of both industry and consumers, enables ideas to move quickly from the initial design phase to final form using materials including polymers, ceramics, paper and even food. But the Critical Materials Institute (CMI) will apply the advantages of the 3D printing process in a unique way: for materials discovery.

  14. 3D Simulation: Microgravity Environments and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Steve L.; Dischinger, Charles; Estes, Samantha; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Most, if not all, 3-D and Virtual Reality (VR) software programs are designed for one-G gravity applications. Space environments simulations require gravity effects of one one-thousandth to one one-million of that of the Earth's surface (10(exp -3) - 10(exp -6) G), thus one must be able to generate simulations that replicate those microgravity effects upon simulated astronauts. Unfortunately, the software programs utilized by the National Aeronautical and Space Administration does not have the ability to readily neutralize the one-G gravity effect. This pre-programmed situation causes the engineer or analysis difficulty during micro-gravity simulations. Therefore, microgravity simulations require special techniques or additional code in order to apply the power of 3D graphic simulation to space related applications. This paper discusses the problem and possible solutions to allow microgravity 3-D/VR simulations to be completed successfully without program code modifications.

  15. Structured light field 3D imaging.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zewei; Liu, Xiaoli; Peng, Xiang; Yin, Yongkai; Li, Ameng; Wu, Jiachen; Gao, Bruce Z

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a method by means of light field imaging under structured illumination to deal with high dynamic range 3D imaging. Fringe patterns are projected onto a scene and modulated by the scene depth then a structured light field is detected using light field recording devices. The structured light field contains information about ray direction and phase-encoded depth, via which the scene depth can be estimated from different directions. The multidirectional depth estimation can achieve high dynamic 3D imaging effectively. We analyzed and derived the phase-depth mapping in the structured light field and then proposed a flexible ray-based calibration approach to determine the independent mapping coefficients for each ray. Experimental results demonstrated the validity of the proposed method to perform high-quality 3D imaging for highly and lowly reflective surfaces. PMID:27607639

  16. 3D holoscopic video imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steurer, Johannes H.; Pesch, Matthias; Hahne, Christopher

    2012-03-01

    Since many years, integral imaging has been discussed as a technique to overcome the limitations of standard still photography imaging systems where a three-dimensional scene is irrevocably projected onto two dimensions. With the success of 3D stereoscopic movies, a huge interest in capturing three-dimensional motion picture scenes has been generated. In this paper, we present a test bench integral imaging camera system aiming to tailor the methods of light field imaging towards capturing integral 3D motion picture content. We estimate the hardware requirements needed to generate high quality 3D holoscopic images and show a prototype camera setup that allows us to study these requirements using existing technology. The necessary steps that are involved in the calibration of the system as well as the technique of generating human readable holoscopic images from the recorded data are discussed.

  17. Spectroradiometric characterization of autostereoscopic 3D displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubiño, Manuel; Salas, Carlos; Pozo, Antonio M.; Castro, J. J.; Pérez-Ocón, Francisco

    2013-11-01

    Spectroradiometric measurements have been made for the experimental characterization of the RGB channels of autostereoscopic 3D displays, giving results for different measurement angles with respect to the normal direction of the plane of the display. In the study, 2 different models of autostereoscopic 3D displays of different sizes and resolutions were used, making measurements with a spectroradiometer (model PR-670 SpectraScan of PhotoResearch). From the measurements made, goniometric results were recorded for luminance contrast, and the fundamental hypotheses have been evaluated for the characterization of the displays: independence of the RGB channels and their constancy. The results show that the display with the lower angle variability in the contrast-ratio value and constancy of the chromaticity coordinates nevertheless presented the greatest additivity deviations with the measurement angle. For both displays, when the parameters evaluated were taken into account, lower angle variability consistently resulted in the 2D mode than in the 3D mode.

  18. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, William G.; Sharma, Sunanda; Kong, David S.; Oxman, Neri

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics. PMID:27525809

  19. Decoder for 3-D color codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Kung-Chuan; Brun, Todd

    Transversal circuits are important components of fault-tolerant quantum computation. Several classes of quantum error-correcting codes are known to have transversal implementations of any logical Clifford operation. However, to achieve universal quantum computation, it would be helpful to have high-performance error-correcting codes that have a transversal implementation of some logical non-Clifford operation. The 3-D color codes are a class of topological codes that permit transversal implementation of the logical π / 8 -gate. The decoding problem of a 3-D color code can be understood as a graph-matching problem on a three-dimensional lattice. Whether this class of codes will be useful in terms of performance is still an open question. We investigate the decoding problem of 3-D color codes and analyze the performance of some possible decoders.

  20. Particle Acceleration in 3D Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlin, J.; Drake, J. F.; Swisdak, M.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection is an important driver of energetic particles in phenomena such as magnetospheric storms and solar flares. Using kinetic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, we show that the stochastic magnetic field structure which develops during 3D reconnection plays a vital role in particle acceleration and transport. In a 2D system, electrons are trapped in magnetic islands which limits their energy gain. In a 3D system, however, the stochastic magnetic field enables the energetic electrons to access volume-filling acceleration regions and therefore gain energy much more efficiently than in the 2D system. We also examine the relative roles of two important acceleration drivers: parallel electric fields and a Fermi mechanism associated with reflection of charged particles from contracting field lines. We find that parallel electric fields are most important for accelerating low energy particles, whereas Fermi reflection dominates energetic particle production. We also find that proton energization is reduced in the 3D system.

  1. Ames Lab 101: 3D Metals Printer

    ScienceCinema

    Ott, Ryan

    2014-06-04

    To meet one of the biggest energy challenges of the 21st century - finding alternatives to rare-earth elements and other critical materials - scientists will need new and advanced tools. The Critical Materials Institute at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory has a new one: a 3D printer for metals research. 3D printing technology, which has captured the imagination of both industry and consumers, enables ideas to move quickly from the initial design phase to final form using materials including polymers, ceramics, paper and even food. But the Critical Materials Institute (CMI) will apply the advantages of the 3D printing process in a unique way: for materials discovery.

  2. Impedance mammograph 3D phantom studies.

    PubMed

    Wtorek, J; Stelter, J; Nowakowski, A

    1999-04-20

    The results obtained using the Technical University of Gdansk Electroimpedance Mammograph (TUGEM) of a 3D phantom study are presented. The TUGEM system is briefly described. The hardware contains the measurement head and DSP-based identification modules controlled by a PC computer. A specially developed reconstruction algorithm, Regulated Correction Frequency Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (RCFART), is used to obtain 3D images. To visualize results, the Advance Visualization System (AVS) is used. It allows a powerful image processing on a fast workstation or on a high-performance computer. Results of three types of 3D conductivity perturbations used in the study (aluminum, Plexiglas, and cucumber) are shown. The relative volumes of perturbations less than 2% of the measurement chamber are easily evidenced. PMID:10372188

  3. 3D EIT image reconstruction with GREIT.

    PubMed

    Grychtol, Bartłomiej; Müller, Beat; Adler, Andy

    2016-06-01

    Most applications of thoracic EIT use a single plane of electrodes on the chest from which a transverse image 'slice' is calculated. However, interpretation of EIT images is made difficult by the large region above and below the electrode plane to which EIT is sensitive. Volumetric EIT images using two (or more) electrode planes should help compensate, but are little used currently. The Graz consensus reconstruction algorithm for EIT (GREIT) has become popular in lung EIT. One shortcoming of the original formulation of GREIT is its restriction to reconstruction onto a 2D planar image. We present an extension of the GREIT algorithm to 3D and develop open-source tools to evaluate its performance as a function of the choice of stimulation and measurement pattern. Results show 3D GREIT using two electrode layers has significantly more uniform sensitivity profiles through the chest region. Overall, the advantages of 3D EIT are compelling. PMID:27203184

  4. Methods for comparing 3D surface attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Alex; Freeman, Adam

    1996-03-01

    A common task in data analysis is to compare two or more sets of data, statistics, presentations, etc. A predominant method in use is side-by-side visual comparison of images. While straightforward, it burdens the user with the task of discerning the differences between the two images. The user if further taxed when the images are of 3D scenes. This paper presents several methods for analyzing the extent, magnitude, and manner in which surfaces in 3D differ in their attributes. The surface geometry are assumed to be identical and only the surface attributes (color, texture, etc.) are variable. As a case in point, we examine the differences obtained when a 3D scene is rendered progressively using radiosity with different form factor calculation methods. The comparison methods include extensions of simple methods such as mapping difference information to color or transparency, and more recent methods including the use of surface texture, perturbation, and adaptive placements of error glyphs.

  5. First 3D view of solar eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-07-01

    loops, rather than a bubble or rope-like structure. Although this technique had been independently developed previously to study relatively static structures in the solar atmosphere during eclipses, this is the first time that it is applied to fast moving CMEs. Moran and Davila believe that their method will complement data from the upcoming NASA’s Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) mission, scheduled for launch in February 2006. STEREO will use two widely separated spacecraft to construct 3D views of CMEs by combining images from the different vantage points of the twin spacecraft. Commenting on this result, Bernhard Fleck, SOHO Project Scientist at ESA, said: "These are really amazing images. Once again scientists have come up with a clever idea for analysing SOHO data in ways that were not even dreamt of when the mission was designed." Movie: http://esamultimedia.esa.int/images/spcs/soho/soho20040702.mpg 3 stills from the movie http://esamultimedia.esa.int/images/spcs/soho/soho20040702c.tiff http://esamultimedia.esa.int/images/spcs/soho/soho20040702d.tiff http://esamultimedia.esa.int/images/spcs/soho/soho20040702e.tiff This movie shows a 3D rendering of the data in Figure 2. It starts out viewing the Sun from SOHO's perspective, then rotates the scene to view the data from the side, and finally from the top. Note that one distinct feature shown at about 11 o'clock in Figure 2 panel a has been left out of the movie, because it is a static structure and not a part of the CME. Notes to Editors: This new result by T. Moran and J. Davila is published in today’s issue of the magazine Science. More about SOHO SOHO is a project of international co-operation between ESA and NASA to study the Sun, from its deep core to the outer corona, and the solar wind. Fourteen European countries, led by the European Space Agency and prime contractor Astrium (formerly Matra-Marconi), built the SOHO spacecraft. It carries twelve instruments (nine European-led and three

  6. Local Diagnosis of Reconnection in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scudder, J. D.; Karimabadi, H.; Daughton, W. S.; Roytershteyn, V.

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate (I,II) an approach to find reconnection sites in 3D where there is no flux function for guidance, and where local observational signatures for the ``violation of frozen flux'' are under developed, if not non-existent. We use 2D and 3D PIC simulations of asymmetric guide field reconnection to test our observational hierarchy of single spacecraft kinetic diagnostics - all possible with present state of the art instrumentation. The proliferation of turbulent, electron inertial scale layers in the realistic 3D case demonstrates that electron demagnetization, while necessary, is not sufficient to identify reconnection sites. An excellent local, observable, single spacecraft proxy is demonstrated for the size of the theoretical frozen flux violation. Since even frozen flux violations need not imply reconnection is at hand, a new calibrated dimensionless method is used to determine the importance of such violations. This measure is available in 2D and 3D to help differentiate reconnection layers from weaker frozen flux violating layers. We discuss the possibility that this technique can be implemented on MMS. A technique to highlight flow geometries conducive to reconnection in 3D simulations is also suggested, that may also be implementable with the MMS flotilla. We use local analysis with multiple necessary, but theoretically independent electron kinetic conditions to help reduce the probability of misidentification of any given layer as a reconnection site. Since these local conditions are all necessary for the site, but none is known to be sufficient, the multiple tests help to greatly reduce false positive identifications. The selectivity of the results of this approach using PIC simulations of 3D asymmetric guide field reconnection will be shown using varying numbers of simultaneous conditions. Scudder, J.D., H. Karimabadi, W. Daughton and V. Roytershteyn I, II, submitted Phys. Plasma., 2014

  7. 3D printed diffractive terahertz lenses.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Walter D; Ferrando, Vicente; Monsoriu, Juan A; Zagrajek, Przemysław; Czerwińska, Elżbieta; Szustakowski, Mieczysław

