Science.gov

Sample records for 3d kinematic study

  1. A 3D kinematic study of the northern ejecta `jet' of the Crab nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Christine S.; Fesen, Robert A.

    2015-03-01

    We present moderate resolution [O III] λλ4959, 5007 line emission spectra of the Crab nebula's northern ejecta jet. These data along with an [O III] image of the Crab nebula were used to build three-dimensional kinematic maps of the jet and adjacent remnant nebulosity to better understand the jet's properties and thus its likely origin. We find the jet's systemic velocity to be +170 ± 15 km s-1 with radial velocities ranging from -190 to +480 km s-1. Our data indicate that the jet consists of thin filamentary walls (Vexp ≃ 40-75 km s-1), is virtually hollow in [O III] emission, and elliptical and funnel-like in shape rather than a straight cylindrical tube as previously thought. Examination of the Crab's 3D filamentary structure along the jet's base reveals a large and nearly emission-free opening in the remnant's thick outer ejecta shell. The jet's blueshifted and redshifted sides are surprisingly well defined and, like the jet's sharp western limb, appear radially aligned with the remnant's centre of expansion. These alignments, along with the opening in the nebula at the jet's base and proper motions indicating an expansion age in line with the 1054 supernova event, suggest a direct connection between the jet's formation and the Crab's radial expansion. While our analysis supports the scenario that the jet may simply represent the highest velocity material of the remnant's N-S bipolar expansion, the nature of this expansion asymmetry remains unclear.

  2. Study of human body: Kinematics and kinetics of a martial arts (Silat) performers using 3D-motion capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soh, Ahmad Afiq Sabqi Awang; Jafri, Mohd Zubir Mat; Azraai, Nur Zaidi

    2015-04-01

    The Interest in this studies of human kinematics goes back very far in human history drove by curiosity or need for the understanding the complexity of human body motion. To find new and accurate information about the human movement as the advance computing technology became available for human movement that can perform. Martial arts (silat) were chose and multiple type of movement was studied. This project has done by using cutting-edge technology which is 3D motion capture to characterize and to measure the motion done by the performers of martial arts (silat). The camera will detect the markers (infrared reflection by the marker) around the performer body (total of 24 markers) and will show as dot in the computer software. The markers detected were analyzing using kinematic kinetic approach and time as reference. A graph of velocity, acceleration and position at time,t (seconds) of each marker was plot. Then from the information obtain, more parameters were determined such as work done, momentum, center of mass of a body using mathematical approach. This data can be used for development of the effectiveness movement in martial arts which is contributed to the people in arts. More future works can be implemented from this project such as analysis of a martial arts competition.

  3. Stumbling reactions during perturbed walking: Neuromuscular reflex activity and 3-D kinematics of the trunk - A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Müller, Juliane; Müller, Steffen; Engel, Tilman; Reschke, Antje; Baur, Heiner; Mayer, Frank

    2016-04-11

    Reflex activity of the lower leg muscles involved when compensating for falls has already been thoroughly investigated. However, the trunk׳s role in this compensation strategy remains unclear. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to analyze the kinematics and muscle activity of the trunk during perturbed walking. Ten subjects (29±3yr;79±11cm;74±14kg) walked (1m/s) on a split-belt treadmill, while 5 randomly timed, right-sided perturbations (treadmill belt deceleration: 40m/s(2)) were applied. Trunk muscle activity was assessed with a 12-lead-EMG. Trunk kinematics were measured with a 3D-motion analysis system (12 markers framing 3 segments: upper thoracic area (UTA), lower thoracic area (LTA), lumbar area (LA)). The EMG-RMS [%] (0-200ms after perturbation) was analyzed and then normalized to the RMS of normal walking. The total range of motion (ROM;[°]) for the extension/flexion, lateral flexion and rotation of each segment were calculated. Individual kinematic differences between walking and stumbling [%; ROM] were also computed. Data analysis was conducted descriptively, followed by one- and two-way ANOVAs (α=0.05). Stumbling led to an increase in ROM, compared to unperturbed gait, in all segments and planes. These increases ranged between 107±26% (UTA/rotation) and 262±132% (UTS/lateral flexion), significant only in lateral flexion. EMG activity of the trunk was increased during stumbling (abdominal: 665±283%; back: 501±215%), without significant differences between muscles. Provoked stumbling leads to a measurable effect on the trunk, quantifiable by an increase in ROM and EMG activity, compared to normal walking. Greater abdominal muscle activity and ROM of lateral flexion may indicate a specific compensation pattern occurring during stumbling. PMID:26518368

  4. Bird terrestrial locomotion as revealed by 3D kinematics.

    PubMed

    Abourachid, Anick; Hackert, Remi; Herbin, Marc; Libourel, Paul A; Lambert, François; Gioanni, Henri; Provini, Pauline; Blazevic, Pierre; Hugel, Vincent

    2011-12-01

    Most birds use at least two modes of locomotion: flying and walking (terrestrial locomotion). Whereas the wings and tail are used for flying, the legs are mainly used for walking. The role of other body segments remains, however, poorly understood. In this study, we examine the kinematics of the head, the trunk, and the legs during terrestrial locomotion in the quail (Coturnix coturnix). Despite the trunk representing about 70% of the total body mass, its function in locomotion has received little scientific interest to date. This prompted us to focus on its role in terrestrial locomotion. We used high-speed video fluoroscopic recordings of quails walking at voluntary speeds on a trackway. Dorso-ventral and lateral views of the motion of the skeletal elements were recorded successively and reconstructed in three dimensions using a novel method based on the temporal synchronisation of both views. An analysis of the trajectories of the body parts and their coordination showed that the trunk plays an important role during walking. Moreover, two sub-systems participate in the gait kinematics: (i) the integrated 3D motion of the trunk and thighs allows for the adjustment of the path of the centre of mass; (ii) the motion of distal limbs transforms the alternating forward motion of the feet into a continuous forward motion at the knee and thus assures propulsion. Finally, head bobbing appears qualitatively synchronised to the movements of the trunk. An important role for the thigh muscles in generating the 3D motion of the trunk is suggested by an analysis of the pelvic anatomy. PMID:21982408

  5. Measuring the Stellar Halo Velocity Anisotropy With 3D Kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Emily C.; Deason, Alis J.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Rockosi, Constance M.; van der Marel, Roeland P.; Sohn, S. Tony

    2016-08-01

    We present the first measurement of the anisotropy parameter β using 3D kinematic information outside of the solar neighborhood. Our sample consists of 13 Milky Way halo stars with measured proper motions and radial velocities in the line of sight of M31. Proper motions were measured using deep, multi-epoch HST imaging, and radial velocities were measured from Keck II/DEIMOS spectra. We measure β = -0.3-0.9 +0.4, which is consistent with isotropy, and inconsistent with measurements in the solar neighborhood. We suggest that this may be the kinematic signature of a relatively early, massive accretion event, or perhaps several such events.

  6. Accurate 3D kinematic measurement of temporomandibular joint using X-ray fluoroscopic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Takaharu; Matsumoto, Akiko; Sugamoto, Kazuomi; Matsumoto, Ken; Kakimoto, Naoya; Yura, Yoshiaki

    2014-04-01

    Accurate measurement and analysis of 3D kinematics of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is very important for assisting clinical diagnosis and treatment of prosthodontics and orthodontics, and oral surgery. This study presents a new 3D kinematic measurement technique of the TMJ using X-ray fluoroscopic images, which can easily obtain the TMJ kinematic data in natural motion. In vivo kinematics of the TMJ (maxilla and mandibular bone) is determined using a feature-based 2D/3D registration, which uses beads silhouette on fluoroscopic images and 3D surface bone models with beads. The 3D surface models of maxilla and mandibular bone with beads were created from CT scans data of the subject using the mouthpiece with the seven strategically placed beads. In order to validate the accuracy of pose estimation for the maxilla and mandibular bone, computer simulation test was performed using five patterns of synthetic tantalum beads silhouette images. In the clinical applications, dynamic movement during jaw opening and closing was conducted, and the relative pose of the mandibular bone with respect to the maxilla bone was determined. The results of computer simulation test showed that the root mean square errors were sufficiently smaller than 1.0 mm and 1.0 degree. In the results of clinical application, during jaw opening from 0.0 to 36.8 degree of rotation, mandibular condyle exhibited 19.8 mm of anterior sliding relative to maxillary articular fossa, and these measurement values were clinically similar to the previous reports. Consequently, present technique was thought to be suitable for the 3D TMJ kinematic analysis.

  7. Market study: 3-D eyetracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A market study of a proposed version of a 3-D eyetracker for initial use at NASA's Ames Research Center was made. The commercialization potential of a simplified, less expensive 3-D eyetracker was ascertained. Primary focus on present and potential users of eyetrackers, as well as present and potential manufacturers has provided an effective means of analyzing the prospects for commercialization.

  8. Numerical model of sonic boom in 3D kinematic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulouvrat, François; Luquet, David; Marchiano, Régis

    2015-10-01

    Sonic boom is one of the key issues to be considered in the development of future supersonic or hypersonic civil aircraft concepts. The classical sonic boom, typical for Concorde with an N-wave shape and a ground amplitude of the order of 100 Pa, prevents overland flight. Future concepts target carefully shaped sonic booms with low amplitude weak shocks. However, sonic boom when perceived at the ground level is influenced not only by the aircraft characteristics, but also by atmospheric propagation. In particular, the effect of atmospheric turbulence on sonic boom propagation near the ground is not well characterized. Flight tests performed as early as the 1960s demonstrated that classical sonic booms are sensitive to atmospheric turbulence. However, this sensitivity remains only partially understood. This is related to the fact that i) turbulence is a random process that requires a statistical approach, ii) standard methods used to predict sonic booms, mainly geometrical acoustics based on ray tracing, are inadequate within the turbulent planetary boundary layer. Moreover, the ray theory fails to predict the acoustical field in many areas of interest, such as caustics or shadow zones. These zones are of major interest for sonic boom acceptability (highest levels, lateral extent of zone of impact). These limitations outline the need for a numerical approach that is sufficiently efficient to perform a large number of realizations for a statistical approach, but that goes beyond the limitations of ray theory. With this in view, a 3D one-way numerical method solving a nonlinear scalar wave equation established for heterogeneous, moving and absorbing atmosphere, is used to assess the effects of a 3D kinematic turbulence on sonic boom in various configurations. First, a plane N-wave is propagated in the free field through random realizations of kinematic fluctuations. Then the case of a more realistic Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) is investigated, with a mean

  9. The effect of military load carriage on 3-D lower limb kinematics and spatiotemporal parameters.

    PubMed

    Birrell, Stewart A; Haslam, Roger A

    2009-10-01

    The 3-D gait analysis of military load carriage is not well represented, if at all, within the available literature. This study collected 3-D lower limb kinematics and spatiotemporal parameters in order to assess the subsequent impact of carrying loads in a backpack of up to 32 kg. Results showed the addition of load significantly decreased the range of motion of flexion/extension of the knee and pelvic rotation. Also seen were increases in adduction/abduction and rotation of the hip and pelvis tilt. No changes to ankle kinematics were observed. Alterations to the spatiotemporal parameters of gait were also of considerable interest, namely, an increase in double support and a decrease in preferred stride length as carried load increased. Analysing kinematics during military or recreational load carriage broadens the knowledge regarding the development of exercise-related injuries, while helping to inform the human-centred design process for future load carrying systems. The importance of this study is that limited available research has investigated 3-D lower limb joint kinematics when carrying loads. PMID:19787507

  10. Visualization of 3D elbow kinematics using reconstructed bony surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalone, Emily A.; McDonald, Colin P.; Ferreira, Louis M.; Peters, Terry M.; King, Graham J. W.; Johnson, James A.

    2010-02-01

    An approach for direct visualization of continuous three-dimensional elbow kinematics using reconstructed surfaces has been developed. Simulation of valgus motion was achieved in five cadaveric specimens using an upper arm simulator. Direct visualization of the motion of the ulna and humerus at the ulnohumeral joint was obtained using a contact based registration technique. Employing fiducial markers, the rendered humerus and ulna were positioned according to the simulated motion. The specific aim of this study was to investigate the effect of radial head arthroplasty on restoring elbow joint stability after radial head excision. The position of the ulna and humerus was visualized for the intact elbow and following radial head excision and replacement. Visualization of the registered humerus/ulna indicated an increase in valgus angulation of the ulna with respect to the humerus after radial head excision. This increase in valgus angulation was restored to that of an elbow with a native radial head following radial head arthroplasty. These findings were consistent with previous studies investigating elbow joint stability following radial head excision and arthroplasty. The current technique was able to visualize a change in ulnar position in a single DoF. Using this approach, the coupled motion of ulna undergoing motion in all 6 degrees-of-freedom can also be visualized.

  11. Bore-Sight Calibration of Multiple Laser Range Finders for Kinematic 3D Laser Scanning Systems

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jaehoon; Kim, Jeonghyun; Yoon, Sanghyun; Kim, Sangmin; Cho, Hyoungsig; Kim, Changjae; Heo, Joon

    2015-01-01

    The Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technique has been used for autonomous navigation of mobile systems; now, its applications have been extended to 3D data acquisition of indoor environments. In order to reconstruct 3D scenes of indoor space, the kinematic 3D laser scanning system, developed herein, carries three laser range finders (LRFs): one is mounted horizontally for system-position correction and the other two are mounted vertically to collect 3D point-cloud data of the surrounding environment along the system’s trajectory. However, the kinematic laser scanning results can be impaired by errors resulting from sensor misalignment. In the present study, the bore-sight calibration of multiple LRF sensors was performed using a specially designed double-deck calibration facility, which is composed of two half-circle-shaped aluminum frames. Moreover, in order to automatically achieve point-to-point correspondences between a scan point and the target center, a V-shaped target was designed as well. The bore-sight calibration parameters were estimated by a constrained least squares method, which iteratively minimizes the weighted sum of squares of residuals while constraining some highly-correlated parameters. The calibration performance was analyzed by means of a correlation matrix. After calibration, the visual inspection of mapped data and residual calculation confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed calibration approach. PMID:25946627

  12. Bore-Sight Calibration of Multiple Laser Range Finders for Kinematic 3D Laser Scanning Systems.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaehoon; Kim, Jeonghyun; Yoon, Sanghyun; Kim, Sangmin; Cho, Hyoungsig; Kim, Changjae; Heo, Joon

    2015-01-01

    The Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technique has been used for autonomous navigation of mobile systems; now, its applications have been extended to 3D data acquisition of indoor environments. In order to reconstruct 3D scenes of indoor space, the kinematic 3D laser scanning system, developed herein, carries three laser range finders (LRFs): one is mounted horizontally for system-position correction and the other two are mounted vertically to collect 3D point-cloud data of the surrounding environment along the system's trajectory. However, the kinematic laser scanning results can be impaired by errors resulting from sensor misalignment. In the present study, the bore-sight calibration of multiple LRF sensors was performed using a specially designed double-deck calibration facility, which is composed of two half-circle-shaped aluminum frames. Moreover, in order to automatically achieve point-to-point correspondences between a scan point and the target center, a V-shaped target was designed as well. The bore-sight calibration parameters were estimated by a constrained least squares method, which iteratively minimizes the weighted sum of squares of residuals while constraining some highly-correlated parameters. The calibration performance was analyzed by means of a correlation matrix. After calibration, the visual inspection of mapped data and residual calculation confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed calibration approach. PMID:25946627

  13. The valuable use of Microsoft Kinect™ sensor 3D kinematic in the rehabilitation process in basketball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braidot, Ariel; Favaretto, Guillermo; Frisoli, Melisa; Gemignani, Diego; Gumpel, Gustavo; Massuh, Roberto; Rayan, Josefina; Turin, Matías

    2016-04-01

    Subjects who practice sports either as professionals or amateurs, have a high incidence of knee injuries. There are a few publications that show studies from a kinematic point of view of lateral-structure-knee injuries, including meniscal (meniscal tears or chondral injury), without anterior cruciate ligament rupture. The use of standard motion capture systems for measuring outdoors sport is hard to implement due to many operative reasons. Recently released, the Microsoft Kinect™ is a sensor that was developed to track movements for gaming purposes and has seen an increased use in clinical applications. The fact that this device is a simple and portable tool allows the acquisition of data of sport common movements in the field. The development and testing of a set of protocols for 3D kinematic measurement using the Microsoft Kinect™ system is presented in this paper. The 3D kinematic evaluation algorithms were developed from information available and with the use of Microsoft’s Software Development Kit 1.8 (SDK). Along with this, an algorithm for calculating the lower limb joints angles was implemented. Thirty healthy adult volunteers were measured, using five different recording protocols for sport characteristic gestures which involve high knee injury risk in athletes.

  14. 3D-Kinematics of White Dwarfs from the SPY-Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, R.; Heber, U.; Napiwotzki, R.

    2007-09-01

    We present a progress report on the kinematical analysis of the entire SPY (ESO SN Ia Progenitor surveY; see Napiwotzki et al. 2001) sample of about one thousand white dwarfs and hot subdwarfs. In a previous study (Pauli et al. 2003, 2006) 398 DA white dwarfs have been analysed already. Here we extend the study to 634 DA white dwarfs. We discuss kinematic criteria for a distinction of thin disk, thick disk and halo populations. This is the largest homogeneous sample of white dwarfs for which accurate 3D space motions have been determined. They have been derived from radial velocities, spectroscopic distances and proper motions from catalogues. Galactic orbits and further kine- matic parameters were computed. Our kinematic criteria for assigning popu- lation membership are deduced from a sample of F and G stars taken from the literature for which chemical criteria can be used to distinguish between thin disk, thick disk and halo members. The kinematic population classification scheme is based on the position in the V U-velocity diagram, the position in the eccentricity-JZ diagram and the Galactic orbit. We combine this with age estimates and find 12 halo and 37 thick disk members amongst our DA white dwarfs. We were unable to determine the population membership of only nine of them. The remaining members of the sample of 632 stars belong to the thin disk population.

  15. Non-obstructing 3D depth cues influence reach-to-grasp kinematics.

    PubMed

    Worssam, Christopher J; Meade, Lewis C; Connolly, Jason D

    2015-02-01

    It has been demonstrated that both visual feedback and the presence of certain types of non-target objects in the workspace can affect kinematic measures and the trajectory path of the moving hand during reach-to-grasp movements. Yet no study to date has examined the possible effect of providing non-obstructing three-dimensional (3D) depth cues within the workspace and with consistent retinal inputs and whether or not these alter manual prehension movements. Participants performed a series of reach-to-grasp movements in both open- (without visual feedback) and closed-loop (with visual feedback) conditions in the presence of one of three possible 3D depth cues. Here, it is reported that preventing online visual feedback (or not) and the presence of a particular depth cue had a profound effect on kinematic measures for both the reaching and grasping components of manual prehension-despite the fact that the 3D depth cues did not act as a physical obstruction at any point. The depth cues modulated the trajectory of the reaching hand when the target block was located on the left side of the workspace but not on the right. These results are discussed in relation to previous reports and implications for brain-computer interface decoding algorithms are provided. PMID:25311388

  16. Reproducibility of 3D kinematics and surface electromyography measurements of mastication.

    PubMed

    Remijn, Lianne; Groen, Brenda E; Speyer, Renée; van Limbeek, Jacques; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the measurement reproducibility for a procedure evaluating the mastication process and to estimate the smallest detectable differences of 3D kinematic and surface electromyography (sEMG) variables. Kinematics of mandible movements and sEMG activity of the masticatory muscles were obtained over two sessions with four conditions: two food textures (biscuit and bread) of two sizes (small and large). Twelve healthy adults (mean age 29.1 years) completed the study. The second to the fifth chewing cycle of 5 bites were used for analyses. The reproducibility per outcome variable was calculated with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and a Bland-Altman analysis was applied to determine the standard error of measurement relative error of measurement and smallest detectable differences of all variables. ICCs ranged from 0.71 to 0.98 for all outcome variables. The outcome variables consisted of four bite and fourteen chewing cycle variables. The relative standard error of measurement of the bite variables was up to 17.3% for 'time-to-swallow', 'time-to-transport' and 'number of chewing cycles', but ranged from 31.5% to 57.0% for 'change of chewing side'. The relative standard error of measurement ranged from 4.1% to 24.7% for chewing cycle variables and was smaller for kinematic variables than sEMG variables. In general, measurements obtained with 3D kinematics and sEMG are reproducible techniques to assess the mastication process. The duration of the chewing cycle and frequency of chewing were the best reproducible measurements. Change of chewing side could not be reproduced. The published measurement error and smallest detectable differences will aid the interpretation of the results of future clinical studies using the same study variables. PMID:26617403

  17. 3D Kinematics and Hydrodynamic Analysis of Freely Swimming Cetacean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yan; Sheinberg, Dustin; Liu, Geng; Dong, Haibo; Fish, Frank; Javed, Joveria

    2015-11-01

    It's widely thought that flexibility and the ability to control flexibility are crucial elements in determining the performance of animal swimming. However, there is a lack of quantification of both span-wise and chord-wise deformation of Cetacean's flukes and associated hydrodynamic performance during actively swimming. To fill this gap, we examined the motion and flexure of both dolphin fluke and orca fluke in steady swimming using a combined experimental and computational approach. It is found that the fluke surface morphing can effectively modulate the flow structures and influence the propulsive performance. Findings from this work are fundamental for understanding key kinematic features of effective Cetacean propulsors, and for quantifying the hydrodynamic force production that naturally occurs during different types of swimming. This work is supported by ONR MURI N00014-14-1-0533 and NSF CBET-1313217.

  18. Differences in 3D kinematics between volleyball and beach volleyball spike movements.

    PubMed

    Tilp, Markus; Wagner, Herbert; Müller, Erich

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify differences between volleyball and beach volleyball spike jump movements performed on an indoor surface and sand surface respectively. Eight elite male volleyball players performed spike jump movements on both surfaces. An eight-camera motion capturing system (250Hz) was used to generate 3D kinematic data. Seven groups of variables representing the kinematics of the centre of mass, the countermovement, the approach phase, and the angular amplitudes and maximal velocities of the lower and upper limbs were examined using Hotelling's T2(2). Significant differences were observed in the movement of the centre of mass (P < 0.05), the countermovement, the kinematics of the approach phase, and the angular amplitudes of the lower limbs. However, no significant differences were observed either in the maximal angular velocities of the lower and upper limbs, or in the amplitudes of the upper limb motion. In conclusion, the participants showed significant adaptation to changed movement conditions. As a result of the compliance of the sand surface, the participants slowed down their movements, especially during the phase of transition from knee flexion to extension and during the extension phase. Furthermore, the participants demonstrated changes in foot position to reach the greatest height possible. PMID:18972887

  19. pynoddy 1.0: an experimental platform for automated 3-D kinematic and potential field modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florian Wellmann, J.; Thiele, Sam T.; Lindsay, Mark D.; Jessell, Mark W.

    2016-03-01

    We present a novel methodology for performing experiments with subsurface structural models using a set of flexible and extensible Python modules. We utilize the ability of kinematic modelling techniques to describe major deformational, tectonic, and magmatic events at low computational cost to develop experiments testing the interactions between multiple kinematic events, effect of uncertainty regarding event timing, and kinematic properties. These tests are simple to implement and perform, as they are automated within the Python scripting language, allowing the encapsulation of entire kinematic experiments within high-level class definitions and fully reproducible results. In addition, we provide a link to geophysical potential-field simulations to evaluate the effect of parameter uncertainties on maps of gravity and magnetics. We provide relevant fundamental information on kinematic modelling and our implementation, and showcase the application of our novel methods to investigate the interaction of multiple tectonic events on a pre-defined stratigraphy, the effect of changing kinematic parameters on simulated geophysical potential fields, and the distribution of uncertain areas in a full 3-D kinematic model, based on estimated uncertainties in kinematic input parameters. Additional possibilities for linking kinematic modelling to subsequent process simulations are discussed, as well as additional aspects of future research. Our modules are freely available on github, including documentation and tutorial examples, and we encourage the contribution to this project.

  20. pynoddy 1.0: an experimental platform for automated 3-D kinematic and potential field modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellmann, J. F.; Thiele, S. T.; Lindsay, M. D.; Jessell, M. W.

    2015-11-01

    We present a novel methodology for performing experiments with subsurface structural models using a set of flexible and extensible Python modules. We utilise the ability of kinematic modelling techniques to describe major deformational, tectonic, and magmatic events at low computational cost to develop experiments testing the interactions between multiple kinematic events, effect of uncertainty regarding event timing, and kinematic properties. These tests are simple to implement and perform, as they are automated within the Python scripting language, allowing the encapsulation of entire kinematic experiments within high-level class definitions and fully reproducible results. In addition, we provide a~link to geophysical potential-field simulations to evaluate the effect of parameter uncertainties on maps of gravity and magnetics. We provide relevant fundamental information on kinematic modelling and our implementation, and showcase the application of our novel methods to investigate the interaction of multiple tectonic events on a pre-defined stratigraphy, the effect of changing kinematic parameters on simulated geophysical potential-fields, and the distribution of uncertain areas in a full 3-D kinematic model, based on estimated uncertainties in kinematic input parameters. Additional possibilities for linking kinematic modelling to subsequent process simulations are discussed, as well as additional aspects of future research. Our modules are freely available on github, including documentation and tutorial examples, and we encourage the contribution to this project.

  1. 3D kinematic and dynamic analysis of the front crawl tumble turn in elite male swimmers.

    PubMed

    Puel, F; Morlier, J; Avalos, M; Mesnard, M; Cid, M; Hellard, P

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify kinematic and dynamic variables related to the best tumble turn times (3mRTT, the turn time from 3-m in to 3-m out, independent variable) in ten elite male swimmers using a three-dimensional (3D) underwater analysis protocol and the Lasso (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator) as statistical method. For each swimmer, the best-time turn was analyzed with five stationary and synchronized underwater cameras. The 3D reconstruction was performed using the Direct Linear Transformation algorithm. An underwater piezoelectric 3D force platform completed the set-up to compute dynamic variables. Data were smoothed by the Savitzky-Golay filtering method. Three variables were considered relevant in the best Lasso model (3mRTT=2.58-0.425 RD+0.204 VPe+0.0046 TD): the head-wall distance where rotation starts (RD), the horizontal speed at the force peak (VPe), and the 3D length of the path covered during the turn (TD). Furthermore, bivariate analysis showed that upper body (CUBei) and lower limb extension indexes at first contact (CLLei) were also linked to the turn time (r=-0.65 and p<0.05 for both variables). Thus the best turn times were associated with a long RD, slower VPe and reduced TD. By an early transverse rotation, male elite swimmers reach the wall with a slightly flexed posture that results in fast extension. These swimmers opt for a movement that is oriented forward and they focus on reducing the distance covered. PMID:22176710

  2. 3D Motion Planning Algorithms for Steerable Needles Using Inverse Kinematics

    PubMed Central

    Duindam, Vincent; Xu, Jijie; Alterovitz, Ron; Sastry, Shankar; Goldberg, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Steerable needles can be used in medical applications to reach targets behind sensitive or impenetrable areas. The kinematics of a steerable needle are nonholonomic and, in 2D, equivalent to a Dubins car with constant radius of curvature. In 3D, the needle can be interpreted as an airplane with constant speed and pitch rate, zero yaw, and controllable roll angle. We present a constant-time motion planning algorithm for steerable needles based on explicit geometric inverse kinematics similar to the classic Paden-Kahan subproblems. Reachability and path competitivity are analyzed using analytic comparisons with shortest path solutions for the Dubins car (for 2D) and numerical simulations (for 3D). We also present an algorithm for local path adaptation using null-space results from redundant manipulator theory. Finally, we discuss several ways to use and extend the inverse kinematics solution to generate needle paths that avoid obstacles. PMID:21359051

  3. 3D kinematics using dual quaternions: theory and applications in neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Leclercq, Guillaume; Lefèvre, Philippe; Blohm, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    In behavioral neuroscience, many experiments are developed in 1 or 2 spatial dimensions, but when scientists tackle problems in 3-dimensions (3D), they often face problems or new challenges. Results obtained for lower dimensions are not always extendable in 3D. In motor planning of eye, gaze or arm movements, or sensorimotor transformation problems, the 3D kinematics of external (stimuli) or internal (body parts) must often be considered: how to describe the 3D position and orientation of these objects and link them together? We describe how dual quaternions provide a convenient way to describe the 3D kinematics for position only (point transformation) or for combined position and orientation (through line transformation), easily modeling rotations, translations or screw motions or combinations of these. We also derive expressions for the velocities of points and lines as well as the transformation velocities. Then, we apply these tools to a motor planning task for manual tracking and to the modeling of forward and inverse kinematics of a seven-dof three-link arm to show the interest of dual quaternions as a tool to build models for these kinds of applications. PMID:23443667

  4. Decoding 3-D Reach and Grasp Kinematics from High-Frequency Local Field Potentials in Primate Primary Motor Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Jun; Vargas-Irwin, Carlos; Donoghue, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Intracortical microelectrode array recordings generate a variety of neural signals with potential application as control signals in neural interface systems. Previous studies have focused on single and multiunit activity, as well as low frequency local field potentials (LFPs), but have not explored higher frequency (>200 Hz) LFPs. In addition, the potential to decode three dimensional (3-D) reach and grasp kinematics based on LFPs has not been demonstrated. Here, we use mutual information and decoding analyses to probe the information content about 3-D reaching and grasping of 7 different LFP frequency bands in the range of 0.3 Hz – 400 Hz. LFPs were recorded via 96-microelectrode arrays in primary motor cortex (M1) of two monkeys performing free reaching to grasp moving objects. Mutual information analyses revealed that higher frequency bands (e.g. 100 – 200 Hz and 200 – 400 Hz) carried the most information about the examined kinematics. Furthermore, Kalman filter decoding revealed that broadband high frequency LFPs, likely reflecting multiunit activity, provided the best decoding performance as well as substantial accuracy in reconstructing reach kinematics, grasp aperture and aperture velocity. These results indicate that LFPs, especially high frequency bands, could be useful signals for neural interfaces controlling 3-D reach and grasp kinematics. PMID:20403782

  5. Reconstruction Error of Calibration Volume’s Coordinates for 3D Swimming Kinematics

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Pedro; Machado, Leandro; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo; Fernandes, Ricardo J.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy and reliability of above and underwater 3D reconstruction of three calibration volumes with different control points disposal (#1 - on vertical and horizontal rods; #2 - on vertical and horizontal rods and facets; #3 - on crossed horizontal rods). Each calibration volume (3 × 2 × 3 m) was positioned in a 25 m swimming pool (half above and half below the water surface) and recorded with four underwater and two above water synchronised cameras (50 Hz). Reconstruction accuracy was determined calculating the RMS error of twelve validation points. The standard deviation across all digitisation of the same marker was used for assessing the reliability estimation. Comparison among different number of control points showed that the set of 24 points produced the most accurate results. The volume #2 presented higher accuracy (RMS errors: 5.86 and 3.59 mm for x axis, 3.45 and 3.11 mm for y axis and 4.38 and 4.00 mm for z axis, considering under and above water, respectively) and reliability (SD: underwater cameras ± [0.2; 0.6] mm; above water cameras ± [0.2; 0.3] mm) that may be considered suitable for 3D swimming kinematic analysis. Results revealed that RMS error was greater during underwater analysis, possibly due to refraction. PMID:23486761

  6. Reconstruction Error of Calibration Volume's Coordinates for 3D Swimming Kinematics.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Pedro; Machado, Leandro; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo; Fernandes, Ricardo J

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy and reliability of above and underwater 3D reconstruction of three calibration volumes with different control points disposal (#1 - on vertical and horizontal rods; #2 - on vertical and horizontal rods and facets; #3 - on crossed horizontal rods). Each calibration volume (3 × 2 × 3 m) was positioned in a 25 m swimming pool (half above and half below the water surface) and recorded with four underwater and two above water synchronised cameras (50 Hz). Reconstruction accuracy was determined calculating the RMS error of twelve validation points. The standard deviation across all digitisation of the same marker was used for assessing the reliability estimation. Comparison among different number of control points showed that the set of 24 points produced the most accurate results. The volume #2 presented higher accuracy (RMS errors: 5.86 and 3.59 mm for x axis, 3.45 and 3.11 mm for y axis and 4.38 and 4.00 mm for z axis, considering under and above water, respectively) and reliability (SD: underwater cameras ± [0.2; 0.6] mm; above water cameras ± [0.2; 0.3] mm) that may be considered suitable for 3D swimming kinematic analysis. Results revealed that RMS error was greater during underwater analysis, possibly due to refraction. PMID:23486761

  7. Kinematic MHD Models of Collapsing Magnetic Traps: Extension to 3D

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, Keith J.; Neukirch, Thomas

    2009-02-16

    We show how fully 3D kinematic MHD models of collapsing magnetic traps (CMTs) can be constructed, thus extending previous work on 2D trap models. CMTs are thought to form in the relaxing magnetic field lines in solar flares and it has been proposed that they play an important role in the acceleration of high-energy particles. This work is a first step to understanding the physics of CMTs better.

  8. A 3D view of the Hydra I galaxy cluster core - I. Kinematic substructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilker, Michael; Barbosa, Carlos Eduardo; Richtler, Tom; Coccato, Lodovico; Arnaboldi, Magda; Mendes de Oliveira, Claudia

    2015-02-01

    We used FORS2 in MXU mode to mimic a coarse `IFU' in order to measure the 3D large-scale kinematics around the central Hydra I cluster galaxy NGC 3311. Our data show that the velocity dispersion field varies as a function of radius and azimuthal angle and violates point symmetry. Also, the velocity field shows similar dependence, hence the stellar halo of NGC 3311 is a dynamically young structure. The kinematic irregularities coincide in position with a displaced diffuse halo North-East of NGC 3311 and with tidal features of a group of disrupting dwarf galaxies. This suggests that the superposition of different velocity components is responsible for the kinematic substructure in the Hydra I cluster core.

  9. Evaluation of RSA set-up from a clinical biplane fluoroscopy system for 3D joint kinematic analysis

    PubMed Central

    BONANZINGA, TOMMASO; SIGNORELLI, CECILIA; BONTEMPI, MARCO; RUSSO, ALESSANDRO; ZAFFAGNINI, STEFANO; MARCACCI, MAURILIO; BRAGONZONI, LAURA

    2016-01-01

    Purpose dinamic roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA), a technique currently based only on customized radiographic equipment, has been shown to be a very accurate method for detecting three-dimensional (3D) joint motion. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the applicability of an innovative RSA set-up for in vivo knee kinematic analysis, using a biplane fluoroscopic image system. To this end, the Authors describe the set-up as well as a possible protocol for clinical knee joint evaluation. The accuracy of the kinematic measurements is assessed. Methods the Authors evaluated the accuracy of 3D kinematic analysis of the knee in a new RSA set-up, based on a commercial biplane fluoroscopy system integrated into the clinical environment. The study was organized in three main phases: an in vitro test under static conditions, an in vitro test under dynamic conditions reproducing a flexion-extension range of motion (ROM), and an in vivo analysis of the flexion-extension ROM. For each test, the following were calculated, as an indication of the tracking accuracy: mean, minimum, maximum values and standard deviation of the error of rigid body fitting. Results in terms of rigid body fitting, in vivo test errors were found to be 0.10±0.05 mm. Phantom tests in static and kinematic conditions showed precision levels, for translations and rotations, of below 0.1 mm/0.2° and below 0.5 mm/0.3° respectively for all directions. Conclusions the results of this study suggest that kinematic RSA can be successfully performed using a standard clinical biplane fluoroscopy system for the acquisition of slow movements of the lower limb. Clinical relevance a kinematic RSA set-up using a clinical biplane fluoroscopy system is potentially applicable and provides a useful method for obtaining better characterization of joint biomechanics. PMID:27602352

  10. Kinematic interpretation of the 3D shapes of metamorphic core complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Pourhiet, Laetitia; Huet, Benjamin; May, Dave A.; Labrousse, Loic; Jolivet, Laurent

    2012-09-01

    Metamorphic Core Complexes form dome shaped structures in which the ductile crust is exhumed beneath a detachment fault. The 3D dome geometry, inferred by mapping the schistosity in the exhumed crust, can be either elongated normal to the stretching direction or along it. In the first case, the domes are interpreted as having formed during extension. However, in the second case, they are interpreted either as strike-slip, transpressive or constrictive extensional structures, depending on the geodynamic context. Numerical models of metamorphic core complexes published to date are all two-dimensional and therefore, theoretically only apply to domes which are elongated normal to the stretching direction. Here, we explore by means of 3D thermomechanical modeling, the impact of 3D kinematic extensional boundary conditions on the shape of metamorphic core complexes. We examine the impact of a transtensional step over and of horsetail splay fault kinematics on the dynamics of exhumation, finite strain and P-T paths, and compare them to cylindrical 3D models. We show, for the first time, that domes formed in transtensional step over, or at the tip of propagating strike-slip faults, display a finite strain field which can be interpreted as characteristic of a transpressive domes, although no shortening was applied in the far-field. Applying our models to the Cyclades, we propose that the coeval formation of domes elongated normal and parallel to the stretching during the Miocene can be the result of horsetail splay fault kinematics, which could correspond to the formation of a tear in the Aegean slab.