    2016-04-15

    A 3D printer was used to realize custom-made diffractive THz lenses. After testing several materials, phase binary lenses with periodic and aperiodic radial profiles were designed and constructed in polyamide material to work at 0.625 THz. The nonconventional focusing properties of such lenses were assessed by computing and measuring their axial point spread function (PSF). Our results demonstrate that inexpensive 3D printed THz diffractive lenses can be reliably used in focusing and imaging THz systems. Diffractive THz lenses with unprecedented features, such as extended depth of focus or bifocalization, have been demonstrated. PMID:27082335

  8. The Galicia 3D experiment: an Introduction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reston, Timothy; Martinez Loriente, Sara; Holroyd, Luke; Merry, Tobias; Sawyer, Dale; Morgan, Julia; Jordan, Brian; Tesi Sanjurjo, Mari; Alexanian, Ara; Shillington, Donna; Gibson, James; Minshull, Tim; Karplus, Marianne; Bayracki, Gaye; Davy, Richard; Klaeschen, Dirk; Papenberg, Cord; Ranero, Cesar; Perez-Gussinye, Marta; Martinez, Miguel

    2014-05-01

    In June and July 2013, scientists from 8 institutions took part in the Galicia 3D seismic experiment, the first ever crustal -scale academic 3D MCS survey over a rifted margin. The aim was to determine the 3D structure of a critical portion of the west Galicia rifted margin. At this margin, well-defined tilted fault blocks, bound by west-dipping faults and capped by synrift sediments are underlain by a bright reflection, undulating on time sections, termed the S reflector and thought to represent a major detachment fault of some kind. Moving west, the crust thins to zero thickness and mantle is unroofed, as evidence by the "Peridotite Ridge" first reported at this margin, but since observed at many other magma-poor margins. By imaging such a margin in detail, the experiment aimed to resolve the processes controlling crustal thinning and mantle unroofing at a type example magma poor margin. The experiment set out to collect several key datasets: a 3D seismic reflection volume measuring ~20x64km and extending down to ~14s TWT, a 3D ocean bottom seismometer dataset suitable for full wavefield inversion (the recording of the complete 3D seismic shots by 70 ocean bottom instruments), the "mirror imaging" of the crust using the same grid of OBS, a single 2D combined reflection/refraction profile extending to the west to determine the transition from unroofed mantle to true oceanic crust, and the seismic imaging of the water column, calibrated by regular deployment of XBTs to measure the temperature structure of the water column. We collected 1280 km2 of seismic reflection data, consisting of 136533 shots recorded on 1920 channels, producing 260 million seismic traces, each ~ 14s long. This adds up to ~ 8 terabytes of data, representing, we believe, the largest ever academic 3D MCS survey in terms of both the area covered and the volume of data. The OBS deployment was the largest ever within an academic 3D survey.

  9. Vector quantization of 3-D point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Jae-Young; Kim, Chang-Su; Lee, Sang-Uk

    2005-10-01

    A geometry compression algorithm for 3-D QSplat data using vector quantization (VQ) is proposed in this work. The positions of child spheres are transformed to the local coordinate system, which is determined by the parent children relationship. The coordinate transform makes child positions more compactly distributed in 3-D space, facilitating effective quantization. Moreover, we develop a constrained encoding method for sphere radii, which guarantees hole-free surface rendering at the decoder side. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm provides a faithful rendering quality even at low bitrates.

  10. Solar abundances and 3D model atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Hans-Günter; Caffau, Elisabetta; Steffen, Matthias; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Freytag, Bernd; Cayrel, Roger

    2010-03-01

    We present solar photospheric abundances for 12 elements from optical and near-infrared spectroscopy. The abundance analysis was conducted employing 3D hydrodynamical (CO5BOLD) as well as standard 1D hydrostatic model atmospheres. We compare our results to others with emphasis on discrepancies and still lingering problems, in particular exemplified by the pivotal abundance of oxygen. We argue that the thermal structure of the lower solar photosphere is very well represented by our 3D model. We obtain an excellent match of the observed center-to-limb variation of the line-blanketed continuum intensity, also at wavelengths shortward of the Balmer jump.

  11. Visualization of liver in 3-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chin-Tu; Chou, Jin-Shin; Giger, Maryellen L.; Kahn, Charles E., Jr.; Bae, Kyongtae T.; Lin, Wei-Chung

    1991-05-01

    Visualization of the liver in three dimensions (3-D) can improve the accuracy of volumetric estimation and also aid in surgical planning. We have developed a method for 3-D visualization of the liver using x-ray computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) images. This method includes four major components: (1) segmentation algorithms for extracting liver data from tomographic images; (2) interpolation techniques for both shape and intensity; (3) schemes for volume rendering and display, and (4) routines for electronic surgery and image analysis. This method has been applied to cases from a living-donor liver transplant project and appears to be useful for surgical planning.

  12. Acquisition and applications of 3D images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterian, Paul; Mocanu, Elena

    2007-08-01

    The moiré fringes method and their analysis up to medical and entertainment applications are discussed in this paper. We describe the procedure of capturing 3D images with an Inspeck Camera that is a real-time 3D shape acquisition system based on structured light techniques. The method is a high-resolution one. After processing the images, using computer, we can use the data for creating laser fashionable objects by engraving them with a Q-switched Nd:YAG. In medical field we mention the plastic surgery and the replacement of X-Ray especially in pediatric use.

  13. Anisotropy effects on 3D waveform inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stekl, I.; Warner, M.; Umpleby, A.

    2010-12-01

    In the recent years 3D waveform inversion has become achievable procedure for seismic data processing. A number of datasets has been inverted and presented (Warner el al 2008, Ben Hadj at all, Sirgue et all 2010) using isotropic 3D waveform inversion. However the question arises will the results be affected by isotropic assumption. Full-wavefield inversion techniques seek to match field data, wiggle-for-wiggle, to synthetic data generated by a high-resolution model of the sub-surface. In this endeavour, correctly matching the travel times of the principal arrivals is a necessary minimal requirement. In many, perhaps most, long-offset and wide-azimuth datasets, it is necessary to introduce some form of p-wave velocity anisotropy to match the travel times successfully. If this anisotropy is not also incorporated into the wavefield inversion, then results from the inversion will necessarily be compromised. We have incorporated anisotropy into our 3D wavefield tomography codes, characterised as spatially varying transverse isotropy with a tilted axis of symmetry - TTI anisotropy. This enhancement approximately doubles both the run time and the memory requirements of the code. We show that neglect of anisotropy can lead to significant artefacts in the recovered velocity models. We will present inversion results of inverting anisotropic 3D dataset by assuming isotropic earth and compare them with anisotropic inversion result. As a test case Marmousi model extended to 3D with no velocity variation in third direction and with added spatially varying anisotropy is used. Acquisition geometry is assumed as OBC with sources and receivers everywhere at the surface. We attempted inversion using both 2D and full 3D acquisition for this dataset. Results show that if no anisotropy is taken into account although image looks plausible most features are miss positioned in depth and space, even for relatively low anisotropy, which leads to incorrect result. This may lead to

  14. FARGO3D: Hydrodynamics/magnetohydrodynamics code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benítez Llambay, Pablo; Masset, Frédéric

    2015-09-01

    A successor of FARGO (ascl:1102.017), FARGO3D is a versatile HD/MHD code that runs on clusters of CPUs or GPUs, with special emphasis on protoplanetary disks. FARGO3D offers Cartesian, cylindrical or spherical geometry; 1-, 2- or 3-dimensional calculations; and orbital advection (aka FARGO) for HD and MHD calculations. As in FARGO, a simple Runge-Kutta N-body solver may be used to describe the orbital evolution of embedded point-like objects. There is no need to know CUDA; users can develop new functions in C and have them translated to CUDA automatically to run on GPUs.

  15. 3D Modeling Engine Representation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Prescott; Ramprasad Sampath; Curtis Smith; Timothy Yang

    2014-09-01

    Computers have been used for 3D modeling and simulation, but only recently have computational resources been able to give realistic results in a reasonable time frame for large complex models. This summary report addressed the methods, techniques, and resources used to develop a 3D modeling engine to represent risk analysis simulation for advanced small modular reactor structures and components. The simulations done for this evaluation were focused on external events, specifically tsunami floods, for a hypothetical nuclear power facility on a coastline.

  16. Immersive 3D geovisualisation in higher education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2014-05-01

    Through geovisualisation we explore spatial data, we analyse it towards a specific questions, we synthesise results, and we present and communicate them to a specific audience (MacEachren & Kraak 1997). After centuries of paper maps, the means to represent and visualise our physical environment and its abstract qualities have changed dramatically since the 1990s - and accordingly the methods how to use geovisualisation in teaching. Whereas some people might still consider the traditional classroom as ideal setting for teaching and learning geographic relationships and its mapping, we used a 3D CAVE (computer-animated virtual environment) as environment for a problem-oriented learning project called "GEOSimulator". Focussing on this project, we empirically investigated, if such a technological advance like the CAVE make 3D visualisation, including 3D geovisualisation, not only an important tool for businesses (Abulrub et al. 2012) and for the public (Wissen et al. 2008), but also for educational purposes, for which it had hardly been used yet. The 3D CAVE is a three-sided visualisation platform, that allows for immersive and stereoscopic visualisation of observed and simulated spatial data. We examined the benefits of immersive 3D visualisation for geographic research and education and synthesized three fundamental technology-based visual aspects: First, the conception and comprehension of space and location does not need to be generated, but is instantaneously and intuitively present through stereoscopy. Second, optical immersion into virtual reality strengthens this spatial perception which is in particular important for complex 3D geometries. And third, a significant benefit is interactivity, which is enhanced through immersion and allows for multi-discursive and dynamic data exploration and knowledge transfer. Based on our problem-oriented learning project, which concentrates on a case study on flood risk management at the Wilde Weisseritz in Germany, a river

  17. Cryogenic 3D printing for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Adamkiewicz, Michal; Rubinsky, Boris

    2015-12-01

    We describe a new cryogenic 3D printing technology for freezing hydrogels, with a potential impact to tissue engineering. We show that complex frozen hydrogel structures can be generated when the 3D object is printed immersed in a liquid coolant (liquid nitrogen), whose upper surface is maintained at the same level as the highest deposited layer of the object. This novel approach ensures that the process of freezing is controlled precisely, and that already printed frozen layers remain at a constant temperature. We describe the device and present results which illustrate the potential of the new technology. PMID:26548335

  18. Innovations in 3D printing: a 3D overview from optics to organs.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Carl; van Langeveld, Mark C; Donoso, Larry A

    2014-02-01

    3D printing is a method of manufacturing in which materials, such as plastic or metal, are deposited onto one another in layers to produce a three dimensional object, such as a pair of eye glasses or other 3D objects. This process contrasts with traditional ink-based printers which produce a two dimensional object (ink on paper). To date, 3D printing has primarily been used in engineering to create engineering prototypes. However, recent advances in printing materials have now enabled 3D printers to make objects that are comparable with traditionally manufactured items. In contrast with conventional printers, 3D printing has the potential to enable mass customisation of goods on a large scale and has relevance in medicine including ophthalmology. 3D printing has already been proved viable in several medical applications including the manufacture of eyeglasses, custom prosthetic devices and dental implants. In this review, we discuss the potential for 3D printing to revolutionise manufacturing in the same way as the printing press revolutionised conventional printing. The applications and limitations of 3D printing are discussed; the production process is demonstrated by producing a set of eyeglass frames from 3D blueprints. PMID:24288392

  19. Recent developments in DFD (depth-fused 3D) display and arc 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suyama, Shiro; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu

    2015-05-01

    We will report our recent developments in DFD (Depth-fused 3D) display and arc 3D display, both of which have smooth movement parallax. Firstly, fatigueless DFD display, composed of only two layered displays with a gap, has continuous perceived depth by changing luminance ratio between two images. Two new methods, called "Edge-based DFD display" and "Deep DFD display", have been proposed in order to solve two severe problems of viewing angle and perceived depth limitations. Edge-based DFD display, layered by original 2D image and its edge part with a gap, can expand the DFD viewing angle limitation both in 2D and 3D perception. Deep DFD display can enlarge the DFD image depth by modulating spatial frequencies of front and rear images. Secondly, Arc 3D display can provide floating 3D images behind or in front of the display by illuminating many arc-shaped directional scattering sources, for example, arcshaped scratches on a flat board. Curved Arc 3D display, composed of many directional scattering sources on a curved surface, can provide a peculiar 3D image, for example, a floating image in the cylindrical bottle. The new active device has been proposed for switching arc 3D images by using the tips of dual-frequency liquid-crystal prisms as directional scattering sources. Directional scattering can be switched on/off by changing liquid-crystal refractive index, resulting in switching of arc 3D image.

  20. Synthesizing 3D Surfaces from Parameterized Strip Charts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Peter I.; Gomez, Julian; Morehouse, Michael; Gawdiak, Yuri

    2004-01-01

    We believe 3D information visualization has the power to unlock new levels of productivity in the monitoring and control of complex processes. Our goal is to provide visual methods to allow for rapid human insight into systems consisting of thousands to millions of parameters. We explore this hypothesis in two complex domains: NASA program management and NASA International Space Station (ISS) spacecraft computer operations. We seek to extend a common form of visualization called the strip chart from 2D to 3D. A strip chart can display the time series progression of a parameter and allows for trends and events to be identified. Strip charts can be overlayed when multiple parameters need to visualized in order to correlate their events. When many parameters are involved, the direct overlaying of strip charts can become confusing and may not fully utilize the graphing area to convey the relationships between the parameters. We provide a solution to this problem by generating 3D surfaces from parameterized strip charts. The 3D surface utilizes significantly more screen area to illustrate the differences in the parameters and the overlayed strip charts, and it can rapidly be scanned by humans to gain insight. The selection of the third dimension must be a parallel or parameterized homogenous resource in the target domain, defined using a finite, ordered, enumerated type, and not a heterogeneous type. We demonstrate our concepts with examples from the NASA program management domain (assessing the state of many plans) and the computers of the ISS (assessing the state of many computers). We identify 2D strip charts in each domain and show how to construct the corresponding 3D surfaces. The user can navigate the surface, zooming in on regions of interest, setting a mark and drilling down to source documents from which the data points have been derived. We close by discussing design issues, related work, and implementation challenges.

  1. 3D root canal modeling for advanced endodontic treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Shane Y.; Dong, Janet

    2002-06-01

    More than 14 million teeth receive endodontic (root canal) treatment annually. Before a clinician's inspection and diagnosis, destructive access preparation by removing teeth crown and dentin is usually needed. This paper presents a non-invasive method for accessing internal tooth geometry by building 3-D tooth model from 2-D radiographic and endoscopic images to be used for an automatic prescription system of computer-aided treatment procedure planning, and for the root canal preparation by an intelligent micro drilling machine with on-line monitoring. It covers the techniques specific for dental application in the radiographic images acquirement, image enhancement, image segmentation and feature recognition, distance measurement and calibration, merging 2D image into 3D mathematical model representation and display. Included also are the methods to form references for irregular teeth geometry and to do accurately measurement with self-calibration.

  2. A Nonlinear Modal Aeroelastic Solver for FUN3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, Benjamin D.; Bartels, Robert E.; Biedron, Robert T.; Scott, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    A nonlinear structural solver has been implemented internally within the NASA FUN3D computational fluid dynamics code, allowing for some new aeroelastic capabilities. Using a modal representation of the structure, a set of differential or differential-algebraic equations are derived for general thin structures with geometric nonlinearities. ODEPACK and LAPACK routines are linked with FUN3D, and the nonlinear equations are solved at each CFD time step. The existing predictor-corrector method is retained, whereby the structural solution is updated after mesh deformation. The nonlinear solver is validated using a test case for a flexible aeroshell at transonic, supersonic, and hypersonic flow conditions. Agreement with linear theory is seen for the static aeroelastic solutions at relatively low dynamic pressures, but structural nonlinearities limit deformation amplitudes at high dynamic pressures. No flutter was found at any of the tested trajectory points, though LCO may be possible in the transonic regime.

  3. 3D image of protein visualization in a whole rice grain using an automatic precision microtome system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Yukiharu; Ohtani, Toshio; Sugiyama, Junichi; Hagiwara, Shoji; Tanaka, Kunisuke; Kudoh, Ken-ichi; Higuchi, Toshiro

    2000-05-01

    The 3D image formation technique using confocal microscopy has allows visualization of the 3D chemical structure in small parts of the bio-body. However, the large-scale 3D structure such as the distribution of chemical components throughout the whole body has not been shown. To allow such large scale visualization of the 3D internal analysis technique for bio-body has been developed.

  4. RELAP5-3D Developer Guidelines and Programming Practices

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. George L Mesina

    2014-03-01

    Our ultimate goal is to create and maintain RELAP5-3D as the best software tool available to analyze nuclear power plants. This begins with writing excellent programming and requires thorough testing. This document covers development of RELAP5-3D software, the behavior of the RELAP5-3D program that must be maintained, and code testing. RELAP5-3D must perform in a manner consistent with previous code versions with backward compatibility for the sake of the users. Thus file operations, code termination, input and output must remain consistent in form and content while adding appropriate new files, input and output as new features are developed. As computer hardware, operating systems, and other software change, RELAP5-3D must adapt and maintain performance. The code must be thoroughly tested to ensure that it continues to perform robustly on the supported platforms. The coding must be written in a consistent manner that makes the program easy to read to reduce the time and cost of development, maintenance and error resolution. The programming guidelines presented her are intended to institutionalize a consistent way of writing FORTRAN code for the RELAP5-3D computer program that will minimize errors and rework. A common format and organization of program units creates a unifying look and feel to the code. This in turn increases readability and reduces time required for maintenance, development and debugging. It also aids new programmers in reading and understanding the program. Therefore, when undertaking development of the RELAP5-3D computer program, the programmer must write computer code that follows these guidelines. This set of programming guidelines creates a framework of good programming practices, such as initialization, structured programming, and vector-friendly coding. It sets out formatting rules for lines of code, such as indentation, capitalization, spacing, etc. It creates limits on program units, such as subprograms, functions, and modules. It

  5. An Update on Design Tools for Optimization of CMC 3D Fiber Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, J.; DiCarlo, J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Describe and up-date progress for NASA's efforts to develop 3D architectural design tools for CMC in general and for SIC/SiC composites in particular. Describe past and current sequential work efforts aimed at: Understanding key fiber and tow physical characteristics in conventional 2D and 3D woven architectures as revealed by microstructures in the literature. Developing an Excel program for down-selecting and predicting key geometric properties and resulting key fiber-controlled properties for various conventional 3D architectures. Developing a software tool for accurately visualizing all the key geometric details of conventional 3D architectures. Validating tools by visualizing and predicting the Internal geometry and key mechanical properties of a NASA SIC/SIC panel with a 3D orthogonal architecture. Applying the predictive and visualization tools toward advanced 3D orthogonal SiC/SIC composites, and combining them into a user-friendly software program.

  6. UNIQUIMER 3D, a software system for structural DNA nanotechnology design, analysis and evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jinhao; Wei, Bryan; Yuan, Yuan; Mi, Yongli

    2009-01-01

    A user-friendly software system, UNIQUIMER 3D, was developed to design DNA structures for nanotechnology applications. It consists of 3D visualization, internal energy minimization, sequence generation and construction of motif array simulations (2D tiles and 3D lattices) functionalities. The system can be used to check structural deformation and design errors under scaled-up conditions. UNIQUIMER 3D has been tested on the design of both existing motifs (holiday junction, 4 × 4 tile, double crossover, DNA tetrahedron, DNA cube, etc.) and nonexisting motifs (soccer ball). The results demonstrated UNIQUIMER 3D's capability in designing large complex structures. We also designed a de novo sequence generation algorithm. UNIQUIMER 3D was developed for the Windows environment and is provided free of charge to the nonprofit research institutions. PMID:19228709

  7. Gravity and spatial orientation in virtual 3D-mazes.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Manuel; Lipshits, Mark; McIntyre, Joseph; Berthoz, Alain

    2003-01-01

    In order to bring new insights into the processing of 3D spatial information, we conducted experiments on the capacity of human subjects to memorize 3D-structured environments, such as buildings with several floors or the potentially complex 3D structure of an orbital space station. We had subjects move passively in one of two different exploration modes, through a visual virtual environment that consisted of a series of connected tunnels. In upright displacement, self-rotation when going around corners in the tunnels was limited to yaw rotations. For horizontal translations, subjects faced forward in the direction of motion. When moving up or down through vertical segments of the 3D tunnels, however, subjects facing the tunnel wall, remaining upright as if moving up and down in a glass elevator. In the unconstrained displacement mode, subjects would appear to climb or dive face-forward when moving vertically; thus, in this mode subjects could experience visual flow consistent with rotations about any of the 3 canonical axes. In a previous experiment, subjects were asked to determine whether a static, outside view of a test tunnel corresponded or not to the tunnel through which they had just passed. Results showed that performance was better on this task for the upright than for the unconstrained displacement mode; i.e. when subjects remained "upright" with respect to the virtual environment as defined by subject's posture in the first segment. This effect suggests that gravity may provide a key reference frame used in the shift between egocentric and allocentric representations of the 3D virtual world. To check whether it is the polarizing effects of gravity that leads to the favoring of the upright displacement mode, the experimental paradigm was adapted for orbital flight and performed by cosmonauts onboard the International Space Station. For these flight experiments the previous recognition task was replaced by a computerized reconstruction task, which proved

  8. 3D Printing in Zero-G ISS Technology Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mallory M.; Werkheiser, Mary J.; Cooper, Kenneth G.; Snyder, Michael P.; Edmunson, Jennifer E.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has a long term strategy to fabricate components and equipment on-demand for manned missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. To support this strategy, NASA and Made in Space, Inc. are developing the 3D Printing In Zero-G payload as a Technology Demonstration for the International Space Station. The 3D Printing In Zero-G experiment will be the first machine to perform 3D printing in space. The greater the distance from Earth and the longer the mission duration, the more difficult resupply becomes; this requires a change from the current spares, maintenance, repair, and hardware design model that has been used on the International Space Station up until now. Given the extension of the ISS Program, which will inevitably result in replacement parts being required, the ISS is an ideal platform to begin changing the current model for resupply and repair to one that is more suitable for all exploration missions. 3D Printing, more formally known as Additive Manufacturing, is the method of building parts/ objects/tools layer-by-layer. The 3D Print experiment will use extrusion-based additive manufacturing, which involves building an object out of plastic deposited by a wire-feed via an extruder head. Parts can be printed from data files loaded on the device at launch, as well as additional files uplinked to the device while on-orbit. The plastic extrusion additive manufacturing process is a low-energy, low-mass solution to many common needs on board the ISS. The 3D Print payload will serve as the ideal first step to proving that process in space. It is unreasonable to expect NASA to launch large blocks of material from which parts or tools can be traditionally machined, and even more unreasonable to fly up specialized manufacturing hardware to perform the entire range of function traditionally machining requires. The technology to produce parts on demand, in space, offers unique design options that are not possible

  9. Scoops3D: software to analyze 3D slope stability throughout a digital landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, Mark E.; Christian, Sarah B.; Brien, Dianne L.; Henderson, Scott T.