  11. A kinematic model for 3-D head-free gaze-shifts

    PubMed Central

    Daemi, Mehdi; Crawford, J. Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Rotations of the line of sight are mainly implemented by coordinated motion of the eyes and head. Here, we propose a model for the kinematics of three-dimensional (3-D) head-unrestrained gaze-shifts. The model was designed to account for major principles in the known behavior, such as gaze accuracy, spatiotemporal coordination of saccades with vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), relative eye and head contributions, the non-commutativity of rotations, and Listing's and Fick constraints for the eyes and head, respectively. The internal design of the model was inspired by known and hypothesized elements of gaze control physiology. Inputs included retinocentric location of the visual target and internal representations of initial 3-D eye and head orientation, whereas outputs were 3-D displacements of eye relative to the head and head relative to shoulder. Internal transformations decomposed the 2-D gaze command into 3-D eye and head commands with the use of three coordinated circuits: (1) a saccade generator, (2) a head rotation generator, (3) a VOR predictor. Simulations illustrate that the model can implement: (1) the correct 3-D reference frame transformations to generate accurate gaze shifts (despite variability in other parameters), (2) the experimentally verified constraints on static eye and head orientations during fixation, and (3) the experimentally observed 3-D trajectories of eye and head motion during gaze-shifts. We then use this model to simulate how 2-D eye-head coordination strategies interact with 3-D constraints to influence 3-D orientations of the eye-in-space, and the implications of this for spatial vision. PMID:26113816

  12. A kinematic model for 3-D head-free gaze-shifts.

    PubMed

    Daemi, Mehdi; Crawford, J Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Rotations of the line of sight are mainly implemented by coordinated motion of the eyes and head. Here, we propose a model for the kinematics of three-dimensional (3-D) head-unrestrained gaze-shifts. The model was designed to account for major principles in the known behavior, such as gaze accuracy, spatiotemporal coordination of saccades with vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), relative eye and head contributions, the non-commutativity of rotations, and Listing's and Fick constraints for the eyes and head, respectively. The internal design of the model was inspired by known and hypothesized elements of gaze control physiology. Inputs included retinocentric location of the visual target and internal representations of initial 3-D eye and head orientation, whereas outputs were 3-D displacements of eye relative to the head and head relative to shoulder. Internal transformations decomposed the 2-D gaze command into 3-D eye and head commands with the use of three coordinated circuits: (1) a saccade generator, (2) a head rotation generator, (3) a VOR predictor. Simulations illustrate that the model can implement: (1) the correct 3-D reference frame transformations to generate accurate gaze shifts (despite variability in other parameters), (2) the experimentally verified constraints on static eye and head orientations during fixation, and (3) the experimentally observed 3-D trajectories of eye and head motion during gaze-shifts. We then use this model to simulate how 2-D eye-head coordination strategies interact with 3-D constraints to influence 3-D orientations of the eye-in-space, and the implications of this for spatial vision. PMID:26113816

  13. The relationship between 3-D kinematics and gliding performance in the southern flying squirrel, Glaucomys volans.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Kristin L

    2006-02-01

    Gliding is the simplest form of flight, yet relatively little is known about its mechanics in animals. The goal of this study was to describe the body position and performance of a gliding mammal and to identify correlates between kinematics and aerodynamic performance. To do this, I used a pair of high-speed digital cameras to record a portion of the middle of glides by southern flying squirrels, Glaucomys volans. The squirrels launched from a height of 4 m and landed on a vertical pole. Reflective markers were applied to anatomical landmarks and the 3-D coordinates of these points were computed to describe the kinematics of the glides. From these data I estimated the lift and drag generated during the glide, and correlated these variables with gliding performance as measured by glide angle, glide speed and stability. In the majority of the glide sequences the squirrels accelerated in the downward direction and accelerated horizontally forward as they moved through the calibrated volume in the middle of the glide trajectory, rather than exhibiting a steady glide in which the body weight is balanced by the resultant aerodynamic force. Compared to human engineered airfoils, the angles of attack used by the squirrels were unexpectedly high, ranging from 35.4 degrees to 53.5 degrees , far above the angle of attack at which an aircraft wing would typically stall. As expected based on aerodynamic theory, there was a negative correlation between angle of attack and lift coefficient, indicating that the wings are stalled, and a positive correlation between angle of attack and drag coefficient. Also as expected, there was a negative correlation between lift-to-drag ratio and angle of attack, as increasing angle of attack produced both less lift and more drag. Within glides, there was a strong correlation between nose-down pitching rotations and limb movements that tended to increase the angle of attack of the wing membrane, suggesting that the animals actively control

  14. Kinematics of a growth fault/raft system on the West African margin using 3-D restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouby, Delphine; Raillard, Stéphane; Guillocheau, François; Bouroullec, Renaud; Nalpas, Thierry

    2002-04-01

    The ability to quantify the movement history associated with growth structures is crucial in the understanding of fundamental processes such as the growth of folds or faults in 3-D. In this paper, we present an application of an original approach to restore in 3-D a listric growth fault system resulting from gravity-induced extension located on the West African margin. Our goal is to establish the 3-D structural framework and kinematics of the study area. We construct a 3-D geometrical model of the fault system (from 3-D seismic data), then restore six stratigraphic surfaces and reconstruct the 3-D geometry of the system at six incremental steps of its history. The evolution of the growth fault/raft system corresponds to the progressive separation of two rafts by regional extension, resulting in the development of an intervening basin located between them that evolved in three main stages: (1) the rise of an evaporite wall, (2) the development of a symmetric basin as the elevation of the diapir is reduced and buried, and (3) the development of asymmetric basins related to two systems of listric faults (the main fault F1 and the graben located between the rollovers and the lower raft). Important features of the growth fault/raft system could only be observed in 3-D and with increments of deformation restored. The rollover anticline (associated with the listric fault F1) is composed of two sub-units separated by an E-W oriented transverse graben indicating that the displacement field was divergent in map view. The rollover units are located within the overlap area of two fault systems and displays a 'mock-turtle' anticline structure. The seaward translation of the lower raft is associated with two successive vertical axis rotations in the opposite sense (clockwise then counter-clockwise by about 10°). This results from the fact that the two main fault systems developed successively. Fault system F1 formed during the Upper Albian, and the graben during the Cenomanian

  15. Impedance mammograph 3D phantom studies.

    PubMed

    Wtorek, J; Stelter, J; Nowakowski, A

    1999-04-20

    The results obtained using the Technical University of Gdansk Electroimpedance Mammograph (TUGEM) of a 3D phantom study are presented. The TUGEM system is briefly described. The hardware contains the measurement head and DSP-based identification modules controlled by a PC computer. A specially developed reconstruction algorithm, Regulated Correction Frequency Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (RCFART), is used to obtain 3D images. To visualize results, the Advance Visualization System (AVS) is used. It allows a powerful image processing on a fast workstation or on a high-performance computer. Results of three types of 3D conductivity perturbations used in the study (aluminum, Plexiglas, and cucumber) are shown. The relative volumes of perturbations less than 2% of the measurement chamber are easily evidenced. PMID:10372188

  16. Initial Comparison Between a 3D MHD Model and the HAFv2 Kinematic 3D Model: The October/November 2003 Events from the Sun to 6 AU

    SciTech Connect

    Intriligator, Devrie S.; Detman, Thomas; Fry, Craig D.; Sun Wei; Deehr, Charles; Intriligator, James

    2005-08-01

    A first-generation 3D kinematic, space weather forecasting solar wind model (HAFv2) has been used to show the importance of solar generated disturbances in Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 observations in the outer heliosphere. We extend this work by using a 3D MHD model (HHMS) that, like HAFv2, incorporates a global, pre-event, inhomogeneous, background solar wind plasma and interplanetary magnetic field. Initial comparisons are made between the two models of the solar wind out to 6 AU and with in-situ observations at the ACE spacecraft before and after the October/November 2003 solar events.

  17. A comparison of the 3D kinematic measurements obtained by single-plane 2D-3D image registration and RSA.

    PubMed

    Muhit, Abdullah A; Pickering, Mark R; Ward, Tom; Scarvell, Jennie M; Smith, Paul N

    2010-01-01

    3D computed tomography (CT) to single-plane 2D fluoroscopy registration is an emerging technology for many clinical applications such as kinematic analysis of human joints and image-guided surgery. However, previous registration approaches have suffered from the inaccuracy of determining precise motion parameters for out-of-plane movements. In this paper we compare kinematic measurements obtained by a new 2D-3D registration algorithm with measurements provided by the gold standard Roentgen Stereo Analysis (RSA). In particular, we are interested in the out-of-plane translation and rotations which are difficult to measure precisely using a single plane approach. Our experimental results show that the standard deviation of the error for out-of-plane translation is 0.42 mm which compares favourably to RSA. It is also evident that our approach produces very similar flexion/extension, abduction/adduction and external knee rotation angles when compared to RSA. PMID:21097358

  18. 3D kinematics of the near-IR HH 223 outflow in L723

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, R.; Acosta-Pulido, J. A.; Estalella, R.; Gómez, G.; García-Lorenzo, B.

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we derive the full 3D kinematics of the near-infrared outflow HH 223, located in the dark cloud Lynds 723 (L723), where a well-defined quadrupolar CO outflow is found. HH 223 appears projected on to the two lobes of the east-west CO outflow. The radio continuum source VLA 2, towards the centre of the CO outflow, harbours a multiple system of low-mass young stellar objects. One of the components has been proposed to be the exciting source of the east-west CO outflow. From the analysis of the kinematics, we get further evidence on the relationship between the near-infrared and CO outflows and on the location of their exciting source. The proper motions were derived using multi-epoch, narrow-band H2 (2.122 μm line) images. Radial velocities were derived from the 2.122 μm line of the spectra. Because of the extended (˜5 arcmin), S-shaped morphology of the target, the spectra were obtained with the multi-object-spectroscopy (MOS) observing mode using the instrument Long-Slit Intermediate Resolution Infrared Spectrograph (LIRIS) at the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope. To our knowledge, this work is the first time that MOS observing mode has been successfully used in the near-infrared range for an extended target.

  19. 3D Analysis of the Proximal Interphalangeal Joint Kinematics during Flexion

    PubMed Central

    Fürnstahl, Philipp; Gallo, Luigi-Maria; Schweizer, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Background. Dynamic joint motion recording combined with CT-based 3D bone and joint surface data is accepted as a helpful and precise tool to analyse joint. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of these techniques for quantitative motion analysis of the interphalangeal joint in 3D. Materials and Method. High resolution motion data was combined with an accurate 3D model of a cadaveric index finger. Three light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were used to record dynamic data, and a CT scan of the finger was done for 3D joint surface geometry. The data allowed performing quantitative evaluations such as finite helical axis (FHA) analysis, coordinate system optimization, and measurement of the joint distances in 3D. Results. The FHA varies by 4.9 ± 1.7° on average. On average, the rotation in adduction/abduction and internal/external rotation were 0.3 ± 0.91° and 0.1 ± 0.97°, respectively. During flexion, a translational motion between 0.06 mm and 0.73 mm was observed. Conclusions. The proposed technique and methods appear to be feasible for the accurate assessment and evaluation of the PIP joint motion in 3D. The presented method may help to gain additional insights for the design of prosthetic implants, rehabilitation, and new orthotic devices. PMID:24302972

  20. Gender effect on the scapular 3D posture and kinematic in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, C; Croisier, J L; Rigaux, E; Brüls, O; Denoël, V; Forthomme, B

    2016-05-01

    Populations considered for shoulder analysis are often composed of various ratios of men and women. It is consequently hypothesized that gender has no significant effect on the joint kinematic. However, the literature reports, for the shoulder, differences in the range of motion between genders. The specific influence of gender on the scapulo-thoracic kinematics has not been studied yet. The dominant shoulder of two populations of men and women composed of 11 subjects each were evaluated in three dimensions for three distinct motions: flexion in the sagittal plane, abduction in the frontal plane and gleno-humeral internal/external rotation with the arm abducted at 90°. Posture, kinematics and range of motion were studied separately. For flexion and abduction and with regard to the scapular kinematic, external rotation was significantly larger for women than men. The differences were of at least 5° at 120° of humeral elevation. Upward rotations were identical. Women also showed larger average active humero-thoracic range of motion. The mean differences were of 13°, 7°, 12° and 5° for abduction, flexion, internal rotation and external rotation, respectively. No difference was observed between the scapular resting positions of both populations. The observed differences concerning both the scapular and humeral patterns would indicate that the shoulder behaviour of men and women should not be expected to be similar. PMID:25382377

  1. Markerless motion capture can provide reliable 3D gait kinematics in the sagittal and frontal plane.

    PubMed

    Sandau, Martin; Koblauch, Henrik; Moeslund, Thomas B; Aanæs, Henrik; Alkjær, Tine; Simonsen, Erik B

    2014-09-01

    Estimating 3D joint rotations in the lower extremities accurately and reliably remains unresolved in markerless motion capture, despite extensive studies in the past decades. The main problems have been ascribed to the limited accuracy of the 3D reconstructions. Accordingly, the purpose of the present study was to develop a new approach based on highly detailed 3D reconstructions in combination with a translational and rotational unconstrained articulated model. The highly detailed 3D reconstructions were synthesized from an eight camera setup using a stereo vision approach. The subject specific articulated model was generated with three rotational and three translational degrees of freedom for each limb segment and without any constraints to the range of motion. This approach was tested on 3D gait analysis and compared to a marker based method. The experiment included ten healthy subjects in whom hip, knee and ankle joint were analysed. Flexion/extension angles as well as hip abduction/adduction closely resembled those obtained from the marker based system. However, the internal/external rotations, knee abduction/adduction and ankle inversion/eversion were less reliable. PMID:25085672

  2. Development of Kinematic 3D Laser Scanning System for Indoor Mapping and As-Built BIM Using Constrained SLAM

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jaehoon; Yoon, Sanghyun; Ju, Sungha; Heo, Joon

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest and use of indoor mapping is driving a demand for improved data-acquisition facility, efficiency and productivity in the era of the Building Information Model (BIM). The conventional static laser scanning method suffers from some limitations on its operability in complex indoor environments, due to the presence of occlusions. Full scanning of indoor spaces without loss of information requires that surveyors change the scanner position many times, which incurs extra work for registration of each scanned point cloud. Alternatively, a kinematic 3D laser scanning system, proposed herein, uses line-feature-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technique for continuous mapping. Moreover, to reduce the uncertainty of line-feature extraction, we incorporated constrained adjustment based on an assumption made with respect to typical indoor environments: that the main structures are formed of parallel or orthogonal line features. The superiority of the proposed constrained adjustment is its reduction for uncertainties of the adjusted lines, leading to successful data association process. In the present study, kinematic scanning with and without constrained adjustment were comparatively evaluated in two test sites, and the results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed system. The accuracy of the 3D mapping result was additionally evaluated by comparison with the reference points acquired by a total station: the Euclidean average distance error was 0.034 m for the seminar room and 0.043 m for the corridor, which satisfied the error tolerance for point cloud acquisition (0.051 m) according to the guidelines of the General Services Administration for BIM accuracy. PMID:26501292

  3. Isotropic at the Break? 3D Kinematics of Milky Way Halo Stars in the Foreground of M31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Emily C.; Deason, Alis J.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Rockosi, Constance M.; van der Marel, Roeland P.; Toloba, Elisa; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Sohn, Sangmo Tony; Dorman, Claire E.

    2016-03-01

    We present the line-of-sight (LOS) velocities for 13 distant main sequence Milky Way halo stars with published proper motions (PMs). The PMs were measured using long baseline (5-7 years) multi-epoch Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys photometry, and the LOS velocities were extracted from deep (5-6 hr integrations) Keck II/DEIMOS spectra. We estimate the parameters of the velocity ellipsoid of the stellar halo using a Markov chain Monte Carlo ensembler sampler method. The velocity second moments in the directions of the Galactic (l, b, LOS) coordinate system are {< {v}l2> }1/2={138}-26+43 km s-1, {< {v}b2> }1/2={88}-17+28 {\\text{km s}}-1, and {< {v}{{LOS}}2> }1/2={91}-14+27 {\\text{km s}}-1. We use these ellipsoid parameters to constrain the velocity anisotropy of the stellar halo. Ours is the first measurement of the anisotropy parameter β using 3D kinematics outside of the solar neighborhood. We find β =-{0.3}-0.9+0.4, consistent with isotropy and lower than solar neighborhood β measurements by 2σ (βSN ˜ 0.5-0.7). We identify two stars in our sample that are likely members of the known TriAnd substructure, and excluding these objects from our sample increases our estimate of the anisotropy to β ={0.1}-1.0+0.4, which is still lower than solar neighborhood measurements by 1σ. The potential decrease in β with Galactocentric radius is inconsistent with theoretical predictions, though consistent with recent observational studies, and may indicate the presence of large, shell-type structure (or structures) at r ˜ 25 kpc. The methods described in this paper will be applied to a much larger sample of stars with 3D kinematics observed through the ongoing HALO7D program.

  4. Development of kinematic 3D laser scanning system for indoor mapping and as-built BIM using constrained SLAM.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaehoon; Yoon, Sanghyun; Ju, Sungha; Heo, Joon

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest and use of indoor mapping is driving a demand for improved data-acquisition facility, efficiency and productivity in the era of the Building Information Model (BIM). The conventional static laser scanning method suffers from some limitations on its operability in complex indoor environments, due to the presence of occlusions. Full scanning of indoor spaces without loss of information requires that surveyors change the scanner position many times, which incurs extra work for registration of each scanned point cloud. Alternatively, a kinematic 3D laser scanning system, proposed herein, uses line-feature-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technique for continuous mapping. Moreover, to reduce the uncertainty of line-feature extraction, we incorporated constrained adjustment based on an assumption made with respect to typical indoor environments: that the main structures are formed of parallel or orthogonal line features. The superiority of the proposed constrained adjustment is its reduction for uncertainties of the adjusted lines, leading to successful data association process. In the present study, kinematic scanning with and without constrained adjustment were comparatively evaluated in two test sites, and the results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed system. The accuracy of the 3D mapping result was additionally evaluated by comparison with the reference points acquired by a total station: the Euclidean average distance error was 0.034 m for the seminar room and 0.043 m for the corridor, which satisfied the error tolerance for point cloud acquisition (0.051 m) according to the guidelines of the General Services Administration for BIM accuracy. PMID:26501292

  5. 3D kinematics of the tarsal joints from magnetic resonance images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Bruce E.; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Okereke, Enyi; Hillstrom, Howard J.; Siegler, Sorin; Ringleb, Stacie I.; Imhauser, Carl W.

    2001-09-01

    We have developed a method for analyzing motion at skeletal joints based on the 3D reconstruction of magnetic resonance (MR) image data. Since the information about each voxel in MR images includes its location in the scanner, it follows that information is available for each organ whose 3D surface is computed from a series of MR slices. In addition, there is information on the shape and orientation of each organ, and the contact areas of adjacent bones. By collecting image data in different positions we can calculate the motion of the individual bones. We have used this method to study human foot bones, in order to understand normal and abnormal foot function. It has been used to evaluate patients with tarsal coalitions, various forms of pes planus, ankle sprains, and several other conditions. A newly described feature of this system is the ability to visualize the contact area at a joint, as determined by the region of minimum distance. The display of contact area helps understand abnormal joint function. Also, the use of 3D imaging reveals motions in joints which cannot otherwise be visualized, such as the subtalar joint, for more accurate diagnosis of joint injury.

  6. The Appropriateness of the Helical Axis Technique and Six Available Cardan Sequences for the Representation of 3-D Lead Leg Kinematics During the Fencing Lunge

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Jonathan; Taylor, Paul J; Bottoms, Lindsay

    Cardan/Euler angles represent the most common technique for the quantification of segmental rotations. Cardan angles are influenced by their ordered sequence, and sensitive to planar-cross talk from the dominant rotation plane, which may affect the angular parameters. The International Society of Biomechanics (ISB) currently recommends a sagittal, coronal, and then transverse (XYZ) ordered sequence, although it has been proposed that when quantifying non-sagittal rotations this may not be the most appropriate technique. This study examined the influence of the helical and six available Cardan sequences on lower extremity three-dimensional (3-D) kinematics of the lead leg during the fencing lunge. Kinematic data were obtained using a 3-D motion capture system as participants completed simulated lunges. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to compare discrete kinematic parameters, and intraclass correlations were also utilized to determine evidence of planar crosstalk. The results indicate that in all three planes of rotation, peak angle and range of motion angles using the YXZ and ZXY sequences were significantly greater than the other sequences. It was also noted that the utilization of the YXZ and ZXY sequences was associated with the strongest correlations from the sagittal plane, and the XYZ sequence was found habitually to be associated with the lowest correlations. It appears that for accurate representation of 3-D kinematics of the lead leg during the fencing lunge, the XYZ sequence is the most appropriate and as such its continued utilization is encouraged. PMID:24146700

  7. A volumetric model-based 2D to 3D registration method for measuring kinematics of natural knees with single-plane fluoroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Tsung-Yuan; Lu, Tung-Wu; Chen, Chung-Ming; Kuo, Mei-Ying; Hsu, Horng-Chaung

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: Accurate measurement of the three-dimensional (3D) rigid body and surface kinematics of the natural human knee is essential for many clinical applications. Existing techniques are limited either in their accuracy or lack more realistic experimental evaluation of the measurement errors. The purposes of the study were to develop a volumetric model-based 2D to 3D registration method, called the weighted edge-matching score (WEMS) method, for measuring natural knee kinematics with single-plane fluoroscopy to determine experimentally the measurement errors and to compare its performance with that of pattern intensity (PI) and gradient difference (GD) methods. Methods: The WEMS method gives higher priority to matching of longer edges of the digitally reconstructed radiograph and fluoroscopic images. The measurement errors of the methods were evaluated based on a human cadaveric knee at 11 flexion positions. Results: The accuracy of the WEMS method was determined experimentally to be less than 0.77 mm for the in-plane translations, 3.06 mm for out-of-plane translation, and 1.13 deg. for all rotations, which is better than that of the PI and GD methods. Conclusions: A new volumetric model-based 2D to 3D registration method has been developed for measuring 3D in vivo kinematics of natural knee joints with single-plane fluoroscopy. With the equipment used in the current study, the accuracy of the WEMS method is considered acceptable for the measurement of the 3D kinematics of the natural knee in clinical applications.

  8. Scenario Testing and Sensitivity Analysis for 3-D Kinematic Models and Geophysical Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellmann, Florian; Lindsay, Mark; Jessell, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Geological models are widely used to represent the structural setting of the subsurface. Commonly, a single model is generated for a region, representing the best interpretation of the structural setting in the light of all available information. It is, however, widely accepted that a such created model still contains uncertainties. We hypothesise here that it is possible to transform a single kinematic model into a powerful predictive tool for scenario analysis and uncertainty quantification. We extend the functionality of a kinematic structural and geophysical modelling approach, implemented in the software Noddy, with a set newly developed Python modules to expose, generalise and automate essential parts of the modelling workflow. We show how these methods enable us to quickly generate and analyse different geological scenarios. In addition to the geological model, Noddy also enables the direct calculation of geophysical fields of gravity and magnetics. We can use this functionality to compare the model to measured potential fields. With an example for a fold and thrust belt model, we show how to quickly estimate how changes in the model (due to parameter uncertainties, for example) affect the calculated gravity field in the model range. Finally, we present the possibility to efficiently generate an ensemble of model realisations for predictive geomodel analysis with an application to a case study in the Gippsland Basin, Victoria. The results show that our approach can successfully extend the functionality of traditional modelling methods with an additional layer of predictive power towards an efficient evaluation of uncertainties in structural geological models.

  9. A comparison of 3D scapular kinematics between dominant and nondominant shoulders during multiplanar arm motion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Ki; Yang, Dae Suk; Kim, Ha Yong; Choy, Won Sik

    2013-01-01

    Background: Generally, the scapular motions of pathologic and contralateral normal shoulders are compared to characterize shoulder disorders. However, the symmetry of scapular motion of normal shoulders remains undetermined. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare 3dimensinal (3D) scapular motion between dominant and nondominant shoulders during three different planes of arm motion by using an optical tracking system. Materials and Methods: Twenty healthy subjects completed five repetitions of elevation and lowering in sagittal plane flexion, scapular plane abduction, and coronal plane abduction. The 3D scapular motion was measured using an optical tracking system, after minimizing reflective marker skin slippage using ultrasonography. The dynamic 3D motion of the scapula of dominant and nondominant shoulders, and the scapulohumeral rhythm (SHR) were analyzed at each 10° increment during the three planes of arm motion. Results: There was no significant difference in upward rotation or internal rotation (P > 0.05) of the scapula between dominant and nondominant shoulders during the three planes of arm motion. However, there was a significant difference in posterior tilting (P = 0.018) during coronal plane abduction. The SHR was a large positive or negative number in the initial phase of sagittal plane flexion and scapular plane abduction. However, the SHR was a small positive or negative number in the initial phase of coronal plane abduction. Conclusions: Only posterior tilting of the scapula during coronal plane abduction was asymmetrical in our healthy subjects, and depending on the plane of arm motion, the pattern of the SHR differed as well. These differences should be considered in the clinical assessment of shoulder pathology. PMID:23682174

  10. Fold Thrust Belt Kinematics from 3D Seismic Imaging along the NanTroSEIZE Transect, Nankai Accretionary Prism, Japan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kington, J. D.; Tobin, H.; Moore, G.

    2008-12-01

    The accretionary prism of the Nankai Trough, Japan provides an excellent location to study the kinematics of a fold and thrust belt developed primarily in low permeability units. Recently acquired 3D reflection seismic data covering a 12 x 56 km area from the Kumano basin seaward to the deformation front reveals three structural domains within the frontal accretionary prism. The farthest seaward domain of the prism consists closely-spaced, apparently in-sequence thrust sheets forming a steep critical taper angle. The primary decollement beneath these thrusts ramps upsection above a topographic high within the oceanic basement. The farthest landward domain within the study area consists of the hanging wall of an apparently out of sequence megasplay thrust fault that dips landward to the top of the oceanic crust. The central structural domain within the prism consists of thrust sheets formed above a decollement approximately 2 km above the top of the oceanic crust, above the decollement associated with the more seaward thrusts. These thrusts are more widely spaced than those nearer the deformation front and are blanketed with syn and post kinematic sediments. Synkinematic sediments indicate that thrusts in the most seaward and most landward structural domains within the prism are the most active, though some reactivation of structures in the middle domain has occurred. Additionally, gas hydrate bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs) in the lowermost portions of the prism are present as discrete bands striking parallel to thrusts. These BSRs occur primarily along the most active thrusts, and are only present as small patches within the central structural domain of the prism. As these are expected to be the result of fluid migration along faults and permeable structures, they provide insight into the hydrologic controls on thrusting within the accretionary prism.

  11. Real-Time Motion Capture Toolbox (RTMocap): an open-source code for recording 3-D motion kinematics to study action-effect anticipations during motor and social interactions.

    PubMed

    Lewkowicz, Daniel; Delevoye-Turrell, Yvonne

    2016-03-01

    We present here a toolbox for the real-time motion capture of biological movements that runs in the cross-platform MATLAB environment (The MathWorks, Inc., Natick, MA). It provides instantaneous processing of the 3-D movement coordinates of up to 20 markers at a single instant. Available functions include (1) the setting of reference positions, areas, and trajectories of interest; (2) recording of the 3-D coordinates for each marker over the trial duration; and (3) the detection of events to use as triggers for external reinforcers (e.g., lights, sounds, or odors). Through fast online communication between the hardware controller and RTMocap, automatic trial selection is possible by means of either a preset or an adaptive criterion. Rapid preprocessing of signals is also provided, which includes artifact rejection, filtering, spline interpolation, and averaging. A key example is detailed, and three typical variations are developed (1) to provide a clear understanding of the importance of real-time control for 3-D motion in cognitive sciences and (2) to present users with simple lines of code that can be used as starting points for customizing experiments using the simple MATLAB syntax. RTMocap is freely available ( http://sites.google.com/site/RTMocap/ ) under the GNU public license for noncommercial use and open-source development, together with sample data and extensive documentation. PMID:25805426

  12. Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handy Turner, Tara

    2010-02-01

    From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.

  13. Experimental Study of Electrothermal 3D Mixing using 3D microPIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffmann, Paul; Loire, Sophie; Meinhart, Carl; Mezic, Igor

    2012-11-01

    Mixing is a keystep which can greatly accelerate bio-reactions. For thirty years, dynamical system theory has predicted that chaotic mixing must involve at least 3 dimensions (either time dependent 2D flows or 3D flows). So far, 3D embedded chaotic mixing has been scarcely studied at microscale. In that regard, electrokinetics has emerged as an efficient embedded actuation to drive microflows. Physiological mediums can be driven by electrothermal flows generated by the interaction of an electric field with conductivity and permittivity gradients induced by Joule heating We present original electrothermal time dependant 3D (3D+1) mixing in microwells. The key point of our chaotic mixer is to generate overlapping asymmetric vortices, which switch periodically. When the two vortex configurations blink, flows stretch and fold, thereby generating chaotic advection. Each flow configuration is characterized by an original 3D PIV (3 Components / 3 Dimensions) based on the decomposition of the flows by Proper Orthogonal Decomposition. Velocity field distribution are then compared to COMSOL simulation and discussed. Mixing efficiency of low diffusive particles is studied using the mix-variance coefficient and shows a dramatic increase of mixing efficiency compared to steady flow.

  14. Understanding patellofemoral pain with maltracking in the presence of joint laxity: complete 3D in vivo patellofemoral and tibiofemoral kinematics.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Frances T; Derasari, Aditya; Brindle, Timothy J; Alter, Katharine E

    2009-05-01

    Patellofemoral pain is widely accepted as one of the most common pathologies involving the knee, yet the etiology of this pain is still an open debate. Generalized joint laxity has been associated with patellofemoral pain, but is not often discussed as a potential source of patellar maltracking. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare the complete 6 degree of freedom patellofemoral and tibiofemoral kinematics from a group of patients diagnosed with patellofemoral pain syndrome and maltracking to those from an asymptomatic population. The following null hypotheses were tested: kinematic alterations in patellofemoral maltracking are limited to the axial plane; knee joint kinematics are the same in maltrackers with and without generalized joint laxity (defined by a clinical diagnosis of Ehlers Danlos Syndrome); and no correlations exist between tibiofemoral and patellofemoral kinematics or within patellofemoral kinematics. This study demonstrated that alterations in patellofemoral kinematics, associated with patellofemoral pain, are not limited to the axial plane, minimal correlations exist between patellofemoral and tibiofemoral kinematics, and distinct subgroups likely exist within the general population of maltrackers. Being able to identify subgroups correctly within the omnibus diagnosis of patellar maltracking is a crucial step in correctly defining the pathophysiology and the eventual treatment of these patients. PMID:19009601

  15. 3D Geometry and Kinematics of the Taiwan Arc-continent Collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carena, S.; Suppe, J.; Wu, Y. M.

    2015-12-01

    In Taiwan two subduction zones (Manila trench and Ryukyu trench) come together in a quasi-orthogonal, kinematically stable configuration. Subduction is ongoing in both trenches, even though the tectonic setting in the Manila trench is that of an arc-continent collision. The upper crust of Eurasia (EU) is decoupled from the rest of the lithosphere by a detachment horizon, which is the main subduction interface between EU and Philippine Sea plate (PSP). The interface is visible in both seismicity and crustal tomography at shallow depths, and it can be followed into the mantle to 450-500 km depth with global tomography. Shortening across the plate boundary is accomplished by a combination of subduction of EU lithosphere, folding and thrusting in the Eurasian upper crust, and a secondary subduction zone within the PSP. We hypothesize that: (1) once arc-continent collision occurs, subduction of Eurasian continental lower crust and upper mantle can continue by lithospheric delamination and by continuity with the much larger Eurasian slab to the south; (2) the upper crust of EU deforms by faulting and folding; (3) the present convergence rate of about 90 mm/yr is limited at most to the last 2 Ma, whereas the long-term rate is about 30 mm/yr and in Taiwan the difference is being taken up by secondary subduction within the PSP margin; (4) a margin-parallel STEP (Subduction-Transform-Edge-Propagator) fault forms the northern limit of Eurasian subduction, which allows the whole system to propagate self-similarly southwestward. No slab breakoff is required for the kinematics of the margin, and none is observed in geophysical or geological data either. This kinematics is consistent with geologic observations: from timing of opening of the southern Okinawa trough, to geometry of geologic boundaries within the Taiwan mountain belt, to geographic distribution, geochemical character, and timing of Quaternary volcanism in the northern Taiwan volcanic zone. We constrained the long

  16. Kinematic Analysis of Healthy Hips during Weight-Bearing Activities by 3D-to-2D Model-to-Image Registration Technique

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Daisuke; Nakashima, Yasuharu; Hamai, Satoshi; Higaki, Hidehiko; Ikebe, Satoru; Shimoto, Takeshi; Hirata, Masanobu; Kanazawa, Masayuki; Kohno, Yusuke; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic hip kinematics during weight-bearing activities were analyzed for six healthy subjects. Continuous X-ray images of gait, chair-rising, squatting, and twisting were taken using a flat panel X-ray detector. Digitally reconstructed radiographic images were used for 3D-to-2D model-to-image registration technique. The root-mean-square errors associated with tracking the pelvis and femur were less than 0.3 mm and 0.3° for translations and rotations. For gait, chair-rising, and squatting, the maximum hip flexion angles averaged 29.6°, 81.3°, and 102.4°, respectively. The pelvis was tilted anteriorly around 4.4° on average during full gait cycle. For chair-rising and squatting, the maximum absolute value of anterior/posterior pelvic tilt averaged 12.4°/11.7° and 10.7°/10.8°, respectively. Hip flexion peaked on the way of movement due to further anterior pelvic tilt during both chair-rising and squatting. For twisting, the maximum absolute value of hip internal/external rotation averaged 29.2°/30.7°. This study revealed activity dependent kinematics of healthy hip joints with coordinated pelvic and femoral dynamic movements. Kinematics' data during activities of daily living may provide important insight as to the evaluating kinematics of pathological and reconstructed hips. PMID:25506056

  17. 2D vs. 3D mammography observer study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, James Reza F.; Hovanessian-Larsen, Linda; Liu, Brent

    2011-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of non-skin cancer in women. 2D mammography is a screening tool to aid in the early detection of breast cancer, but has diagnostic limitations of overlapping tissues, especially in dense breasts. 3D mammography has the potential to improve detection outcomes by increasing specificity, and a new 3D screening tool with a 3D display for mammography aims to improve performance and efficiency as compared to 2D mammography. An observer study using a mammography phantom was performed to compare traditional 2D mammography with this ne 3D mammography technique. In comparing 3D and 2D mammography there was no difference in calcification detection, and mass detection was better in 2D as compared to 3D. There was a significant decrease in reading time for masses, calcifications, and normals in 3D compared to 2D, however, as well as more favorable confidence levels in reading normal cases. Given the limitations of the mammography phantom used, however, a clearer picture in comparing 3D and 2D mammography may be better acquired with the incorporation of human studies in the future.