    2015-01-01

    The computer program, Scoops3D, evaluates slope stability throughout a digital landscape represented by a digital elevation model (DEM). The program uses a three-dimensional (3D) method of columns approach to assess the stability of many (typically millions) potential landslides within a user-defined size range. For each potential landslide (or failure), Scoops3D assesses the stability of a rotational, spherical slip surface encompassing many DEM cells using a 3D version of either Bishop’s simplified method or the Ordinary (Fellenius) method of limit-equilibrium analysis. Scoops3D has several options for the user to systematically and efficiently search throughout an entire DEM, thereby incorporating the effects of complex surface topography. In a thorough search, each DEM cell is included in multiple potential failures, and Scoops3D records the lowest stability (factor of safety) for each DEM cell, as well as the size (volume or area) associated with each of these potential landslides. It also determines the least-stable potential failure for the entire DEM. The user has a variety of options for building a 3D domain, including layers or full 3D distributions of strength and pore-water pressures, simplistic earthquake loading, and unsaturated suction conditions. Results from Scoops3D can be readily incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) or other visualization software. This manual includes information on the theoretical basis for the slope-stability analysis, requirements for constructing and searching a 3D domain, a detailed operational guide (including step-by-step instructions for using the graphical user interface [GUI] software, Scoops3D-i) and input/output file specifications, practical considerations for conducting an analysis, results of verification tests, and multiple examples illustrating the capabilities of Scoops3D. Easy-to-use software installation packages are available for the Windows or Macintosh operating systems; these packages

  10. Effect of viewing distance on 3D fatigue caused by viewing mobile 3D content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mun, Sungchul; Lee, Dong-Su; Park, Min-Chul; Yano, Sumio

    2013-05-01

    With an advent of autostereoscopic display technique and increased needs for smart phones, there has been a significant growth in mobile TV markets. The rapid growth in technical, economical, and social aspects has encouraged 3D TV manufacturers to apply 3D rendering technology to mobile devices so that people have more opportunities to come into contact with many 3D content anytime and anywhere. Even if the mobile 3D technology leads to the current market growth, there is an important thing to consider for consistent development and growth in the display market. To put it briefly, human factors linked to mobile 3D viewing should be taken into consideration before developing mobile 3D technology. Many studies have investigated whether mobile 3D viewing causes undesirable biomedical effects such as motion sickness and visual fatigue, but few have examined main factors adversely affecting human health. Viewing distance is considered one of the main factors to establish optimized viewing environments from a viewer's point of view. Thus, in an effort to determine human-friendly viewing environments, this study aims to investigate the effect of viewing distance on human visual system when exposing to mobile 3D environments. Recording and analyzing brainwaves before and after watching mobile 3D content, we explore how viewing distance affects viewing experience from physiological and psychological perspectives. Results obtained in this study are expected to provide viewing guidelines for viewers, help ensure viewers against undesirable 3D effects, and lead to make gradual progress towards a human-friendly mobile 3D viewing.

  11. A biochemical/biophysical 3D FE intervertebral disc model.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Y; Huyghe, J M; van Donkelaar, C C; Ito, K

    2010-10-01

    Present research focuses on different strategies to preserve the degenerated disc. To assure long-term success of novel approaches, favorable mechanical conditions in the disc tissue are essential. To evaluate these, a model is required that can determine internal mechanical conditions which cannot be directly measured as a function of assessable biophysical characteristics. Therefore, the objective is to evaluate if constitutive and material laws acquired on isolated samples of nucleus and annulus tissue can be used directly in a whole-organ 3D FE model to describe intervertebral disc behavior. The 3D osmo-poro-visco-hyper-elastic disc (OVED) model describes disc behavior as a function of annulus and nucleus tissue biochemical composition, organization and specific constituent properties. The description of the 3D collagen network was enhanced to account for smaller fibril structures. Tissue mechanical behavior tests on isolated nucleus and annulus samples were simulated with models incorporating tissue composition to calculate the constituent parameter values. The obtained constitutive laws were incorporated into the whole-organ model. The overall behavior and disc properties of the model were corroborated against in vitro creep experiments of human L4/L5 discs. The OVED model simulated isolated tissue experiments on confined compression and uniaxial tensile test and whole-organ disc behavior. This was possible, provided that secondary fiber structures were accounted for. The fair agreement (radial bulge, axial creep deformation and intradiscal pressure) between model and experiment was obtained using constitutive properties that are the same for annulus and nucleus. Both tissue models differed in the 3D OVED model only by composition. The composition-based modeling presents the advantage of reducing the numbers of material parameters to a minimum and to use tissue composition directly as input. Hence, this approach provides the possibility to describe internal

  12. Identification of FAM3D as a new endogenous chemotaxis agonist for the formyl peptide receptors.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xinjian; Xu, Enquan; Liang, Weiwei; Pei, Xiaolei; Chen, Dixin; Zheng, Danfeng; Zhang, Yang; Zheng, Can; Wang, Pingzhang; She, Shaoping; Zhang, Yan; Ma, Jing; Mo, Xiaoning; Zhang, Yingmei; Ma, Dalong; Wang, Ying

    2016-05-01

    The family with sequence similarity 3 (FAM3) gene family is a cytokine-like gene family with four members FAM3A, FAM3B, FAM3C and FAM3D. In this study, we found that FAM3D strongly chemoattracted human peripheral blood neutrophils and monocytes. To identify the FAM3D receptor, we used chemotaxis, receptor internalization, Ca(2+) flux and radioligand-binding assays in FAM3D-stimulated HEK293 cells that transiently expressed formyl peptide receptor (FPR)1 or FPR2 to show that FAM3D was a high affinity ligand of these receptors, both of which were highly expressed on the surface of neutrophils, and monocytes and macrophages. After being injected into the mouse peritoneal cavity, FAM3D chemoattracted CD11b+ Ly6G+ neutrophils in a short time. In response to FAM3D stimulation, phosphorylated ERK1/2 and phosphorylated p38 MAPK family proteins were upregulated in the mouse neutrophils, and this increase was inhibited upon treatment with an inhibitor of FPR1 or FPR2. FAM3D has been reported to be constitutively expressed in the gastrointestinal tract. We found that FAM3D expression increased significantly during colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium. Taken together, we propose that FAM3D plays a role in gastrointestinal homeostasis and inflammation through its receptors FPR1 and FPR2. PMID:26966188

  13. GPM 3D Flyby of Hurricane Lester

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby of Lester was created using GPM's Radar data. NASA/JAXA's GPM core observatory satellite flew over Hurricane Lester on August 29, 2016 at 7:21 p.m. EDT. Rain was measured by GPM's ra...

  14. Spatial Visualization by Realistic 3D Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yue, Jianping

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the popular Purdue Spatial Visualization Test-Visualization by Rotations (PSVT-R) in isometric drawings was recreated with CAD software that allows 3D solid modeling and rendering to provide more realistic pictorial views. Both the original and the modified PSVT-R tests were given to students and their scores on the two tests were…

  15. 3D printed PLA-based scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Tiziano; Mateos-Timoneda, Miguel A; Planell, Josep A; Navarro, Melba

    2013-01-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP), also known as additive manufacturing (AM), has been well received and adopted in the biomedical field. The capacity of this family of techniques to fabricate customized 3D structures with complex geometries and excellent reproducibility has revolutionized implantology and regenerative medicine. In particular, nozzle-based systems allow the fabrication of high-resolution polylactic acid (PLA) structures that are of interest in regenerative medicine. These 3D structures find interesting applications in the regenerative medicine field where promising applications including biodegradable templates for tissue regeneration purposes, 3D in vitro platforms for studying cell response to different scaffolds conditions and for drug screening are considered among others. Scaffolds functionality depends not only on the fabrication technique, but also on the material used to build the 3D structure, the geometry and inner architecture of the structure, and the final surface properties. All being crucial parameters affecting scaffolds success. This Commentary emphasizes the importance of these parameters in scaffolds’ fabrication and also draws the attention toward the versatility of these PLA scaffolds as a potential tool in regenerative medicine and other medical fields. PMID:23959206

  16. 3D printed microfluidics for biological applications.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chee Meng Benjamin; Ng, Sum Huan; Li, King Ho Holden; Yoon, Yong-Jin

    2015-01-01

    The term "Lab-on-a-Chip," is synonymous with describing microfluidic devices with biomedical applications. Even though microfluidics have been developing rapidly over the past decade, the uptake rate in biological research has been slow. This could be due to the tedious process of fabricating a chip and the absence of a "killer application" that would outperform existing traditional methods. In recent years, three dimensional (3D) printing has been drawing much interest from the research community. It has the ability to make complex structures with high resolution. Moreover, the fast building time and ease of learning has simplified the fabrication process of microfluidic devices to a single step. This could possibly aid the field of microfluidics in finding its "killer application" that will lead to its acceptance by researchers, especially in the biomedical field. In this paper, a review is carried out of how 3D printing helps to improve the fabrication of microfluidic devices, the 3D printing technologies currently used for fabrication and the future of 3D printing in the field of microfluidics. PMID:26237523

  17. Rubber Impact on 3D Textile Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimbs, Sebastian; Van Den Broucke, Björn; Duplessis Kergomard, Yann; Dau, Frederic; Malherbe, Benoit

    2012-06-01

    A low velocity impact study of aircraft tire rubber on 3D textile-reinforced composite plates was performed experimentally and numerically. In contrast to regular unidirectional composite laminates, no delaminations occur in such a 3D textile composite. Yarn decohesions, matrix cracks and yarn ruptures have been identified as the major damage mechanisms under impact load. An increase in the number of 3D warp yarns is proposed to improve the impact damage resistance. The characteristic of a rubber impact is the high amount of elastic energy stored in the impactor during impact, which was more than 90% of the initial kinetic energy. This large geometrical deformation of the rubber during impact leads to a less localised loading of the target structure and poses great challenges for the numerical modelling. A hyperelastic Mooney-Rivlin constitutive law was used in Abaqus/Explicit based on a step-by-step validation with static rubber compression tests and low velocity impact tests on aluminium plates. Simulation models of the textile weave were developed on the meso- and macro-scale. The final correlation between impact simulation results on 3D textile-reinforced composite plates and impact test data was promising, highlighting the potential of such numerical simulation tools.

  18. Introduction to 3D Graphics through Excel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benacka, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The article presents a method of explaining the principles of 3D graphics through making a revolvable and sizable orthographic parallel projection of cuboid in Excel. No programming is used. The method was tried in fourteen 90 minute lessons with 181 participants, which were Informatics teachers, undergraduates of Applied Informatics and gymnasium…

  19. 3D Virtual Reality for Teaching Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speck, Angela; Ruzhitskaya, L.; Laffey, J.; Ding, N.

    2012-01-01

    We are developing 3D virtual learning environments (VLEs) as learning materials for an undergraduate astronomy course, in which will utilize advances both in technologies available and in our understanding of the social nature of learning. These learning materials will be used to test whether such VLEs can indeed augment science learning so that it is more engaging, active, visual and effective. Our project focuses on the challenges and requirements of introductory college astronomy classes. Here we present our virtual world of the Jupiter system and how we plan to implement it to allow students to learn course material - physical laws and concepts in astronomy - while engaging them into exploration of the Jupiter's system, encouraging their imagination, curiosity, and motivation. The VLE can allow students to work individually or collaboratively. The 3D world also provides an opportunity for research in astronomy education to investigate impact of social interaction, gaming features, and use of manipulatives offered by a learning tool on students’ motivation and learning outcomes. Use of this VLE is also a valuable source for exploration of how the learners’ spatial awareness can be enhanced by working in 3D environment. We will present the Jupiter-system environment along with a preliminary study of the efficacy and usability of our Jupiter 3D VLE.

  20. How to See Shadows in 3D

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parikesit, Gea O. F.

    2014-01-01

    Shadows can be found easily everywhere around us, so that we rarely find it interesting to reflect on how they work. In order to raise curiosity among students on the optics of shadows, we can display the shadows in 3D, particularly using a stereoscopic set-up. In this paper we describe the optics of stereoscopic shadows using simple schematic…

  1. 3-D Volume Rendering of Sand Specimen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) images of resin-impregnated Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) specimens are assembled to provide 3-D volume renderings of density patterns formed by dislocation under the external loading stress profile applied during the experiments. Experiments flown on STS-79 and STS-89. Principal Investigator: Dr. Stein Sture

  2. Crack interaction with 3-D dislocation loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Huajian

    CRACKS in a solid often interact with other crystal defects such as dislocation loops. The interaction effects are of 3-D character yet their analytical treatment has been mostly limited to the 2-D regime due to mathematical complications. This paper shows that distribution of the stress intensity factors along a crack front due to arbitrary dislocation loops may be expressed as simple line integrals along the loop contours. The method of analysis is based on the 3-D Bueckner-Rice weight function theory for elastic crack analysis. Our results have significantly simplified the calculations for 3-D dislocation loops produced in the plastic processes at the crack front due to highly concentrated crack tip stress fields. Examples for crack-tip 3-D loops and 2-D straight dislocations emerging from the crack tip are given to demonstrate applications of the derived formulae. The results are consistent with some previous analytical solutions existing in the literature. As further applications we also analyse straight dislocations that are parallel or perpendicular to the crack plane but are not parallel to the crack front.

  3. Holography of incoherently illuminated 3D scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaked, Natan T.; Rosen, Joseph

    2008-04-01

    We review several methods of generating holograms of 3D realistic objects illuminated by incoherent white light. Using these methods, it is possible to obtain holograms with a simple digital camera, operating in regular light conditions. Thus, most disadvantages characterizing conventional holography, namely the need for a powerful, highly coherent laser and meticulous stability of the optical system are avoided. These holograms can be reconstructed optically by illuminating them with a coherent plane wave, or alternatively by using a digital reconstruction technique. In order to generate the proposed hologram, the 3D scene is captured from multiple points of view by a simple digital camera. Then, the acquired projections are digitally processed to yield the final hologram of the 3D scene. Based on this principle, we can generate Fourier, Fresnel, image or other types of holograms. To obtain certain advantages over the regular holograms, we also propose new digital holograms, such as modified Fresnel holograms and protected correlation holograms. Instead of shifting the camera mechanically to acquire a different projection of the 3D scene each time, it is possible to use a microlens array for acquiring the entire projections in a single camera shot. Alternatively, only the extreme projections can be acquired experimentally, while the middle projections are predicted digitally by using the view synthesis algorithm. The prospective goal of these methods is to facilitate the design of a simple, portable digital holographic camera which can be useful for a variety of practical applications.

  4. 3D puzzle reconstruction for archeological fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jampy, F.; Hostein, A.; Fauvet, E.; Laligant, O.; Truchetet, F.

    2015-03-01

    The reconstruction of broken artifacts is a common task in archeology domain; it can be supported now by 3D data acquisition device and computer processing. Many works have been dedicated in the past to reconstructing 2D puzzles but very few propose a true 3D approach. We present here a complete solution including a dedicated transportable 3D acquisition set-up and a virtual tool with a graphic interface allowing the archeologists to manipulate the fragments and to, interactively, reconstruct the puzzle. The whole lateral part is acquired by rotating the fragment around an axis chosen within a light sheet thanks to a step-motor synchronized with the camera frame clock. Another camera provides a top view of the fragment under scanning. A scanning accuracy of 100μm is attained. The iterative automatic processing algorithm is based on segmentation into facets of the lateral part of the fragments followed by a 3D matching providing the user with a ranked short list of possible assemblies. The device has been applied to the reconstruction of a set of 1200 fragments from broken tablets supporting a Latin inscription dating from the first century AD.

  5. 3D Cell Culture in Alginate Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Therese; Auk-Emblem, Pia; Dornish, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This review compiles information regarding the use of alginate, and in particular alginate hydrogels, in culturing cells in 3D. Knowledge of alginate chemical structure and functionality are shown to be important parameters in design of alginate-based matrices for cell culture. Gel elasticity as well as hydrogel stability can be impacted by the type of alginate used, its concentration, the choice of gelation technique (ionic or covalent), and divalent cation chosen as the gel inducing ion. The use of peptide-coupled alginate can control cell–matrix interactions. Gelation of alginate with concomitant immobilization of cells can take various forms. Droplets or beads have been utilized since the 1980s for immobilizing cells. Newer matrices such as macroporous scaffolds are now entering the 3D cell culture product market. Finally, delayed gelling, injectable, alginate systems show utility in the translation of in vitro cell culture to in vivo tissue engineering applications. Alginate has a history and a future in 3D cell culture. Historically, cells were encapsulated in alginate droplets cross-linked with calcium for the development of artificial organs. Now, several commercial products based on alginate are being used as 3D cell culture systems that also demonstrate the possibility of replacing or regenerating tissue. PMID:27600217

  6. [3D virtual endoscopy of heart].

    PubMed

    Du, Aan; Yang, Xin; Xue, Haihong; Yao, Liping; Sun, Kun

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we present a virtual endoscopy (VE) for diagnosis of heart diseases, which is proved efficient and affordable, easy to popularize for viewing the interior of the heart. The dual source CT (DSCT) data were used as primary data in our system. The 3D structure of virtual heart was reconstructed with 3D texture mapping technology based on graphics processing unit (GPU), and could be displayed dynamically in real time. When we displayed it in real time, we could not only observe the inside of the chambers of heart but also examine from the new angle of view by the 3D data which were already clipped according to doctor's desire. In the pattern of observation, we used both mutual interactive mode and auto mode. In the auto mode, we used Dijkstra Algorithm which treated the 3D Euler distance as weighting factor to find out the view path quickly, and, used view path to calculate the four chamber plane. PMID:23198444

  7. The New Realm of 3-D Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Dimension Technologies Inc., developed a line of 2-D/3-D Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) screens, including a 15-inch model priced at consumer levels. DTI's family of flat panel LCD displays, called the Virtual Window(TM), provide real-time 3-D images without the use of glasses, head trackers, helmets, or other viewing aids. Most of the company initial 3-D display research was funded through NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The images on DTI's displays appear to leap off the screen and hang in space. The display accepts input from computers or stereo video sources, and can be switched from 3-D to full-resolution 2-D viewing with the push of a button. The Virtual Window displays have applications in data visualization, medicine, architecture, business, real estate, entertainment, and other research, design, military, and consumer applications. Displays are currently used for computer games, protein analysis, and surgical imaging. The technology greatly benefits the medical field, as surgical simulators are helping to increase the skills of surgical residents. Virtual Window(TM) is a trademark of Dimension Technologies Inc.

  8. Virtual Representations in 3D Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shonfeld, Miri; Kritz, Miki

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the extent to which virtual worlds can serve as online collaborative learning environments for students by increasing social presence and engagement. 3D environments enable learning, which simulates face-to-face encounters while retaining the advantages of online learning. Students in Education departments created avatars…

  9. NASA Sees Typhoon Rammasun in 3-D

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's TRMM satellite flew over on July 14, 2014 at 1819 UTC and data was used to make this 3-D flyby showing thunderstorms to heights of almost 17km (10.5 miles). Rain was measured falling at a ra...

  10. 3-D Teaching Models for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Joan; Farland-Smith, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Allowing a student to "see" through touch what other students see through a microscope can be a challenging task. Therefore, author Joan Bradley created three-dimensional (3-D) models with one student's visual impairment in mind. They are meant to benefit all students and can be used to teach common high school biology topics, including the…

  11. A Rotation Invariant in 3-D Reaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitra, Suvobrata; Turvey, M. T.

    2004-01-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors investigated changes in hand orientation during a 3-D reaching task that imposed specific position and orientation requirements on the hand's initial and final postures. Instantaneous hand orientation was described using 3-element rotation vectors representing current orientation as a rotation from a fixed reference…

  12. Can 3D-CT angiography (3D-CTA) replace conventional catheter angiography in ruptured aneurysm surgery? Our experience with 162 cases.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Masato; Kasuya, Hiromichi; Sato, Taku; Endo, Yuji; Sakuma, Jun; Suzuki, Kyouichi; Sasaki, Tatsuya; Kodama, Namio

    2007-12-01

    In this communication, we studied whether 3D-CT angiography (3D CTA) gives us enough information for a safe operation without those from conventional catheter angiography (CCA) in patients with ruptured aneurysms. Between December 1996 and September 2005, we treated 162 consecutive patients with ruptured aneurysms in the acute stage based on 3D-CTA findings. One hundred sixty-two ruptured aneurysms, including 64 associated unruptured aneurysms, were detected using 3D-CTA. CCA was performed in nine (5.6%) of the 162 patients after 3D-CTA. They were four dissecting vertebral artery aneurysms, two basilar tip aneurysms, one basilar artery-superior cerebellar artery (BA-SCA), one previously clipped BA-SCA and one internal carotid-posterior communicating artery aneurysm. All ruptured aneurysms confirmed at surgery were treated successfully. The lack of information on CCA did not lead any neurological deficits or difficulties in the surgical procedure. 3D-CTA was of high diagnostic value compatible with CCA and yielded important information such as the configuration of the aneurysmal sac and neck, calcification in the aneurysmal wall, and the aneurysms' anatomic relation with adjacent vessels and bone structures. We suggest that 3D-CTA can replace CCA in the diagnosis of ruptured aneurysms and that most of ruptured aneurysms can be operated by using only 3D-CTA without CCA. PMID:18402288

  13. Laser printing of 3D metallic interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beniam, Iyoel; Mathews, Scott A.; Charipar, Nicholas A.; Auyeung, Raymond C. Y.; Piqué, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The use of laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) techniques for the printing of functional materials has been demonstrated for numerous applications. The printing gives rise to patterns, which can be used to fabricate planar interconnects. More recently, various groups have demonstrated electrical interconnects from laser-printed 3D structures. The laser printing of these interconnects takes place through aggregation of voxels of either molten metal or of pastes containing dispersed metallic particles. However, the generated 3D structures do not posses the same metallic conductivity as a bulk metal interconnect of the same cross-section and length as those formed by wire bonding or tab welding. An alternative is to laser transfer entire 3D structures using a technique known as lase-and-place. Lase-and-place is a LIFT process whereby whole components and parts can be transferred from a donor substrate onto a desired location with one single laser pulse. This paper will describe the use of LIFT to laser print freestanding, solid metal foils or beams precisely over the contact pads of discrete devices to interconnect them into fully functional circuits. Furthermore, this paper will also show how the same laser can be used to bend or fold the bulk metal foils prior to transfer, thus forming compliant 3D structures able to provide strain relief for the circuits under flexing or during motion from thermal mismatch. These interconnect "ridges" can span wide gaps (on the order of a millimeter) and accommodate height differences of tens of microns between adjacent devices. Examples of these laser printed 3D metallic bridges and their role in the development of next generation electronics by additive manufacturing will be presented.

  14. Volume rendering for interactive 3D segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toennies, Klaus D.; Derz, Claus

    1997-05-01

    Combined emission/absorption and reflection/transmission volume rendering is able to display poorly segmented structures from 3D medical image sequences. Visual cues such as shading and color let the user distinguish structures in the 3D display that are incompletely extracted by threshold segmentation. In order to be truly helpful, analyzed information needs to be quantified and transferred back into the data. We extend our previously presented scheme for such display be establishing a communication between visual analysis and the display process. The main tool is a selective 3D picking device. For being useful on a rather rough segmentation, the device itself and the display offer facilities for object selection. Selective intersection planes let the user discard information prior to choosing a tissue of interest. Subsequently, a picking is carried out on the 2D display by casting a ray into the volume. The picking device is made pre-selective using already existing segmentation information. Thus, objects can be picked that are visible behind semi-transparent surfaces of other structures. Information generated by a later connected- component analysis can then be integrated into the data. Data examination is continued on an improved display letting the user actively participate in the analysis process. Results of this display-and-interaction scheme proved to be very effective. The viewer's ability to extract relevant information form a complex scene is combined with the computer's ability to quantify this information. The approach introduces 3D computer graphics methods into user- guided image analysis creating an analysis-synthesis cycle for interactive 3D segmentation.

  15. 3-D inversion of magnetotelluric Phase Tensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patro, Prasanta; Uyeshima, Makoto

    2010-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) inversion of the magnetotelluric (MT) has become a routine practice among the MT community due to progress of algorithms for 3-D inverse problems (e.g. Mackie and Madden, 1993; Siripunvaraporn et al., 2005). While availability of such 3-D inversion codes have increased the resolving power of the MT data and improved the interpretation, on the other hand, still the galvanic effects poses difficulties in interpretation of resistivity structure obtained from the MT data. In order to tackle the galvanic distortion of MT data, Caldwell et al., (2004) introduced the concept of phase tensor. They demonstrated how the regional phase information can be retrieved from the observed impedance tensor without any assumptions for structural dimension, where both the near surface inhomogeneity and the regional conductivity structures can be 3-D. We made an attempt to modify a 3-D inversion code (Siripunvaraporn et al., 2005) to directly invert the phase tensor elements. We present here the main modification done in the sensitivity calculation and then show a few synthetic studies and its application to the real data. The synthetic model study suggests that the prior model (m_0) setting is important in retrieving the true model. This is because estimation of correct induction scale length lacks in the phase tensor inversion process. Comparison between results from conventional impedance inversion and new phase tensor inversion suggests that, in spite of presence of the galvanic distortion (due to near surface checkerboard anomalies in our case), the new inverion algorithm retrieves the regional conductivitity structure reliably. We applied the new inversion to the real data from the Indian sub continent and compared with the results from conventional impedance inversion.

  16. Recognition methods for 3D textured surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cula, Oana G.; Dana, Kristin J.