  18. Image based 3D city modeling : Comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.

    2014-06-01

    3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as building, tree, vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. The demand of 3D city modeling is increasing rapidly for various engineering and non-engineering applications. Generally four main image based approaches were used for virtual 3D city models generation. In first approach, researchers were used Sketch based modeling, second method is Procedural grammar based modeling, third approach is Close range photogrammetry based modeling and fourth approach is mainly based on Computer Vision techniques. SketchUp, CityEngine, Photomodeler and Agisoft Photoscan are the main softwares to represent these approaches respectively. These softwares have different approaches & methods suitable for image based 3D city modeling. Literature study shows that till date, there is no complete such type of comparative study available to create complete 3D city model by using images. This paper gives a comparative assessment of these four image based 3D modeling approaches. This comparative study is mainly based on data acquisition methods, data processing techniques and output 3D model products. For this research work, study area is the campus of civil engineering department, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India). This 3D campus acts as a prototype for city. This study also explains various governing parameters, factors and work experiences. This research work also gives a brief introduction, strengths and weakness of these four image based techniques. Some personal comment is also given as what can do or what can't do from these softwares. At the last, this study shows; it concluded that, each and every software has some advantages and limitations. Choice of software depends on user requirements of 3D project. For normal visualization project, SketchUp software is a good option. For 3D documentation record, Photomodeler gives good result. For Large city

  19. A Comparison of a Multi-body Model and 3D Kinematics and EMG ofDouble-leg Circle on Pommel Horse

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jing-guang; Su, Yang; Song, Ya-wei; Qiang, Ye; Zhang, Songning

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a multi-segment dynamic model in the LifeMOD to examine kinematics of the center of mass and foot, and muscle forces of selected upper extremity muslces during a double-leg circle (DLC) movement on pommel horse in gymnastics and compared with three-dimensional kinematics of the movement and surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity of the muscles. The DLC movement of one elite male gymnast was collected. The three-dimensional (3D) data was imported in the Lifemod to create a full-body human model. A 16-Channel surface electromyography system was used to collect sEMG signals of middle deltoid, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, latissimusdorsi, and pectoralis major. The 3D center of mass and foot displacement showed a good match with the computer simulated results. The muscle force estimations from the model during the four DLC phases were also generally supported by the integrated sEMG results, suggesting that the model was valid. A potential application of this model is to help identify shortcomings of athletes and help establish appropriate training plans errors in the DLC technique during training. PMID:23487347

  20. A Comparison of a Multi-body Model and 3D Kinematics and EMG ofDouble-leg Circle on Pommel Horse.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jing-Guang; Su, Yang; Song, Ya-Wei; Qiang, Ye; Zhang, Songning

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a multi-segment dynamic model in the LifeMOD to examine kinematics of the center of mass and foot, and muscle forces of selected upper extremity muslces during a double-leg circle (DLC) movement on pommel horse in gymnastics and compared with three-dimensional kinematics of the movement and surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity of the muscles. The DLC movement of one elite male gymnast was collected. The three-dimensional (3D) data was imported in the Lifemod to create a full-body human model. A 16-Channel surface electromyography system was used to collect sEMG signals of middle deltoid, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, latissimusdorsi, and pectoralis major. The 3D center of mass and foot displacement showed a good match with the computer simulated results. The muscle force estimations from the model during the four DLC phases were also generally supported by the integrated sEMG results, suggesting that the model was valid. A potential application of this model is to help identify shortcomings of athletes and help establish appropriate training plans errors in the DLC technique during training. PMID:23487347

  1. True 3D kinematic analysis for slope instability assessment in the Siq of Petra (Jordan), from high resolution TLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gigli, Giovanni; Margottini, Claudio; Spizzichino, Daniele; Ruther, Heinz; Casagli, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    released, stratigraphic setting and tectonic activity can be recognized. As a consequence, rock-falls have been occurring, even recently, with unstable rock mass volumes ranging from 0.1 m3 up to over some hundreds m3. Slope instability, acceleration of crack deformation and consequent increasing of rock-fall hazard conditions, could threaten the safety of tourist as well as the integrity of the heritage. 3D surface model coming from Terrestrial Laser Scanner acquisitions was developed almost all over the site of Petra, including the Siq. Comprehensively, a point cloud of five billion points was generated making the site of Petra likely the largest scanned archaeological site in the word. As far as the Siq, the scanner was positioned on the path floor at intervals of not more than 10 meters from each station. The total number of scans in the Siq was 220 with an average point cloud interval of approximately 3 cm. Subsequently, for the definition of the main rockfall source areas, a spatial kinematic analysis for the whole Siq has been performed, by using discontinuity orientation data extracted from the point cloud by means of the software Diana. Orientation, number of sets, spacing/frequency, persistence, block size and scale dependent roughness was obtained combining fieldwork and automatic analysis. This kind of analysis is able to establish where a particular instability mechanism is kinematically feasible, given the geometry of the slope, the orientation of discontinuities and shear strength of the rock. The final outcome of this project was a detail landslide kinematic index map, reporting main potential instability mechanisms for a given area. The kinematic index was finally calibrated for each instability mechanism (plane failure; wedge failure; block toppling; flexural toppling) surveyed in the site. The latter is including the collapse occurred in May 2015, likely not producing any victim, in a sector clearly identified by the susceptibility maps produced by the

  2. M3D project for simulation studies of plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Park, W.; Belova, E.V.; Fu, G.Y.; Strauss, H.R.; Sugiyama, L.E.

    1998-12-31

    The M3D (Multi-level 3D) project carries out simulation studies of plasmas of various regimes using multi-levels of physics, geometry, and mesh schemes in one code package. This paper and papers by Strauss, Sugiyama, and Belova in this workshop describe the project, and present examples of current applications. The currently available physics models of the M3D project are MHD, two-fluids, gyrokinetic hot particle/MHD hybrid, and gyrokinetic particle ion/two-fluid hybrid models. The code can be run with both structured and unstructured meshes.

  3. GestAction3D: A Platform for Studying Displacements and Deformations of 3D Objects Using Hands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingrand, Diane; Renevier, Philippe; Pinna-Déry, Anne-Marie; Cremaschi, Xavier; Lion, Stevens; Rouel, Jean-Guilhem; Jeanne, David; Cuisinaud, Philippe; Soula*, Julien

    We present a low-cost hand-based device coupled with a 3D motion recovery engine and 3D visualization. This platform aims at studying ergonomic 3D interactions in order to manipulate and deform 3D models by interacting with hands on 3D meshes. Deformations are done using different modes of interaction that we will detail in the paper. Finger extremities are attached to vertices, edges or facets. Switching from one mode to another or changing the point of view is done using gestures. The determination of the more adequate gestures is part of the work

  4. NGT-3D: a simple nematode cultivation system to study Caenorhabditis elegans biology in 3D

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tong Young; Yoon, Kyoung-hye; Lee, Jin Il

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is one of the premier experimental model organisms today. In the laboratory, they display characteristic development, fertility, and behaviors in a two dimensional habitat. In nature, however, C. elegans is found in three dimensional environments such as rotting fruit. To investigate the biology of C. elegans in a 3D controlled environment we designed a nematode cultivation habitat which we term the nematode growth tube or NGT-3D. NGT-3D allows for the growth of both nematodes and the bacteria they consume. Worms show comparable rates of growth, reproduction and lifespan when bacterial colonies in the 3D matrix are abundant. However, when bacteria are sparse, growth and brood size fail to reach levels observed in standard 2D plates. Using NGT-3D we observe drastic deficits in fertility in a sensory mutant in 3D compared to 2D, and this defect was likely due to an inability to locate bacteria. Overall, NGT-3D will sharpen our understanding of nematode biology and allow scientists to investigate questions of nematode ecology and evolutionary fitness in the laboratory. PMID:26962047

  5. Development, Calibration and Evaluation of a Portable and Direct Georeferenced Laser Scanning System for Kinematic 3D Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, Erik; Eling, Christian; Wieland, Markus; Klingbeil, Lasse; Kuhlmann, Heiner

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, kinematic laser scanning has become increasingly popular because it offers many benefits compared to static laser scanning. The advantages include both saving of time in the georeferencing and a more favorable scanning geometry. Often mobile laser scanning systems are installed on wheeled platforms, which may not reach all parts of the object. Hence, there is an interest in the development of portable systems, which remain operational even in inaccessible areas. The development of such a portable laser scanning system is presented in this paper. It consists of a lightweight direct georeferencing unit for the position and attitude determination and a small low-cost 2D laser scanner. This setup provides advantages over existing portable systems that employ heavy and expensive 3D laser scanners in a profiling mode. A special emphasis is placed on the system calibration, i. e. the determination of the transformation between the coordinate frames of the direct georeferencing unit and the 2D laser scanner. To this end, a calibration field is used, which consists of differently orientated georeferenced planar surfaces, leading to estimates for the lever arms and boresight angles with an accuracy of mm and one-tenth of a degree. Finally, point clouds of the mobile laser scanning system are compared with georeferenced point clouds of a high-precision 3D laser scanner. Accordingly, the accuracy of the system is in the order of cm to dm. This is in good agreement with the expected accuracy, which has been derived from the error propagation of previously estimated variance components.

  6. The reliability of the ELEPAP clinical protocol for the 3D kinematic evaluation of upper limb function.

    PubMed

    Vanezis, Athanasios; Robinson, Mark A; Darras, Nikolaos

    2015-02-01

    Upper limb (UL) kinematic assessment protocols are becoming integrated into clinical practice due to their development over the last few years. We propose the ELEPAP UL protocol, a contemporary UL kinematic protocol that can be applied to different pathological conditions. This model is based on ISB modeling recommendations, uses functional joint definitions, and models three joints of the shoulder girdle. The specific aim of this study was to determine the within and between session reliability of the ELEPAP UL model. Ten healthy subjects (mean age: 13.6±4.3 years) performed four reach-to-grasp and five functional tasks, which included a novel throwing task to assess a wide spectrum of motor skills. Three trials of every task in two different sessions were analyzed. The reliability of angular waveforms was evaluated by measurement error (σ) and coefficient of multiple correlation (CMC). Spatiotemporal parameters were assessed by standard error of measurement (SEM). Generally joint kinematics presented low σw and σb errors (<100). A selection of angular waveforms errors was presented to inspect error fluctuation in different phases, which was found to be related to the demands of the different movements. CMCw and CMCb values (>0.60) were found, demonstrating good to excellent reliability especially in joints with larger ranges of motion. The throwing task proved equally reliable, enhancing the universal application of the protocol. Compared to the literature, this study demonstrated higher reliability of the thorax, scapula and wrist joints. This was attributed to the highly standardized procedure and the implementation of recent methodological advancements. In conclusion, ELEPAP protocol was proved a reliable tool to analyze UL kinematics. PMID:25534948

  7. An intelligent recovery progress evaluation system for ACL reconstructed subjects using integrated 3-D kinematics and EMG features.

    PubMed

    Malik, Owais A; Senanayake, S M N Arosha; Zaheer, Dansih

    2015-03-01

    An intelligent recovery evaluation system is presented for objective assessment and performance monitoring of anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed (ACL-R) subjects. The system acquires 3-D kinematics of tibiofemoral joint and electromyography (EMG) data from surrounding muscles during various ambulatory and balance testing activities through wireless body-mounted inertial and EMG sensors, respectively. An integrated feature set is generated based on different features extracted from data collected for each activity. The fuzzy clustering and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference techniques are applied to these integrated feature sets in order to provide different recovery progress assessment indicators (e.g., current stage of recovery, percentage of recovery progress as compared to healthy group, etc.) for ACL-R subjects. The system was trained and tested on data collected from a group of healthy and ACL-R subjects. For recovery stage identification, the average testing accuracy of the system was found above 95% (95-99%) for ambulatory activities and above 80% (80-84%) for balance testing activities. The overall recovery evaluation performed by the proposed system was found consistent with the assessment made by the physiotherapists using standard subjective/objective scores. The validated system can potentially be used as a decision supporting tool by physiatrists, physiotherapists, and clinicians for quantitative rehabilitation analysis of ACL-R subjects in conjunction with the existing recovery monitoring systems. PMID:24801517

  8. Feature-Based Quality Evaluation of 3d Point Clouds - Study of the Performance of 3d Registration Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridene, T.; Goulette, F.; Chendeb, S.

    2013-08-01

    The production of realistic 3D map databases is continuously growing. We studied an approach of 3D mapping database producing based on the fusion of heterogeneous 3D data. In this term, a rigid registration process was performed. Before starting the modeling process, we need to validate the quality of the registration results, and this is one of the most difficult and open research problems. In this paper, we suggest a new method of evaluation of 3D point clouds based on feature extraction and comparison with a 2D reference model. This method is based on tow metrics: binary and fuzzy.

  9. Construction of semi-dynamic model of subduction zone with given plate kinematics in 3D sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morishige, M.; Honda, S.; Tackley, P. J.

    2010-09-01

    We present a semi-dynamic subduction zone model in a three-dimensional spherical shell. In this model, velocity is imposed on the top surface and in a small three-dimensional region around the shallow plate boundary while below this region, the slab is able to subduct under its own weight. Surface plate velocities are given by Euler's theorem of rigid plate rotation on a sphere. The velocity imposed in the region around the plate boundary is determined so that mass conservation inside the region is satisfied. A kinematic trench migration can be easily incorporated in this model. As an application of this model, mantle flow around slab edges is considered, and we find that the effect of Earth curvature is small by comparing our model with a similar one in a rectangular box, at least for the parameters used in this study. As a second application of the model, mantle flow around a plate junction is studied, and we find the existence of mantle return flow perpendicular to the plate boundary. Since this model can naturally incorporate the spherical geometry and plate movement on the sphere, it is useful for studying a specific subduction zone where the plate kinematics is well constrained.

  10. Case study: The Avengers 3D: cinematic techniques and digitally created 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Graham D.

    2013-03-01

    Marvel's THE AVENGERS was the third film Stereo D collaborated on with Marvel; it was a summation of our artistic development of what Digitally Created 3D and Stereo D's artists and toolsets affords Marvel's filmmakers; the ability to shape stereographic space to support the film and story, in a way that balances human perception and live photography. We took our artistic lead from the cinematic intentions of Marvel, the Director Joss Whedon, and Director of Photography Seamus McGarvey. In the digital creation of a 3D film from a 2D image capture, recommendations to the filmmakers cinematic techniques are offered by Stereo D at each step from pre-production onwards, through set, into post. As the footage arrives at our facility we respond in depth to the cinematic qualities of the imagery in context of the edit and story, with the guidance of the Directors and Studio, creating stereoscopic imagery. Our involvement in The Avengers was early in production, after reading the script we had the opportunity and honor to meet and work with the Director Joss Whedon, and DP Seamus McGarvey on set, and into post. We presented what is obvious to such great filmmakers in the ways of cinematic techniques as they related to the standard depth cues and story points we would use to evaluate depth for their film. Our hope was any cinematic habits that supported better 3D would be emphasized. In searching for a 3D statement for the studio and filmmakers we arrived at a stereographic style that allowed for comfort and maximum visual engagement to the viewer.

  11. Studies of the 3D surface roughness height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avisane, Anita; Rudzitis, Janis; Kumermanis, Maris

    2013-12-01

    Nowadays nano-coatings occupy more and more significant place in technology. Innovative, functional coatings acquire new aspects from the point of view of modern technologies, considering the aggregate of physical properties that can be achieved manipulating in the production process with the properties of coatings' surfaces on micro- and nano-level. Nano-coatings are applied on machine parts, friction surfaces, contacting parts, corrosion surfaces, transparent conducting films (TCF), etc. The equipment available at present for the production of transparent conducting oxide (TCO) coatings with highest quality is based on expensive indium tin oxide (ITO) material; therefore cheaper alternatives are being searched for. One such offered alternative is zink oxide (ZnO) nano-coatings. Evaluating the TCF physical and mechanical properties and in view of the new ISO standard (EN ISO 25178) on the introduction of surface texture (3D surface roughness) in the engineering calculations, it is necessary to examine the height of 3D surface roughness, which is one of the most significant roughness parameters. The given paper studies the average values of 3D surface roughness height and the most often applied distribution laws are as follows: the normal distribution and Rayleigh distribution. The 3D surface is simulated by a normal random field.

  12. Numerical study on 3D composite morphing actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oishi, Kazuma; Saito, Makoto; Anandan, Nishita; Kadooka, Kevin; Taya, Minoru

    2015-04-01

    There are a number of actuators using the deformation of electroactive polymer (EAP), where fewer papers seem to have focused on the performance of 3D morphing actuators based on the analytical approach, due mainly to their complexity. The present paper introduces a numerical analysis approach on the large scale deformation and motion of a 3D half dome shaped actuator composed of thin soft membrane (passive material) and EAP strip actuators (EAP active coupon with electrodes on both surfaces), where the locations of the active EAP strips is a key parameter. Simulia/Abaqus Static and Implicit analysis code, whose main feature is the high precision contact analysis capability among structures, are used focusing on the whole process of the membrane to touch and wrap around the object. The unidirectional properties of the EAP coupon actuator are used as input data set for the material properties for the simulation and the verification of our numerical model, where the verification is made as compared to the existing 2D solution. The numerical results can demonstrate the whole deformation process of the membrane to wrap around not only smooth shaped objects like a sphere or an egg, but also irregularly shaped objects. A parametric study reveals the proper placement of the EAP coupon actuators, with the modification of the dome shape to induce the relevant large scale deformation. The numerical simulation for the 3D soft actuators shown in this paper could be applied to a wider range of soft 3D morphing actuators.

  13. Studies of the 3D surface roughness height

    SciTech Connect

    Avisane, Anita; Rudzitis, Janis; Kumermanis, Maris

    2013-12-16

    Nowadays nano-coatings occupy more and more significant place in technology. Innovative, functional coatings acquire new aspects from the point of view of modern technologies, considering the aggregate of physical properties that can be achieved manipulating in the production process with the properties of coatings’ surfaces on micro- and nano-level. Nano-coatings are applied on machine parts, friction surfaces, contacting parts, corrosion surfaces, transparent conducting films (TCF), etc. The equipment available at present for the production of transparent conducting oxide (TCO) coatings with highest quality is based on expensive indium tin oxide (ITO) material; therefore cheaper alternatives are being searched for. One such offered alternative is zink oxide (ZnO) nano-coatings. Evaluating the TCF physical and mechanical properties and in view of the new ISO standard (EN ISO 25178) on the introduction of surface texture (3D surface roughness) in the engineering calculations, it is necessary to examine the height of 3D surface roughness, which is one of the most significant roughness parameters. The given paper studies the average values of 3D surface roughness height and the most often applied distribution laws are as follows: the normal distribution and Rayleigh distribution. The 3D surface is simulated by a normal random field.

  14. 3D Regression Heat Map Analysis of Population Study Data.

    PubMed

    Klemm, Paul; Lawonn, Kai; Glaßer, Sylvia; Niemann, Uli; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Völzke, Henry; Preim, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies comprise heterogeneous data about a subject group to define disease-specific risk factors. These data contain information (features) about a subject's lifestyle, medical status as well as medical image data. Statistical regression analysis is used to evaluate these features and to identify feature combinations indicating a disease (the target feature). We propose an analysis approach of epidemiological data sets by incorporating all features in an exhaustive regression-based analysis. This approach combines all independent features w.r.t. a target feature. It provides a visualization that reveals insights into the data by highlighting relationships. The 3D Regression Heat Map, a novel 3D visual encoding, acts as an overview of the whole data set. It shows all combinations of two to three independent features with a specific target disease. Slicing through the 3D Regression Heat Map allows for the detailed analysis of the underlying relationships. Expert knowledge about disease-specific hypotheses can be included into the analysis by adjusting the regression model formulas. Furthermore, the influences of features can be assessed using a difference view comparing different calculation results. We applied our 3D Regression Heat Map method to a hepatic steatosis data set to reproduce results from a data mining-driven analysis. A qualitative analysis was conducted on a breast density data set. We were able to derive new hypotheses about relations between breast density and breast lesions with breast cancer. With the 3D Regression Heat Map, we present a visual overview of epidemiological data that allows for the first time an interactive regression-based analysis of large feature sets with respect to a disease. PMID:26529689

  15. A study on estimation of planar gait kinematics using minimal inertial measurement units and inverse kinematics.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xinyao; Soh, Gim Song

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a preliminary study of using four inertial measurement units (IMUs) attached to the heel and pelvis to estimate the joint angles of normal subjects during walking. The IMU, consisting of a 3-D accelerometer and gyroscope, is used to estimate the planar displacement of the heel and pelvis and the angular change of heel in one gait cycle. We then model the gait as a planar 3R serial chain and solve its inverse kinematics by using such information. The results are validated by comparing the estimated joint angles of lower limbs (i.e. hip, knee and ankle angles) with an optical motion capture system. This study can benefit the future research on conducting complete lower limbs kinematics analysis with minimal and unobtrusive wearable sensors. PMID:25571585

  16. The KMOS3D Survey: Design, First Results, and the Evolution of Galaxy Kinematics from 0.7 <= z <= 2.7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisnioski, E.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Wuyts, S.; Wuyts, E.; Bandara, K.; Wilman, D.; Genzel, R.; Bender, R.; Davies, R.; Fossati, M.; Lang, P.; Mendel, J. T.; Beifiori, A.; Brammer, G.; Chan, J.; Fabricius, M.; Fudamoto, Y.; Kulkarni, S.; Kurk, J.; Lutz, D.; Nelson, E. J.; Momcheva, I.; Rosario, D.; Saglia, R.; Seitz, S.; Tacconi, L. J.; van Dokkum, P. G.

    2015-02-01

    We present the KMOS3D survey, a new integral field survey of over 600 galaxies at 0.7 < z < 2.7 using KMOS at the Very Large Telescope. The KMOS3D survey utilizes synergies with multi-wavelength ground- and space-based surveys to trace the evolution of spatially resolved kinematics and star formation from a homogeneous sample over 5 Gyr of cosmic history. Targets, drawn from a mass-selected parent sample from the 3D-HST survey, cover the star formation-stellar mass (M *) and rest-frame (U - V) - M * planes uniformly. We describe the selection of targets, the observations, and the data reduction. In the first-year of data we detect Hα emission in 191 M * = 3 × 109-7 × 1011 M ⊙ galaxies at z = 0.7-1.1 and z = 1.9-2.7. In the current sample 83% of the resolved galaxies are rotation dominated, determined from a continuous velocity gradient and v rot/σ0 > 1, implying that the star-forming "main sequence" is primarily composed of rotating galaxies at both redshift regimes. When considering additional stricter criteria, the Hα kinematic maps indicate that at least ~70% of the resolved galaxies are disk-like systems. Our high-quality KMOS data confirm the elevated velocity dispersions reported in previous integral field spectroscopy studies at z >~ 0.7. For rotation-dominated disks, the average intrinsic velocity dispersion decreases by a factor of two from 50 km s-1at z ~ 2.3 to 25 km s-1at z ~ 0.9. Combined with existing results spanning z ~ 0-3, we show that disk velocity dispersions follow an evolution that is consistent with the dependence of velocity dispersion on gas fractions predicted by marginally stable disk theory. Based on observations obtained at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the European Southern Observatory (ESO), Paranal, Chile (ESO program IDS 092A-0091, 093.A-0079).

  17. THE KMOS{sup 3D} SURVEY: DESIGN, FIRST RESULTS, AND THE EVOLUTION OF GALAXY KINEMATICS FROM 0.7 ≤ z ≤ 2.7

    SciTech Connect

    Wisnioski, E.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Wuyts, S.; Wuyts, E.; Bandara, K.; Genzel, R.; Bender, R.; Davies, R.; Lang, P.; Mendel, J. T.; Beifiori, A.; Chan, J.; Fabricius, M.; Fudamoto, Y.; Kulkarni, S.; Kurk, J.; Lutz, D.; Wilman, D.; Fossati, M.; Brammer, G.; and others

    2015-02-01

    We present the KMOS{sup 3D} survey, a new integral field survey of over 600 galaxies at 0.7 < z < 2.7 using KMOS at the Very Large Telescope. The KMOS{sup 3D} survey utilizes synergies with multi-wavelength ground- and space-based surveys to trace the evolution of spatially resolved kinematics and star formation from a homogeneous sample over 5 Gyr of cosmic history. Targets, drawn from a mass-selected parent sample from the 3D-HST survey, cover the star formation-stellar mass (M {sub *}) and rest-frame (U – V) – M {sub *} planes uniformly. We describe the selection of targets, the observations, and the data reduction. In the first-year of data we detect Hα emission in 191 M {sub *} = 3 × 10{sup 9}-7 × 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉} galaxies at z = 0.7-1.1 and z = 1.9-2.7. In the current sample 83% of the resolved galaxies are rotation dominated, determined from a continuous velocity gradient and v {sub rot}/σ{sub 0} > 1, implying that the star-forming ''main sequence'' is primarily composed of rotating galaxies at both redshift regimes. When considering additional stricter criteria, the Hα kinematic maps indicate that at least ∼70% of the resolved galaxies are disk-like systems. Our high-quality KMOS data confirm the elevated velocity dispersions reported in previous integral field spectroscopy studies at z ≳ 0.7. For rotation-dominated disks, the average intrinsic velocity dispersion decreases by a factor of two from 50 km s{sup –1}at z ∼ 2.3 to 25 km s{sup –1}at z ∼ 0.9. Combined with existing results spanning z ∼ 0-3, we show that disk velocity dispersions follow an evolution that is consistent with the dependence of velocity dispersion on gas fractions predicted by marginally stable disk theory.

  18. Method and simulation to study 3D crosstalk perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaustova, Dar'ya; Blondé, Laurent; Huynh-Thu, Quan; Vienne, Cyril; Doyen, Didier

    2012-03-01

    To various degrees, all modern 3DTV displays suffer from crosstalk, which can lead to a decrease of both visual quality and visual comfort, and also affect perception of depth. In the absence of a perfect 3D display technology, crosstalk has to be taken into account when studying perception of 3D stereoscopic content. In order to improve 3D presentation systems and understand how to efficiently eliminate crosstalk, it is necessary to understand its impact on human perception. In this paper, we present a practical method to study the perception of crosstalk. The approach consists of four steps: (1) physical measurements of a 3DTV, (2) building of a crosstalk surface based on those measurements and representing specifically the behavior of that 3TV, (3) manipulation of the crosstalk function and application on reference images to produce test images degraded by crosstalk in various ways, and (4) psychophysical tests. Our approach allows both a realistic representation of the behavior of a 3DTV and the easy manipulation of its resulting crosstalk in order to conduct psycho-visual experiments. Our approach can be used in all studies requiring the understanding of how crosstalk affects perception of stereoscopic content and how it can be corrected efficiently.

  19. A lithospheric 3D temperature study from the South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, K. K.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Maystrenko, Y.; Sippel, J.

    2009-04-01

    The East African continental margin is a passive volcanic margin that experienced a long post-rifting history after break up in Early Cretaceous times. The break up resulted in the formation of a number of basins along the margin. The by far largest depocentre in the South Atlantic, the Orange Basin, was the location of previously performed studies. These studies of the Orange Basin have been performed to investigate the crustal structure and the temperature evolution of the basin. In this way, they gave way to new insights and to a number of questions. With 3D gravity modelling we found the crust to include high density bodies. Furthermore, a rifting model was developed which explained both the geometry and the thermal constraints of the basin. Now, this study has been extended spatially to cover a larger area and into depth to include the deep lithosphere. The main goal is to combine information on the geometry and properties of the sedimentary part of the system with data on the geometry and physical properties of the deep crust. It was also aimed to integrate both the continental and the oceanic parts of the margin into a consistent 3D structural model on a lithospheric scale. A 3D temperature model was evaluated for the passive continental margin of the South Atlantic including the lithospheric structure of the margin. We evaluate a case study for different scenarios to estimate the influence of sediments and crustal structures on the thermal field. The calculated conductive field is constrained by temperature measurements and 3D gravity modelling. At the Norwegian continental margin it has been found that a differentiation of the physical properties of the lower crust and the mantle is needed between the oceanic and continental domains to explain the observations. We aim to compare the younger setting of the Norwegian continental margin with the old passive margin in the South Atlantic. In particular, the South Atlantic is interesting since the southern half

  20. 3D ultrasound computer tomography: update from a clinical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopp, T.; Zapf, M.; Kretzek, E.; Henrich, J.; Tukalo, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Kaiser, C.; Knaudt, J.; Ruiter, N. V.

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasound Computer Tomography (USCT) is a promising new imaging method for breast cancer diagnosis. We developed a 3D USCT system and tested it in a pilot study with encouraging results: 3D USCT was able to depict two carcinomas, which were present in contrast enhanced MRI volumes serving as ground truth. To overcome severe differences in the breast shape, an image registration was applied. We analyzed the correlation between average sound speed in the breast and the breast density estimated from segmented MRIs and found a positive correlation with R=0.70. Based on the results of the pilot study we now carry out a successive clinical study with 200 patients. For this we integrated our reconstruction methods and image post-processing into a comprehensive workflow. It includes a dedicated DICOM viewer for interactive assessment of fused USCT images. A new preview mode now allows intuitive and faster patient positioning. We updated the USCT system to decrease the data acquisition time by approximately factor two and to increase the penetration depth of the breast into the USCT aperture by 1 cm. Furthermore the compute-intensive reflectivity reconstruction was considerably accelerated, now allowing a sub-millimeter volume reconstruction in approximately 16 minutes. The updates made it possible to successfully image first patients in our ongoing clinical study.

  1. 3D modelling of slow landslides: the Portalet case study (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Merodo, Jose Antonio; Bru, Guadalupe; García-Davalillo, Juan Carlos; Herrera, Gerardo; Fernandez, Jose

    2014-05-01

    Slow landslide deformation evolution is generally cast using 1D or 2D numerical models. This paper aims to explore 3D effects on the kinematic behavior of a real landslide, the Portalet landslide (Central Spanish Pyrenees). This is a very well characterized and documented active paleo-landslide that has been reactivated by the construction of a parking area at the toe of the slope. The proposed 3D model is based on a time dependent hydro-mechanical finite element formulation that takes into account i) groundwater changes due to daily rainfall records and ii) viscous behavior and delayed creep deformation through a viscoplastic constitutive model based on Perzyna's theory. The model reproduces the nearly constant strain rate (secondary creep) and the acceleration/deceleration of the moving mass due to hydrological changes. Furthermore, the model is a able to catch the superficial 3D kinematics revealed by advanced in-situ monitoring like ground based SAR or DInSAR processing of satellite SAR images. References [1] Herrera G, Fernández-Merodo JA, Mulas J, Pastor M, Luzi G, Monserrat O (2009) A landslide forecasting model using ground based SAR data: The Portalet case study. Engineering Geology 105: 220-230 [2] Fernández-Merodo JA, Herrera G, Mira P, Mulas J, Pastor M, Noferini L, Me-catti D and Luzi G (2008). Modelling the Portalet landslide mobility (Formigal, Spain). iEMSs 2008: International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software. Sànchez-Marrè M, Béjar J, Comas J, Rizzoli A and Guariso G (Eds.) International Environmental Modelling and Software Society (iEMSs) [3] Fernández-Merodo JA, García-Davalillo JC, Herrera G, Mira P, Pastor M (2012). 2D visco-plastic finite element modelling of slow landslides: the Portalet case study (Spain). Landslides, DOI: 10.1007/s10346-012-0370-4

  2. 3D studies of the NIF symmetry tuning targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milovich, J.; Jones, O.; Edwards, M.; Weber, S.; Dewald, E.; Landen, O.; Marinak, M.

    2009-11-01

    Minimizing radiation drive asymmetries is necessary for a successful ignition campaign. Since the ignition capsule symmetry is most sensitive to the foot (first 2 ns) and the peak of the laser pulse, two different targets will be fielded on the NIF: re-emit and symmetry capsules (Sym-Caps). The first measures the incoming flux asymmetries during the foot by observing the re-radiated flux of a high-Z ball in place of the ignition capsule. The Sym-Caps resemble the ignition target with the frozen DT layer replaced by an equivalent mass of ablator material, thus preserving the hydrodynamic implosion properties. By measuring the x-ray self-emission near peak compression the ignition capsule core shape can be tuned. Simulations with 2D radiation-hydrodynamic simulations codes omit 3D effects in the hohlraum such as diagnostic holes, capsule roughness, shot-to-shot variations caused by laser beam power imbalances and pointing errors. We study these effects by performing 3D simulations using HYDRA and found that tuning the laser pulse using a finite number of shots is not substantially compromised.

  3. Evaluation of 3-D graphics software: A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lores, M. E.; Chasen, S. H.; Garner, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    An efficient 3-D geometry graphics software package which is suitable for advanced design studies was developed. The advanced design system is called GRADE--Graphics for Advanced Design. Efficiency and ease of use are gained by sacrificing flexibility in surface representation. The immediate options were either to continue development of GRADE or to acquire a commercially available system which would replace or complement GRADE. Test cases which would reveal the ability of each system to satisfy the requirements were developed. A scoring method which adequately captured the relative capabilities of the three systems was presented. While more complex multi-attribute decision methods could be used, the selected method provides all the needed information without being so complex that it is difficult to understand. If the value factors are modestly perturbed, system Z is a clear winner based on its overall capabilities. System Z is superior in two vital areas: surfacing and ease of interface with application programs.

  4. Kinematic Analysis of Fold-Thrust-Belt Using Integrated Analogue Sandbox Modeling and 3D Palinspatic Reconstructions in Babar-Selaru Area, Banda Sea Region, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapiie, Benyamin; Hadiana, Meli; Kurniawan, Ade; Daniel, Dicky; Danio, Harya; Fujimoto, Masamichi; Ohara, Michio; Alam Perdana, Lisnanda; Saputra, Afif

    2016-04-01

    Kinematic analysis of Babar-Selaru fold-thrust-belt is challenging and often difficult particularly in conducting seismic interpretation due to complex structural geometries. Resolving such as issue, in this study we proposed to use integrated seismic interpretation, analogue sandbox modeling and 3D palinspatic reconstructions. This paper is presented results of detail kinematic analysis for understanding tectonic evolution as well as mechanism of fold-thrust-belt in relation to their hydrocarbon prospect. Babar-Selaru Area is located within the collisional boundary between Australian continental margin and Banda Arc region of Indonesia. The area is characterized by complex deformation zone of fold-thrust-belt, involving Mesozoic and Tertiary sedimentary sequences of Australian continental margin. The age of deformation is ranging from 8-5 Ma. Seismic interpretations show two styles of faults developed in the area, which are thrust and normal faults system. The last deformation observed in the Babar Selaru area is controlled by south verging imbricated thin-skinned thrust fault system, with the staircase style of fault detachment. Although, both structural styles occurred in separated locations, they are formed not only in the same time but also related in time and space. Total extension is ranging from 1-3 % where average shortening is in the order of 35-38%. Sandbox modeling is an effective way to study and understand the style, pattern and geometry of the deformed sedimentary sequences in the study area. Based on comparison of five settings experiments (mainly different geological boundary condition) with more than 50 different modeling; deformation is particularly controlled by types and thickness of lithology package and detachment geometry. These two parameters were quite sensitive in generating different deformation style and pattern in Babar-Selaru fold-thrust-belt. Therefore, choosing the right combination of stratigraphy model and material setting are

  5. Improved Surgery Planning Using 3-D Printing: a Case Study.

    PubMed

    Singhal, A J; Shetty, V; Bhagavan, K R; Ragothaman, Ananthan; Shetty, V; Koneru, Ganesh; Agarwala, M

    2016-04-01

    The role of 3-D printing is presented for improved patient-specific surgery planning. Key benefits are time saved and surgery outcome. Two hard-tissue surgery models were 3-D printed, for orthopedic, pelvic surgery, and craniofacial surgery. We discuss software data conversion in computed tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance (MR) medical image for 3-D printing. 3-D printed models save time in surgery planning and help visualize complex pre-operative anatomy. Time saved in surgery planning can be as much as two thirds. In addition to improved surgery accuracy, 3-D printing presents opportunity in materials research. Other hard-tissue and soft-tissue cases in maxillofacial, abdominal, thoracic, cardiac, orthodontics, and neurosurgery are considered. We recommend using 3-D printing as standard protocol for surgery planning and for teaching surgery practices. A quick turnaround time of a 3-D printed surgery model, in improved accuracy in surgery planning, is helpful for the surgery team. It is recommended that these costs be within 20 % of the total surgery budget. PMID:27303117

  6. Elemental concentration distribution in human fingernails - A 3D study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineda-Vargas, C. A.; Mars, J. A.; Gihwala, D.

    2012-02-01

    The verification of pathologies has normally been based on analysis of blood (serum and plasma), and physiological tissue. Recently, nails and in particular human fingernails have become an important medium for pathological studies, especially those of environmental origin. The analytical technique of PIXE has been used extensively in the analysis of industrial samples and human tissue specimens. The application of the analytical technique to nails has been mainly to bulk samples. In this study we use micro-PIXE and -RBS, as both complementary and supplementary, to determine the elemental concentration distribution of human fingernails of individuals. We report on the 3D quantitative elemental concentration distributions (QECDs) of various elements that include C, N and O as major elements (10-20%), P, S, Cl, K and Ca as minor elements (1-10%) and Fe, Mn, Zn, Ti, Na, Mg, Cu, Ni, Cr, Rb, Br, Sr and Se as trace elements (less than 1%). For PIXE and RBS the specimens were bombarded with a 3 MeV proton beam. To ascertain any correlations in the quantitative elemental concentration distributions, a linear traverse analysis was performed across the width of the nail. Elemental distribution correlations were also obtained.