    2001-06-01

    Texture as a surface representation is the subject of a wide body of computer vision and computer graphics literature. While texture is always associated with a form of repetition in the image, the repeating quantity may vary. The texture may be a color or albedo variation as in a checkerboard, a paisley print or zebra stripes. Very often in real-world scenes, texture is instead due to a surface height variation, e.g. pebbles, gravel, foliage and any rough surface. Such surfaces are referred to here as 3D textured surfaces. Standard texture recognition algorithms are not appropriate for 3D textured surfaces because the appearance of these surfaces changes in a complex manner with viewing direction and illumination direction. Recent methods have been developed for recognition of 3D textured surfaces using a database of surfaces observed under varied imaging parameters. One of these methods is based on 3D textons obtained using K-means clustering of multiscale feature vectors. Another method uses eigen-analysis originally developed for appearance-based object recognition. In this work we develop a hybrid approach that employs both feature grouping and dimensionality reduction. The method is tested using the Columbia-Utrecht texture database and provides excellent recognition rates. The method is compared with existing recognition methods for 3D textured surfaces. A direct comparison is facilitated by empirical recognition rates from the same texture data set. The current method has key advantages over existing methods including requiring less prior information on both the training and novel images.

  17. 3D Printed Programmable Release Capsules.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Maneesh K; Meng, Fanben; Johnson, Blake N; Kong, Yong Lin; Tian, Limei; Yeh, Yao-Wen; Masters, Nina; Singamaneni, Srikanth; McAlpine, Michael C

    2015-08-12

    The development of methods for achieving precise spatiotemporal control over chemical and biomolecular gradients could enable significant advances in areas such as synthetic tissue engineering, biotic-abiotic interfaces, and bionanotechnology. Living organisms guide tissue development through highly orchestrated gradients of biomolecules that direct cell growth, migration, and differentiation. While numerous methods have been developed to manipulate and implement biomolecular gradients, integrating gradients into multiplexed, three-dimensional (3D) matrices remains a critical challenge. Here we present a method to 3D print stimuli-responsive core/shell capsules for programmable release of multiplexed gradients within hydrogel matrices. These capsules are composed of an aqueous core, which can be formulated to maintain the activity of payload biomolecules, and a poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA, an FDA approved polymer) shell. Importantly, the shell can be loaded with plasmonic gold nanorods (AuNRs), which permits selective rupturing of the capsule when irradiated with a laser wavelength specifically determined by the lengths of the nanorods. This precise control over space, time, and selectivity allows for the ability to pattern 2D and 3D multiplexed arrays of enzyme-loaded capsules along with tunable laser-triggered rupture and release of active enzymes into a hydrogel ambient. The advantages of this 3D printing-based method include (1) highly monodisperse capsules, (2) efficient encapsulation of biomolecular payloads, (3) precise spatial patterning of capsule arrays, (4) "on the fly" programmable reconfiguration of gradients, and (5) versatility for incorporation in hierarchical architectures. Indeed, 3D printing of programmable release capsules may represent a powerful new tool to enable spatiotemporal control over biomolecular gradients. PMID:26042472

  18. 3D Printed Programmable Release Capsules

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Maneesh K.; Meng, Fanben; Johnson, Blake N.; Kong, Yong Lin; Tian, Limei; Yeh, Yao-Wen; Masters, Nina; Singamaneni, Srikanth; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    The development of methods for achieving precise spatiotemporal control over chemical and biomolecular gradients could enable significant advances in areas such as synthetic tissue engineering, biotic–abiotic interfaces, and bionanotechnology. Living organisms guide tissue development through highly orchestrated gradients of biomolecules that direct cell growth, migration, and differentiation. While numerous methods have been developed to manipulate and implement biomolecular gradients, integrating gradients into multiplexed, three-dimensional (3D) matrices remains a critical challenge. Here we present a method to 3D print stimuli-responsive core/shell capsules for programmable release of multiplexed gradients within hydrogel matrices. These capsules are composed of an aqueous core, which can be formulated to maintain the activity of payload biomolecules, and a poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA, an FDA approved polymer) shell. Importantly, the shell can be loaded with plasmonic gold nanorods (AuNRs), which permits selective rupturing of the capsule when irradiated with a laser wavelength specifically determined by the lengths of the nanorods. This precise control over space, time, and selectivity allows for the ability to pattern 2D and 3D multiplexed arrays of enzyme-loaded capsules along with tunable laser-triggered rupture and release of active enzymes into a hydrogel ambient. The advantages of this 3D printing-based method include (1) highly monodisperse capsules, (2) efficient encapsulation of biomolecular payloads, (3) precise spatial patterning of capsule arrays, (4) “on the fly” programmable reconfiguration of gradients, and (5) versatility for incorporation in hierarchical architectures. Indeed, 3D printing of programmable release capsules may represent a powerful new tool to enable spatiotemporal control over biomolecular gradients. PMID:26042472

  19. 3D Printing In Zero-G ISS Technology Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werkheiser, Niki; Cooper, Kenneth; Edmunson, Jennifer; Dunn, Jason; Snyder, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has a long term strategy to fabricate components and equipment on-demand for manned missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. To support this strategy, NASA and Made in Space, Inc. are developing the 3D Printing In Zero-G payload as a Technology Demonstration for the International Space Station (ISS). The 3D Printing In Zero-G experiment ('3D Print') will be the first machine to perform 3D printing in space. The greater the distance from Earth and the longer the mission duration, the more difficult resupply becomes; this requires a change from the current spares, maintenance, repair, and hardware design model that has been used on the International Space Station (ISS) up until now. Given the extension of the ISS Program, which will inevitably result in replacement parts being required, the ISS is an ideal platform to begin changing the current model for resupply and repair to one that is more suitable for all exploration missions. 3D Printing, more formally known as Additive Manufacturing, is the method of building parts/objects/tools layer-by-layer. The 3D Print experiment will use extrusion-based additive manufacturing, which involves building an object out of plastic deposited by a wire-feed via an extruder head. Parts can be printed from data files loaded on the device at launch, as well as additional files uplinked to the device while on-orbit. The plastic extrusion additive manufacturing process is a low-energy, low-mass solution to many common needs on board the ISS. The 3D Print payload will serve as the ideal first step to proving that process in space. It is unreasonable to expect NASA to launch large blocks of material from which parts or tools can be traditionally machined, and even more unreasonable to fly up multiple drill bits that would be required to machine parts from aerospace-grade materials such as titanium 6-4 alloy and Inconel. The technology to produce parts on demand, in space, offers

  20. R3D-2-MSA: the RNA 3D structure-to-multiple sequence alignment server.

    PubMed

    Cannone, Jamie J; Sweeney, Blake A; Petrov, Anton I; Gutell, Robin R; Zirbel, Craig L; Leontis, Neocles

    2015-07-01

    The RNA 3D Structure-to-Multiple Sequence Alignment Server (R3D-2-MSA) is a new web service that seamlessly links RNA three-dimensional (3D) structures to high-quality RNA multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) from diverse biological sources. In this first release, R3D-2-MSA provides manual and programmatic access to curated, representative ribosomal RNA sequence alignments from bacterial, archaeal, eukaryal and organellar ribosomes, using nucleotide numbers from representative atomic-resolution 3D structures. A web-based front end is available for manual entry and an Application Program Interface for programmatic access. Users can specify up to five ranges of nucleotides and 50 nucleotide positions per range. The R3D-2-MSA server maps these ranges to the appropriate columns of the corresponding MSA and returns the contents of the columns, either for display in a web browser or in JSON format for subsequent programmatic use. The browser output page provides a 3D interactive display of the query, a full list of sequence variants with taxonomic information and a statistical summary of distinct sequence variants found. The output can be filtered and sorted in the browser. Previous user queries can be viewed at any time by resubmitting the output URL, which encodes the search and re-generates the results. The service is freely available with no login requirement at http://rna.bgsu.edu/r3d-2-msa. PMID:26048960

  1. R3D-2-MSA: the RNA 3D structure-to-multiple sequence alignment server

    PubMed Central

    Cannone, Jamie J.; Sweeney, Blake A.; Petrov, Anton I.; Gutell, Robin R.; Zirbel, Craig L.; Leontis, Neocles

    2015-01-01

    The RNA 3D Structure-to-Multiple Sequence Alignment Server (R3D-2-MSA) is a new web service that seamlessly links RNA three-dimensional (3D) structures to high-quality RNA multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) from diverse biological sources. In this first release, R3D-2-MSA provides manual and programmatic access to curated, representative ribosomal RNA sequence alignments from bacterial, archaeal, eukaryal and organellar ribosomes, using nucleotide numbers from representative atomic-resolution 3D structures. A web-based front end is available for manual entry and an Application Program Interface for programmatic access. Users can specify up to five ranges of nucleotides and 50 nucleotide positions per range. The R3D-2-MSA server maps these ranges to the appropriate columns of the corresponding MSA and returns the contents of the columns, either for display in a web browser or in JSON format for subsequent programmatic use. The browser output page provides a 3D interactive display of the query, a full list of sequence variants with taxonomic information and a statistical summary of distinct sequence variants found. The output can be filtered and sorted in the browser. Previous user queries can be viewed at any time by resubmitting the output URL, which encodes the search and re-generates the results. The service is freely available with no login requirement at http://rna.bgsu.edu/r3d-2-msa. PMID:26048960

  2. Image-based RSA: Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis based on 2D-3D image registration.

    PubMed

    de Bruin, P W; Kaptein, B L; Stoel, B C; Reiber, J H C; Rozing, P M; Valstar, E R

    2008-01-01

    Image-based Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (IBRSA) integrates 2D-3D image registration and conventional RSA. Instead of radiopaque RSA bone markers, IBRSA uses 3D CT data, from which digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) are generated. Using 2D-3D image registration, the 3D pose of the CT is iteratively adjusted such that the generated DRRs resemble the 2D RSA images as closely as possible, according to an image matching metric. Effectively, by registering all 2D follow-up moments to the same 3D CT, the CT volume functions as common ground. In two experiments, using RSA and using a micromanipulator as gold standard, IBRSA has been validated on cadaveric and sawbone scapula radiographs, and good matching results have been achieved. The accuracy was: |mu |< 0.083 mm for translations and |mu| < 0.023 degrees for rotations. The precision sigma in x-, y-, and z-direction was 0.090, 0.077, and 0.220 mm for translations and 0.155 degrees , 0.243 degrees , and 0.074 degrees for rotations. Our results show that the accuracy and precision of in vitro IBRSA, performed under ideal laboratory conditions, are lower than in vitro standard RSA but higher than in vivo standard RSA. Because IBRSA does not require radiopaque markers, it adds functionality to the RSA method by opening new directions and possibilities for research, such as dynamic analyses using fluoroscopy on subjects without markers and computer navigation applications. PMID:17706656

  3. The dimension added by 3D scanning and 3D printing of meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vet, S. J.

    2016-01-01

    An overview for the 3D photodocumentation of meteorites is presented, focussing on two 3D scanning methods in relation to 3D printing. The 3D photodocumention of meteorites provides new ways for the digital preservation of culturally, historically or scientifically unique meteorites. It has the potential for becoming a new documentation standard of meteorites that can exist complementary to traditional photographic documentation. Notable applications include (i.) use of physical properties in dark flight-, strewn field-, or aerodynamic modelling; (ii.) collection research of meteorites curated by different museum collections, and (iii.) public dissemination of meteorite models as a resource for educational users. The possible applications provided by the additional dimension of 3D illustrate the benefits for the meteoritics community.

  4. 3D spatial resolution and spectral resolution of interferometric 3D imaging spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Obara, Masaki; Yoshimori, Kyu

    2016-04-01

    Recently developed interferometric 3D imaging spectrometry (J. Opt. Soc. Am A18, 765 [2001]1084-7529JOAOD610.1364/JOSAA.18.000765) enables obtainment of the spectral information and 3D spatial information for incoherently illuminated or self-luminous object simultaneously. Using this method, we can obtain multispectral components of complex holograms, which correspond directly to the phase distribution of the wavefronts propagated from the polychromatic object. This paper focuses on the analysis of spectral resolution and 3D spatial resolution in interferometric 3D imaging spectrometry. Our analysis is based on a novel analytical impulse response function defined over four-dimensional space. We found that the experimental results agree well with the theoretical prediction. This work also suggests a new criterion and estimate method regarding 3D spatial resolution of digital holography. PMID:27139648

  5. 3-D transient analysis of pebble-bed HTGR by TORT-TD/ATTICA3D

    SciTech Connect

    Seubert, A.; Sureda, A.; Lapins, J.; Buck, M.; Bader, J.; Laurien, E.

    2012-07-01

    As most of the acceptance criteria are local core parameters, application of transient 3-D fine mesh neutron transport and thermal hydraulics coupled codes is mandatory for best estimate evaluations of safety margins. This also applies to high-temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGR). Application of 3-D fine-mesh transient transport codes using few energy groups coupled with 3-D thermal hydraulics codes becomes feasible in view of increasing computing power. This paper describes the discrete ordinates based coupled code system TORT-TD/ATTICA3D that has recently been extended by a fine-mesh diffusion solver. Based on transient analyses for the PBMR-400 design, the transport/diffusion capabilities are demonstrated and 3-D local flux and power redistribution effects during a partial control rod withdrawal are shown. (authors)

  6. Quasi 3D dosimetry (EPID, conventional 2D/3D detector matrices)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bäck, A.

    2015-01-01

    Patient specific pretreatment measurement for IMRT and VMAT QA should preferably give information with a high resolution in 3D. The ability to distinguish complex treatment plans, i.e. treatment plans with a difference between measured and calculated dose distributions that exceeds a specified tolerance, puts high demands on the dosimetry system used for the pretreatment measurements and the results of the measurement evaluation needs a clinical interpretation. There are a number of commercial dosimetry systems designed for pretreatment IMRT QA measurements. 2D arrays such as MapCHECK® (Sun Nuclear), MatriXXEvolution (IBA Dosimetry) and OCTAVIOUS® 1500 (PTW), 3D phantoms such as OCTAVIUS® 4D (PTW), ArcCHECK® (Sun Nuclear) and Delta4 (ScandiDos) and software for EPID dosimetry and 3D reconstruction of the dose in the patient geometry such as EPIDoseTM (Sun Nuclear) and Dosimetry CheckTM (Math Resolutions) are available. None of those dosimetry systems can measure the 3D dose distribution with a high resolution (full 3D dose distribution). Those systems can be called quasi 3D dosimetry systems. To be able to estimate the delivered dose in full 3D the user is dependent on a calculation algorithm in the software of the dosimetry system. All the vendors of the dosimetry systems mentioned above provide calculation algorithms to reconstruct a full 3D dose in the patient geometry. This enables analyzes of the difference between measured and calculated dose distributions in DVHs of the structures of clinical interest which facilitates the clinical interpretation and is a promising tool to be used for pretreatment IMRT QA measurements. However, independent validation studies on the accuracy of those algorithms are scarce. Pretreatment IMRT QA using the quasi 3D dosimetry systems mentioned above rely on both measurement uncertainty and accuracy of calculation algorithms. In this article, these quasi 3D dosimetry systems and their use in patient specific pretreatment IMRT

  7. 2D-3D Registration of CT Vertebra Volume to Fluoroscopy Projection: A Calibration Model Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bifulco, P.; Cesarelli, M.; Allen, R.; Romano, M.; Fratini, A.; Pasquariello, G.

    2009-12-01

    This study extends a previous research concerning intervertebral motion registration by means of 2D dynamic fluoroscopy to obtain a more comprehensive 3D description of vertebral kinematics. The problem of estimating the 3D rigid pose of a CT volume of a vertebra from its 2D X-ray fluoroscopy projection is addressed. 2D-3D registration is obtained maximising a measure of similarity between Digitally Reconstructed Radiographs (obtained from the CT volume) and real fluoroscopic projection. X-ray energy correction was performed. To assess the method a calibration model was realised a sheep dry vertebra was rigidly fixed to a frame of reference including metallic markers. Accurate measurement of 3D orientation was obtained via single-camera calibration of the markers and held as true 3D vertebra position; then, vertebra 3D pose was estimated and results compared. Error analysis revealed accuracy of the order of 0.1 degree for the rotation angles of about 1 mm for displacements parallel to the fluoroscopic plane, and of order of 10 mm for the orthogonal displacement.

  8. INCORPORATING DYNAMIC 3D SIMULATION INTO PRA

    SciTech Connect

    Steven R Prescott; Curtis Smith

    2011-07-01

    Through continued advancement in computational resources, development that was previously done by trial and error production is now performed through computer simulation. These virtual physical representations have the potential to provide accurate and valid modeling results and are being used in many different technical fields. Risk assessment now has the opportunity to use 3D simulation to improve analysis results and insights, especially for external event analysis. By using simulations, the modeler only has to determine the likelihood of an event without having to also predict the results of that event. The 3D simulation automatically determines not only the outcome of the event, but when those failures occur. How can we effectively incorporate 3D simulation into traditional PRA? Most PRA plant modeling is made up of components with different failure modes, probabilities, and rates. Typically, these components are grouped into various systems and then are modeled together (in different combinations) as a “system” with logic structures to form fault trees. Applicable fault trees are combined through scenarios, typically represented by event tree models. Though this method gives us failure results for a given model, it has limitations when it comes to time-based dependencies or dependencies that are coupled to physical processes which may themselves be space- or time-dependent. Since, failures from a 3D simulation are naturally time related, they should be used in that manner. In our simulation approach, traditional static models are converted into an equivalent state diagram representation with start states, probabilistic driven movements between states and terminal states. As the state model is run repeatedly, it converges to the same results as the PRA model in cases where time-related factors are not important. In cases where timing considerations are important (e.g., when events are dependent upon each other), then the simulation approach will typically

  9. 3D visualization of polymer nanostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, James H

    2009-01-01

    Soft materials and structured polymers are extremely useful nanotechnology building blocks. Block copolymers, in particular, have served as 2D masks for nanolithography and 3D scaffolds for photonic crystals, nanoparticle fabrication, and solar cells. F or many of these applications, the precise 3 dimensional structure and the number and type of defects in the polymer is important for ultimate function. However, directly visualizing the 3D structure of a soft material from the nanometer to millimeter length scales is a significant technical challenge. Here, we propose to develop the instrumentation needed for direct 3D structure determination at near nanometer resolution throughout a nearly millimeter-cubed volume of a soft, potentially heterogeneous, material. This new capability will be a valuable research tool for LANL missions in chemistry, materials science, and nanoscience. Our approach to soft materials visualization builds upon exciting developments in super-resolution optical microscopy that have occurred over the past two years. To date, these new, truly revolutionary, imaging methods have been developed and almost exclusively used for biological applications. However, in addition to biological cells, these super-resolution imaging techniques hold extreme promise for direct visualization of many important nanostructured polymers and other heterogeneous chemical systems. Los Alamos has a unique opportunity to lead the development of these super-resolution imaging methods for problems of chemical rather than biological significance. While these optical methods are limited to systems transparent to visible wavelengths, we stress that many important functional chemicals such as polymers, glasses, sol-gels, aerogels, or colloidal assemblies meet this requirement, with specific examples including materials designed for optical communication, manipulation, or light-harvesting Our Research Goals are: (1) Develop the instrumentation necessary for imaging materials

  10. CASTLE3D - A Computer Aided System for Labelling Archaeological Excavations in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houshiar, H.; Borrmann, D.; Elseberg, J.; Nüchter, A.; Näth, F.; Winkler, S.

    2015-08-01

    Documentation of archaeological excavation sites with conventional methods and tools such as hand drawings, measuring tape and archaeological notes is time consuming. This process is prone to human errors and the quality of the documentation depends on the qualification of the archaeologist on site. Use of modern technology and methods in 3D surveying and 3D robotics facilitate and improve this process. Computer-aided systems and databases improve the documentation quality and increase the speed of data acquisition. 3D laser scanning is the state of the art in modelling archaeological excavation sites, historical sites and even entire cities or landscapes. Modern laser scanners are capable of data acquisition of up to 1 million points per second. This provides a very detailed 3D point cloud of the environment. 3D point clouds and 3D models of an excavation site provide a better representation of the environment for the archaeologist and for documentation. The point cloud can be used both for further studies on the excavation and for the presentation of results. This paper introduces a Computer aided system for labelling archaeological excavations in 3D (CASTLE3D). Consisting of a set of tools for recording and georeferencing the 3D data from an excavation site, CASTLE3D is a novel documentation approach in industrial archaeology. It provides a 2D and 3D visualisation of the data and an easy-to-use interface that enables the archaeologist to select regions of interest and to interact with the data in both representations. The 2D visualisation and a 3D orthogonal view of the data provide cuts of the environment that resemble the traditional hand drawings. The 3D perspective view gives a realistic view of the environment. CASTLE3D is designed as an easy-to-use on-site semantic mapping tool for archaeologists. Each project contains a predefined set of semantic information that can be used to label findings in the data. Multiple regions of interest can be joined under

  11. PLOT3D/AMES, DEC VAX VMS VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  12. PLOT3D/AMES, DEC VAX VMS VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P. G.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  13. Emulsion Inks for 3D Printing of High Porosity Materials.

    PubMed

    Sears, Nicholas A; Dhavalikar, Prachi S; Cosgriff-Hernandez, Elizabeth M

    2016-08-01

    Photocurable emulsion inks for use with solid freeform fabrication (SFF) to generate constructs with hierarchical porosity are presented. A high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) templating technique was utilized to prepare water-in-oil emulsions from a hydrophobic photopolymer, surfactant, and water. These HIPEs displayed strong shear thinning behavior that permitted layer-by-layer deposition into complex shapes and adequately high viscosity at low shear for shape retention after extrusion. Each layer was actively polymerized with an ultraviolet cure-on-dispense (CoD) technique and compositions with sufficient viscosity were able to produce tall, complex scaffolds with an internal lattice structure and microscale porosity. Evaluation of the rheological and cure properties indicated that the viscosity and cure rate both played an important role in print fidelity. These 3D printed polyHIPE constructs benefit from the tunable pore structure of emulsion templated material and the designed architecture of 3D printing. As such, these emulsion inks can be used to create ultra high porosity constructs with complex geometries and internal lattice structures not possible with traditional manufacturing techniques. PMID:27305061

  14. 3D visualization of middle ear structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Uwe; Schmitt, Thomas

    1998-06-01

    application of a micro- tomographic imaging device. Therefore an X-ray beam focused down to few microns passes the object in a tomographic arrangement. Subsequently the slices become reconstructed. Generally spatial resolution down to 10 micrometer may be obtained by using this procedure. But there exist few devices only, it is not available as standard equipment. The best results concerning spatial resolution should be achieved by applying conventional histologic sectioning techniques. Of course the target will become destroyed during the procedure. It is cut into sections (e.g., 10 micrometer thick), every layer is stained, and the image acquired and stored by a digital still-camera with appropriate resolution (e.g., 2024 X 3036). Three-dimensional reconstruction is done with the computer. The staining allows visual selection of bones and soft tissues, resolutions down to 10 micrometer are possible without target segmentation. But there arise some practical problems. Mainly the geometric context of the layers is affected by the cutting procedure, especially if cutting bone. Another problem performs the adjustment of the -- possibly distorted -- slices to each other. Artificial markers are necessary, which could allow automatic adjustment too. But the introduction and imaging of the markers is difficult inside the temporal bone specimen, that is interspersed by several cavities. Of course the internal target structures must not be destroyed by the marker introduction. Furthermore the embedding compound could disturb the image acquisition, e.g., by optical scattering of paraffin. A related alternative is given by layered ablation/grinding and imaging of the top layer. This saves the geometric consistency, but requires very tricky and time-consuming embedding procedures. Both approaches require considerable expenditures. The possible approaches are evaluated in detail and first results are compared. So far none of the above-mentioned procedures has been established as a

  15. Techniques for interactive 3-D scientific visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Glinert, E.P. . Dept. of Computer Science); Blattner, M.M. Hospital and Tumor Inst., Houston, TX . Dept. of Biomathematics California Univ., Davis, CA . Dept. of Applied Science Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA ); Becker, B.G. . Dept. of Applied Science Lawrence Livermore National La

    1990-09-24

    Interest in interactive 3-D graphics has exploded of late, fueled by (a) the allure of using scientific visualization to go where no-one has gone before'' and (b) by the development of new input devices which overcome some of the limitations imposed in the past by technology, yet which may be ill-suited to the kinds of interaction required by researchers active in scientific visualization. To resolve this tension, we propose a flat 5-D'' environment in which 2-D graphics are augmented by exploiting multiple human sensory modalities using cheap, conventional hardware readily available with personal computers and workstations. We discuss how interactions basic to 3-D scientific visualization, like searching a solution space and comparing two such spaces, are effectively carried out in our environment. Finally, we describe 3DMOVE, an experimental microworld we have implemented to test out some of our ideas. 40 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Volumetric visualization of 3D data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Gregory; Miles, Richard

    1989-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a rapid growth in the ability to obtain detailed data on large complex structures in three dimensions. This development occurred first in the medical field, with CAT (computer aided tomography) scans and now magnetic resonance imaging, and in seismological exploration. With the advances in supercomputing and computational fluid dynamics, and in experimental techniques in fluid dynamics, there is now the ability to produce similar large data fields representing 3D structures and phenomena in these disciplines. These developments have produced a situation in which currently there is access to data which is too complex to be understood using the tools available for data reduction and presentation. Researchers in these areas are becoming limited by their ability to visualize and comprehend the 3D systems they are measuring and simulating.