  7. The ATLAS3D project - VII. A new look at the morphology of nearby galaxies: the kinematic morphology-density relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappellari, Michele; Emsellem, Eric; Krajnović, Davor; McDermid, Richard M.; Serra, Paolo; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, M.; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Khochfar, Sadegh; Kuntschner, Harald; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    2011-09-01

    In Paper I of this series we introduced a volume-limited parent sample of 871 galaxies from which we extracted the ATLAS3D sample of 260 early-type galaxies (ETGs). In Papers II and III we classified the ETGs using their stellar kinematics, in a way that is nearly insensitive to the projection effects, and we separated them into fast and slow rotators. Here we look at galaxy morphology and note that the edge-on fast rotators generally are lenticular galaxies. They appear like spiral galaxies with the gas and dust removed, and in some cases are flat ellipticals (E5 or flatter) with discy isophotes. Fast rotators are often barred and span the same full range of bulge fractions as spiral galaxies. The slow rotators are rounder (E4 or rounder, except for counter-rotating discs) and are generally consistent with being genuine, namely spheroidal-like, elliptical galaxies. We propose a revision to the tuning-fork diagram by Hubble as it gives a misleading description of ETGs by ignoring the large variation in the bulge sizes of fast rotators. Motivated by the fact that only one third (34 per cent) of the ellipticals in our sample are slow rotators, we study for the first time the kinematic morphology-density T-Σ relation using fast and slow rotators to replace lenticulars and ellipticals. We find that our relation is cleaner than using classic morphology. Slow rotators are nearly absent at the lowest density environments [? per cent] and generally constitute a small fraction [f(SR) ≈ 4 per cent] of the total galaxy population in the relatively low-density environments explored by our survey, with the exception of the densest core of the Virgo cluster [f(SR) ≈ 20 per cent]. This contrasts with the classic studies that invariably find significant fractions of (misclassified) ellipticals down to the lowest environmental densities. We find a clean log-linear relation between the fraction f(Sp) of spiral galaxies and the local galaxy surface density Σ3, within a cylinder

  8. Evolution of large amplitude 3D fold patterns: A FEM study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, D. W.; Dabrowski, M.; Krotkiewski, M.

    2008-12-01

    The numerical study of three-dimensional (3D) fold patterns formation in randomly perturbed layers requires large numbers of degrees of freedom (≥100,000,000). We have developed BILAMIN, an unstructured (geometry fitted) mesh implementation of the finite element method for incompressible Stokes flow that is capable of solving such systems. All repetitive and computationally intensive steps are fully parallelized. One of the main components is the iterative solver. We chose the minimum residual method (MINRES) because it allows operating directly on the indefinite systems resulting from the incompressibility condition. We use BILAMIN in a case study of fold pattern evolution. Folds are ubiquitous in nature, and contain both mechanical and kinematic information that can be deciphered with appropriate tools. Our results show that there is a relationship between fold aspect ratio and in-plane loading conditions. We propose that this finding can be used to determine the complete parameter set potentially contained in the geometry of three-dimensional folds: mechanical properties of natural rocks, maximum strain, and relative strength of the in-plane far-field load components. Furthermore, we show how folds in 3D amplify and that there is a second deformation mode, besides continuous amplification, where compression leads to a lateral rearrangement of blocks of folds. Finally, we demonstrate that the textbook prediction of egg carton-shaped dome and basin structures resulting from folding instabilities in constriction is largely oversimplified. The fold patterns resulting in this setting are curved, elongated folds with random orientation.

  9. Application of 3D printing technology in aerodynamic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olasek, K.; Wiklak, P.

    2014-08-01

    3D printing, as an additive process, offers much more than traditional machining techniques in terms of achievable complexity of a model shape. That fact was a motivation to adapt discussed technology as a method for creating objects purposed for aerodynamic testing. The following paper provides an overview of various 3D printing techniques. Four models of a standard NACA0018 aerofoil were manufactured in different materials and methods: MultiJet Modelling (MJM), Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) and Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM). Various parameters of the models have been included in the analysis: surface roughness, strength, details quality, surface imperfections and irregularities as well as thermal properties.

  10. Assessment of 3D Models Used in Contours Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, F. J. Ayala; Parra, E. B. Blazquez; Tubio, F. Montes

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental research focusing on the view of first year students. The aim is to check the quality of implementing 3D models integrated in the curriculum. We search to determine students' preference between the various means facilitated in order to understand the given subject. Students have been respondents to prove the…

  11. Study, simulation and design of a 3D clinostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavone, Valentina; Guarnieri, Vincenzo; Lobascio, Cesare; Soma, Aurelio; Bosso, Nicola; Lamantea, Matteo Maria

    High cost and limited number of physically executable experiments in space have introduced the need for ground simulation systems that enable preparing experiments to be carried out on board, identifying phenomena associated with the altered gravity conditions, and taking advantage of these conditions, as in Biotechnology. Among systems developed to simulate microgravity, especially for life sciences experiments, different types of clinostats were realized. This work deals with mechanical design of a three-dimensional clinostat and simulation of the dynamic behavior of the system by varying the operating parameters. The design and simulation phase was preceded by a careful analysis of the state of art and by the review of the most recent results, in particular from the major investigators of Life Sciences in Space. The mechanical design is quite innovative by adoption of a structure entirely in aluminum, which allows robustness while reducing the overall weight. The transmission system of motion has been optimized by means of brushless DC micro motors, light and compact, which helped to reduce weight, dimensions, power consumption and increase the reliability and durability of the system. The study of the dynamic behavior using SIMPACK, a multibody simulation software, led to results in line with those found in the most important and recent scientific publications. This model was also appropriately configured to represent any desired operating condition, and for eventual system scalability. It would be interesting to generate simulated hypogravity - e.g.: 0.38-g (Mars) or 0.17-g (Moon). This would allow to investigate how terrestrial life forms can grow in other planetary habitats, or to determine the gravity threshold response of different organisms. At the moment, such a system can only be achieved by centrifuges in real microgravity. We are confident that simulation and associated tests with our 3D clinostat can help adjusting the parameters allowing variable g

  12. A 3D measurement of the offset in paleoseismological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrater, Marta; Echeverria, Anna; Masana, Eulàlia; Martínez-Díaz, José J.; Sharp, Warren D.

    2016-05-01

    The slip rate of a seismogenic fault is a crucial parameter for establishing the contribution of the fault to the seismic hazard. It is calculated from measurements of the offset of linear landforms, such channels, produced by the fault combined with their age. The three-dimensional measurement of offset in buried paleochannels is subject to uncertainties that need to be quantitatively assessed and propagated into the slip rate. Here, we present a set of adapted scripts to calculate the net, lateral and vertical tectonic offset components caused by faults, together with their associated uncertainties. This technique is applied here to a buried channel identified in the stratigraphic record during a paleoseismological study at the El Saltador site (Alhama de Murcia fault, Iberian Peninsula). After defining and measuring the coordinates of the key points of a buried channel in the walls of eight trenches excavated parallel to the fault, we (a) adjusted a 3D straight line to these points and then extrapolated the tendency of this line onto a simplified fault plane; (b) repeated these two steps for the segment of the channel in the other side of the fault; and (c) measured the distance between the two resulting intersection points with the fault plane. In doing so, we avoided the near fault modification of the channel trace and obtained a three-dimensional measurement of offset and its uncertainty. This methodology is a substantial modification of previous procedures that require excavating progressively towards the fault, leading to possible underestimation of offset due to diffuse deformation near the fault. Combining the offset with numerical dating of the buried channel via U-series on soil carbonate, we calculated a maximum estimate of the net slip rate and its vertical and lateral components for the Alhama de Murcia fault.

  13. Convective instability in sedimentation: 3-D numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiao; Hsu, Tian-Jian; Balachandar, S.

    2014-11-01

    To provide a probable explanation on the field observed rapid sedimentation process near river mouths, we investigate the convective sedimentation in stably stratified saltwater using 3-D numerical simulations. Guided by the linear stability analysis, this study focuses on the nonlinear interactions of several mechanisms, which lead to various sediment finger patterns, and the effective settling velocity for sediment ranging from clay (single-particle settling velocity V0 = 0.0036 and 0.0144 mm/s, or particle diameter d = 2 and 4 μm) to silt (V0 = 0.36 mm/s, or d = 20 μm). For very fine sediment with V0 = 0.0036 mm/s, the convective instability is dominated by double diffusion, characterized by millimeter-scale fingers. Gravitational settling slightly increases the growth rate; however, it has notable effect on the downward development of vertical mixing shortly after the sediment interface migrates below the salt interface. For sediment with V0 = 0.0144 mm/s, Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities become dominant before double-diffusive modes grow sufficiently large. Centimeter-scale and highly asymmetric sediment fingers are obtained due to nonlinear interactions between different modes. For sediment with V0 = 0.36 mm/s, Rayleigh-Taylor mechanism dominates and the resulting centimeter-scale sediment fingers show a plume-like structure. The flow pattern is similar to that without ambient salt stratification. Rapid sedimentation with effective settling velocity on the order of 1 cm/s is likely driven by convective sedimentation for sediment with V0 greater than 0.1 mm/s at concentration greater than 10-20 g/L.

  14. 3D-QSAR and Docking Studies of Pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine Derivatives as Wee1 Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Guo-hua; Wu, Wen-juan; Zhang, Rong; Sun, Jun; Xie, Wen-guo; Shen, Yong

    2012-06-01

    In order to investigate the inhibiting mechanism and obtain some helpful information for designing functional inhibitors against Wee1, three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) and docking studies have been performed on 45 pyrido[2,3-d] pyrimidine derivatives acting as Wee1 inhibitors. Two optimal 3D-QSAR models with significant statistical quality and satisfactory predictive ability were established, including the CoMFA model (q2=0.707, R2=0.964) and CoMSIA model (q2=0.645, R2=0.972). The external validation indicated that both CoMFA and CoMSIA models were quite robust and had high predictive power with the predictive correlation coefficient values of 0.707 and 0.794, essential parameter rm2 values of 0.792 and 0.826, the leave-one-out r2m(LOO) values of 0.781 and 0.809, r2m(overall) values of 0.787 and 0.810, respectively. Moreover, the appropriate binding orientations and conformations of these compounds interacting with Wee1 were revealed by the docking studies. Based on the CoMFA and CoMSIA contour maps and docking analyses, several key structural requirements of these compounds responsible for inhibitory activity were identified as follows: simultaneously introducing high electropositive groups to the substituents R1 and R5 may increase the activity, the substituent R2 should be smaller bulky and higher electronegative, moderate-size and strong electron-withdrawing groups for the substituent R3 is advantageous to the activity, but the substituent X should be medium-size and hydrophilic. These theoretical results help to understand the action mechanism and design novel potential Wee1 inhibitors.

  15. OB3D, a new set of 3D objects available for research: a web-based study

    PubMed Central

    Buffat, Stéphane; Chastres, Véronique; Bichot, Alain; Rider, Delphine; Benmussa, Frédéric; Lorenceau, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Studying object recognition is central to fundamental and clinical research on cognitive functions but suffers from the limitations of the available sets that cannot always be modified and adapted to meet the specific goals of each study. We here present a new set of 3D scans of real objects available on-line as ASCII files, OB3D. These files are lists of dots, each defined by a triplet of spatial coordinates and their normal that allow simple and highly versatile transformations and adaptations. We performed a web-based experiment to evaluate the minimal number of dots required for the denomination and categorization of these objects, thus providing a reference threshold. We further analyze several other variables derived from this data set, such as the correlations with object complexity. This new stimulus set, which was found to activate the Lower Occipital Complex (LOC) in another study, may be of interest for studies of cognitive functions in healthy participants and patients with cognitive impairments, including visual perception, language, memory, etc. PMID:25339920

  16. On 3D Dimension: Study cases for Archaeological sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Urso, M. G.; Marino, C. L.; Rotondi, A.

    2014-04-01

    For more than a century the tridimensional vision has been of interest for scientists and users in several fields of application. The mathematical bases have remained substantially unchanged but only the new technologies have allowed us to make the vision really impressive. Photography opens new frontiers and has enriched of physical, mathematical, chemical, informatical and topographic notions by making the images so real to make the observer fully immersed into the represented scene. By means of active googless the 3D digital technique, commonly used for video games, makes possible animations without limitations in the dimension of the images thanks to the improved performances of the graphic processor units and related hardware components. In this paper we illustrate an experience made by the students of the MSc'degree course of Topography, active at the University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, in which the photography has been applied as an innovative technique for the surveying of cultural heritage. The tests foresee the use of traditional techniques of survey with 3D digital images and use of GPS sensors. The ultimate objective of our experience is the insertion in the web, allowing us the visualization of the 3D images equipped with all data. In conclusion these new methods of survey allow for the fusion of extremely different techniques, in such an impressive way to make them inseparable and justifying the origin of the neologism "Geomatics" coined at the Laval University (Canada) during the eighties.

  17. 3D tomodosimetry using long scintillating fibers: A feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Goulet, Mathieu; Archambault, Louis; Beaulieu, Luc; Gingras, Luc

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: 3D dosimetry is recognized as an ideal for patient-specific quality assurance (QA) of highly conformal radiotherapy treatments. However, existing 3D dosimeters are not straightforward to implement in the clinic, as their read-out procedure is often tedious and their accuracy, precision, and/or sample size exhibit limitations. The purpose of this work is to develop a 3D dosimeter based on the concept of tomodosimetry inside concentric cylindrical planes using long scintillating fibers for the QA of modern radiotherapy techniques such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT).Methods: Using a model-based simulation, scintillating fibers were modeled on three concentric cylindrical planes of radii 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 cm, inside a 10 cm radius water-equivalent cylinder phantom. The phantom was set to rotate around its central axis, made parallel to the linac gantry axis of rotation. Light acquisitions were simulated using the calculated dose from the treatment planning software and reconstructed in each cylindrical plane at a resolution of 1 mm{sup 2} using a total-variation minimization iterative reconstruction algorithm. The 3D dose was then interpolated from the reconstructed cylindrical plane doses at a resolution of 1 mm{sup 3}. Different scintillating fiber patterns were compared by varying the angle of each fiber in its cylindrical plane and introducing a light-tight cut in each fiber. The precision of the reconstructed cylindrical dose distribution was evaluated using a Poisson modeling of the acquired light signals and the accuracy of the interpolated 3D dose was evaluated using an IMRT clinical plan for a prostate case.Results: Straight scintillating fiber patterns with light-tight cuts were the most accurate in cylindrical dose reconstruction, showing less than 0.5 mm distance-to-agreement in dose gradients and a mean local dose difference of less than 0.2% in the high dose region for a 10 × 10 cm{sup 2

  18. Validation of 3D surface reconstruction of vertebrae and spinal column using 3D ultrasound data--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duc V; Vo, Quang N; Le, Lawrence H; Lou, Edmond H M

    2015-02-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a three-dimensional deformity of spine associated with vertebra rotation. The Cobb angle and axial vertebral rotation are important parameters to assess the severity of scoliosis. However, the vertebral rotation is seldom measured from radiographs due to time consuming. Different techniques have been developed to extract 3D spinal information. Among many techniques, ultrasound imaging is a promising method. This pilot study reported an image processing method to reconstruct the posterior surface of vertebrae from 3D ultrasound data. Three cadaver vertebrae, a Sawbones spine phantom, and a spine from a child with AIS were used to validate the development. The in-vitro result showed the surface of the reconstructed image was visually similar to the original objects. The dimension measurement error was <5 mm and the Pearson correlation was >0.99. The results also showed a high accuracy in vertebral rotation with errors of 0.8 ± 0.3°, 2.8 ± 0.3° and 3.6 ± 0.5° for the rotation values of 0°, 15° and 30°, respectively. Meanwhile, the difference in the Cobb angle between the phantom and the image was 4° and the vertebral rotation at the apex was 2°. The Cobb angle measured from the in-vivo ultrasound image was 4° different from the radiograph. PMID:25550193

  19. MESA: A 3-D Eulerian hydrocode for penetration mechanics studies

    SciTech Connect

    Mandell, D.A.; Holian, K.S.; Henninger, R.

    1991-01-01

    We describe an explicit, finite-difference hydrocode, called MESA, and compare calculations to metal and ceramic plate impacts with spall and to Taylor cylinder tests. The MESA code was developed with support from DARPA, the Army and the Marine Corps for use in armor/anti-armor problems primarily, but the code has been used for a number of other applications. MESA includes 2-D and 3-D Eulerian hydrodynamics, a number of material strength and fracture models, and a programmed burn high explosives model. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Markerless 3D motion capture for animal locomotion studies

    PubMed Central

    Sellers, William Irvin; Hirasaki, Eishi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Obtaining quantitative data describing the movements of animals is an essential step in understanding their locomotor biology. Outside the laboratory, measuring animal locomotion often relies on video-based approaches and analysis is hampered because of difficulties in calibration and often the limited availability of possible camera positions. It is also usually restricted to two dimensions, which is often an undesirable over-simplification given the essentially three-dimensional nature of many locomotor performances. In this paper we demonstrate a fully three-dimensional approach based on 3D photogrammetric reconstruction using multiple, synchronised video cameras. This approach allows full calibration based on the separation of the individual cameras and will work fully automatically with completely unmarked and undisturbed animals. As such it has the potential to revolutionise work carried out on free-ranging animals in sanctuaries and zoological gardens where ad hoc approaches are essential and access within enclosures often severely restricted. The paper demonstrates the effectiveness of video-based 3D photogrammetry with examples from primates and birds, as well as discussing the current limitations of this technique and illustrating the accuracies that can be obtained. All the software required is open source so this can be a very cost effective approach and provides a methodology of obtaining data in situations where other approaches would be completely ineffective. PMID:24972869

  1. Study of failure in 3-D carbon-carbons

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, P.B.

    1984-01-01

    A program of experiments and analysis was performed to examine failure criteria for 3-D carbon-carbon composites. Specimens from an FMI 2-2-1 weave and an AVCO 2-2-5 weave were investigated using off-axis tests in tension and compression. The stress strain responses were analyzed to provide composite stiffness and yield strength as a function of yarn angle. Estimates of the material shear stiffness were calculated. The data for yield strength versus yarn angle were fitted with Tsai-Hill and Tsai-Wu failure criteria. Values of the shear strength for yield and ultimate failure were found. The general off-axis nonlinear stress strain curves were condensed to a single equation using the theory of anisotropic plasticity. A simple criterion was found to predict the onset of yielding for 3-D weaves subjected to off-axis loading. Validation of the failure criteria and plasticity models was made by analyzing stress fields in the region of a hole and comparing with experimental data. Observations of microscopic material damage and failure surfaces were made for specimens subjected to on-axis compression and off-axis tension. The spread of damage in on-axis compression specimens is explained in detail.

  2. Study on 3D CFBG vibration sensor and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Qiuming; Li, Sheng

    2016-03-01

    A novel variety of three dimensional (3D) vibration sensor based on chirped fiber Bragg grating (CFBG) is developed to measure 3D vibration in the mechanical equipment field. The sensor is composed of three independent vibration sensing units. Each unit uses double matched chirped gratings as sensing elements, and the sensing signal is processed by the edge filtering demodulation method. The structure and principle of the sensor are theoretically analyzed, and its performances are obtained from some experiments and the results are as follows: operating frequency range of the sensor is 10 Hz‒500 Hz; acceleration measurement range is 2 m·s-2‒30 m·s-2; sensitivity is about 70 mV/m·s-2; crosstalk coefficient is greater than 22 dB; self-compensation for temperature is available. Eventually the sensor is applied to monitor the vibration state of radiation pump. Seen from its experiments and applications, the sensor has good sensing performances, which can meet a certain requirement for some engineering measurement.

  3. Markerless 3D motion capture for animal locomotion studies.

    PubMed

    Sellers, William Irvin; Hirasaki, Eishi

    2014-01-01

    Obtaining quantitative data describing the movements of animals is an essential step in understanding their locomotor biology. Outside the laboratory, measuring animal locomotion often relies on video-based approaches and analysis is hampered because of difficulties in calibration and often the limited availability of possible camera positions. It is also usually restricted to two dimensions, which is often an undesirable over-simplification given the essentially three-dimensional nature of many locomotor performances. In this paper we demonstrate a fully three-dimensional approach based on 3D photogrammetric reconstruction using multiple, synchronised video cameras. This approach allows full calibration based on the separation of the individual cameras and will work fully automatically with completely unmarked and undisturbed animals. As such it has the potential to revolutionise work carried out on free-ranging animals in sanctuaries and zoological gardens where ad hoc approaches are essential and access within enclosures often severely restricted. The paper demonstrates the effectiveness of video-based 3D photogrammetry with examples from primates and birds, as well as discussing the current limitations of this technique and illustrating the accuracies that can be obtained. All the software required is open source so this can be a very cost effective approach and provides a methodology of obtaining data in situations where other approaches would be completely ineffective. PMID:24972869

  4. Organizational Learning Goes Virtual?: A Study of Employees' Learning Achievement in Stereoscopic 3D Virtual Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Kung Wong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to deepen understanding of the use of stereoscopic 3D technology (stereo3D) in facilitating organizational learning. The emergence of advanced virtual technologies, in particular to the stereo3D virtual reality, has fundamentally changed the ways in which organizations train their employees. However, in academic or…

  5. An algorithm for studying rigidity in disordered 3D networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubynsky, M. V.; Thorpe, M. F.

    2004-03-01

    Some physical systems, such as covalent glasses and proteins, can be modeled as elastic networks, by dividing the interactions between particles into strong and weak, representing the former as constraints and neglecting the latter. For low enough connectivities, motions maintaining the constraints and thus having zero energy cost are possible. The goal of rigidity analysis is finding the number of such zero energy modes, the rigid clusters and flexible joints between them, as well as stressed bonds. For a certain class of networks there is a very fast graph-theoretical algorithm (the Pebble Game) for doing this analysis, but for more general networks, there are known counterexamples. While generalizing the Pebble Game is the ultimate goal, we propose a slower algorithm capable of doing all the same analyses as the Pebble Game but applicable to any networks. We discuss the applications of this algorithm to specific examples of 3D networks, such as diluted central force lattices, colloidal glasses and proteins.

  6. 3D simulation studies of tokamak plasmas using MHD and extended-MHD models

    SciTech Connect

    Park, W.; Chang, Z.; Fredrickson, E.; Fu, G.Y.

    1996-12-31

    The M3D (Multi-level 3D) tokamak simulation project aims at the simulation of tokamak plasmas using a multi-level tokamak code package. Several current applications using MHD and Extended-MHD models are presented; high-{beta} disruption studies in reversed shear plasmas using the MHD level MH3D code, {omega}{sub *i} stabilization and nonlinear island saturation of TAE mode using the hybrid particle/MHD level MH3D-K code, and unstructured mesh MH3D{sup ++} code studies. In particular, three internal mode disruption mechanisms are identified from simulation results which agree which agree well with experimental data.

  7. Study on portable optical 3D coordinate measuring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Tongqun; Zhu, Jigui; Guo, Yinbiao

    2009-05-01

    A portable optical 3D coordinate measuring system based on digital Close Range Photogrammetry (CRP) technology and binocular stereo vision theory is researched. Three ultra-red LED with high stability is set on a hand-hold target to provide measuring feature and establish target coordinate system. Ray intersection based field directional calibrating is done for the intersectant binocular measurement system composed of two cameras by a reference ruler. The hand-hold target controlled by Bluetooth wireless communication is free moved to implement contact measurement. The position of ceramic contact ball is pre-calibrated accurately. The coordinates of target feature points are obtained by binocular stereo vision model from the stereo images pair taken by cameras. Combining radius compensation for contact ball and residual error correction, object point can be resolved by transfer of axes using target coordinate system as intermediary. This system is suitable for on-field large-scale measurement because of its excellent portability, high precision, wide measuring volume, great adaptability and satisfying automatization. It is tested that the measuring precision is near to +/-0.1mm/m.

  8. Deciphering the bipolar planetary nebula Abell 14 with 3D ionization and morphological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akras, S.; Clyne, N.; Boumis, P.; Monteiro, H.; Gonçalves, D. R.; Redman, M. P.; Williams, S.

    2016-04-01

    Abell 14 is a poorly studied object despite being considered a born-again planetary nebula. We performed a detailed study of its 3D morphology and ionization structure using the SHAPE and MOCASSIN codes. We found that Abell 14 is a highly evolved, bipolar nebula with a kinematical age of ˜19 400 yr for a distance of 4 kpc. The high He abundance, and N/O ratio indicate a progenitor of 5 M⊙ that has experienced the third dredge-up and hot bottom burning phases. The stellar parameters of the central source reveal a star at a highly evolved stage near to the white dwarf cooling track, being inconsistent with the born-again scenario. The nebula shows unexpectedly strong [N I] λ5200 and [O I] λ6300 emission lines indicating possible shock interactions. Abell 14 appears to be a member of a small group of highly evolved, extreme type-I planetary nebulae (PNe). The members of this group lie at the lower-left corner of the PNe regime on the [N II]/Hα versus [S II]/Hα diagnostic diagram, where shock-excited regions/objects are also placed. The low luminosity of their central stars, in conjunction with the large physical size of the nebulae, result in a very low photoionization rate, which can make any contribution of shock interaction easily perceptible, even for small velocities.

  9. Dynamic 3D scanning as a markerless method to calculate multi-segment foot kinematics during stance phase: methodology and first application.

    PubMed

    Van den Herrewegen, Inge; Cuppens, Kris; Broeckx, Mario; Barisch-Fritz, Bettina; Vander Sloten, Jos; Leardini, Alberto; Peeraer, Louis

    2014-08-22

    Multi-segmental foot kinematics have been analyzed by means of optical marker-sets or by means of inertial sensors, but never by markerless dynamic 3D scanning (D3DScanning). The use of D3DScans implies a radically different approach for the construction of the multi-segment foot model: the foot anatomy is identified via the surface shape instead of distinct landmark points. We propose a 4-segment foot model consisting of the shank (Sha), calcaneus (Cal), metatarsus (Met) and hallux (Hal). These segments are manually selected on a static scan. To track the segments in the dynamic scan, the segments of the static scan are matched on each frame of the dynamic scan using the iterative closest point (ICP) fitting algorithm. Joint rotations are calculated between Sha-Cal, Cal-Met, and Met-Hal. Due to the lower quality scans at heel strike and toe off, the first and last 10% of the stance phase is excluded. The application of the method to 5 healthy subjects, 6 trials each, shows a good repeatability (intra-subject standard deviations between 1° and 2.5°) for Sha-Cal and Cal-Met joints, and inferior results for the Met-Hal joint (>3°). The repeatability seems to be subject-dependent. For the validation, a qualitative comparison with joint kinematics from a corresponding established marker-based multi-segment foot model is made. This shows very consistent patterns of rotation. The ease of subject preparation and also the effective and easy to interpret visual output, make the present technique very attractive for functional analysis of the foot, enhancing usability in clinical practice. PMID:24998032

  10. A comparative study between a rectilinear 3-D seismic survey and a concentric-circle 3-D seismic survey

    SciTech Connect

    Maldonado, B.; Hussein, H.S.

    1994-12-31

    Due to the rectilinear nature of the previous 3D seismic survey, the details necessary for proper interpretation were absent. Theoretically, concentric 3D seismic technology may provide an avenue for gaining more and higher quality data coverage. Problems associated with recording a rectilinear 3D seismic grid over the salt dome in this area have created the need to investigate the use of such procedures as the concentric-circle 3D seismic acquisition technique. The difficulty of imaging salt dome flanks with conventional rectilinear 3D seismic may be a result of the inability to precisely predict the lateral velocity-field variation adjacent to both salt and sediments. The dramatic difference in the interval velocities of salt and sediments causes the returning ray to severely deviate from being a hyperbolic path. This hampers the ability to predict imaging points near the salt/sediment interface. Perhaps the most difficult areas to image with rectilinear seismic surveys are underneath salt overhangs. Modeling suggests that a significant increase in the number of rays captured from beneath a salt overhang can be achieved with the concentric-circle method. This paper demonstrates the use of the ``circle shoot`` on a survey conducted over a salt dome in the Gulf of Mexico. A total of 80 concentric circles cover an area which is equivalent to 31,000 acres. The final post-stack data were sorted into bins with dimensions of 25 meters by 25 meters. A comparison of 3D rectilinear shooting vs. 3D concentric circle shooting over the same area will show an improvement in data quality and signal-to-noise characteristics.

  11. The ATLAS3D project - XXV. Two-dimensional kinematic analysis of simulated galaxies and the cosmological origin of fast and slow rotators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naab, Thorsten; Oser, L.; Emsellem, E.; Cappellari, Michele; Krajnović, D.; McDermid, R. M.; Alatalo, K.; Bayet, E.; Blitz, L.; Bois, M.; Bournaud, F.; Bureau, M.; Crocker, A.; Davies, R. L.; Davis, T. A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, P.-A.; Hirschmann, M.; Johansson, P. H.; Khochfar, S.; Kuntschner, H.; Morganti, R.; Oosterloo, T.; Sarzi, M.; Scott, N.; Serra, P.; Ven, G. van de; Weijmans, A.; Young, L. M.

    2014-11-01

    We present a detailed two-dimensional stellar dynamical analysis of a sample of 44 cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of individual central galaxies with stellar masses of 2 × 1010 M⊙ ≲ M* ≲ 6 × 1011 M⊙. Kinematic maps of the stellar line-of-sight velocity, velocity dispersion and higher order Gauss-Hermite moments h3 and h4 are constructed for each central galaxy and for the most massive satellites. The amount of rotation is quantified using the λR-parameter. The velocity, velocity dispersion, h3 and h4 fields of the simulated galaxies show a diversity similar to observed kinematic maps of early-type galaxies in the ATLAS3D survey. This includes fast (regular), slow and misaligned rotation, hot spheroids with embedded cold disc components as well as galaxies with counter-rotating cores or central depressions in the velocity dispersion. We link the present-day kinematic properties to the individual cosmological formation histories of the galaxies. In general, major galaxy mergers have a significant influence on the rotation properties resulting in both a spin-down as well as a spin-up of the merger remnant. Lower mass galaxies with significant (≳18 per cent) in situ formation of stars since z ≈ 2, or with additional gas-rich major mergers - resulting in a spin-up - in their formation history, form elongated (ɛ ˜ 0.45) fast rotators (λR ˜ 0.46) with a clear anticorrelation of h3 and v/σ. An additional formation path for fast rotators includes gas-poor major mergers leading to a spin-up of the remnants (λR ˜ 0.43). This formation path does not result in anticorrelated h3 and v/σ. The formation histories of slow rotators can include late major mergers. If the merger is gas rich, the remnant typically is a less flattened slow rotator with a central dip in the velocity dispersion. If the merger is gas poor, the remnant is very elongated (ɛ ˜ 0.43) and slowly rotating (λR ˜ 0.11). The galaxies most consistent with the rare class of non

  12. Combined Immunofluorescence and DNA FISH on 3D-preserved Interphase Nuclei to Study Changes in 3D Nuclear Organization

    PubMed Central

    Chaumeil, Julie; Micsinai, Mariann; Skok, Jane A.

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescent in situ hybridization using DNA probes on 3-dimensionally preserved nuclei followed by 3D confocal microscopy (3D DNA FISH) represents the most direct way to visualize the location of gene loci, chromosomal sub-regions or entire territories in individual cells. This type of analysis provides insight into the global architecture of the nucleus as well as the behavior of specific genomic loci and regions within the nuclear space. Immunofluorescence, on the other hand, permits the detection of nuclear proteins (modified histones, histone variants and modifiers, transcription machinery and factors, nuclear sub-compartments, etc). The major challenge in combining immunofluorescence and 3D DNA FISH is, on the one hand to preserve the epitope detected by the antibody as well as the 3D architecture of the nucleus, and on the other hand, to allow the penetration of the DNA probe to detect gene loci or chromosome territories 1-5. Here we provide a protocol that combines visualization of chromatin modifications with genomic loci in 3D preserved nuclei. PMID:23407477

  13. DIY 3D printing of custom orthopaedic implants: a proof of concept study.

    PubMed

    Frame, Mark; Leach, William

    2014-03-01

    3D printing is an emerging technology that is primarily used for aiding the design and prototyping of implants. As this technology has evolved it has now become possible to produce functional and definitive implants manufactured using a 3D printing process. This process, however, previously required a large financial investment in complex machinery and professionals skilled in 3D product design. Our pilot study's aim was to design and create a 3D printed custom orthopaedic implant using only freely available consumer hardware and software. PMID:24574013

  14. Computational study of 3-D Benard convection with gravitational modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biringen, S.; Peltier, L. J.

    1989-01-01

    In this numerical study the effects of a modulated gravitational field on three-dimensional Rayleigh-Benard convection with heating from above or from below is investigated. The full, nonlinear, time-dependent, Boussinesq Navier-Stokes equations and the energy equation are solved by a semiimplicit, pseudo-spectral procedure. This study has been motivated by the need to better understand the effects of vibration (G-Jitter) on fluids systems especially in the low gravity environment.

  15. Transmission of holographic 3D images using infrared transmitter(II): on a study of transmission of holographic 3D images using infrared transmitter safe to medical equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Kunihiko; Muto, Kenji; Tian, Lan; Sato, Koki

    2007-09-01

    An infrared transmitting technique for 3D holographic images is studied. It seems to be very effective as a transmitting technique for 3D holographic images in the places where electric wave is prohibited to be used for transmission. In this paper, we first explain our infrared transmitting system for holograms and a display system for the presentation of holographic 3D images reconstructed from the received signal. Next, we make a report on the results obtained by infrared transmission of CGH and a comparison of the real and the reconstructed 3D images in our system. As this result, it is found that reconstructed holographic 3D images do not suffer a large deterioration in the quality and highly contrasted ones can be presented.

  16. 3-D LDA study of a rectangular jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Gerald L.; Tatterson, Gary B.; Swan, David H.

    1988-01-01

    The flow field of a rectangular jet with a 2:1 aspect ratio was studied at an axial Reynolds number of 100,000 (Mach number 0.09) using three-dimensional laser Doppler velocimetry. The flow field survey resulted in mean velocity vector field plots and contour plots of the Reynolds stress tensor components. This paper presents contour plots in the planes of the jet minor and major axes at different axial locations. These data contribute substantially to currently available data of jet flow fields and will provide a valuable database for three-dimensional modeling.

  17. 3D image guidance in radiotherapy: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, Matthias; Groh, Burkhard A.; Partridge, Mike; Hesse, Bernd M.; Bortfeld, Thomas

    2001-07-01

    Currently, one major research field in radiotheraphy is focused on patient setup verification and on detection of organ motion and deformation. A phantom study is performed to demonstrate the feasibility of image guidance in radiotherapy. Patient setup errors are simulated with a humanoid phantom, which is imaged using a linear accelerator and a therapy simulator to address megavoltage and kilovoltage (kV) computed tomography (CT), respectively. Projections are recorded by a flat panel imager. The various data sets of the humanoid phantom are compared by mutual information matching. The CT investigations show that the spatial resolution is better than 1.6 mm for high contrast objects. The uncertainties remaining after mutual information matching are found to be less than 1 mm for translations and 1 degree(s) for rotations. The phantom study indicates that the detection of patient setup errors as well as organ motion or deformation is possible with a high accuracy, especially if a kV X-ray tube could be attached to the linear accelerator. The presented method allows sophisticated quality assurance of beam delivery in each fraction and may even enable the use of new concepts of adaptive radiotherapy.

  18. Sheet 280—Fossombrone 3D: A study project for a new geological map of Italy in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Donatis, Mauro; Borraccini, Francesco; Susini, Sara

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this project is to define and test a method for building a three-dimensional (3D) geological model of Italy based on maps at a 1:50,000 scale, using the new national geological mapping program (CARG project). A structural model of Sheet 280—Fossombrone (Northern Apennines, central Italy) was produced using recently developed 3D visualization techniques. This area is characterized by faulted anticlines and broad synclines, involving a Triassic-Palaeogene succession detached from its underlying basement. Exhaustive knowledge of the regional and local geology, combined with available subsurface (well and seismic) data, makes this area a good test site for developing a 3D geological modeling method. The model of Sheet 280—Fossombrone was built in two steps. In the first step, we built a 2.5D geological model using the digital elevation model combined with the new 1:50,000 scale geological map of the area. This 2.5D model shows relationships between topographic elements, geology and major structures much better than traditional 2D geological maps. In the second step, we constructed an in-depth model integrating a large amount of subsurface data with field data from the recent mapping project. The geological model of Sheet 280—Fossombrone clarifies structural geometries and kinematics of this external part of the Northern Apennines. Structural and geomorphic analyses were performed on the 3D model to evaluate how additional information can be obtained from 3D cartography in order to improve knowledge of the study area. We present results of these analyses as examples.

  19. Current loop coalescence studied by 3-D electromagnetic particle code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Sakai, Jun-Ichi; Koide, Shinji; Buneman, O.; Neubert, T.

    1993-01-01

    Solar flare plasma data from the Yohkoh satellite is analyzed. The interactions of current loops were observed in the active regions on the Sun. This observation pointed out the importance of the idea that the solar flare is generated by the coalescence of current loops. The three dimensional electromagnetic particle simulations are to help in understanding the global interaction between two current loops including the evolution of the twist of loops due to instabilities. Associated rapid dynamics of current loop coalescence such as reconnection, shock waves and associated kinetic processes such as energy transfer, acceleration of particles, and electromagnetic emissions are to be studied by the code to complement analytical theories and magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the current loop coalescence. The simulation results show the strong interactions between two current loops, beam and whistler instabilities, and associated parallel and perpendicular particle heating.

  20. Developing and Testing a 3d Cadastral Data Model a Case Study in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aien, A.; Kalantari, M.; Rajabifard, A.; Williamson, I. P.; Shojaei, D.

    2012-07-01

    and physical extent of 3D properties and associated interests. The data model extends the traditional cadastral requirements to cover other applications such as urban planning and land valuation and taxation. A demonstration of a test system on the proposed data model is also presented. The test is based on a case study in Victoria, Australia to evaluate the effectiveness of the data model.

  1. Issues and Challenges of Teaching and Learning in 3D Virtual Worlds: Real Life Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeil, Ulrike; Ang, Chee Siang; Zaphiris, Panayiotis

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to study the characteristics and usage patterns of 3D virtual worlds in the context of teaching and learning. To achieve this, we organised a full-day workshop to explore, discuss and investigate the educational use of 3D virtual worlds. Thirty participants took part in the workshop. All conversations were recorded and transcribed for…

  2. Understanding Human Perception of Building Categories in Virtual 3d Cities - a User Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutzauer, P.; Becker, S.; Niese, T.; Deussen, O.; Fritsch, D.

    2016-06-01

    Virtual 3D cities are becoming increasingly important as a means of visually communicating diverse urban-related information. To get a deeper understanding of a human's cognitive experience of virtual 3D cities, this paper presents a user study on the human ability to perceive building categories (e.g. residential home, office building, building with shops etc.) from geometric 3D building representations. The study reveals various dependencies between geometric properties of the 3D representations and the perceptibility of the building categories. Knowledge about which geometries are relevant, helpful or obstructive for perceiving a specific building category is derived. The importance and usability of such knowledge is demonstrated based on a perception-guided 3D building abstraction process.

  3. Possibility of reconstruction of dental plaster cast from 3D digital study models

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To compare traditional plaster casts, digital models and 3D printed copies of dental plaster casts based on various criteria. To determine whether 3D printed copies obtained using open source system RepRap can replace traditional plaster casts in dental practice. To compare and contrast the qualities of two possible 3D printing options – open source system RepRap and commercially available 3D printing. Design and settings A method comparison study on 10 dental plaster casts from the Orthodontic department, Department of Stomatology, 2nd medical Faulty, Charles University Prague, Czech Republic. Material and methods Each of 10 plaster casts were scanned by inEos Blue scanner and the printed on 3D printer RepRap [10 models] and ProJet HD3000 3D printer [1 model]. Linear measurements between selected points on the dental arches of upper and lower jaws on plaster casts and its 3D copy were recorded and statistically analyzed. Results 3D printed copies have many advantages over traditional plaster casts. The precision and accuracy of the RepRap 3D printed copies of plaster casts were confirmed based on the statistical analysis. Although the commercially available 3D printing enables to print more details than the RepRap system, it is expensive and for the purpose of clinical use can be replaced by the cheaper prints obtained from RepRap printed copies. Conclusions Scanning of the traditional plaster casts to obtain a digital model offers a pragmatic approach. The scans can subsequently be used as a template to print the plaster casts as required. Using 3D printers can replace traditional plaster casts primarily due to their accuracy and price. PMID:23721330

  4. Genre Matters: A Comparative Study on the Entertainment Effects of 3D in Cinematic Contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Qihao; Lee, Young Sun

    2014-09-01

    Built upon prior comparative studies of 3D and 2D films, the current project investigates the effects of 2D and 3D on viewers' perception of enjoyment, narrative engagement, presence, involvement, and flow across three movie genres (Action/fantasy vs. Drama vs. Documentary). Through a 2 by 3 mixed factorial design, participants (n = 102) were separated into two viewing conditions (2D and 3D) and watched three 15-min film segments. Result suggested both visual production methods are equally efficient in terms of eliciting people's enjoyment, narrative engagement, involvement, flow and presence, no effects of visual production method was found. In addition, through examining the genre effects in both 3D and 2D conditions, we found that 3D works better for action movies than documentaries in terms of eliciting viewers' perception of enjoyment and presence, similarly, it improves views' narrative engagement for documentaries than dramas substantially. Implications and limitations are discussed in detail.

  5. Gait strategy in patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome hypermobility type: a kinematic and kinetic evaluation using 3D gait analysis.

    PubMed

    Galli, Manuela; Cimolin, Veronica; Rigoldi, Chiara; Castori, Marco; Celletti, Claudia; Albertini, Giorgio; Camerota, Filippo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the gait patterns of adults with joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (JHS/EDS-HT) hypermobility type, using Gait Analysis. We quantified the gait strategy in 12 JHS/EDS-HT adults individuals (age: 43.08+6.78 years) compared to 20 healthy controls (age: 37.23±8.91 years), in terms of kinematics and kinetics. JHS/EDS-HT individuals were characterized by a non-physiological gait pattern. In particular, spatio-temporal parameters evidenced lower anterior step length and higher stance phase duration in JHS/EDS-HT than controls. In term of kinematics, in JHS/EDS-HT patients the main gait limitations involved pelvis, distal joints and ankle joint. Conversely, hip and knee joint showed physiological values. Ankle moment and power revealed reduced peak values during terminal stance. Differences in stiffness at hip and ankle joints were found between JHS/EDS-HT and controls. JHS/EDS-HT patients showed significant decreased of Kh and Ka parameters very probably due to congenital hypotonia and ligament laxity. These findings help to elucidate the complex biomechanical changes in JHS/EDS-HT and may have a major role in the multidimensional evaluation and tailored management of these patients. PMID:21420276

  6. A Kinematic Study of Finswimming at Surface

    PubMed Central

    Gautier, Jimmy; Baly, Laurent; Zanone, Pier-Giorgio; Watier, Bruno

    2004-01-01

    Finswimming is a sport of speed practiced on the surface or underwater, in which performance is based on whole-body oscillations. The present study investigated the undulatory motion performed by finswimmers at the surface. This study aiming to analyze the influence of the interaction of gender, practice level, and race distance on selected kinematic parameters. Six elite and six novices finswimmers equipped with joints markers (wrist, elbow, shoulder, hip, knee, and ankle) were recorded in the sagittal plane. The position of these anatomical marks was digitized at 50 Hz. An automated motion analysis software yielded velocity, vertical amplitude, frequency, and angular position. Results showed that stroke frequency decreased whereas the mean amplitude of all joints increased with increasing race distance (p < 0.01). Mean joint amplitude for the upper limbs (wrist, elbow and shoulder) was smaller for experts than for novices. Whereas that of the ankle was larger, so that the oscillation amplitude increased from shoulder to ankle. Elite male finswimmers were pitching more acutely than female. Moreover, elite male finswimmers showed a smaller knee bending than novices and than elite females (p < 0.01). This indicated that elite male finswimmers attempt to reduce drag forces thanks to a weak knee bending and a low upper limbs pitch. To sum up, gender, expertise, and race distance affect the performance and its kinematics in terms frontal drag. Expertise in finswimming requires taking advantage of the mechanical constraints pertaining to hydrodynamic constraints in order to optimize performance. Key Points Finswimmers are at one and the same time a propelling and a propelled body. This study investigates the undulatory motion performed by finswimmers at the surface. Elite male finswimmers were pitching more acutely than female swimmers and showed a smaller knee bending than both novices and elite female swimmers. Finswimmers tended to perform a dolphin-like motion

  7. 3D-Flow processor for a programmable Level-1 trigger (feasibility study)

    SciTech Connect

    Crosetto, D.

    1992-10-01

    A feasibility study has been made to use the 3D-Flow processor in a pipelined programmable parallel processing architecture to identify particles such as electrons, jets, muons, etc., in high-energy physics experiments.

  8. Appearance of bony lesions on 3-D CT reconstructions: a case study in variable renderings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankovich, Nicholas J.; White, Stuart C.

    1992-05-01

    This paper discusses conventional 3-D reconstruction for bone visualization and presents a case study to demonstrate the dangers of performing 3-D reconstructions without careful selection of the bone threshold. The visualization of midface bone lesions directly from axial CT images is difficult because of the complex anatomic relationships. Three-dimensional reconstructions made from the CT to provide graphic images showing lesions in relation to adjacent facial bones. Most commercially available 3-D image reconstruction requires that the radiologist or technologist identify a threshold image intensity value that can be used to distinguish bone from other tissues. Much has been made of the many disadvantages of this technique, but it continues as the predominant method in producing 3-D pictures for clinical use. This paper is intended to provide a clear demonstration for the physician of the caveats that should accompany 3-D reconstructions. We present a case of recurrent odontogenic keratocyst in the anterior maxilla where the 3-D reconstructions, made with different bone thresholds (windows), are compared to the resected specimen. A DMI 3200 computer was used to convert the scan data from a GE 9800 CT into a 3-D shaded surface image. Threshold values were assigned to (1) generate the most clinically pleasing image, (2) produce maximum theoretical fidelity (using the midpoint image intensity between average cortical bone and average soft tissue), and (3) cover stepped threshold intensities between these two methods. We compared the computer lesions with the resected specimen and noted measurement errors of up to 44 percent introduced by inappropriate bone threshold levels. We suggest clinically applicable standardization techniques in the 3-D reconstruction as well as cautionary language that should accompany the 3-D images.

  9. Comparison of 2D versus 3D mammography with screening cases: an observer study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, James Reza; Deshpande, Ruchi; Hovanessian-Larsen, Linda; Liu, Brent

    2012-02-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of non-skin cancer in women. 2D mammography is a screening tool to aid in the early detection of breast cancer, but has diagnostic limitations of overlapping tissues, especially in dense breasts. 3D mammography has the potential to improve detection outcomes by increasing specificity, and a new 3D screening tool with a 3D display for mammography aims to improve performance and efficiency as compared to 2D mammography. An observer study using human studies collected from was performed to compare traditional 2D mammography with this new 3D mammography technique. A prior study using a mammography phantom revealed no difference in calcification detection, but improved mass detection in 2D as compared to 3D. There was a significant decrease in reading time for masses, calcifications, and normals in 3D compared to 2D, however, as well as more favorable confidence levels in reading normal cases. Data for this current study is currently being obtained, and a full report should be available in the next few weeks.

  10. 3D EM imaging from a single borehole; a numerical feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Alumbaugh, D.L.; Wilt, M.J.

    1998-07-01

    Often the drilling of an oil well is followed by a logging process to characterize the region immediately surrounding the well bore. The electromagnetic (EM) induction tool, which provides the formation resistivity, is among the most frequently run logs. A preliminary study has been conducted to analyze the feasibility of three dimensional (3D) electromagnetic (EM) imaging from a single borehole. The logging tool consists of a vertical magnetic dipole source and multiple 3 component magnetic field receivers offset at different distances from the source. Synthetic data calculated with a 3D finite difference code demonstrate that the phase of the horizontal magnetic fields provides the critical information on the three dimensionality of the medium. A 3D inversion algorithm is then employed to demonstrate the plausibility of 3D inversion using 3 component magnetic field data. Finally, problems associated with introducing biased noise into the horizontal components of the field through misalignment of the logging tool is discussed.

  11. Study of Multi-level Characteristics for 3D Vertical Resistive Switching Memory

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yue; Wu, Huaqiang; Wu, Riga; Zhang, Ye; Deng, Ning; Yu, Zhiping; Qian, He

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) integration and multi-level cell (MLC) are two attractive technologies to achieve ultra-high density for mass storage applications. In this work, a three-layer 3D vertical AlOδ/Ta2O5-x/TaOy resistive random access memories were fabricated and characterized. The vertical cells in three layers show good uniformity and high performance (e.g. >1000X HRS/LRS windows, >1010 endurance cycles, >104 s retention times at 125°C). Meanwhile, four level MLC is demonstrated with two operation strategies, current controlled scheme (CCS) and voltage controlled scheme (VCS). The switching mechanism of 3D vertical RRAM cells is studied based on temperature-dependent transport characteristics. Furthermore, the applicability of CCS and VCS in 3D vertical RRAM array is compared using resistor network circuit simulation. PMID:25047906

  12. Study of multi-level characteristics for 3D vertical resistive switching memory.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yue; Wu, Huaqiang; Wu, Riga; Zhang, Ye; Deng, Ning; Yu, Zhiping; Qian, He

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) integration and multi-level cell (MLC) are two attractive technologies to achieve ultra-high density for mass storage applications. In this work, a three-layer 3D vertical AlOδ/Ta2O5-x/TaOy resistive random access memories were fabricated and characterized. The vertical cells in three layers show good uniformity and high performance (e.g. >1000X HRS/LRS windows, >10(10) endurance cycles, >10(4) s retention times at 125°C). Meanwhile, four level MLC is demonstrated with two operation strategies, current controlled scheme (CCS) and voltage controlled scheme (VCS). The switching mechanism of 3D vertical RRAM cells is studied based on temperature-dependent transport characteristics. Furthermore, the applicability of CCS and VCS in 3D vertical RRAM array is compared using resistor network circuit simulation. PMID:25047906

  13. Why 3D Cameras are Not Popular: A Qualitative User Study on Stereoscopic Photography Acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakala, Jussi; Westman, Stina; Salmimaa, Marja; Pölönen, Monika; Järvenpää, Toni; Häkkinen, Jukka

    2014-03-01

    Digital stereoscopic 3D cameras have entered the consumer market in recent years, but the acceptance of this novel technology has not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to identify the benefits and problems that novice users encounter in 3D photography by equipping five users with 3D cameras for a 4-week trial. We gathered data using a weekly questionnaire, an exit interview, and a stereoscopic disparity analysis of the 699 photographs taken during the trial. The results indicate that the participants took photographs at too-close distances, which caused excessive disparities. They learned to avoid the problem to some extent; the number of failed photographs due to excessive stereoscopic disparity decreased 70 % in 4 weeks. The participants also developed a preference for subjects that included clear depth differences and started to avoid photographing people because they looked unnatural in 3D photographs. They also regarded flash-induced shadows and edge violations problematic because of the unnatural effects in the photographs. We propose in-camera assistance tools for 3D cameras to make 3D photography easier.

  14. The performance & flow visualization studies of three-dimensional (3-D) wind turbine blade models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutrisno, Prajitno, Purnomo, W., Setyawan B.

    2016-06-01

    Recently, studies on the design of 3-D wind turbine blades have a less attention even though 3-D blade products are widely sold. In contrary, advanced studies in 3-D helicopter blade tip have been studied rigorously. Studies in wind turbine blade modeling are mostly assumed that blade spanwise sections behave as independent two-dimensional airfoils, implying that there is no exchange of momentum in the spanwise direction. Moreover, flow visualization experiments are infrequently conducted. Therefore, a modeling study of wind turbine blade with visualization experiment is needed to be improved to obtain a better understanding. The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance of 3-D wind turbine blade models with backward-forward swept and verify the flow patterns using flow visualization. In this research, the blade models are constructed based on the twist and chord distributions following Schmitz's formula. Forward and backward swept are added to the rotating blades. Based on this, the additional swept would enhance or diminish outward flow disturbance or stall development propagation on the spanwise blade surfaces to give better blade design. Some combinations, i. e., b lades with backward swept, provide a better 3-D favorable rotational force of the rotor system. The performance of the 3-D wind turbine system model is measured by a torque meter, employing Prony's braking system. Furthermore, the 3-D flow patterns around the rotating blade models are investigated by applying "tuft-visualization technique", to study the appearance of laminar, separated, and boundary layer flow patterns surrounding the 3-dimentional blade system.

  15. Effect of random coincidences for quantitative cardiac PET studies using 3D oxygen-15 water scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchareb, Y.; Thielemans, K.; Spinks, T.; Rimoldi, O.; Camici, P. G.

    2006-03-01

    The effect of random coincidences estimation methods on the quantitative accuracy of iterative and analytic reconstruction methods to determine myocardial blood flow (MBF) in PET studies using H II 15O has been investigated. Dynamic scans were acquired on the EXACT3D PET scanner on pigs after H II 15O injection (resting and dipyridamoleinduced stress). Radioactive microspheres (MS) were used to provide a "gold standard" of MBF values. The online subtraction (OS) and maximum likelihood (ML) methods for estimating randoms were combined with (i) 3D-RP, (ii) FORE + attenuation-weighted OSEM, (iii) FORE-FBP and (iv) 3D-OSEM. Factor images were generated and resliced to short axis images; 16 ROIs were defined in the left myocardium and 2 ROIs in the left and right cavities. ROIs were projected onto the dynamic images to extract time-activity-curves, which were then fitted to a single compartment model to estimate absolute MBF. Microsphere measurements were obtained in a similar way and 64 pairs of measurements were made. The ML method improved the SNR of 3D-RP, FORE-FBP, FORE-OSEM, and 3D-OSEM by 8%, 8%, 7% and 3% respectively. Compared to the OS method, the ML method improved the accuracy of coronary flow reserve values of 3DOSEM, 3D-RP, FORE-OSEM and FORE-FBP by 9%, 7%, 1% and 3% respectively. Regression analysis provided better correlation with 3D-OSEM and FORE-OSEM when combined with the ML method. We conclude that the ML method for estimating randoms combined with 3D-OSEM and FORE-OSEM delivers the best performance for absolute quantification of MBF using H II 15O when compared with microsphere measurements.

  16. Rapid prototyping for tissue-engineered bone scaffold by 3D printing and biocompatibility study

    PubMed Central

    He, Hui-Yu; Zhang, Jia-Yu; Mi, Xue; Hu, Yang; Gu, Xiao-Yu

    2015-01-01

    The prototyping of tissue-engineered bone scaffold (calcined goat spongy bone-biphasic ceramic composite/PVA gel) by 3D printing was performed, and the biocompatibility of the fabricated bone scaffold was studied. Pre-designed STL file was imported into the GXYZ303010-XYLE 3D printing system, and the tissue-engineered bone scaffold was fabricated by 3D printing using gel extrusion. Rabbit bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were cultured in vitro and then inoculated to the sterilized bone scaffold obtained by 3D printing. The growth of rabbit BMSCs on the bone scaffold was observed under the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The effect of the tissue-engineered bone scaffold on the proliferation and differentiation of rabbit BMSCs using MTT assay. Universal testing machine was adopted to test the tensile strength of the bone scaffold. The leachate of the bone scaffold was prepared and injected into the New Zealand rabbits. Cytotoxicity test, acute toxicity test, pyrogenic test and intracutaneous stimulation test were performed to assess the biocompatibility of the bone scaffold. Bone scaffold manufactured by 3D printing had uniform pore size with the porosity of about 68.3%. The pores were well interconnected, and the bone scaffold showed excellent mechanical property. Rabbit BMSCs grew and proliferated on the surface of the bone scaffold after adherence. MTT assay indicated that the proliferation and differentiation of rabbit BMSCs on the bone scaffold did not differ significantly from that of the cells in the control. In vivo experiments proved that the bone scaffold fabricated by 3D printing had no acute toxicity, pyrogenic reaction or stimulation. Bone scaffold manufactured by 3D printing allows the rabbit BMSCs to adhere, grow and proliferate and exhibits excellent biomechanical property and high biocompatibility. 3D printing has a good application prospect in the prototyping of tissue-engineered bone scaffold. PMID:26380018

  17. The application of 3D image processing to studies of the musculoskeletal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Bruce Elliot; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Siegler, Sorin; Winkelstein, Beth A.

    2009-10-01

    Three dimensional renditions of anatomical structures are commonly used to improve visualization, surgical planning, and patient education. However, such 3D images also contain information which is not readily apparent, and which can be mined to elucidate, for example, such parameters as joint kinematics, spacial relationships, and distortions of those relationships with movement. Here we describe two series of experiments which demonstrate the functional application of 3D imaging. The first concerns the joints of the ankle complex, where the usual description of motions in the talocrural joint is shown to be incomplete, and where the roles of the anterior talofibular and calcaneofibular ligaments are clarified in ankle sprains. Also, the biomechanical effects of two common surgical procedures for repairing torn ligaments were examined. The second series of experiments explores changes in the anatomical relationships between nerve elements and the cervical vertebrae with changes in neck position. They provide preliminary evidence that morphological differences may exist between asymptomatic subjects and patients with radiculopathy in certain positions, even when conventional imaging shows no difference.

  18. Description of an evaluation system for knee kinematics in ligament lesions, by means of optical tracking and 3D tomography☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Tiago Lazzaretti; Ribeiro, Douglas Badillo; da Rocha, Diogo Cristo; Albuquerque, Cyro; Pereira, César Augusto Martins; Pedrinelli, André; Hernandez, Arnaldo José

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe and demonstrate the viability of a method for evaluating knee kinematics, by means of a continuous passive motion (CPM) machine, before and after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Methods This study was conducted on a knee from a cadaver, in a mechanical pivot-shift simulator, with evaluations using optical tracking, and also using computed tomography. Results This study demonstrated the viability of a protocol for measuring the rotation and translation of the knee, using reproducible and objective tools (error < 0.2 mm). The mechanized provocation system of the pivot-shift test was independent of the examiner and always allowed the same angular velocity and traction of 20 N throughout the movement. Conclusion The clinical relevance of this method lies in making inferences about the in vivo behavior of a knee with an ACL injury and providing greater methodological quality in future studies for measuring surgical techniques with grafts in relatively close positions. PMID:26229854

  19. The potential of 3D-FISH and super-resolution structured illumination microscopy for studies of 3D nuclear architecture: 3D structured illumination microscopy of defined chromosomal structures visualized by 3D (immuno)-FISH opens new perspectives for studies of nuclear architecture.

    PubMed

    Markaki, Yolanda; Smeets, Daniel; Fiedler, Susanne; Schmid, Volker J; Schermelleh, Lothar; Cremer, Thomas; Cremer, Marion

    2012-05-01

    Three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM) has opened up new possibilities to study nuclear architecture at the ultrastructural level down to the ~100 nm range. We present first results and assess the potential using 3D-SIM in combination with 3D fluorescence in situ hybridization (3D-FISH) for the topographical analysis of defined nuclear targets. Our study also deals with the concern that artifacts produced by FISH may counteract the gain in resolution. We address the topography of DAPI-stained DNA in nuclei before and after 3D-FISH, nuclear pores and the lamina, chromosome territories, chromatin domains, and individual gene loci. We also look at the replication patterns of chromocenters and the topographical relationship of Xist-RNA within the inactive X-territory. These examples demonstrate that an appropriately adapted 3D-FISH/3D-SIM approach preserves key characteristics of the nuclear ultrastructure and that the gain in information obtained by 3D-SIM yields new insights into the functional nuclear organization. PMID:22508100

  20. Application of 3D photo-reconstruction in soil erosion studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Carlos; James, Michael; Pérez, Rafael; Gómez, Jose Alfonso

    2014-05-01

    3D photo-reconstruction (3D-PR) has been applied successfully to obtain elevation models using uncalibrated and nonmetric cameras for a range of geoscience applications (e.g. James and Robson, 2012), including gully erosion assessment (Castillo et al., 2012). However, its application in soil erosion studies is currently at the outset. The aim of this work is to compare 3D-PR with conventional techniques that have been employed traditionally for different purposes in soil erosion studies. In this preliminary work, we tested three applications that involve volume calculations: estimation of soil bulk density (BD), quantification of soil erosion at road banks (RB) and sedimentation rates behind check dams (CD). For each analysis, a PR field survey was carried out simultaneously with a conventional method (volume of water was used for BD, and total station surveys for RB and CD). For the 3D-PR technique, the accuracy as a function of the number of pictures taken was evaluated. In this study we explore the difference in the volume estimates between 3D-PR and conventional techniques as well as the time requirements for each method in order to compare their performance and optimal field of application.

  1. 3D printed nanocomposite matrix for the study of breast cancer bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Holmes, Benjamin; Glazer, Robert I; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-01-01

    Bone is one of the most common metastatic sites of breast cancer, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear, in part due to an absence of advanced platforms for cancer culture and study that mimic the bone microenvironment. In the present study, we integrated a novel stereolithography-based 3D printer and a unique 3D printed nano-ink consisting of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles suspended in hydrogel to create a biomimetic bone-specific environment for evaluating breast cancer bone invasion. Breast cancer cells cultured in a geometrically optimized matrix exhibited spheroid morphology and migratory characteristics. Co-culture of tumor cells with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells increased the formation of spheroid clusters. The 3D matrix also allowed for higher drug resistance of breast cancer cells than 2D culture. These results validate that our 3D bone matrix can mimic tumor bone microenvironments, suggesting that it can serve as a tool for studying metastasis and assessing drug sensitivity. From the Clinical Editor: Cancer remains a major cause of mortality for patients in the clinical setting. For breast cancer, bone is one of the most common metastatic sites. In this intriguing article, the authors developed a bone-like environment using 3D printing technology to investigate the underlying biology of bone metastasis. Their results would also allow a new model for other researchers who work on cancer to use. PMID:26472048

  2. Virgo cluster and field dwarf ellipticals in 3D - I. On the variety of stellar kinematic and line-strength properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryś, Agnieszka; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; van de Ven, Glenn

    2013-02-01

    We present the first large-scale stellar kinematic and line-strength maps for dwarf elliptical galaxies (nine in the Virgo cluster and three in the field environment) obtained with the SAURON (Spectrographic Areal Unit for Research on Optical Nebulae) integral-field unit. No two galaxies in our sample are alike: we see that the level of rotation is not tied to flattening (we have, e.g., round rotators and flattened non-rotators); we observe kinematic twists in one Virgo and one field object; we discover large-scale kinematically decoupled components in two field galaxies; we see varying gradients in line-strength maps, from nearly flat to strongly peaked in the centre. The great variety of morphological, kinematic and stellar population parameters seen in our data points to a formation scenario in which properties are shaped stochastically. A combined effect of ram-pressure stripping and galaxy harassment is the most probable explanation. We show the need for a comprehensive analysis of kinematic, dynamical and stellar population properties which will enable us to place dwarf ellipticals and processes that govern their evolution in the wider context of galaxy formation.

  3. Reaching the Limit of the Oculomotor Plant: 3D Kinematics after Abducens Nerve Stimulation during the Torsional Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Hui; Angelaki, Dora E.

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that the oculomotor plant is capable of implementing aspects of three-dimensional kinematics such as Listing's law and the half-angle rule. But these studies have only examined the eye under static conditions or with movements that normally obey these rules (e.g., saccades and pursuit). Here we test the capability of the oculomotor plant to rearrange itself as necessary for non-half-angle behavior. Three monkeys (Macaca mulatta) fixated five vertically displaced targets along the midsagittal plane while sitting on a motion platform that rotated sinusoidally about the naso-occipital axis. This activated the torsional, rotational vestibulo-ocular reflex, which exhibits a zero-angle or negative-angle rule (depending on the visual stimulus). On random sinusoidal cycles, we stimulated the abducens nerve and observed the resultant eye movements. If the plant has rearranged itself to implement this non-half-angle behavior, then stimulation should reveal this behavior. On the other hand, if the plant is only capable of half-angle behavior, then stimulation should reveal a half-angle rule. We find the latter to be true and therefore additional neural signals are likely necessary to implement non-half-angle behavior. PMID:22993439

  4. Computational study of 3-D hot-spot initiation in shocked insensitive high-explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najjar, F. M.; Howard, W. M.; Fried, L. E.; Manaa, M. R.; Nichols, A., III; Levesque, G.

    2012-03-01

    High-explosive (HE) material consists of large-sized grains with micron-sized embedded impurities and pores. Under various mechanical/thermal insults, these pores collapse generating hightemperature regions leading to ignition. A hydrodynamic study has been performed to investigate the mechanisms of pore collapse and hot spot initiation in TATB crystals, employing a multiphysics code, ALE3D, coupled to the chemistry module, Cheetah. This computational study includes reactive dynamics. Two-dimensional high-resolution large-scale meso-scale simulations have been performed. The parameter space is systematically studied by considering various shock strengths, pore diameters and multiple pore configurations. Preliminary 3-D simulations are undertaken to quantify the 3-D dynamics.

  5. Study on Construction of 3d Building Based on Uav Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, F.; Lin, Z.; Gui, D.; Lin, H.

    2012-07-01

    Based on the characteristics of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) system for low altitude aerial photogrammetry and the need of three dimensional (3D)city modeling, a method of fast 3D building modeling using the images from UAV carrying four-combined camera is studied. Firstly, by contrasting and analyzing the mosaic structures of the existing four-combined cameras, a new type of four-combined camera with special design of overlap images is designed, which improves the self-calibration function to achieve the high precision imaging by automatically eliminating the error of machinery deformation and the time lag with every exposure, and further reduce the weight of the imaging system. Secondly, several-angle images including vertical images and oblique images gotten by the UAV system are used for the detail measure of building surfaces and the texture extraction. Finally, two tests that are aerial photography with large scale mapping of 1:1000 and 3D building construction in Shandong University of Science and Technology and aerial photography with large scale mapping of 1:500 and 3D building construction in Henan University of Urban Construction, provide authentication model for construction of 3D building based on combined wide-angle camera images from UAV system. It is demonstrated that the UAV system for low altitude aerial photogrammetry can be used in the construction of 3D building production, and the technology solution in this paper offers a new, fast and technical plan for the 3D expression of the city landscape, fine modeling and visualization.

  6. Compound nucleus studies withy reverse kinematics

    SciTech Connect

    Moretto, L.G.

    1985-06-01

    Reverse kinematics reactions are used to demonstrate the compound nucleus origin of intermediate mass particles at low energies and the extension of the same mechanism at higher energies. No evidence has appeared in our energy range for liquid-vapor equilibrium or cold fragmentation mechanisms. 11 refs., 12 figs.

  7. Studying primate carpal kinematics in three dimensions using a computed-tomography-based markerless registration method.

    PubMed

    Orr, Caley M; Leventhal, Evan L; Chivers, Spencer F; Marzke, Mary W; Wolfe, Scott W; Crisco, Joseph J

    2010-04-01

    The functional morphology of the wrist pertains to a number of important questions in primate evolutionary biology, including that of hominins. Reconstructing locomotor and manipulative capabilities of the wrist in extinct species requires a detailed understanding of wrist biomechanics in extant primates and the relationship between carpal form and function. The kinematics of carpal movement, and the role individual joints play in providing mobility and stability of the wrist, is central to such efforts. However, there have been few detailed biomechanical studies of the nonhuman primate wrist. This is largely because of the complexity of wrist morphology and the considerable technical challenges involved in tracking the movements of the many small bones that compose the carpus. The purpose of this article is to introduce and outline a method adapted from human clinical studies of three-dimensional (3D) carpal kinematics for use in a comparative context. The method employs computed tomography of primate cadaver forelimbs in increments throughout the wrist's range of motion, coupled with markerless registration of 3D polygon models based on inertial properties of each bone. The 3D kinematic principles involved in extracting motion axis parameters that describe bone movement are reviewed. In addition, a set of anatomically based coordinate systems embedded in the radius, capitate, hamate, lunate, and scaphoid is presented for the benefit of other primate functional morphologists interested in studying carpal kinematics. Finally, a brief demonstration of how the application of these methods can elucidate the mechanics of the wrist in primates illustrates the closer-packing of carpals in chimpanzees than in orangutans, which may help to stabilize the midcarpus and produce a more rigid wrist beneficial for efficient hand posturing during knuckle-walking locomotion. PMID:20235325

  8. Studies of the 3D Structure of the Nucleon at JLab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avakian, Harut

    2016-08-01

    Studies of the 3D structure of the nucleon encoded in transverse momentum dependent distribution and fragmentation functions of partons and generalized parton distributions are among the key objectives of the JLab 12 GeV upgrade and the electron ion collider. Main challenges in extracting 3D partonic distributions from precision measurements of hard scattering processes include clear understanding of leading twist QCD fundamentals, higher twist effects, and also correlations of hadron production in target and current fragmentation regions. In this contribution we discuss some ongoing studies and future measurements of spin-orbit correlations at Jefferson Lab.

  9. Model studies of blood flow in basilar artery with 3D laser Doppler anemometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, S. V.; Sindeev, S. V.; Liepsch, D.; Balasso, A.; Proskurin, S. G.; Potlov, A. Y.

    2015-03-01

    It is proposed an integrated approach to the study of basilar artery blood flow using 3D laser Doppler anemometer for identifying the causes of the formation and development of cerebral aneurysms. Feature of the work is the combined usage of both mathematical modeling and experimental methods. Described the experimental setup and the method of measurement of basilar artery blood flow, carried out in an interdisciplinary laboratory of Hospital Rechts der Isar of Technical University of Munich. The experimental setup used to simulate the blood flow in the basilar artery and to measure blood flow characteristics using 3D laser Doppler anemometer (3D LDA). Described a method of numerical studies carried out in Tambov State Technical University and the Bakoulev Center for Cardiovascular Surgery. Proposed an approach for sharing experimental and numerical methods of research to identify the causes of the basilar artery aneurysms.

  10. Best Practices for Designing Online Learning Environments for 3D Modeling Curricula: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mapson, Kathleen Harrell

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an inventory of best practices for designing online learning environments for 3D modeling curricula. Due to the instructional complexity of three-dimensional modeling, few have sought to develop this type of course for online teaching and learning. Considering this, the study aimed to collectively aggregate…

  11. PRESAGETM - Development and optimization studies of a 3D radiochromic plastic dosimeter - Part 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamovics, J.; Jordan, K.; Dietrich, J.

    2006-12-01

    This paper studies the polymerization of six different transparent plastics as potential 3D dosimeter matrices. In addition, six different leuco dyes and sixteen different free radical initiators were evaluated. Finally, the photoreactivity of the dosimeter was studied so that the effect of exposure to UV could be minimized.