  17. 3D measurement using circular gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Kevin

    2013-09-01

    3D measurement using methods of structured light are well known in the industry. Most such systems use some variation of straight lines, either as simple lines or with some form of encoding. This geometry assumes the lines will be projected from one side and viewed from another to generate the profile information. But what about applications where a wide triangulation angle may not be practical, particularly at longer standoff distances. This paper explores the use of circular grating patterns projected from a center point to achieve 3D information. Originally suggested by John Caulfield around 1990, the method had some interesting potential, particularly if combined with alternate means of measurement from traditional triangulation including depth from focus methods. The possible advantages of a central reference point in the projected pattern may offer some different capabilities not as easily attained with a linear grating pattern. This paper will explore the pros and cons of the method and present some examples of possible applications.

  18. Azimuthally Anisotropic 3D Velocity Continuation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Burnett, William; Fomel, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    We extend time-domain velocity continuation to the zero-offset 3D azimuthally anisotropic case. Velocity continuation describes how a seismic image changes given a change in migration velocity. This description turns out to be of a wave propagation process, in which images change along a velocity axis. In the anisotropic case, the velocity model is multiparameter. Therefore, anisotropic image propagation is multidimensional. We use a three-parameter slowness model, which is related to azimuthal variations in velocity, as well as their principal directions. This information is useful for fracture and reservoir characterization from seismic data. We provide synthetic diffraction imaging examples to illustratemore » the concept and potential applications of azimuthal velocity continuation and to analyze the impulse response of the 3D velocity continuation operator.« less

  19. Faint object 3D spectroscopy with PMAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Martin M.; Becker, Thomas; Kelz, Andreas; Bohm, Petra

    2004-09-01

    PMAS is a fiber-coupled lens array type of integral field spectrograph, which was commissioned at the Calar Alto 3.5m Telescope in May 2001. The optical layout of the instrument was chosen such as to provide a large wavelength coverage, and good transmission from 0.35 to 1 μm. One of the major objectives of the PMAS development has been to perform 3D spectrophotometry, taking advantage of the contiguous array of spatial elements over the 2-dimensional field-of-view of the integral field unit. With science results obtained during the first two years of operation, we illustrate that 3D spectroscopy is an ideal tool for faint object spectrophotometry.

  20. Pattern based 3D image Steganography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiyagarajan, P.; Natarajan, V.; Aghila, G.; Prasanna Venkatesan, V.; Anitha, R.

    2013-03-01

    This paper proposes a new high capacity Steganographic scheme using 3D geometric models. The novel algorithm re-triangulates a part of a triangle mesh and embeds the secret information into newly added position of triangle meshes. Up to nine bits of secret data can be embedded into vertices of a triangle without causing any changes in the visual quality and the geometric properties of the cover image. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is secure, with high capacity and low distortion rate. Our algorithm also resists against uniform affine transformations such as cropping, rotation and scaling. Also, the performance of the method is compared with other existing 3D Steganography algorithms. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  1. Illustrative visualization of 3D city models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doellner, Juergen; Buchholz, Henrik; Nienhaus, Marc; Kirsch, Florian

    2005-03-01

    This paper presents an illustrative visualization technique that provides expressive representations of large-scale 3D city models, inspired by the tradition of artistic and cartographic visualizations typically found in bird"s-eye view and panoramic maps. We define a collection of city model components and a real-time multi-pass rendering algorithm that achieves comprehensible, abstract 3D city model depictions based on edge enhancement, color-based and shadow-based depth cues, and procedural facade texturing. Illustrative visualization provides an effective visual interface to urban spatial information and associated thematic information complementing visual interfaces based on the Virtual Reality paradigm, offering a huge potential for graphics design. Primary application areas include city and landscape planning, cartoon worlds in computer games, and tourist information systems.

  2. Debris Dispersion Model Using Java 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar; Bardina, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes web based simulation of Shuttle launch operations and debris dispersion. Java 3D graphics provides geometric and visual content with suitable mathematical model and behaviors of Shuttle launch. Because the model is so heterogeneous and interrelated with various factors, 3D graphics combined with physical models provides mechanisms to understand the complexity of launch and range operations. The main focus in the modeling and simulation covers orbital dynamics and range safety. Range safety areas include destruct limit lines, telemetry and tracking and population risk near range. If there is an explosion of Shuttle during launch, debris dispersion is explained. The shuttle launch and range operations in this paper are discussed based on the operations from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, USA.

  3. Sensing and compressing 3-D models

    SciTech Connect

    Krumm, J.

    1998-02-01

    The goal of this research project was to create a passive and robust computer vision system for producing 3-D computer models of arbitrary scenes. Although the authors were unsuccessful in achieving the overall goal, several components of this research have shown significant potential. Of particular interest is the application of parametric eigenspace methods for planar pose measurement of partially occluded objects in gray-level images. The techniques presented provide a simple, accurate, and robust solution to the planar pose measurement problem. In addition, the representational efficiency of eigenspace methods used with gray-level features were successfully extended to binary features, which are less sensitive to illumination changes. The results of this research are presented in two papers that were written during the course of this project. The papers are included in sections 2 and 3. The first section of this report summarizes the 3-D modeling efforts.

  4. Fabricating 3D figurines with personalized faces.

    PubMed

    Tena, J Rafael; Mahler, Moshe; Beeler, Thabo; Grosse, Max; Hengchin Yeh; Matthews, Iain

    2013-01-01

    We present a semi-automated system for fabricating figurines with faces that are personalised to the individual likeness of the customer. The efficacy of the system has been demonstrated by commercial deployments at Walt Disney World Resort and Star Wars Celebration VI in Orlando Florida. Although the system is semi automated, human intervention is limited to a few simple tasks to maintain the high throughput and consistent quality required for commercial application. In contrast to existing systems that fabricate custom heads that are assembled to pre-fabricated plastic bodies, our system seamlessly integrates 3D facial data with a predefined figurine body into a unique and continuous object that is fabricated as a single piece. The combination of state-of-the-art 3D capture, modelling, and printing that are the core of our system provide the flexibility to fabricate figurines whose complexity is only limited by the creativity of the designer. PMID:24808129

  5. Java 3D Interactive Visualization for Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, K.; Edirisinghe, D.; Lingerfelt, E. J.; Guidry, M. W.

    2003-05-01

    We are developing a series of interactive 3D visualization tools that employ the Java 3D API. We have applied this approach initially to a simple 3-dimensional galaxy collision model (restricted 3-body approximation), with quite satisfactory results. Running either as an applet under Web browser control, or as a Java standalone application, this program permits real-time zooming, panning, and 3-dimensional rotation of the galaxy collision simulation under user mouse and keyboard control. We shall also discuss applications of this technology to 3-dimensional visualization for other problems of astrophysical interest such as neutron star mergers and the time evolution of element/energy production networks in X-ray bursts. *Managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  6. 3D Elevation Program: summary for Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  7. 3D Elevation Program: summary for Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  8. 3D FFTs on a Single FPGA

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, Benjamin; Zhang, Hansen; Sheng, Jiayi; Landaverde, Raphael; Herbordt, Martin C.

    2015-01-01

    The 3D FFT is critical in many physical simulations and image processing applications. On FPGAs, however, the 3D FFT was thought to be inefficient relative to other methods such as convolution-based implementations of multi-grid. We find the opposite: a simple design, operating at a conservative frequency, takes 4μs for 163, 21μs for 323, and 215μs for 643 single precision data points. The first two of these compare favorably with the 25μs and 29μs obtained running on a current Nvidia GPU. Some broader significance is that this is a critical piece in implementing a large scale FPGA-based MD engine: even a single FPGA is capable of keeping the FFT off of the critical path for a large fraction of possible MD simulations. PMID:26594666

  9. 3D Multifunctional Ablative Thermal Protection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Jay; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Wilkinson, Curt; Mercer, Ken

    2015-01-01

    NASA is developing the Orion spacecraft to carry astronauts farther into the solar system than ever before, with human exploration of Mars as its ultimate goal. One of the technologies required to enable this advanced, Apollo-shaped capsule is a 3-dimensional quartz fiber composite for the vehicle's compression pad. During its mission, the compression pad serves first as a structural component and later as an ablative heat shield, partially consumed on Earth re-entry. This presentation will summarize the development of a new 3D quartz cyanate ester composite material, 3-Dimensional Multifunctional Ablative Thermal Protection System (3D-MAT), designed to meet the mission requirements for the Orion compression pad. Manufacturing development, aerothermal (arc-jet) testing, structural performance, and the overall status of material development for the 2018 EM-1 flight test will be discussed.

  10. Crashworthiness simulations with DYNA3D

    SciTech Connect

    Schauer, D.A.; Hoover, C.G.; Kay, G.J.; Lee, A.S.; De Groot, A.J.

    1996-04-01

    Current progress in parallel algorithm research and applications in vehicle crash simulation is described for the explicit, finite element algorithms in DYNA3D. Problem partitioning methods and parallel algorithms for contact at material interfaces are the two challenging algorithm research problems that are addressed. Two prototype parallel contact algorithms have been developed for treating the cases of local and arbitrary contact. Demonstration problems for local contact are crashworthiness simulations with 222 locally defined contact surfaces and a vehicle/barrier collision modeled with arbitrary contact. A simulation of crash tests conducted for a vehicle impacting a U-channel small sign post embedded in soil has been run on both the serial and parallel versions of DYNA3D. A significant reduction in computational time has been observed when running these problems on the parallel version. However, to achieve maximum efficiency, complex problems must be appropriately partitioned, especially when contact dominates the computation.

  11. 3D Technology for intelligent trackers

    SciTech Connect

    Lipton, Ronald; /Fermilab

    2010-09-01

    At Super-LHC luminosity it is expected that the standard suite of level 1 triggers for CMS will saturate. Information from the tracker will be needed to reduce trigger rates to satisfy the level 1 bandwidth. Tracking trigger modules which correlate information from closely-spaced sensor layers to form an on-detector momentum filter are being developed by several groups. We report on a trigger module design which utilizes three dimensional integrated circuit technology incorporating chips which are connected both to the top and bottom sensor, providing the ability to filter information locally. A demonstration chip, the VICTR, has been submitted to the Chartered/Tezzaron two-tier 3D run coordinated by Fermilab. We report on the 3D design concept, the status of the VICTR chip and associated sensor integration utilizing oxide bonding.

  12. Advancements in 3D Structural Analysis of Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Siler, Drew L; Faulds, James E; Mayhew, Brett; McNamara, David

    2013-06-23

    . Analysis of fault intersection density indicates that the highest density of structurally controlled permeability within the field lies in a narrow (10-to-10s of m) zone plunging moderately (~35°) to the NNW beneath Pleistocene tufa deposits. This zone of increased fracture density, which we interpret as the primary upflow zone, is controlled by the intersection of N-to-NNW striking normal faults and a WNW striking dextral fault zone and represents the most promising target for future drilling. Construction of a 3D geologic model involves integration of a variety of data into an internally consistent framework. A robust model allows for spatial comparison between the various types of data (structural, stratigraphic, geophysical, temperature, etc.) that are commonly used independently to site geothermal wells. Furthermore, highly detailed 3D geologic models provide the basis for additional quantitative analysis, including 3D fault slip and dilation tendency analysis and the precise location of structurally controlled permeability pathways. These analyses provide detailed information relating to the internal dynamics of geothermal systems and can mitigate the costs and risks of geothermal exploration and development by contributing to better well targeting and more accurate evaluations of resource potential.

  13. PLOT3D/AMES, GENERIC UNIX VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  14. PLOT3D/AMES, GENERIC UNIX VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.