  12. Geological characterisation of complex reservoirs using 3D seismic: Case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benaissa, Zahia; Benaïssa, Abdelkader; Seghir Baghaoui, Mohamed; Bendali, Mohamed; Chami, Adel; Khelifi Touhami, Médina; Ouadfeul, Sid Ali; Boudella, Amar

    2014-05-01

    3D seismic allows getting a set of numerous closely-spaced seismic lines that provide a high spatially sampled measure of subsurface reflectivity. It leads to an accurate interpretation of seismic reflection data, which is one of the most important stages of a successful hydrocarbons exploration, especially in the reservoirs characterised by complex geological setting. We present here two case studies pertaining to two Algerian hydrocarbon fields. Considering the positive results obtained from 2D seismic interpretation, several wells were drilled. Some of them have proved dry, due certainly to inaccurate seismic interpretation because of non standard geological context. For the first case, the high quality of the 3D seismic data allowed to reveal, on all the inlines and crosslines, the existence of paleovalleys under the top of the Ordovician (unit IV) reservoir. The mapping of these paleovalleys clearly showed that the dry well, contrary to the other wells, was implanted outside paleovalleys. This fact was confirmed by the analysis of well data. The second case study concerns the problem of andesitic eruptive deposits on the top of the Ordovician reservoir, which condition the geometry and continuity of this reservoir and cause uncertainties in the mapping of the Hercynian unconformity. Well data associated with 3D seismic response shows that eruptive deposits generate high impedance anomaly because of the high density and velocity of andesites. We used this information to interpret these eruptive rocks as being responsible of high impedance anomalies, inside the Ordovician reservoir, on the impedance volume generated from the 3D seismic data. A 3D extraction of the anomalies allowed an accurate localisation of the andesites. So, it appears, according to these two case studies, that for an efficient recovery of hydrocarbons, we have to rely, first of all, on an accurate seismic interpretation before we use microscopic measurements. 3D seismic, once again, remains

  13. Carboxy-Methyl-Cellulose (CMC) hydrogel-filled 3-D scaffold: Preliminary study through a 3-D antiproliferative activity of Centella asiatica extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizad, Syazwan; Yahaya, Badrul Hisham; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan

    2015-09-01

    This study focuses on the effects of using the water extract from Centella asiatica on the mortality of human lung cancer cells (A549) with the use of novel 3-D scaffolds infused with CMC hydrogel. A biodegradable polymer, poly (hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) was used in this study as 3-D scaffolds, with some modifications made by introducing the gel structure on its pore, which provides a great biomimetic microenvironment for cells to grow apart from increasing the interaction between the cells and cell-bioactive extracts. The CMC showed a good hydrophilic characteristic with mean contact angle of 24.30 ± 22.03°. To ensure the CMC gel had good attachments with the scaffolds, a surface treatment was made before the CMC gel was infused into the scaffolds. The results showed that these modified scaffolds contained 42.41 ± 0.14% w/w of CMC gel, which indicated that the gel had already filled up the entire pore of 3-D scaffolds. Besides, the infused hydrogel scaffolds took only 24 hours to be saturated when absorbing the water. The viability of cancer cells by MTS assay after being treated with Centella asiatica showed that the scaffolds infused with CMC hydrogel had the cell viability of 46.89 ± 1.20% followed by porous 3-D model with 57.30 ± 1.60% of cell viability, and the 2-D model with 67.10 ± 1.10% of cell viability. The inhibitory activity in cell viability between 2-D and 3-D models did not differ significantly (p>0.05) due to the limitation of time in incubating the extract with the cell in the 3-D model microenvironment. In conclusion, with the application of 3-D scaffolds infused with CMC hydrogel, the extracts of Centella asiatica has been proven to have the ability to kill cancer cells and have a great potential to become one of the alternative methods in treating cancer patients.

  14. Theoretical study for the cubic spin-Hamiltonian parameters of 3d ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Y.

    2009-08-01

    In this paper, the whole microscopic energy matrix elements of 3d3 and 3d7 within the molecular orbit scheme are obtained. Both the electrostatic parameters, the spin-orbit interaction of the central metal ion and the ligands, the crystal-field potential and the Tress correction, and the spin-spin interaction are considered. By means of the perturbation method, the cubic spin-Hamiltonian parameters g and u are investigated. Results show that the contribution to g due to the spin-spin interaction is negligible. However, the contribution to u due to the spin-spin interaction cannot be neglected. As some illustrations, the 3d7 energy matrix is used to study the cubic electronic paramagnetic resonance experiments of Co in ZnS and ZnSe crystals. The theoretical results agree well with the experimental findings.

  15. Registration of 3D and multispectral data for the study of cultural heritage surfaces.

    PubMed

    Chane, Camille Simon; Schütze, Rainer; Boochs, Frank; Marzani, Franck S

    2013-01-01

    We present a technique for the multi-sensor registration of featureless datasets based on the photogrammetric tracking of the acquisition systems in use. This method is developed for the in situ study of cultural heritage objects and is tested by digitizing a small canvas successively with a 3D digitization system and a multispectral camera while simultaneously tracking the acquisition systems with four cameras and using a cubic target frame with a side length of 500 mm. The achieved tracking accuracy is better than 0.03 mm spatially and 0.150 mrad angularly. This allows us to seamlessly register the 3D acquisitions and to project the multispectral acquisitions on the 3D model. PMID:23322103

  16. 3D evaluation of palatal rugae for human identification using digital study models

    PubMed Central

    Taneva, Emilia D.; Johnson, Andrew; Viana, Grace; Evans, Carla A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: While there is literature suggesting that the palatal rugae could be used for human identification, most of these studies use two-dimensional (2D) approach. Aim: The aims of this study were to evaluate palatal ruga patterns using three-dimensional (3D) digital models; compare the most clinically relevant digital model conversion techniques for identification of the palatal rugae; develop a protocol for overlay registration; determine changes in palatal ruga individual patterns through time; and investigate the efficiency and accuracy of 3D matching processes between different individuals’ patterns. Material and Methods: Five cross sections in the anteroposterior dimension and four cross sections in the transverse dimension were computed which generated 18 2D variables. In addition, 13 3D variables were defined: The posterior point of incisive papilla (IP), and the most medial and lateral end points of the palatal rugae (R1MR, R1ML, R1LR, R1LL, R2MR, R2ML, R2LR, R2LL, R3MR, R3ML, R3LR, and R3LL). The deviation magnitude for each variable was statistically analyzed in this study. Five different data sets with the same 31 landmarks were evaluated in this study. Results: The results demonstrated that 2D images and linear measurements in the anteroposterior and transverse dimensions were not sufficient for comparing different digital model conversion techniques using the palatal rugae. 3D digital models proved to be a highly effective tool in evaluating different palatal ruga patterns. The 3D landmarks showed no statistically significant mean differences over time or as a result of orthodontic treatment. No statistically significant mean differences were found between different digital model conversion techniques, that is, between OrthoCAD™ and Ortho Insight 3D™, and between Ortho Insight 3D™ and the iTero® scans, when using 12 3D palatal rugae landmarks for comparison. Conclusion: Although 12 palatal 3D landmarks could be used for human

  17. Project Photofly: New 3d Modeling Online Web Service (case Studies and Assessments)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abate, D.; Furini, G.; Migliori, S.; Pierattini, S.

    2011-09-01

    During summer 2010, Autodesk has released a still ongoing project called Project Photofly, freely downloadable from AutodeskLab web site until August 1 2011. Project Photofly based on computer-vision and photogrammetric principles, exploiting the power of cloud computing, is a web service able to convert collections of photographs into 3D models. Aim of our research was to evaluate the Project Photofly, through different case studies, for 3D modeling of cultural heritage monuments and objects, mostly to identify for which goals and objects it is suitable. The automatic approach will be mainly analyzed.

  18. Impact of 3D root uptake on solute transport: a numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, N.; Javaux, M.; Vanderborght, J.; Steffen, B.; Vereecken, H.

    2011-12-01

    Plant transpiration is an important component of the hydrological cycle. Through root water uptake, plants do not only affect the 3D soil water flow velocity distribution, but also solute movement in soil. This numerical study aims at investigating how solute fate is impacted by root uptake using the 3D biophysical model R-SWMS (Javaux et al., 2008). This model solves the Richards equation in 3D in the soil and the flow equation within the plant root xylem vessels. Furthermore, for solute transport simulations, the 3D particle tracker PARTRACE (Bechtold et al., 2011) was used. . We generated 3D virtual steady-state breakthrough curves (BTC) experiments in soils with transpiring plants. The averaged BTCs were then fitted with a 1D numerical flow model under steady-state conditions to obtain apparent CDE parameters. Two types of root architecture, a fibrous and a taprooted structure, were compared in virtual 3D experiments. The solute uptake type or the transpiration rate were also modified and we analyzed how these parameters affected apparent disperisivity and velocity profiles. Our simulation results show, that both, apparent velocity and dispersivity length are affected by water and solute root uptake. In addition, under high exclusion processes (slight or no active uptake), solute accumulates around roots and generates a long tailing to the breakthrough curves, which cannot be reproduced by 1D models that simulate root water uptake with solute exclusion. This observation may have an important impact on how to model pollutant mass transfer to groundwater at larger scales. Javaux, M., T. Schröder, J. Vanderborght, and H. Vereecken. 2008. Use of a three-dimensional detailed modeling approach for predicting root water uptake. Vadose Zone J. 7:1079-1088.doi: 10.2136/vzj2007.0115. Bechtold, M., S. Haber-Pohlmeier, J. Vanderborght, A. Pohlmeier, P.A. Ferre, and H. Vereecken. 2011. Near-surface solute redistribution during evaporation. Submitted to Geophys. Res. Lett

  19. Towards a Real Estate Registry 3d Model in Portugal: Some Illustrative Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida, J.-P.; Ellul, C.; Rodrigues-de-Carvalho, M. M.

    2013-09-01

    The 3D concept emerged as a key concept within geoinformation science. 3D geoinformation has been proved to be feasible and its added value over 2D geoinformation is widely acknowledged by researchers from various fields. Even so, 3D concept merits still need to be exploited further and more specific applications and associate products are needed - such as within real estate cadastre, our ultimate field of interest. The growing densification of urban land use is consequently increasing situations of vertical stratification of ownership rights. Traditional 2D cadastral models are not able to fully handle spatial information on those rights in the third dimension. Thus, 3D cadastre has been attracting researchers to better register and spatially represent real world overlapping situations. A centralised distributed cadastral management system, implementing a 2D cadastral model, has been conceived by the national cadastral agency in Portugal: the so-called SiNErGIC. The authors seek to show with this paper that there is room though for further investigation on the suitability of a 3D modelling approach instead, which should not be confined only to topologicalgeometric representations but should also be extended in order to be able to incorporate the legal/administrative component. This paper intends to be the first step towards the design of a prototype of a 3D cadastral model capable of handling the overall multipurpose cadastral reality in Portugal; it focuses primarily on the clear identification of some case studies that may illustrate the pertinence of such an approach in the context of this country.

  20. Effect of mental fatigue caused by mobile 3D viewing on selective attention: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Mun, Sungchul; Kim, Eun-Soo; Park, Min-Chul

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated behavioral responses to and auditory event-related potential (ERP) correlates of mental fatigue caused by mobile three-dimensional (3D) viewing. Twenty-six participants (14 women) performed a selective attention task in which they were asked to respond to the sounds presented at the attended side while ignoring sounds at the ignored side before and after mobile 3D viewing. Considering different individual susceptibilities to 3D, participants' subjective fatigue data were used to categorize them into two groups: fatigued and unfatigued. The amplitudes of d-ERP components were defined as differences in amplitudes between time-locked brain oscillations of the attended and ignored sounds, and these values were used to calculate the degree to which spatial selective attention was impaired by 3D mental fatigue. The fatigued group showed significantly longer response times after mobile 3D viewing compared to before the viewing. However, response accuracy did not significantly change between the two conditions, implying that the participants used a behavioral strategy to cope with their performance accuracy decrement by increasing their response times. No significant differences were observed for the unfatigued group. Analysis of covariance revealed group differences with significant and trends toward significant decreases in the d-P200 and d-late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes at the occipital electrodes of the fatigued and unfatigued groups. Our findings indicate that mentally fatigued participants did not effectively block out distractors in their information processing mechanism, providing support for the hypothesis that 3D mental fatigue impairs spatial selective attention and is characterized by changes in d-P200 and d-LPP amplitudes. PMID:25194505

  1. Supporting Distributed Team Working in 3D Virtual Worlds: A Case Study in Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minocha, Shailey; Morse, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on a study into how a three-dimensional (3D) virtual world (Second Life) can facilitate socialisation and team working among students working on a team project at a distance. This models the situation in many commercial sectors where work is increasingly being conducted across time zones and between…

  2. Testing the Effectiveness of 3D Film for Laboratory-Based Studies of Emotion

    PubMed Central

    Bride, Daniel L.; Crowell, Sheila E.; Baucom, Brian R.; Kaufman, Erin A.; O'Connor, Caitlin G.; Skidmore, Chloe R.; Yaptangco, Mona

    2014-01-01

    Research in psychology and affective neuroscience often relies on film as a standardized and reliable method for evoking emotion. However, clip validation is not undertaken regularly. This presents a challenge for research with adolescent and young adult samples who are exposed routinely to high-definition (HD) three-dimensional (3D) stimuli and may not respond to older, validated film clips. Studies with young people inform understanding of emotional development, dysregulated affect, and psychopathology, making it critical to assess whether technological advances improve the study of emotion. In the present study, we examine whether 3D film is more evocative than 2D using a tightly controlled within-subjects design. Participants (n  =  408) viewed clips during a concurrent psychophysiological assessment. Results indicate that both 2D and 3D technology are highly effective tools for emotion elicitation. However, 3D does not add incremental benefit over 2D, even when individual differences in anxiety, emotion dysregulation, and novelty seeking are considered. PMID:25170878

  3. Segmented images and 3D images for studying the anatomical structures in MRIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yong Sook; Chung, Min Suk; Cho, Jae Hyun

    2004-05-01

    For identifying the pathological findings in MRIs, the anatomical structures in MRIs should be identified in advance. For studying the anatomical structures in MRIs, an education al tool that includes the horizontal, coronal, sagittal MRIs of entire body, corresponding segmented images, 3D images, and browsing software is necessary. Such an educational tool, however, is hard to obtain. Therefore, in this research, such an educational tool which helps medical students and doctors study the anatomical structures in MRIs was made as follows. A healthy, young Korean male adult with standard body shape was selected. Six hundred thirteen horizontal MRIs of the entire body were scanned and inputted to the personal computer. Sixty anatomical structures in the horizontal MRIs were segmented to make horizontal segmented images. Coronal, sagittal MRIs and coronal, sagittal segmented images were made. 3D images of anatomical structures in the segmented images were reconstructed by surface rendering method. Browsing software of the MRIs, segmented images, and 3D images was composed. This educational tool that includes horizontal, coronal, sagittal MRIs of entire body, corresponding segmented images, 3D images, and browsing software is expected to help medical students and doctors study anatomical structures in MRIs.

  4. Testing the effectiveness of 3D film for laboratory-based studies of emotion.

    PubMed

    Bride, Daniel L; Crowell, Sheila E; Baucom, Brian R; Kaufman, Erin A; O'Connor, Caitlin G; Skidmore, Chloe R; Yaptangco, Mona

    2014-01-01

    Research in psychology and affective neuroscience often relies on film as a standardized and reliable method for evoking emotion. However, clip validation is not undertaken regularly. This presents a challenge for research with adolescent and young adult samples who are exposed routinely to high-definition (HD) three-dimensional (3D) stimuli and may not respond to older, validated film clips. Studies with young people inform understanding of emotional development, dysregulated affect, and psychopathology, making it critical to assess whether technological advances improve the study of emotion. In the present study, we examine whether 3D film is more evocative than 2D using a tightly controlled within-subjects design. Participants (n  =  408) viewed clips during a concurrent psychophysiological assessment. Results indicate that both 2D and 3D technology are highly effective tools for emotion elicitation. However, 3D does not add incremental benefit over 2D, even when individual differences in anxiety, emotion dysregulation, and novelty seeking are considered. PMID:25170878

  5. 3D Visualization Types in Multimedia Applications for Science Learning: A Case Study for 8th Grade Students in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korakakis, G.; Pavlatou, E. A.; Palyvos, J. A.; Spyrellis, N.

    2009-01-01

    This research aims to determine whether the use of specific types of visualization (3D illustration, 3D animation, and interactive 3D animation) combined with narration and text, contributes to the learning process of 13- and 14- years-old students in science courses. The study was carried out with 212 8th grade students in Greece. This…

  6. 3D SEM for surface topography quantification - a case study on dental surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glon, F.; Flys, O.; Lööf, P.-J.; Rosén, B.-G.

    2014-03-01

    3D analysis of surface topography is becoming a more used tool for industry and research. New ISO standards are being launched to assist in quantifying engineering surfaces. The traditional optical measuring instrumentation used for 3D surface characterization has been optical interferometers and confocal based instrumentation. However, the resolution here is limited in the lateral dimension to the wavelength of visible light to about 500 nm. The great advantage using the SEM for topography measurements is the high flexibility to zoom from low magnifications and locating interesting areas to high magnification of down to nanometer large surface features within seconds. This paper presents surface characterization of dental implant micro topography. 3D topography data was created from SEM images using commercial photogrammetric software. A coherence scanning interferometer was used for reference measurements to compare with the 3D SEM measurements on relocated areas. As a result of this study, measurements emphasizes that the correlation between the accepted CSI measurements and the new technology represented by photogrammetry based on SEM images for many areal characterization parameters are around or less than 20%. The importance of selecting sampling and parameter sensitivity to varying sampling is high-lighted. Future work includes a broader study of limitations of the photogrammetry technique on certified micro-geometries and more application surfaces at different scales.

  7. Effects of scatter on model parameter estimates in 3D PET studies of the human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Cherry, S.R.; Huang, S.C.

    1995-08-01

    Phantom measurements and simulated data were used to characterize the effects of scatter on 3D PET projection data, reconstructed images and model parameter estimates. Scatter distributions were estimated form studies of the 3D Hoffman brain phantom by the 2D/3D difference method. The total scatter fraction in the projection data was 40%, but reduces to 27% when only those counts within the boundary of the brain are considered. After reconstruction, the whole brain scatter fraction is 20%, averaging 10% in cortical gray matter, 21% in basal ganglia and 40% in white matter. The scatter contribution varies by almost a factor of two from the edge to the center of the brain due to the shape of the scatter distribution and the effects of attenuation correction. The effect of scatter on estimates of cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRGI) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) is evaluated by simulating typical gray matter time activity curves (TAC`s) and adding a scatter component based on whole-brain activity. Both CMRGI and CBF change in a linear fashion with scatter fraction. Efforts of between 10 and 30% will typically result if 3D studies are not corrected for scatter. The authors also present results from a simple and fast scatter correction which fits a gaussian function to the scattered events outside the brain. This reduced the scatter fraction to <2% in a range of phantom studies with different activity distributions. Using this correction, quantitative errors in 3D PET studies of CMRGI and CBF can be reduced to well below 10%.

  8. 3D visualization of the scoliotic spine: longitudinal studies, data acquisition, and radiation dosage constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvin, Alan D.; Adler, Roy L.; Margulies, Joseph Y.; Tresser, Charles P.; Wu, Chai W.

    1999-05-01

    Decision making in the treatment of scoliosis is typically based on longitudinal studies that involve the imaging and visualization the progressive degeneration of a patient's spine over a period of years. Some patients will need surgery if their spinal deformation exceeds a certain degree of severity. Currently, surgeons rely on 2D measurements, obtained from x-rays, to quantify spinal deformation. Clearly working only with 2D measurements seriously limits the surgeon's ability to infer 3D spinal pathology. Standard CT scanning is not a practical solution for obtaining 3D spinal measurements of scoliotic patients. Because it would expose the patient to a prohibitively high dose of radiation. We have developed 2 new CT-based methods of 3D spinal visualization that produce 3D models of the spine by integrating a very small number of axial CT slices with data obtained from CT scout data. In the first method the scout data are converted to sinogram data, and then processed by a tomographic image reconstruction algorithm. In the second method, the vertebral boundaries are detected in the scout data, and these edges are then used as linear constraints to determine 2D convex hulls of the vertebrae.

  9. Validity Study of Vertebral Rotation Measurement Using 3-D Ultrasound in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Li, Meng; Lou, Edmond H M; Chu, Winnie C W; Lam, Tsz-Ping; Cheng, Jack C Y; Wong, Man-Sang

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to assess the validity of 3-D ultrasound measurements on the vertebral rotation of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) under clinical settings. Thirty curves (mean Cobb angle: 21.7° ± 15.9°) from 16 patients with AIS were recruited. 3-D ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging scans were performed at the supine position. Each of the two raters measured the apical vertebral rotation using the center of laminae (COL) method in the 3-D ultrasound images and the Aaro-Dahlborn method in the magnetic resonance images. The intra- and inter-reliability of the COL method was demonstrated by the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) (both [2, K] >0.9, p < 0.05). The COL method showed no significant difference (p < 0.05) compared with the Aaro-Dahlborn method. Furthermore, the agreement between these two methods was demonstrated by the Bland-Altman method, and high correlation was found (r > 0.9, p < 0.05). These results validated the proposed 3-D ultrasound method in the measurements of vertebral rotation in the patients with AIS. PMID:27083978

  10. Studying Host-Pathogen Interactions In 3-D: Organotypic Models For Infectious Disease And Drug Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickerson, Cheryl A.; Richter, Emily G.; Ott, C. Mark

    2006-01-01

    Representative, reproducible and high-throughput models of human cells and tissues are critical for a meaningful evaluation of host-pathogen interactions and are an essential component of the research developmental pipeline. The most informative infection models - animals, organ explants and human trials - are not suited for extensive evaluation of pathogenesis mechanisms and screening of candidate drugs. At the other extreme, more cost effective and accessible infection models such as conventional cell culture and static co-culture may not capture physiological and three-dimensional aspects of tissue biology that are important in assessing pathogenesis, and effectiveness and cytotoxicity of therapeutics. Our lab has used innovative bioengineering technology to establish biologically meaningful 3-D models of human tissues that recapitulate many aspects of the differentiated structure and function of the parental tissue in vivo, and we have applied these models to study infectious disease. We have established a variety of different 3-D models that are currently being used in infection studies - including small intestine, colon, lung, placenta, bladder, periodontal ligament, and neuronal models. Published work from our lab has shown that our 3-D models respond to infection with bacterial and viral pathogens in ways that reflect the infection process in vivo. By virtue of their physiological relevance, 3-D cell cultures may also hold significant potential as models to provide insight into the neuropathogenesis of HIV infection. Furthermore, the experimental flexibility, reproducibility, cost-efficiency, and high throughput platform afforded by these 3-D models may have important implications for the design and development of drugs with which to effectively treat neurological complications of HIV infection.

  11. Preliminary study of the dosimetric characteristics of 3D-printed materials with megavoltage photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Seonghoon; Yoon, Myonggeun; Chung, Weon Kuu; Kim, Dong Wook

    2015-07-01

    These days, 3D-printers are on the rise in various fields including radiation therapy. This preliminary study aimed to estimate the dose characteristics of 3D-printer materials that could be used as compensators or immobilizers in radiation treatment. The cubes with length of 5 cm and different densities of 50%, 75% and 100% were printed by using a 3D-printer. Planning CT scans of the cubes were performed by using a CT simulator (Brilliance CT, Philips Medical System, Netherlands). Dose distributions behind the cube were calculated after a 6 MV photon beam had passed through the cube. The dose responses for the 3D-printed cube, air and water were measured by using EBT3 film and a 2D array detector. When the results of air case were normalized to 100, the dose calculated by the TPS and the measured doses to 50% and 75% cube were of the 96 ~ 99. The measured and the calculated doses to water and to 100% of the cube were 82 ~ 84. The HU values for the 50%, 75% and 100% density cases were -910, -860 and -10, respectively. The dose characteristics of the 50% and the 75% products were similar to that of air while the 100% product seemed to be similar to that of water. This information will provide guidelines for making an immobilization tool that can play the role of a compensator and for making a real human phantom that can exactly describe the inside of the human body. This study was necessary for Poly Lactic Acid (PLA) based 3D-printer users who are planning to make something related to radiation therapy.

  12. Laboratory Study of Magnetic Reconnection in 3D Geometry Relevant to Magnetopause and Magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Y.; Lu, Q.; Ji, H.; Mao, A.; Wang, X.; E, P.; Wang, Z.; Xiao, Q.; Ding, W.; Zheng, J.

    2015-12-01

    Laboratory Study of Magnetic Reconnection in 3D Geometry Relevant to Magnetopause and Magnetotail Y. Ren1,2, Quaming Lu3, Hantao Ji1,2, Aohua Mao1, Xiaogang Wang1, Peng E1, Zhibin Wang1, Qingmei Xiao1, Weixing Ding4, Jinxing Zheng51 Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China2 Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 3University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China 4University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, 90095 5ASIPP, Hefei, China A new magnetic reconnection experiment, Harbin reconnection eXperiment (HRX), is currently being designed as a key part of Space Plasma Environment Research Facility (SPERF) at Harbin Institute of Technology in Harbin, China. HRX aims to provide a unique experimental platform for studying reconnections in 3D geometry relevant to magnetopause and magnetotail to address: the role of electron and ion-scale dynamics in the current sheet; particle and energy transfer from magnetosheath to magnetosphere; particle energization/heating mechanisms during magnetic reconnection; 3D effects in fast reconnection, e.g. the role of 3D magnetic null point. HRX employs a unique set of coils to generate the required 3D magnetic geometry and provides a wide range of plasma parameters. Here, important motivating scientific problems are reviewed and the physics design of HRX is presented, including plasma parameters determined from Vlasov scaling law, reconnection scenarios explored using vacuum magnetic field calculations and numerical simulations of HRX using hybrid and MHD codes. Plasma diagnostics plan and engineering design of important coils will also be briefly presented.

  13. Integrated endoscope for real-time 3D ultrasound imaging and hyperthermia: feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Pua, Eric C; Qiu, Yupeng; Smith, S W

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this research is to determine the feasibility of using a single endoscopic probe for the combined purpose of real-time 3D (RT3D) ultrasound imaging of a target organ and the delivery of ultrasound therapy to facilitate the absorption of compounds for cancer treatment. Recent research in ultrasound therapy has shown that ultrasound-mediated drug delivery improves absorption of treatments for prostate, cervical and esophageal cancer. The ability to combine ultrasound hyperthermia and 3D imaging could improve visualization and targeting of cancerous tissues. In this study, numerical modeling and experimental measurements were developed to determine the feasibility of combined therapy and imaging with a 1 cm diameter endoscopic RT3D probe with 504 transmitters and 252 receive channels. This device operates at 5 MHz and has a 6.3 mm x 6.3 mm aperture to produce real time 3D pyramidal scans of 60-120 degrees incorporating 64 x 64 = 4096 image lines at 30 volumes/sec interleaved with a 3D steerable therapy beam. A finite-element mesh was constructed with over 128,000 elements in LS-DYNA to simulate the induced temperature rise from our transducer with a 3 cm deep focus in tissue. Quarter-symmetry of the transducer was used to reduce mesh size and computation time. Based on intensity values calculated in Field II using the transducer's array geometry, a minimum I(SPTA) of 3.6 W/cm2 is required from our endoscope probe in order to induce a temperature rise of 4 degrees C within five minutes. Experimental measurements of the array's power output capabilities were conducted using a PVDF hydrophone placed 3 cm away from the face of the transducer in a watertank. Using a PDA14 Signatec data acquisition board to capture full volumes of transmitted ultrasound data, it was determined that the probe can presently maintain intensity values up to 2.4 W/cm2 over indefinite times for therapeutic applications combined with intermittent 3D scanning to maintain targeting

  14. Norg underground gas storage - an integrated 3-D geological and geophysical reservoir modeling study

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, J.; Smith, S. ); Huis, R.; Copper, J.; Whyte, S. )

    1993-09-01

    The Netherlands have an extensive gas distribution infrastructure supplying 80 x 10[sup 9] m[sup 3] per annum to the domestic and European market. The capacity requirement exceeds 600 x 10[sup 6] sm[sup 3]/d, of which 430 x 10[sup 6] sm[sup 3]/d is provided by the giant Groningen gas field. The Groningen field will soon reach a pressure at which this capacity can no longer be met without considerable investments. It will also become difficult to maintain the market gas quality, because of the increasing supply from small fields with widely varying gas qualities. Underground Gas Storage (UGS) will satisfy both capacity and gas-quality requirements. This UGS must eventually store 4.5 x 10[sup 9] m[sup 3] with injection/production capacities of 36/80-100 x 10[sup 6] sm[sup 3]/d, making it one of the largest UGS projects in the world. These extremely high-capacity requirements demand both high-matrix permeability and good understanding of vertical and lateral reservoir continuity. Matrix permeability is predictable due to the close relationship with the lithofacies defined within the primary Rotliegende depositional model. Minor faults, identified on three-dimensional (3-D) seismic attribute maps, represent potential transmissibility impairment zones, compartmentalizing the reservoir. This was initially suggested by core fracture studies and confirmed by a subsequent field shut-in and pressure buildup test. Lithofacies and seismic structural data are integrated within a computerized reservoir geological modeling system known as [open quotes]Monarch[close quotes] to provide a highly detailed 3-D permeability model that is then tranformed into a model for dynamic reservoir simulation. The results confirm the required working volume for the UGS operation and provide a basis for the initial field development planning.

  15. D Recording for 2d Delivering - the Employment of 3d Models for Studies and Analyses -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzi, A.; Baratti, G.; Jiménez, B.; Girardi, S.; Remondino, F.

    2011-09-01

    In the last years, thanks to the advances of surveying sensors and techniques, many heritage sites could be accurately replicated in digital form with very detailed and impressive results. The actual limits are mainly related to hardware capabilities, computation time and low performance of personal computer. Often, the produced models are not visible on a normal computer and the only solution to easily visualized them is offline using rendered videos. This kind of 3D representations is useful for digital conservation, divulgation purposes or virtual tourism where people can visit places otherwise closed for preservation or security reasons. But many more potentialities and possible applications are available using a 3D model. The problem is the ability to handle 3D data as without adequate knowledge this information is reduced to standard 2D data. This article presents some surveying and 3D modeling experiences within the APSAT project ("Ambiente e Paesaggi dei Siti d'Altura Trentini", i.e. Environment and Landscapes of Upland Sites in Trentino). APSAT is a multidisciplinary project funded by the Autonomous Province of Trento (Italy) with the aim documenting, surveying, studying, analysing and preserving mountainous and hill-top heritage sites located in the region. The project focuses on theoretical, methodological and technological aspects of the archaeological investigation of mountain landscape, considered as the product of sequences of settlements, parcelling-outs, communication networks, resources, and symbolic places. The mountain environment preserves better than others the traces of hunting and gathering, breeding, agricultural, metallurgical, symbolic activities characterised by different lengths and environmental impacts, from Prehistory to the Modern Period. Therefore the correct surveying and documentation of this heritage sites and material is very important. Within the project, the 3DOM unit of FBK is delivering all the surveying and 3D material to

  16. A feasibility study of hand kinematics for EVA analysis using magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickenson, Reuben D.; Lorenz, Christine H.; Peterson, Steven W.; Strauss, Alvin M.; Main, John A.

    1992-01-01

    A new method for analyzing the kinematics of joint motion using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is described. The reconstruction of the metacarpalphalangeal joint of the left index finger into a 3D graphic display is shown. From the reconstructed volumetric images, measurements of the angles of movement of the applicable bones are obtained and processed by analyzing the screw motion of the joint. Landmark positions are chosen at distinctive locations of the joint at fixed image threshold intensity levels to ensure repeatability. The primarily 2D planar motion of this joint is then studied using a method of constructing coordinate systems using three or more points. A transformation matrix based on a world coordinate system describes the location and orientation of the local target coordinate system. The findings show the applicability of MRI to joint kinematics for gaining further knowledge of the hand-glove design for EVA.

  17. Reconstruction of quadratic curves in 3D using two or more perspective views: simulation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Sukavanam, N.; Balasubramanian, R.

    2006-01-01

    The shapes of many natural and man-made objects have planar and curvilinear surfaces. The images of such curves usually do not have sufficient distinctive features to apply conventional feature-based reconstruction algorithms. In this paper, we describe a method of reconstruction of a quadratic curve in 3-D space as an intersection of two cones containing the respective projected curve images. The correspondence between this pair of projections of the curve is assumed to be established in this work. Using least-square curve fitting, the parameters of a curve in 2-D space are found. From this we are reconstructing the 3-D quadratic curve. Relevant mathematical formulations and analytical solutions for obtaining the equation of reconstructed curve are given. The result of the described reconstruction methodology are studied by simulation studies. This reconstruction methodology is applicable to LBW decision in cricket, path of the missile, Robotic Vision, path lanning etc.

  18. A theoretical study of the structure and stability of borohydride on 3d transition metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arevalo, Ryan Lacdao; Escaño, Mary Clare Sison; Gyenge, Elod; Kasai, Hideaki

    2012-12-01

    The adsorption of borohydride on 3d transition metals (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni and Cu) was studied using first principles calculations within spin-polarized density functional theory. Magnetic effect on the stability of borohydride is noted. Molecular adsorption is favorable on Co, Ni and Cu, which is characterized by the strong s-dzz hybridization of the adsorbate-substrate states. Dissociated adsorption structure yielding one or two H adatom fragments on the surface is observed for Cr, Mn and Fe.

  19. 3D Morphometric and Posture Study of Felid Scapulae Using Statistical Shape Modelling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kai Yu; Wiktorowicz-Conroy, Alexis; Hutchinson, John R.; Doube, Michael; Klosowski, Michal; Shefelbine, Sandra J.; Bull, Anthony M. J.

    2012-01-01

    We present a three dimensional (3D) morphometric modelling study of the scapulae of Felidae, with a focus on the correlations between forelimb postures and extracted scapular shape variations. Our shape modelling results indicate that the scapular infraspinous fossa becomes larger and relatively broader along the craniocaudal axis in larger felids. We infer that this enlargement of the scapular fossa may be a size-related specialization for postural support of the shoulder joint. PMID:22509335

  20. Two Eyes, 3D: A New Project to Study Stereoscopy in Astronomy Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Aaron; SubbaRao, M.; Wyatt, R.

    2012-01-01

    "Two Eyes, 3D" is a 3-year NSF funded research project to study the educational impacts of using stereoscopic representations in informal settings. The project funds two experimental studies. The first is focused on how children perceive various spatial qualities of scientific objects displayed in static 2D and 3D formats. The second is focused on how adults perceive various spatial qualities of scientific objects and processes displayed in 2D and 3D movie formats. As part of the project, two brief high-definition films about variable stars will be developed. Both studies will be mixed-method and look at prior spatial ability and other demographic variables as covariates. The project is run by the American Association of Variable Star Observers, Boston Museum of Science and the Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum with consulting from the California Academy of Sciences. Early pilot results will be presented. All films will be released into the public domain, as will the assessment software designed to run on tablet computers (iOS or Android).

  1. Study of the kinematic and dynamic characteristics of a wormgear transmission for helicopter applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, D. C.; Yuan, Qin

    1994-01-01

    The first phase of the study of the performance of a wormgear transmission is reported. In this phase the work included the selection of a double-enveloping wormgear type, and its dimensions, suitable for use in helicopter transmissions; the 3-D graphics representation of the selected wormgear using the I-DEAS software; the analysis of the kinematics of meshing; the analysis of load sharing among the meshing teeth; and the implementation of the analyses in a computer program. The report describes the analyses, their results, and the use of the computer programs.

  2. The use of a low cost 3D scanning and printing tool in the manufacture of custom-made foot orthoses: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Custom foot orthoses are currently recognized as the gold standard for treatment of foot and lower limb pathology. While foam and plaster casting methods are most widely used in clinical practice, technology has emerged, permitting the use of 3D scanning, computer aided design (CAD) and computer aided manufacturing (CAM) for fabrication of foot molds and custom foot orthotic components. Adoption of 3D printing, as a form of CAM, requires further investigation for use as a clinical tool. This study provides a preliminary description of a new method to manufacture foot orthoses using a novel 3D scanner and printer and compare gait kinematic outputs from shod and traditional plaster casted orthotics. Findings One participant (male, 25 years) was included with no lower extremity injuries. Foot molds were created from both plaster casting and 3D scanning/printing methods. Custom foot orthoses were then fabricated from each mold. Lower body plug-in-gait with the Oxford Foot Model on the right foot was collected for both orthotic and control (shod) conditions. The medial longitudinal arch was measured using arch height index (AHI) where a decrease in AHI represented a drop in arch height. The lowest AHI was 21.2 mm in the running shoes, followed by 21.4 mm wearing the orthoses made using 3D scanning and printing, with the highest AHI of 22.0 mm while the participant wore the plaster casted orthoses. Conclusion This preliminary study demonstrated a small increase in AHI with the 3D printing orthotic compared to the shod condition. A larger sample size may demonstrate significant patterns for the tested conditions. PMID:25015013

  3. A study of the 3D radiative transfer effect in cloudy atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okata, M.; Teruyuki, N.; Suzuki, K.

    2015-12-01

    Evaluation of the effect of clouds in the atmosphere is a significant problem in the Earth's radiation budget study with their large uncertainties of microphysics and the optical properties. In this situation, we still need more investigations of 3D cloud radiative transer problems using not only models but also satellite observational data.For this purpose, we have developed a 3D-Monte-Carlo radiative transfer code that is implemented with various functions compatible with the OpenCLASTR R-Star radiation code for radiance and flux computation, i.e. forward and backward tracing routines, non-linear k-distribution parameterization (Sekiguchi and Nakajima, 2008) for broad band solar flux calculation, and DM-method for flux and TMS-method for upward radiance (Nakajima and Tnaka 1998). We also developed a Minimum cloud Information Deviation Profiling Method (MIDPM) as a method for a construction of 3D cloud field with MODIS/AQUA and CPR/CloudSat data. We then selected a best-matched radar reflectivity factor profile from the library for each of off-nadir pixels of MODIS where CPR profile is not available, by minimizing the deviation between library MODIS parameters and those at the pixel. In this study, we have used three cloud microphysical parameters as key parameters for the MIDPM, i.e. effective particle radius, cloud optical thickness and top of cloud temperature, and estimated 3D cloud radiation budget. We examined the discrepancies between satellite observed and mode-simulated radiances and three cloud microphysical parameter's pattern for studying the effects of cloud optical and microphysical properties on the radiation budget of the cloud-laden atmospheres.

  4. Study of a 3D DEP-based microfluidic system for selective nanoparticle manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lungu, M.; Balasiu, S.; Bunoiu, M. O.; Neculae, A.

    2014-11-01

    Manipulation of nanoparticle using dielectrophoresis (DEP) is an emerging technique to separate particles solely according to their dielectric properties and size, used in different forms to control the position, their orientation and velocity, to filtrate chemical compounds contained in the gas resulting from combustion processes, etc. This contribution presents the results of a simulation study which aims to characterize the functionality of a 3D DEP-based microsystem for the selective manipulation of nanometric particles. The use of 3D geometry of the device represents an important improvement in the description of the behavior of a nanoparticle suspension subjected to dielectrophoretic forces. The numerical solutions of the electric potential, electric field, DEP force and particle concentration distribution for a typical interdigitated electrodes array are calculated using the COMSOL Multiphysics finite element solver. The presented results demonstrate that dielectrophoresis can be successfully used for the manipulation of nanometric particles and give important information for the optimization of the experimental setup.

  5. Study of 3D Laser Cladding for Ni85Al15 Superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotoban, D.; Grigoriev, S.; Shishkovsky, I.

    Conditions of successful3D laser cladding for Ni based superalloy were studied. A high power Yb-YAG laser was used to create a molten pool on a stainless steel substrate into which Ni85Al15 powder stream was delivered to create 3D samples. The effect of different laser parameters on the structure and the intermetallic phase content of the manufactured samples were explored by optical metallography, microhardness, SEM, X-ray, and EDX analysis. The cladding of the Ni3A1 coating with small dilution into substrate can be obtained at the appropriate power density of about 2-8 J/mm2 under the laser scan velocity of 100-200 mm/min and the powder feed rate ∼ 3.8 g/min.

  6. Synthesis, antifeedant activity against Coleoptera and 3D QSAR study of alpha-asarone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Łozowicka, B; Kaczyński, P; Magdziarz, T; Dubis, A T

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, a set of 56 compounds representing structural derivatives of naturally occurring alpha-asarone as an antifeedants against stored product pests Sitophilus granarius L., Trogoderma granarium Ev., and Tribolium confusum Duv., were subjected to the 3D QSAR studies. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships (3D-QSAR) for 56 compounds, including 15 newly synthesized, were performed using comparative molecular field analysis s-CoMFA and SOM-CoMSA techniques. QSAR was conducted based on a combination of biological activity (against Coleoptera larvae and beetles) and various geometrical, topological, quantum-mechanical, electronic, and chromatographic descriptors. The CoMSA formalism coupled with IVE (CoMSA-IVE) allowed us to obtain highly predictive models for Trogoderma granarium Ev. larvae. We have found that this novel method indicates a clear molecular basis for activity and lipophilicity. This investigation will facilitate optimization of the design of new potential antifeedants. PMID:24601760

  7. A study of Forbush Decreases with a full 3-D cosmic ray modulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xi; Zhang, Ming; Potgieter, Marius

    2016-07-01

    We have constructed a 3-D numerical model for studying Forbush Decreases (FDs) in the global heliosphere. It incorporates 3-D propagation barriers, with enhanced cooling inside, into a time-dependent Parker type modulation model using a Stochastic Differential Equation (SDE) approach. This numerical model simultaneously takes into account the effect of solar wind convection with associated adiabatic energy changes; gradient, curvature and current sheet drifts; as well as parallel and perpendicular diffusion. This state-of-the-art numerical model enables us to find and study some new 3-D features for FD type events: 1. The cosmic ray intensity at Earth varies depending on the relative location of the Earth to the current sheet, and is reflected also in the amplitude of the FDs. The local modulation conditions, at a given observational point, determine the total amplitude. 2. The radial, latitudinal and longitudinal extent of a diffusion barrier significantly affects the amplitude of a FD. 3. The recovery time of a FD, at a given observational location, is determined by the modulation conditions which the corresponding propagation barrier encounters as it moves outwards in the heliosphere.

  8. Structural and property studies on metal–organic compounds with 3-D supramolecular network

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qi-Ying; Ma, Ke-Fang; Xiao, Hong-Ping; Li, Xin-Hua; Shi, Qian

    2014-07-01

    Two carboxylato-bridged allomeric compounds, ([Cu{sub 2}(dbsa){sub 2}(hmt) (H{sub 2}O){sub 4}]{sub 1/2}·2H{sub 2}O){sub n} (1), ([Ni(dbsa)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub 1/2}[Ni(dbsa)(hmt)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub 1/2}·2H{sub 2}O){sub n} (2) (H{sub 2}dbsa=meso-2,3-dibromosuccinic acid, hmt=hexamethylenetetramine) have been synthesized and characterized by X-ray structral analyses. The metal ions have two kinds of coordination fashion in one unit, and bridged by carboxylate and hmt ligands along with weak interactions existing in the solid structure, forming a 3-D supramolecular network. Variable-temperature magnetic property studies reveal the existence of antiferromagnetic interactions in 1 and 2 with g=2.2, J{sub 1}=−3.5 cm{sup −1}, J{sub 2}=−2.8 cm{sup −1} for 1, and g=2.1, J=−3.5 cm{sup −1} for 2. - Graphical abstract: Variable-temperature magnetic property studies of two 3-D supramolecular compounds reveal the existence of antiferromagnetic interactions between the metal ions, through the effective super-exchange media. - Highlights: • Two 3-D allomeric Cu(II) and Ni(II) metal–organic compounds have been prepared. • The 3-D networks were constructed by coordination bonds, weak interactions and hydrogen bond interactions. • There are antiferromagnetic super-exchange interactions between the metal ions.

  9. Simulating Seismic Wave Propagation in 3-D Structure: A Case Study For Istanbul City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yelkenci, Seda; Aktar, Mustafa

    2013-04-01

    Investigation of the wave propagation around the Marmara Sea, in particular for the city of Istanbul is critical because this target area is identified as one of the megacities with the highest seismic risk in the world. This study makes an attempt for creating an integrated 3D seismic/geologic model and precise understanding of 3-D wave propagation in the city of Istanbul. The approach is based on generating synthetic seismograms using realistic velocity structures as well as accurate location, focal mechanism and source parameters of reference earthquakes. The modarate size reference earthquakes occured in the Marmara Sea and were recorded by the National Seismic Network of Turkey as well as the network of Istanbul Early Warning and Rapid Response System. The seismograms are simulated by means of a 3-D finite difference method operated on parallel processing environment. In the content of creating a robust velocity model; 1D velocity models which are derived fom previous crustal studies of Marmara region such as refraction seismic and receiver functions have been conducted firstly for depths greater than 1km. Velocity structure in shallower part of the study region is then derived from recent geophysical and geotechnical surveys. To construct 3-D model from the obtained 1-D model data, a variety of interpolation methods are considered. According to the observations on amplitude and arrival time based on comparison of simulated seismograms, the considered velocity model is refined the way that S delay times are compensated. Another important task of this work is an application of the finite difference method to estimate three-dimensional seismic responses for a specified basin structure including soft sediments with low shear velocities in respect of the surrounded area in the Asian part of Istanbul. The analysis performed both in the time and frequency domain, helps in understanding of the comprehensive wave propagation characteristics and the distribution of

  10. Heritability of Face Shape in Twins: A Preliminary Study using 3D Stereophotogrammetry and Geometric Morphometrics

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Seth M.; Parsons, Trish E.; Marazita, Mary L.; Maher, Brion S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Previous research suggests that aspects of facial surface morphology are heritable. Traditionally, heritability studies have used a limited set of linear distances to quantify facial morphology and often employ statistical methods poorly designed to deal with biological shape. In this preliminary report, we use a combination of 3D photogrammetry and landmark-based morphometrics to explore which aspects of face shape show the strongest evidence of heritability in a sample of twins. Methods 3D surface images were obtained from 21 twin pairs (10 monozygotic, 11 same-sex dizygotic). Thirteen 3D landmarks were collected from each facial surface and their coordinates subjected to geometric morphometric analysis. This involved superimposing the individual landmark configurations and then subjecting the resulting shape coordinates to a principal components analysis. The resulting PC scores were then used to calculate rough narrow-sense heritability estimates. Results Three principal components displayed evidence of moderate to high heritability and were associated with variation in the breadth of orbital and nasal structures, upper lip height and projection, and the vertical and forward projection of the root of the nose due to variation in the position of nasion. Conclusions Aspects of facial shape, primarily related to variation in length and breadth of central midfacial structures, were shown to demonstrate evidence of strong heritability. An improved understanding of which facial features are under strong genetic control is an important step in the identification of specific genes that underlie normal facial variation. PMID:24501696

  11. The role of 3D plating system in mandibular fractures: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Rajendra; Thangavelu, Kavin; John, Reena

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of our study was to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of 3D plating system in the treatment of mandibular fractures. Patients and Methods: 20 mandibular fractures in 18 patients at various anatomic locations and were treated by open reduction and internal fixation using 3D plates. All patients were followed at regular intervals of 4th, 8th and 12th weeks respectively. Patients were assessed post-operatively for lingual splay and occlusal stability. The incidence of neurosensory deficit, infection, masticatory difficulty, non-union, malunion was also assessed. Results: A significant reduction in lingual splay (72.2%) and occlusal stability (72.2%) was seen. The overall complication rate was (16.6%) which included two patients who developed post-operative paresthesia of lip, three patients had infection and two cases of masticatory difficulty which later subsided by higher antibiotics and 4 weeks of MMF. No evidence of non-union, malunion was noted. Conclusion: A single 3D 2 mm miniplate with 2 mm × 8 mm screws is a reliable and an effective treatment modality for mandibular fracture. PMID:23946559

  12. Intracranial Catheter for Integrated 3D Ultrasound Imaging & Hyperthermia: Feasibility Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herickhoff, Carl D.; Light, Edward D.; Bing, Kristin Frinkley; Mukundan, Srinivasan; Grant, Gerald A.; Wolf, Patrick D.; Dixon-Tulloch, Ellen; Shih, Timothy; Hsu, Stephen J.; Smith, Stephen W.

    2009-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the feasibility of an intracranial catheter transducer capable of real-time 3D (RT3D) imaging and ultrasound hyperthermia, for application in the visualization and treatment of tumors in the brain. We designed and constructed a 12 Fr, integrated matrix and linear array catheter transducer prototype for combined RT3D imaging and heating capability. This dual-mode catheter incorporated 153 matrix array elements and 11 linear array elements, on a 0.2 mm pitch, with a total aperture size of 8.4 mm×2.3 mm. This array achieved a 3.5° C in vitro temperature rise at a 2 cm focal distance in tissue-mimicking material. The dual-mode catheter prototype was compared with a Siemens 10 Fr AcuNav™ catheter as a gold standard in experiments assessing image quality and therapeutic potential, and both probes were used in a canine brain model to image anatomical structures and color Doppler blood flow and to attempt in vivo heating.

  13. A 3d particle simulation code for heavy ion fusion accelerator studies

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A.; Bangerter, R.O.; Callahan, D.A.; Grote, D.P.; Langdon, A.B. ); Haber, I. )

    1990-06-08

    We describe WARP, a new particle-in-cell code being developed and optimized for ion beam studies in true geometry. We seek to model transport around bends, axial compression with strong focusing, multiple beamlet interaction, and other inherently 3d processes that affect emittance growth. Constraints imposed by memory and running time are severe. Thus, we employ only two 3d field arrays ({rho} and {phi}), and difference {phi} directly on each particle to get E, rather than interpolating E from three meshes; use of a single 3d array is feasible. A new method for PIC simulation of bent beams follows the beam particles in a family of rotated laboratory frames, thus straightening'' the bends. We are also incorporating an envelope calculation, an (r, z) model, and 1d (axial) model within WARP. The BASIS development and run-time system is used, providing a powerful interactive environment in which the user has access to all variables in the code database. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  14. A 3-D Computational Study of a Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF) Spanwise Segment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Upender K.; Nguyen, Nhan T.

    2015-01-01

    Results of a computational study carried out to explore the effects of various elastomer configurations joining spanwise contiguous Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF) segments are reported here. This research is carried out as a proof-of-concept study that will seek to push the flight envelope in cruise with drag optimization as the objective. The cruise conditions can be well off design such as caused by environmental conditions, maneuvering, etc. To handle these off-design conditions, flap deflection is used so when the flap is deflected in a given direction, the aircraft angle of attack changes accordingly to maintain a given lift. The angle of attack is also a design parameter along with the flap deflection. In a previous 2D study,1 the effect of camber was investigated and the results revealed some insight into the relative merit of various camber settings of the VCCTEF. The present state of the art has not advanced sufficiently to do a full 3-D viscous analysis of the whole NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM) wing with VCCTEF deployed with elastomers. Therefore, this study seeks to explore the local effects of three contiguous flap segments on lift and drag of a model devised here to determine possible trades among various flap deflections to achieve desired lift and drag results. Although this approach is an approximation, it provides new insights into the "local" effects of the relative deflections of the contiguous spanwise flap systems and various elastomer segment configurations. The present study is a natural extension of the 2-D study to assess these local 3-D effects. Design cruise condition at 36,000 feet at free stream Mach number of 0.797 and a mean aerodynamic chord (MAC) based Reynolds number of 30.734x10(exp 6) is simulated for an angle of attack (AoA) range of 0 to 6 deg. In the previous 2-D study, the calculations revealed that the parabolic arc camber (1x2x3) and circular arc camber (VCCTEF222) offered the best L

  15. Monte Carlo generators for studies of the 3D structure of the nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Avakian, Harut; D'Alesio, U.; Murgia, F.

    2015-01-23

    In this study, extraction of transverse momentum and space distributions of partons from measurements of spin and azimuthal asymmetries requires development of a self consistent analysis framework, accounting for evolution effects, and allowing control of systematic uncertainties due to variations of input parameters and models. Development of realistic Monte-Carlo generators, accounting for TMD evolution effects, spin-orbit and quark-gluon correlations will be crucial for future studies of quark-gluon dynamics in general and 3D structure of the nucleon in particular.

  16. Random Telegraph Signal Amplitudes in Sub 100 nm (Decanano) MOSFETs: A 3D 'Atomistic' Simulation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asenov, Asen; Balasubramaniam, R.; Brown, A. R.; Davies, J. H.; Saini, Subhash

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we use 3D simulations to study the amplitudes of random telegraph signals (RTS) associated with the trapping of a single carrier in interface states in the channel of sub 100 nm (decanano) MOSFETs. Both simulations using continuous doping charge and random discrete dopants in the active region of the MOSFETs are presented. We have studied the dependence of the RTS amplitudes on the position of the trapped charge in the channel and on the device design parameters. We have observed a significant increase in the maximum RTS amplitude when discrete random dopants are employed in the simulations.

  17. Understanding long-term strain accommodation in the Longmen Shan region: Insights from 3D thermo-kinematic modelling of thermochronometry data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yuntao; Vermeesch, Pieter; Carter, Andy

    2015-04-01

    The Longmen Shan marks the steep eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau and three parallel NW-dipping fault zones define its structural geometry. From foreland (southeast) to hinterland (northwest), the main faults are the Guanxian-Anxian fault, Yingxiu-Beichuan fault and Wenchuan-Maowen fault. The exhumation pattern constrained by 1-dimensional modelling made from a compilation of published and unpublished thermochronometry data shows a strong structural control, with highest amounts of exhumation in the hinterland region, a pattern that is characteristic of out-of-sequence thrusting (Tian et al., 2013, Tectonics, doi:10.1002/tect.20043). 3-dimensional thermo-kinematic modelling of these data suggests that the listric Longmen Shan faults merge into a detachment at a depth of ~20-30 km. The models require a marked decrease in slip-rate along the frontal Yingxiu-Beichuan in the late Miocene, whereas the slip-rate along the hinterland Wenchuan-Maowen fault remained relatively constant. These results reveal the long-term pattern of strain accommodation and have important implications for hazard risk assessment in the region. Further, the out-of-sequence thrusting architecture highlights the importance of upper crustal shortening and extrusion in forming this plateau margin.

  18. Portable high-intensity focused ultrasound system with 3D electronic steering, real-time cavitation monitoring, and 3D image reconstruction algorithms: a preclinical study in pigs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and accuracy of a new portable ultrasonography-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (USg-HIFU) system with a 3-dimensional (3D) electronic steering transducer, a simultaneous ablation and imaging module, real-time cavitation monitoring, and 3D image reconstruction algorithms. Methods: To address the accuracy of the transducer, hydrophones in a water chamber were used to assess the generation of sonic fields. An animal study was also performed in five pigs by ablating in vivo thighs by single-point sonication (n=10) or volume sonication (n=10) and ex vivo kidneys by single-point sonication (n=10). Histological and statistical analyses were performed. Results: In the hydrophone study, peak voltages were detected within 1.0 mm from the targets on the y- and z-axes and within 2.0-mm intervals along the x-axis (z-axis, direction of ultrasound propagation; y- and x-axes, perpendicular to the direction of ultrasound propagation). Twenty-nine of 30 HIFU sessions successfully created ablations at the target. The in vivo porcine thigh study showed only a small discrepancy (width, 0.5-1.1 mm; length, 3.0 mm) between the planning ultrasonograms and the pathological specimens. Inordinate thermal damage was not observed in the adjacent tissues or sonic pathways in the in vivo thigh and ex vivo kidney studies. Conclusion: Our study suggests that this new USg-HIFU system may be a safe and accurate technique for ablating soft tissues and encapsulated organs. PMID:25038809

  19. Comparison of User Performance with Interactive and Static 3d Visualization - Pilot Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, L.; Stachoň, Z.

    2016-06-01

    Interactive 3D visualizations of spatial data are currently available and popular through various applications such as Google Earth, ArcScene, etc. Several scientific studies have focused on user performance with 3D visualization, but static perspective views are used as stimuli in most of the studies. The main objective of this paper is to try to identify potential differences in user performance with static perspective views and interactive visualizations. This research is an exploratory study. An experiment was designed as a between-subject study and a customized testing tool based on open web technologies was used for the experiment. The testing set consists of an initial questionnaire, a training task and four experimental tasks. Selection of the highest point and determination of visibility from the top of a mountain were used as the experimental tasks. Speed and accuracy of each task performance of participants were recorded. The movement and actions in the virtual environment were also recorded within the interactive variant. The results show that participants deal with the tasks faster when using static visualization. The average error rate was also higher in the static variant. The findings from this pilot study will be used for further testing, especially for formulating of hypotheses and designing of subsequent experiments.

  20. Automated 3D ultrasound elastography of the breast: a phantom validation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendriks, Gijs A. G. M.; Holländer, Branislav; Menssen, Jan; Milkowski, Andy; Hansen, Hendrik H. G.; de Korte, Chris L.

    2016-04-01

    In breast cancer screening, the automated breast volume scanner (ABVS) was introduced as an alternative for mammography since the latter technique is less suitable for women with dense breasts. Although clinical studies show promising results, clinicians report two disadvantages: long acquisition times (>90 s) introducing breathing artefacts, and high recall rates due to detection of many small lesions of uncertain malignant potential. Technical improvements for faster image acquisition and better discrimination between benign and malignant lesions are thus required. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate if 3D ultrasound elastography using plane-wave imaging is feasible. Strain images of a breast elastography phantom were acquired by an ABVS-mimicking device that allowed axial and elevational movement of the attached transducer. Pre- and post-deformation volumes were acquired with different constant speeds (between 1.25 and 40.0 mm s-1) and by three protocols: Go-Go (pre- and post-volumes with identical start and end positions), Go-Return (similar to Go-Go with opposite scanning directions) and Control (pre- and post-volumes acquired per position, this protocol can be seen as reference). Afterwards, 2D and 3D cross-correlation and strain algorithms were applied to the acquired volumes and the results were compared. The Go-Go protocol was shown to be superior with better strain image quality (CNRe and SNRe) than Go-Return and to be similar as Control. This can be attributed to applying opposite mechanical forces to the phantom during the Go-Return protocol, leading to out-of-plane motion. This motion was partly compensated by using 3D cross-correlation. However, the quality was still inferior to Go-Go. Since these results were obtained in a phantom study with controlled deformations, the effect of possible uncontrolled in vivo tissue motion artefacts has to be addressed in future studies. In conclusion, it seems feasible to implement 3D ultrasound

  1. CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing throws descriptive 3-D genome folding studies for a loop.

    PubMed

    Beagan, Jonathan A; Phillips-Cremins, Jennifer E

    2016-07-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing studies have recently shed new light into the causal link between the linear DNA sequence and 3-D chromatin architecture. Here we describe current models for the folding of genomes into a nested hierarchy of higher-order structures and discuss new insights into the organizing principles governing genome folding at each length scale. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2016, 8:286-299. doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1338 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27265842

  2. Simulation studies of defect textures and dynamics in 3-d cholesteric droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimenez-Pinto, Vianney; Lu, Shin-Ying; Selinger, Jonathan; Selinger, Robin

    2010-03-01

    We model defect texture evolution in droplets of cholesteric liquid crystals by solving for the dynamics of the nematic director field. In order to accommodate defects in the simulated texture, we use a finite difference formulation that is explicitly independent of sign reversal of the director at any position in the sample. Textures are visualized using either the Berreman 4x4 matrix method or by mapping free energy density. We study both planar and focal conic cholesteric textures in 3-d spherical and cylindrical droplets, with the goal to optimize device geometries for bistable display applications.

  3. Simulation studies of dynamics and defect textures in 3-d cholesteric droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimenez-Pinto, Vianney; Lu, Shin-Ying; Selinger, Jonathan; Selinger, Robin

    2010-04-01

    We model defect texture evolution in droplets of cholesteric liquid crystals by solving for the dynamics of the nematic director field. In order to accommodate defects in the simulated texture, we use a finite difference formulation that is explicitly independent of sign reversal of the director at any position in the sample. Textures are visualized using either the Berreman 4x4 matrix method or by mapping free energy density. We study both planar and focal conic cholesteric textures in 3-d spherical and cylindrical droplets, with the goal to optimize device geometries for bistable display applications.

  4. Automated 3D ultrasound elastography of the breast: a phantom validation study.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Gijs A G M; Holländer, Branislav; Menssen, Jan; Milkowski, Andy; Hansen, Hendrik H G; de Korte, Chris L

    2016-04-01

    In breast cancer screening, the automated breast volume scanner (ABVS) was introduced as an alternative for mammography since the latter technique is less suitable for women with dense breasts. Although clinical studies show promising results, clinicians report two disadvantages: long acquisition times (>90 s) introducing breathing artefacts, and high recall rates due to detection of many small lesions of uncertain malignant potential. Technical improvements for faster image acquisition and better discrimination between benign and malignant lesions are thus required. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate if 3D ultrasound elastography using plane-wave imaging is feasible. Strain images of a breast elastography phantom were acquired by an ABVS-mimicking device that allowed axial and elevational movement of the attached transducer. Pre- and post-deformation volumes were acquired with different constant speeds (between 1.25 and 40.0 mm s(-1)) and by three protocols: Go-Go (pre- and post-volumes with identical start and end positions), Go-Return (similar to Go-Go with opposite scanning directions) and Control (pre- and post-volumes acquired per position, this protocol can be seen as reference). Afterwards, 2D and 3D cross-correlation and strain algorithms were applied to the acquired volumes and the results were compared. The Go-Go protocol was shown to be superior with better strain image quality (CNRe and SNRe) than Go-Return and to be similar as Control. This can be attributed to applying opposite mechanical forces to the phantom during the Go-Return protocol, leading to out-of-plane motion. This motion was partly compensated by using 3D cross-correlation. However, the quality was still inferior to Go-Go. Since these results were obtained in a phantom study with controlled deformations, the effect of possible uncontrolled in vivo tissue motion artefacts has to be addressed in future studies. In conclusion, it seems feasible to implement 3D

  5. Characterization of a novel bioreactor system for 3D cellular mechanobiology studies.

    PubMed

    Cook, Colin A; Huri, Pinar Y; Ginn, Brian P; Gilbert-Honick, Jordana; Somers, Sarah M; Temple, Joshua P; Mao, Hai-Quan; Grayson, Warren L

    2016-08-01

    In vitro engineering systems can be powerful tools for studying tissue development in response to biophysical stimuli as well as for evaluating the functionality of engineered tissue grafts. It has been challenging, however, to develop systems that adequately integrate the application of biomimetic mechanical strain to engineered tissue with the ability to assess functional outcomes in real time. The aim of this study was to design a bioreactor system capable of real-time conditioning (dynamic, uniaxial strain, and electrical stimulation) of centimeter-long 3D tissue engineered constructs simultaneously with the capacity to monitor local strains. The system addresses key limitations of uniform sample loading and real-time imaging capabilities. Our system features an electrospun fibrin scaffold, which exhibits physiologically relevant stiffness and uniaxial alignment that facilitates cell adhesion, alignment, and proliferation. We have demonstrated the capacity for directly incorporating human adipose-derived stromal/stem cells into the fibers during the electrospinning process and subsequent culture of the cell-seeded constructs in the bioreactor. The bioreactor facilitates accurate pre-straining of the 3D constructs as well as the application of dynamic and static uniaxial strains while monitoring bulk construct tensions. The incorporation of fluorescent nanoparticles throughout the scaffolds enables in situ monitoring of local strain fields using fluorescent digital image correlation techniques, since the bioreactor is imaging compatible, and allows the assessment of local sample stiffness and stresses when coupled with force sensor measurements. In addition, the system is capable of measuring the electromechanical coupling of skeletal muscle explants by applying an electrical stimulus and simultaneously measuring the force of contraction. The packaging of these technologies, biomaterials, and analytical methods into a single bioreactor system has produced a

  6. 3D elastic full waveform inversion: case study from a land seismic survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kormann, Jean; Marti, David; Rodriguez, Juan-Esteban; Marzan, Ignacio; Ferrer, Miguel; Gutierrez, Natalia; Farres, Albert; Hanzich, Mauricio; de la Puente, Josep; Carbonell, Ramon

    2016-04-01

    Full Waveform Inversion (FWI) is one of the most advanced processing methods that is recently reaching a mature state after years of solving theoretical and technical issues such as the non-uniqueness of the solution and harnessing the huge computational power required by realistic scenarios. BSIT (Barcelona Subsurface Imaging Tools, www.bsc.es/bsit) includes a FWI algorithm that can tackle with very complex problems involving large datasets. We present here the application of this system to a 3D dataset acquired to constrain the shallow subsurface. This is where the wavefield is the most complicated, because most of the wavefield conversions takes place in the shallow region and also because the media is much more laterally heterogeneous. With this in mind, at least isotropic elastic approximation would be suitable as kernel engine for FWI. The current study explores the possibilities to apply elastic isotropic FWI using only the vertical component of the recorded seismograms. The survey covers an area of 500×500 m2, and consists in a receivers grid of 10 m×20 m combined with a 250 kg accelerated weight-drop as source on a displaced grid of 20 m×20 m. One of the main challenges in this case study is the costly 3D modeling that includes topography and substantial free surface effects. FWI is applied to a data subset (shooting lines 4 to 12), and is performed for 3 frequencies ranging from 15 to 25 Hz. The starting models are obtained from travel-time tomography and the all computation is run on 75 nodes of Mare Nostrum supercomputer during 3 days. The resulting models provide a higher resolution of the subsurface structures, and show a good correlation with the available borehole measurements. FWI allows to extend in a reliable way this 1D knowledge (borehole) to 3D.

  7. Fluid flow pathways study from the 3D seismic data offshore southwestern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L.; Chi, W. C.; Chiang, H. T.; Lin, S.

    2014-12-01

    3D seismic reflection data provide detailed information on the physical properties of the crust, which can be used for hydrocarbon exploration. Recently, scientists from Taiwan and Germany are collaborating on a project to use a portable 3D seismic system, called P-Cable, to study gas hydrates offshore southwest Taiwan. We have collected 3 cubes, covering the active and passive margins. At these three sites, there is a wide-spread bottom-simulating reflector (BSR). We use the BSR to study the shallow thermal structures of these prospect sites, and use the temperature field information to study fluid migration patterns. We have also done in-situ heat flow measurements, and found similar results, showing focused fluid flow migrations in some pathways. Some of the high temperature fields also correlate with gas chimneys found through seismic attribute analyses. Preliminary results show that there might be active fluid migration above the BSR in the gas hydrate stability zone. In September and October of 2014, we will collect additional P-Cable datasets to be incorporated into this study. Such results will be used to evaluate some proposed sites for future drilling programs.

  8. The development and test of a device for the reconstruction of 3-D position and orientation by means of a kinematic sensor assembly with rate gyroscopes and accelerometers.

    PubMed

    Giansanti, Daniele; Maccioni, Giovanni; Macellari, Velio

    2005-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a device for the Position and Orientation (P&O) reconstruction of human segmental locomotion tasks. It is based on three mono-axial accelerometers and three angular velocity sensors, geometrically arranged to form two orthogonal terns. The device was bench tested using step-by-step motor-based equipment. The characteristics of the six channels under bench test conditions were: crosstalk absent, non linearity < +/- 0.1% fs, hysteresis < 0.1% fs, accuracy 0.3% fs, overall resolution better than 0.04 deg/s, 2 x g x 10(-4). The device was validated with the stereophotogrammetric body motion analyzer during the execution of three different locomotion tasks: stand-to-sit, sit-to-stand, gait-initiation. Results obtained comparing the trajectories of the two methods showed that the errors were lower than 3 x 10(-2) m and 2 deg during a 4s of acquisition and lower than 6 x 10(-3) m and 0.2 deg during the effective duration of a locomotory task; showing that the wearable device hereby presented permits the 3-D reconstruction of the movement of the body segment to which it is affixed for time-limited clinical applications. PMID:16041990

  9. A Morpho-kinematic and Spectroscopic study of Bipolar Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clyne, Niall

    2015-09-01

    In this thesis, studies of the kinematic properties for a sample of Galactic bipolar planetary nebulae, based on optical and infrared observations, were performed using a morpho-kinematic code, optical and NIR diagnostic diagrams, and techniques using data analyses. The mechanisms that form complex bipolar planetary nebulae remain unclear, and their shapes can be generated either as a planetary or symbiotic nebula. The origin of the material ionised by the white dwarf is very different in these two scenarios, and it complicates the understanding of the morphologies of planetary nebulae. The physical properties, structure, and dynamics of the bipolar nebulae, MyCn 18, M 2-9, Mz 3, Hen 2-104, and Abell 14, are each investigated in detail with the aim of understanding their nature, shaping mechanisms, and evolutionary history. For MyCn 18, VLT infrared images, VLT ISAAC infrared spectra, and long-slit optical echelle spectra are used to investigate the inner and outer regions of the nebula. The morpho-kinematic modelling tool shape was used to firmly constrain the structure and kinematics of the source. A timescale analysis was used to help determine the kinematical age of the nebula and its main components. A spectroscopic study of MyCn 18's central region reveals the detailed make-up of its nebular composition. Molecular hydrogen, atomic helium, and Brackett gamma emission are detected in the central regions. ISAAC spectra from a slit position along the narrow waist of the nebula demonstrate that the ionised gas resides closer to the centre of the nebula than the molecular emission. A final reconstructed 3-D model of MyCn 18 was generated, providing kinematical information on the expansion velocity of its nebular components by means of position-velocity arrays (or observed long-slit spectra). A kinematical age of the nebula and its components were obtained using the position-velocity arrays and timescale analysis. For M 2-9, Mz 3, and Hen 2-104, long-slit optical

  10. Self-assembly of ABC triblock copolymers under 3D soft confinement: a Monte Carlo study.

    PubMed

    Yan, Nan; Zhu, Yutian; Jiang, Wei

    2016-01-21

    Under three-dimensional (3D) soft confinement, block copolymers can self-assemble into unique nanostructures that cannot be fabricated in an un-confined space. Linear ABC triblock copolymers containing three chemically distinct polymer blocks possess relatively complex chain architecture, which can be a promising candidate for the 3D confined self-assembly. In the current study, the Monte Carlo technique was applied in a lattice model to study the self-assembly of ABC triblock copolymers under 3D soft confinement, which corresponds to the self-assembly of block copolymers confined in emulsion droplets. We demonstrated how to create various nanostructures by tuning the symmetry of ABC triblock copolymers, the incompatibilities between different block types, and solvent properties. Besides common pupa-like and bud-like nanostructures, our simulations predicted various unique self-assembled nanostructures, including a striped-pattern nanoparticle with intertwined A-cages and C-cages, a pyramid-like nanoparticle with four Janus B-C lamellae adhered onto its four surfaces, an ellipsoidal nanoparticle with a dumbbell-like A-core and two Janus B-C lamellae and a Janus B-C ring surrounding the A-core, a spherical nanoparticle with a A-core and a helical Janus B-C stripe around the A-core, a cubic nanoparticle with a cube-shape A-core and six Janus B-C lamellae adhered onto the surfaces of the A-cube, and a spherical nanoparticle with helical A, B and C structures, from the 3D confined self-assembly of ABC triblock copolymers. Moreover, the formation mechanisms of some typical nanostructures were also examined by the variations of the contact numbers with time and a series of snapshots at different Monte Carlo times. It is found that ABC triblock copolymers usually aggregate into a loose aggregate at first, and then the microphase separation between A, B and C blocks occurs, resulting in the formation of various nanostructures. PMID:26571300

  11. Mechanisms of clay smear formation in 3D - a field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettermann, Michael; Tronberens, Sebastian; Urai, Janos; Asmus, Sven

    2016-04-01

    Clay smears in sedimentary basins are important factors defining the sealing properties of faults. However, as clay smears are highly complex 3D structures, processes involved in the formation and deformation of clay smears are not well identified and understood. To enhance the prediction of sealing properties of clay smears extensive studies of these structures are necessary including the 3D information. We present extraordinary outcrop data from an open cast lignite mine (Hambach) in the Lower Rhine Embayment, Germany. The faults formed at a depth of 150 m, and have Shale Gouge Ratios between 0.1 and 0.3. Material in the fault zones is layered, with sheared sand, sheared clay and tectonically mixed sand-clay gouge. We studied the 3D thickness distribution of clay smear from a series of thin-spaced incremental cross-sections and several cross-sections in larger distances along the fault. Additionally, we excavated two large clay smear surfaces. Our observations show that clay smears are strongly affected by R- and R'-shears, mostly at the footwall side of our outcrops. These shears can locally cross and offset clay smears, forming holes. Thinnest parts of the clay smears are often located close to source layer cutoffs. Investigating the 3D thickness of the clay smears shows a heterogeneous distribution, rather than a continuous thinning of the smear with increasing distance to the source layers. We found two types of layered clay smears: one with continuous sheared sand between two clay smears providing vertical pathways for fluid flow, and one which consists of overlapping clay patches separated by sheared sand that provide a tortuous pathway across the clay smear. On smaller scale we identified grain-scale mixing as an important process for the formation of clay smears. Sand can be entrained into the clay smear by mixing from the surrounding host rock as well as due to intense shearing of sand lenses that were incorporated into the smear. This causes clay smears

  12. 3D virtual human atria: A computational platform for studying clinical atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Aslanidi, Oleg V; Colman, Michael A; Stott, Jonathan; Dobrzynski, Halina; Boyett, Mark R; Holden, Arun V; Zhang, Henggui

    2011-10-01

    Despite a vast amount of experimental and clinical data on the underlying ionic, cellular and tissue substrates, the mechanisms of common atrial arrhythmias (such as atrial fibrillation, AF) arising from the functional interactions at the whole atria level remain unclear. Computational modelling provides a quantitative framework for integrating such multi-scale data and understanding the arrhythmogenic behaviour that emerges from the collective spatio-temporal dynamics in all parts of the heart. In this study, we have developed a multi-scale hierarchy of biophysically detailed computational models for the human atria--the 3D virtual human atria. Primarily, diffusion tensor MRI reconstruction of the tissue geometry and fibre orientation in the human sinoatrial node (SAN) and surrounding atrial muscle was integrated into the 3D model of the whole atria dissected from the Visible Human dataset. The anatomical models were combined with the heterogeneous atrial action potential (AP) models, and used to simulate the AP conduction in the human atria under various conditions: SAN pacemaking and atrial activation in the normal rhythm, break-down of regular AP wave-fronts during rapid atrial pacing, and the genesis of multiple re-entrant wavelets characteristic of AF. Contributions of different properties of the tissue to mechanisms of the normal rhythm and arrhythmogenesis were investigated. Primarily, the simulations showed that tissue heterogeneity caused the break-down of the normal AP wave-fronts at rapid pacing rates, which initiated a pair of re-entrant spiral waves; and tissue anisotropy resulted in a further break-down of the spiral waves into multiple meandering wavelets characteristic of AF. The 3D virtual atria model itself was incorporated into the torso model to simulate the body surface ECG patterns in the normal and arrhythmic conditions. Therefore, a state-of-the-art computational platform has been developed, which can be used for studying multi

  13. 3D CFDTD PIC Simulation Study on Low-Frequency Oscillations in a Gyrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, M. C.; Smithe, D. N.

    2011-10-01

    Low-frequency oscillations (LFOs) have been observed in a high average power gyrotron and the trapped electron population contributing to the oscillation has been measured. As high average power gyrotrons are the most promising millimeter wave source for thermonuclear fusion research, it is important to get a better understanding of this parasitic phenomenon to avoid any deterioration of the electron beam quality thus reducing the gyrotron efficiency. However, understanding of the LFOs remains incomplete and a full picture of this parasitic phenomenon has not been seen yet. In this work, we use a 3D conformal finite-difference time-domain (CFDTD) particle-in-cell (PIC) method to accurately and efficiently study the LFOs in a magnetron injection gun (MIG) of a high average power gyrotron. Employing a highly parallelized computation, the model can be simulated in time domain more realistically. LFOs have been obtained in a 3D time domain simulation for the first time. From our preliminary simulation studies, it is found that not only magnetic compression profile but initial velocity or velocity ratio play an important role in the operation of a MIG electron gun. In addition, the secondary emission effects on the LFOs are also studied. Detailed results will be presented. Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-SC0004436.

  14. Image informatics for studying signal transduction in cells interacting with 3D matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzeranis, Dimitrios S.; Guo, Jin; Chen, Chengpin; Yannas, Ioannis V.; Wei, Xunbin; So, Peter T. C.

    2014-03-01

    Cells sense and respond to chemical stimuli on their environment via signal transduction pathways, complex networks of proteins whose interactions transmit chemical information. This work describes an implementation of image informatics, imaging-based methodologies for studying signal transduction networks. The methodology developed focuses on studying signal transduction networks in cells that interact with 3D matrices. It utilizes shRNA-based knock down of network components, 3D high-content imaging of cells inside the matrix by spectral multi-photon microscopy, and single-cell quantification using features that describe both cell morphology and cell-matrix adhesion pattern. The methodology is applied in a pilot study of TGFβ signaling via the SMAD pathway in fibroblasts cultured inside porous collagen-GAG scaffolds, biomaterials similar to the ones used clinically to induce skin regeneration. Preliminary results suggest that knocking down all rSMAD components affects fibroblast response to TGFβ1 and TGFβ3 isoforms in different ways, and suggest a potential role for SMAD1 and SMAD5 in regulating TGFβ isoform response. These preliminary results need to be verified with proteomic results that can provide solid evidence about the particular role of individual components of the SMAD pathway.

  15. 3D QSAR and docking study of gliptin derivatives as DPP-IV inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Ritesh; Jain, Pratima; Dikshit, Subodh Narayan; Bahare, Radhe Shyam

    2013-05-01

    The article describes the development of a robust pharmacophore model and the investigation of structure activity relationship analysis of 46 xanthine derivatives reported for DPP-IV inhibition using PHASE module of Schrodinger software. The present works also encompasses molecular interaction of 46 xanthine ligand through maestro 8.5 software. The QSAR study comprises AHHR.7 pharmacophore hypothesis, which elaborates the three points, e.g. one hydrogen bond acceptor (A), two hydrophobic rings (H) and one aromatic ring (R). The discrete geometries as pharmacophoric feature were developed and the generated pharmacophore model was used to derive a predictive atom-based 3D QSAR model for the studied data set. The obtained 3D QSAR model has an excellent correlation coefficient value (r(2)= 0.9995) along with good statistical significance which is indicated by high Fisher ratio (F= 8537.4). The model also exhibits good predictive power confirmed by the high value of cross validated correlation coefficient (q(2) = 0.6919). The QSAR model suggests that hydrophobic character is crucial for the DPP-IV inhibitory activity exhibited by these compounds and inclusion of hydrophobic substituents will enhance the DPP-IV inhibition. In addition to the hydrophobic character, electron withdrawing groups positively contribute to the DPP-IV inhibition potency. The findings of the QSAR study provide a set of guidelines for designing compounds with better DPP-IV inhibitory potency. PMID:23305140

  16. The interpretation of magnetic anomalies by 3D inversion: A case study from Central Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakoli, M.; Nejati Kalateh, A.; Ghomi, S.

    2016-03-01

    The thick sedimentary units in Central Iran contain structures that form oil traps and are underlain by a basaltic layer which is amenable for study using its magnetic susceptibility. The study and modeling of such sedimentary structures provide valuable exploratory information. In this study, we locate and interpret an underground magnetic susceptibility interface using 3D non-linear inverse modeling of magnetic data to make a better judgment in the context of hydrocarbon existence. The 3D structure is reconstructed by making it equal to a number of side by side rectangular hexahedrons or prisms and calculating their thicknesses such that the bottoms of the prisms are corresponding to the magnetic susceptibility interface. By one of the most important mathematical tool in computational science, Taylor series, the non-linear problem changes to a linear problem near to initial model. In many inverse problems, we often need to invert large size matrices. To find the inverse of these matrices we use Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) method. The algorithm by an iterative method comparing model response with actual data will modify the initial guess of model parameters. The efficiency of the method and subprograms, programmed in MATLAB, has been shown by inverse modeling of free noise and noise-contaminated synthetic data. Finally, we inverted magnetic field data from Garmsar area in Central Iran which the results were acceptable.

  17. Reduction of Breast Density Following Tamoxifen Treatment Evaluated by 3-D MRI: Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jeon-Hor; Chang, Yeun-Chung; Chang, Daniel; Wang, Yi-Ting; Nie, Ke; Chang, Ruey-Feng; Nalcioglu, Orhan; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Su, Min-Ying

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed the change of breast density in women receiving tamoxifen treatment using 3-D MRI. Sixteen women were studied. Each woman received breast MRI before and after tamoxifen. The breast and the fibroglandular tissue were segmented using a computer-assisted algorithm, based on T1-weighted images. The fibroglandular tissue volume (FV) and breast volume (BV) were measured and the ratio was calculated as the percent breast density (%BD). The changes in breast volume (ΔBV), fibroglandular tissue volume (ΔFV), and percent density (Δ%BD) between two MRI studies were analyzed and correlated with treatment duration and baseline breast density. The ΔFV showed a reduction in all 16 women. The Δ%BD showed a mean reduction of 5.8%. The reduction of FV was significantly correlated with baseline FV (P<0.001) and treatment duration (P=0.03). The percentage change in FV was correlated with duration (P=0.049). The reduction in %BD was positively correlated with baseline %BD (p=0.02). Women with higher baseline %BD showed more reduction of %BD. 3D MRI may be useful for the measurement of the small changes of ΔFV and Δ%BD after tamoxifen. These changes can potentially be used to correlate with the future reduction of cancer risk. PMID:20832226

  18. 2D and 3D-QSAR studies on antiproliferative thiazolidine analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Si Yan; Qian, Li; Chen, Jin Can; Lu, Hai Liang; Zheng, Kang Cheng

    Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) of 22 thiazolidine analogs with antiproliferative activity expressed as pIC50, which is defined as the negative value of the logarithm of necessary molar concentration of these compounds to cause 50% growth inhibition against melanoma cell lines WM-164, have been studied by using a combined method of the DFT, MM2 and statistics for 2D, as well as the comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) method for 3D. The established 2D-QSAR model in training set comprised of random 18 compounds shows not only significant statistical quality, but also predictive ability, with the square of adjusted correlation coefficient (R2A = 0.832) and the square of the cross-validation coefficient (q2 = 0.803). The same model was further applied to predict pIC50 values of the four compounds in the test set, and the resulting R2pred reaching 0.784, further confirms that this 2D-QSAR model has high predictive ability. The 3D-QSAR model also shows good correlative and predictive capabilities in terms of R2 (0.956) and q2 (0.615) obtained from CoMFA model. Further, the robustness of the CoMFA model was verified by bootstrapping analysis (100 runs) with R2bs (0.979) and SDbs (0.056). It is very interesting to find that the results from 2D- and 3D-QSAR analyses accord with each other, and they all show that the steric interaction plays a crucial role in determining the cytotoxicities of the compounds, and that selecting a moderate-size or appropriate-hydrophobicity substituent R as well as increasing the negative charges of C4 on phenyl ring at the same time are advantageous to improving the cytotoxicity. Such results can offer some useful theoretical references for directing the molecular design and understanding the action mechanism of this kind of compound with antiproliferative activity.

  19. 3-D LTCC microfluidic device as a tool for studying nanoprecipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schianti, J. N.; Cerize, N. P. N.; Oliveira, A. M.; Derenzo, S.; Góngora-Rubio, M. R.

    2013-03-01

    Nanoparticles have been used to improve the properties of many cosmetic products, mainly the sunscreens materials using nanoencapsulation or nanosuspensions, improving the contact with active molecules, enhancing the sun protection effect and facilitating formulations in industrial products. Microfluidic devices offer an important possibility in producing nanoparticles in a simple way, in one step bottom up technique, continuum process with low polidispersivity, low consumption of reagents and additives. In this work, we microfabricated a 3-D LTCC microfluidic device to study the nanoprecipitation of Benzophenone-3, used as a sunscreen in pharmaceutical products. It was observed that some parameters influence the particle size related to the total fluid flow on device, the ratio between phases, and the Benzophenone-3 initial concentration. The influence of applied voltages on particle sizes was tested also. For the processing, a high voltage was applied in a Kovar tube inserted in the 3D device. The use of microfluidic device resulted in particles with 100 up to 800 nm of size, with polispersivity index below 0.3 and offering an interesting way to obtain nanoparticles. These studies are still ongoing, but early results indicate the possibility of obtaining B-3 nanostructured material.

  20. The study of craniofacial growth patterns using 3D laser scanning and geometric morphometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friess, Martin

    2006-02-01

    Throughout childhood, braincase and face grow at different rates and therefore exhibit variable proportions and positions relative to each other. Our understanding of the direction and magnitude of these growth patterns is crucial for many ergonomic applications and can be improved by advanced 3D morphometrics. The purpose of this study is to investigate this known growth allometry using 3D imaging techniques. The geometry of the head and face of 840 children, aged 2 to 19, was captured with a laser surface scanner and analyzed statistically. From each scan, 18 landmarks were extracted and registered using General Procrustes Analysis (GPA). GPA eliminates unwanted variation due to position, orientation and scale by applying a least-squares superimposition algorithm to individual landmark configurations. This approach provides the necessary normalization for the study of differences in size, shape, and their interaction (allometry). The results show that throughout adolescence, boys and girls follow a different growth trajectory, leading to marked differences not only in size but also in shape, most notably in relative proportions of the braincase. These differences can be observed during early childhood, but become most noticeable after the age of 13 years, when craniofacial growth in girls slows down significantly, whereas growth in boys continues for at least 3 more years.

  1. Combined 3D-QSAR modeling and molecular docking study on azacycles CCR5 antagonists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Yongjun; Shu, Mao; Lin, Yong; Wang, Yuanqiang; Wang, Rui; Hu, Yong; Lin, Zhihua

    2013-08-01

    The beta chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is an attractive target for pharmaceutical industry in the HIV-1, inflammation and cancer therapeutic areas. In this study, we have developed quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models for a series of 41 azacycles CCR5 antagonists using comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA), comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA), and Topomer CoMFA methods. The cross-validated coefficient q2 values of 3D-QASR (CoMFA, CoMSIA, and Topomer CoMFA) methods were 0.630, 0.758, and 0.852, respectively, the non-cross-validated R2 values were 0.979, 0.978, and 0.990, respectively. Docking studies were also employed to determine the most probable binding mode. 3D contour maps and docking results suggested that bulky groups and electron-withdrawing groups on the core part would decrease antiviral activity. Furthermore, docking results indicated that H-bonds and π bonds were favorable for antiviral activities. Finally, a set of novel derivatives with predicted activities were designed.

  2. 3D QSAR studies of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls as potential xenoestrogens.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Patricia; Ingale, Kundan; Wheeler, John S; Mumtaz, Moiz

    2016-02-01

    Mono-hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) are found in human biological samples and lack of data on their potential estrogenic activity has been a source of concern. We have extended our previous in silico 2D QSAR study through the application of advance techniques such as docking and 3D QSAR to gain insights into their estrogen receptor (ERα) binding. The results support our earlier findings that the hydroxyl group is the most important feature on the compounds; its position, orientation and surroundings in the structure are influential for the binding of OH-PCBs to ERα. This study has also revealed the following additional interactions that influence estrogenicity of these chemicals (a) the aromatic interactions of the biphenyl moieties with the receptor, (b) hydrogen bonding interactions of the p-hydroxyl group with key amino acids ARG394 and GLU353, (c) low or no electronegative substitution at para-positions of the p-hydroxyl group, (d) enhanced electrostatic interactions at the meta position on the B ring, and (e) co-planarity of the hydroxyl group on the A ring. In combination the 2D and 3D QSAR approaches have led us to the support conclusion that the hydroxyl group is the most important feature on the OH-PCB influencing the binding to estrogen receptors, and have enhanced our understanding of the mechanistic details of estrogenicity of this class of chemicals. Such in silico computational methods could serve as useful tools in risk assessment of chemicals. PMID:26598992

  3. Numerical 3D Hydrodynamics Study of Gravitational Instabilities in a Circumbinary Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Karna Mahadev; Steiman-Cameron, Thomas Y.; Michael, Scott; Cai, Kai; Durisen, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    We present a 3D hydrodynamical study of gravitational instabilities (GIs) in a circumbinary protoplanetary disk around a Solar mass star and a brown dwarf companion (0.02 M⊙). GIs can play an important, and at times dominant, role in driving the structural evolution of protoplanetary disks. The reported simulations were performed employing CHYMERA, a radiative 3D hydrodynamics code developed by the Indiana University Hydrodynamics Group. The simulations include disk self-gravity and radiative cooling governed by realistic dust opacities. We examine the role of GIs in modulating the thermodynamic state of the disks, and determine the strengths of GI-induced density waves, non-axisymmetric density structures, radial mass transport, and gravitational torques. The principal goal of this study is to determine how the presence of the companion affects the nature and strength of GIs. Results are compared with a parallel simulation of a protoplanetary disk without the presence of the brown dwarf binary companion. We detect no fragmentation in either disk. A persistent vortex forms in the inner region of both disks. The vortex seems to be stabilized by the presence of the binary companion.

  4. Test Problems for Reactive Flow HE Model in the ALE3D Code and Limited Sensitivity Study

    SciTech Connect

    Gerassimenko, M.

    2000-03-01

    We document quick running test problems for a reactive flow model of HE initiation incorporated into ALE3D. A quarter percent change in projectile velocity changes the outcome from detonation to HE burn that dies down. We study the sensitivity of calculated HE behavior to several parameters of practical interest where modeling HE initiation with ALE3D.

  5. Non-Newtonian Fluids Spreading with Surface Tension Effect: 3D Numerical Analysis Using FEM and Experimental Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bin; Kieweg, Sarah

    2010-11-01

    Gravity-driven thin film flow down an incline is studied for optimal design of polymeric drug delivery vehicles, such as anti-HIV topical microbicides. We develop a 3D FEM model using non-Newtonian mechanics to model the flow of gels in response to gravity, surface tension and shear-thinning. Constant volume setup is applied within the lubrication approximation scope. The lengthwise profiles of the 3D model agree with our previous 2D finite difference model, while the transverse contact line patterns of the 3D model are compared to the experiments. With incorporation of surface tension, capillary ridges are observed at the leading front in both 2D and 3D models. Previously published studies show that capillary ridge can amplify the fingering instabilities in transverse direction. Sensitivity studies (2D & 3D) and experiments are carried out to describe the influence of surface tension and shear-thinning on capillary ridge and fingering instabilities.

  6. Liner Optimization Studies Using the Ducted Fan Noise Prediction Code TBIEM3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, M. H.; Farassat, F.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the usefulness of the ducted fan noise prediction code TBIEM3D as a liner optimization design tool. Boundary conditions on the interior duct wall allow for hard walls or a locally reacting liner with axially segmented, circumferentially uniform impedance. Two liner optimization studies are considered in which farfield noise attenuation due to the presence of a liner is maximized by adjusting the liner impedance. In the first example, the dependence of optimal liner impedance on frequency and liner length is examined. Results show that both the optimal impedance and attenuation levels are significantly influenced by liner length and frequency. In the second example, TBIEM3D is used to compare radiated sound pressure levels between optimal and non-optimal liner cases at conditions designed to simulate take-off. It is shown that significant noise reduction is achieved for most of the sound field by selecting the optimal or near optimal liner impedance. Our results also indicate that there is relatively large region of the impedance plane over which optimal or near optimal liner behavior is attainable. This is an important conclusion for the designer since there are variations in liner characteristics due to manufacturing imprecisions.

  7. A 3D numerical study of antimicrobial persistence in heterogeneous multi-species biofilms.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jia; Shen, Ya; Haapasalo, Markus; Wang, Zhejun; Wang, Qi

    2016-03-01

    We develop a 3D hydrodynamic model to investigate the mechanism of antimicrobial persistence in a multi-species oral biofilm and its recovery after being treated by bisbiguanide chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX). In addition to the hydrodynamic transport in the spatially heterogeneous biofilm, the model also includes mechanisms of solvent-biomass interaction, bacterial phenotype conversion, and bacteria-drug interaction. A numerical solver for the model is developed using a second order numerical scheme in 3D space and time and implemented on GPUs for high-performance computing. The model is calibrated against a set of experimental data obtained using confocal laser scan microscopy (CLSM) on multi-species oral biofilms, where a quantitative agreement is reached. Our numerical results reveal that quorum sensing molecules and growth factors in this model are instrumental in biofilm formation and recovery after the antimicrobial treatment. In particular, we show that (i) young biofilms are more susceptible to the antimicrobial treatment than the mature ones, (ii) this phenomenon is strongly correlated with volume fractions of the persister and EPS in the biofilm being treated. This suggests that antimicrobial treatment should be best administered to biofilms earlier before they mature to produce a thick protective EPS layer. In addition, the numerical study also indicates that an antimicrobial effect can be achieved should a proper mechanism be devised to minimize the conversion of susceptible bacteria to persisters during and even after the treatment. PMID:26739374

  8. Conformal 3D planned radiotherapy for pelvic lymphoceles following surgery for urological cancer: A case study

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Stefan; Käsmann, Lukas; Cegla, Robert; Rades, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the outcome and toxicity of 3D conformal radiotherapy (RT) for persistent lymphoceles following surgery for urological cancer. A total of 6 patients with bladder (n=1) and prostate cancer (n=5), with persistent lymphoceles following surgery for a primary tumor were treated with total doses of 10–12 Gy (1 Gy single dose) after computed tomography (CT) based 3D planning in order to suspend secretion. No acute or chronic toxicities were observed. In 5 patients, secretion of lymph fluid resolved after RT and in 1 patient RT had no effect. After a mean follow-up of 21 months (range, 5–47 months), no patient suffered from any symptoms concerning his former lymphoceles. This is the first analysis, to the best of our knowledge, to evaluate a homogenous patient collective of urological cancer patients with persistent lymphoceles after surgery for the initial tumor. RT to lymphoceles in urological cancer patient is effective, very well-tolerated and should be offered to patients with persistent secretion following drainage.

  9. Reliability and validity of the tritrac-R3D accelerometer during backpacking: a case study.

    PubMed

    DeVoe, D; Dalleck, L

    2001-08-01

    This study investigated the utility of the Tritrac-R3D accelerometer as a reliable and valid instrument in the quantification of physical activity while backpacking in the field and to evaluate heart-rate responses and oxygen consumption to assess the feasibility of using the Tritrac-R3D to estimate caloric expenditure. Two 7-day backpacking expeditions were conducted in two consecutive years by a single subject at Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. The average hiking heart rate ranged front 60% to 77% HRmax during the expeditions. The average rate of estimated caloric cost ranged from 6.8 to 11.7 kcals x min.(-1) (equivalent to 408 to 702 kcals x hr.(-1)), indicating a relatively moderate to high level of exertion. The Tritrac had adequate consistency and reliability in the field between the two expeditions in recorded activity counts. The Tritrac underestimated caloric expenditure during backpacking with changes in terrain, and hiking speed contributed to even greater disparity in accuracy. PMID:11693704

  10. A biofidelic 3D culture model to study the development of brain cellular systems.

    PubMed

    Ren, M; Du, C; Herrero Acero, E; Tang-Schomer, M D; Özkucur, N

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about how cells assemble as systems during corticogenesis to generate collective functions. We built a neurobiology platform that consists of fetal rat cerebral cortical cells grown within 3D silk scaffolds (SF). Ivermectin (Ivm), a glycine receptor (GLR) agonist, was used to modulate cell resting membrane potential (Vmem) according to methods described in a previous work that implicated Ivm in the arrangement and connectivity of cortical cell assemblies. The cells developed into distinct populations of neuroglial stem/progenitor cells, mature neurons or epithelial-mesenchymal cells. Importantly, the synchronized electrical activity in the newly developed cortical assemblies could be recorded as local field potential (LFP) measurements. This study therefore describes the first example of the development of a biologically relevant cortical plate assembly outside of the body. This model provides i) a preclinical basis for engineering cerebral cortex tissue autografts and ii) a biofidelic 3D culture model for investigating biologically relevant processes during the functional development of cerebral cortical cellular systems. PMID:27112667

  11. RF study and 3-D simulations of a side-coupling thermionic RF-gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimjaem, S.; Kusoljariyakul, K.; Thongbai, C.

    2014-02-01

    A thermionic RF-gun for generating ultra-short electron bunches was optimized, developed and used as a source at a linac-based THz radiation research laboratory of the Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Chiang Mai University, Thailand. The RF-gun is a π/2-mode standing wave structure, which consists of two S-band accelerating cells and a side-coupling cavity. The 2856 MHz RF wave is supplied from an S-band klystron to the gun through the waveguide input-port at the cylindrical wall of the second cell. A fraction of the RF power is coupled from the second cell to the first one via a side-coupling cavity. Both the waveguide input-port and the side-coupling cavity lead to an asymmetric geometry of the gun. RF properties and electromagnetic field distributions inside the RF-gun were studied and numerically simulated by using computer codes SUPERFISH 7.19 and CST Microwave Studio 2012©. RF characterizations and tunings of the RF-gun were performed to ensure the reliability of the gun operation. The results from 3D simulations and measurements are compared and discussed in this paper. The influence of asymmetric field distributions inside the RF-gun on the electron beam properties was investigated via 3D beam dynamics simulations. A change in the coupling-plane of the side-coupling cavity is suggested to improve the gun performance.

  12. VA-086 methacrylate gelatine photopolymerizable hydrogels: A parametric study for highly biocompatible 3D cell embedding.

    PubMed

    Occhetta, Paola; Visone, Roberta; Russo, Laura; Cipolla, Laura; Moretti, Matteo; Rasponi, Marco

    2015-06-01

    The ability to replicate in vitro the native extracellular matrix (ECM) features and to control the three-dimensional (3D) cell organization plays a fundamental role in obtaining functional engineered bioconstructs. In tissue engineering (TE) applications, hydrogels have been successfully implied as biomatrices for 3D cell embedding, exhibiting high similarities to the natural ECM and holding easily tunable mechanical properties. In the present study, we characterized a promising photocrosslinking process to generate cell-laden methacrylate gelatin (GelMA) hydrogels in the presence of VA-086 photoinitiator using a ultraviolet LED source. We investigated the influence of prepolymer concentration and light irradiance on mechanical and biomimetic properties of resulting hydrogels. In details, the increasing of gelatin concentration resulted in enhanced rheological properties and shorter polymerization time. We then defined and validated a reliable photopolymerization protocol for cell embedding (1.5% VA-086, LED 2 mW/cm2) within GelMA hydrogels, which demonstrated to support bone marrow stromal cells viability when cultured up to 7 days. Moreover, we showed how different mechanical properties, derived from different crosslinking parameters, strongly influence cell behavior. In conclusion, this protocol can be considered a versatile tool to obtain biocompatible cell-laden hydrogels with properties easily adaptable for different TE applications. PMID:25294368

  13. A biofidelic 3D culture model to study the development of brain cellular systems

    PubMed Central

    Ren, M.; Du, C.; Herrero Acero, E.; Tang-Schomer, M. D.; Özkucur, N.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about how cells assemble as systems during corticogenesis to generate collective functions. We built a neurobiology platform that consists of fetal rat cerebral cortical cells grown within 3D silk scaffolds (SF). Ivermectin (Ivm), a glycine receptor (GLR) agonist, was used to modulate cell resting membrane potential (Vmem) according to methods described in a previous work that implicated Ivm in the arrangement and connectivity of cortical cell assemblies. The cells developed into distinct populations of neuroglial stem/progenitor cells, mature neurons or epithelial-mesenchymal cells. Importantly, the synchronized electrical activity in the newly developed cortical assemblies could be recorded as local field potential (LFP) measurements. This study therefore describes the first example of the development of a biologically relevant cortical plate assembly outside of the body. This model provides i) a preclinical basis for engineering cerebral cortex tissue autografts and ii) a biofidelic 3D culture model for investigating biologically relevant processes during the functional development of cerebral cortical cellular systems. PMID:27112667

  14. Computational Study of 3-D Hot-Spot Initiation in Shocked Insensitive High-Explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najjar, F. M.; Howard, W. M.; Fried, L. E.

    2011-06-01

    High explosive shock sensitivity is controlled by a combination of mechanical response, thermal properties, and chemical properties. The interplay of these physical phenomena in realistic condensed energetic materials is currently lacking. A multiscale computational framework is developed investigating hot spot (void) ignition in a single crystal of an insensitive HE, TATB. Atomistic MD simulations are performed to provide the key chemical reactions and these reaction rates are used in 3-D multiphysics simulations. The multiphysics code, ALE3D, is linked to the chemistry software, Cheetah, and a three-way coupled approach is pursued including hydrodynamics, thermal and chemical analyses. A single spherical air bubble is embedded in the insensitive HE and its collapse due to shock initiation is evolved numerically in time; while the ignition processes due chemical reactions are studied. Our current predictions showcase several interesting features regarding hot spot dynamics including the formation of a ``secondary'' jet. Results obtained with hydro-thermo-chemical processes leading to ignition growth will be discussed for various pore sizes and different shock pressures. LLNL-ABS-471438. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  15. Availability study of CFD-based Mask3D simulation method for next generation lithography technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, M.; Kawabata, Y.; Washitani, T.; Tanaka, S.; Maeda, S.; Mimotogi, S.

    2014-03-01

    In progress of lithography technologies, the importance of Mask3D analysis has been emphasized because the influence of mask topography effects is not avoidable to be increased explosively. An electromagnetic filed simulation method, such as FDTD, RCWA and FEM, is applied to analyze those complicated phenomena. We have investigated Constrained Interpolation Profile (CIP) method, which is one of the Method of Characteristics (MoC), for Mask3D analysis in optical lithography. CIP method can reproduce the phase of propagating waves with less numerical error by using high order polynomial function. The restrictions of grid distance are relaxed with spatial grid. Therefore this method reduces the number of grid points in complex structure. In this paper, we study the feasibility of CIP scheme applying a non-uniform and spatial-interpolated grid to practical mask patterns. The number of grid points might be increased in complex layout and topological structure since these structures require a dense grid to remain the fidelity of each design. We propose a spatial interpolation method based on CIP method same as time-domain interpolation to reduce the number of grid points to be computed. The simulation results of two meshing methods with spatial interpolation are shown.

  16. A small animal image guided irradiation system study using 3D dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Xin; Admovics, John; Wuu, Cheng-Shie

    2015-01-01

    In a high resolution image-guided small animal irradiation platform, a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is integrated with an irradiation unit for precise targeting. Precise quality assurance is essential for both imaging and irradiation components. The conventional commissioning techniques with films face major challenges due to alignment uncertainty and labour intensive film preparation and scanning. In addition, due to the novel design of this platform the mouse stage rotation for CBCT imaging is perpendicular to the gantry rotation for irradiation. Because these two rotations are associated with different mechanical systems, discrepancy between rotation isocenters exists. In order to deliver x-ray precisely, it is essential to verify coincidence of the imaging and the irradiation isocenters. A 3D PRESAGE dosimeter can provide an excellent tool for checking dosimetry and verifying coincidence of irradiation and imaging coordinates in one system. Dosimetric measurements were performed to obtain beam profiles and percent depth dose (PDD). Isocentricity and coincidence of the mouse stage and gantry rotations were evaluated with starshots acquired using PRESAGE dosimeters. A single PRESAGE dosimeter can provide 3 -D information in both geometric and dosimetric uncertainty, which is crucial for translational studies.

  17. 3D Human Motion Editing and Synthesis: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Chen, Qiudi; Wang, Wanliang

    2014-01-01

    The ways to compute the kinematics and dynamic quantities of human bodies in motion have been studied in many biomedical papers. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of 3D human motion editing and synthesis techniques. Firstly, four types of methods for 3D human motion synthesis are introduced and compared. Secondly, motion capture data representation, motion editing, and motion synthesis are reviewed successively. Finally, future research directions are suggested. PMID:25045395

  18. Recognition Accuracy Using 3D Endoscopic Images for Superficial Gastrointestinal Cancer: A Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Kaise, Mitsuru; Kikuchi, Daisuke; Iizuka, Toshiro; Fukuma, Yumiko; Kuribayashi, Yasutaka; Tanaka, Masami; Toba, Takahito; Furuhata, Tsukasa; Yamashita, Satoshi; Matsui, Akira; Mitani, Toshifumi; Hoteya, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To determine whether 3D endoscopic images improved recognition accuracy for superficial gastrointestinal cancer compared with 2D images. Methods. We created an image catalog using 2D and 3D images of 20 specimens resected by endoscopic submucosal dissection. The twelve participants were allocated into two groups. Group 1 evaluated only 2D images at first, group 2 evaluated 3D images, and, after an interval of 2 weeks, group 1 next evaluated 3D and group 2 evaluated 2D images. The evaluation items were as follows: (1) diagnostic accuracy of the tumor extent and (2) confidence levels in assessing (a) tumor extent, (b) morphology, (c) microsurface structure, and (d) comprehensive recognition. Results. The use of 3D images resulted in an improvement in diagnostic accuracy in both group 1 (2D: 76.9%, 3D: 78.6%) and group 2 (2D: 79.9%, 3D: 83.6%), with no statistically significant difference. The confidence levels were higher for all items ((a) to (d)) when 3D images were used. With respect to experience, the degree of the improvement showed the following trend: novices > trainees > experts. Conclusions. By conversion into 3D images, there was a significant improvement in the diagnostic confidence level for superficial tumors, and the improvement was greater in individuals with lower endoscopic expertise. PMID:27597863

  19. Recognition Accuracy Using 3D Endoscopic Images for Superficial Gastrointestinal Cancer: A Crossover Study.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Kosuke; Kaise, Mitsuru; Kikuchi, Daisuke; Iizuka, Toshiro; Fukuma, Yumiko; Kuribayashi, Yasutaka; Tanaka, Masami; Toba, Takahito; Furuhata, Tsukasa; Yamashita, Satoshi; Matsui, Akira; Mitani, Toshifumi; Hoteya, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To determine whether 3D endoscopic images improved recognition accuracy for superficial gastrointestinal cancer compared with 2D images. Methods. We created an image catalog using 2D and 3D images of 20 specimens resected by endoscopic submucosal dissection. The twelve participants were allocated into two groups. Group 1 evaluated only 2D images at first, group 2 evaluated 3D images, and, after an interval of 2 weeks, group 1 next evaluated 3D and group 2 evaluated 2D images. The evaluation items were as follows: (1) diagnostic accuracy of the tumor extent and (2) confidence levels in assessing (a) tumor extent, (b) morphology, (c) microsurface structure, and (d) comprehensive recognition. Results. The use of 3D images resulted in an improvement in diagnostic accuracy in both group 1 (2D: 76.9%, 3D: 78.6%) and group 2 (2D: 79.9%, 3D: 83.6%), with no statistically significant difference. The confidence levels were higher for all items ((a) to (d)) when 3D images were used. With respect to experience, the degree of the improvement showed the following trend: novices > trainees > experts. Conclusions. By conversion into 3D images, there was a significant improvement in the diagnostic confidence level for superficial tumors, and the improvement was greater in individuals with lower endoscopic expertise. PMID:27597863

  20. Are There Side Effects to Watching 3D Movies? A Prospective Crossover Observational Study on Visually Induced Motion Sickness

    PubMed Central

    Solimini, Angelo G.

    2013-01-01

    Background The increasing popularity of commercial movies showing three dimensional (3D) images has raised concern about possible adverse side effects on viewers. Methods and Findings A prospective carryover observational study was designed to assess the effect of exposure (3D vs. 2D movie views) on self reported symptoms of visually induced motion sickness. The standardized Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) was self administered on a convenience sample of 497 healthy adult volunteers before and after the vision of 2D and 3D movies. Viewers reporting some sickness (SSQ total score>15) were 54.8% of the total sample after the 3D movie compared to 14.1% of total sample after the 2D movie. Symptom intensity was 8.8 times higher than baseline after exposure to 3D movie (compared to the increase of 2 times the baseline after the 2D movie). Multivariate modeling of visually induced motion sickness as response variables pointed out the significant effects of exposure to 3D movie, history of car sickness and headache, after adjusting for gender, age, self reported anxiety level, attention to the movie and show time. Conclusions Seeing 3D movies can increase rating of symptoms of nausea, oculomotor and disorientation, especially in women with susceptible visual-vestibular system. Confirmatory studies which include examination of clinical signs on viewers are needed to pursue a conclusive evidence on the 3D vision effects on spectators. PMID:23418530

  1. Biological evaluation and 3D-QSAR studies of curcumin analogues as aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Du, Zhiyun; Zhang, Changyuan; Tang, Zhikai; He, Yan; Zhang, Qiuyan; Zhao, Jun; Zheng, Xi

    2014-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) is reported as a biomarker for identifying some cancer stem cells, and down-regulation or inhibition of the enzyme can be effective in anti-drug resistance and a potent therapeutic for some tumours. In this paper, the inhibitory activity, mechanism mode, molecular docking and 3D-QSAR (three-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship) of curcumin analogues (CAs) against ALDH1 were studied. Results demonstrated that curcumin and CAs possessed potent inhibitory activity against ALDH1, and the CAs compound with ortho di-hydroxyl groups showed the most potent inhibitory activity. This study indicates that CAs may represent a new class of ALDH1 inhibitor. PMID:24840575

  2. Theoretical and Experimental Study of Bacterial Colony Growth in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Xinxian; Mugler, Andrew; Nemenman, Ilya

    2014-03-01

    Bacterial cells growing in liquid culture have been well studied and modeled. However, in nature, bacteria often grow as biofilms or colonies in physically structured habitats. A comprehensive model for population growth in such conditions has not yet been developed. Based on the well-established theory for bacterial growth in liquid culture, we develop a model for colony growth in 3D in which a homogeneous colony of cells locally consume a diffusing nutrient. We predict that colony growth is initially exponential, as in liquid culture, but quickly slows to sub-exponential after nutrient is locally depleted. This prediction is consistent with our experiments performed with E. coli in soft agar. Our model provides a baseline to which studies of complex growth process, such as such as spatially and phenotypically heterogeneous colonies, must be compared.

  3. Effect of Single-Electron Interface Trapping in Decanano MOSFETs: A 3D Atomistic Simulation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asenov, Asen; Balasubramaniam, R.; Brown, A. R.; Davies, J. H.

    2000-01-01

    We study the effect of trapping/detrapping of a single-electron in interface states in the channel of n-type MOSFETs with decanano dimensions using 3D atomistic simulation techniques. In order to highlight the basic dependencies, the simulations are carried out initially assuming continuous doping charge, and discrete localized charge only for the trapped electron. The dependence of the random telegraph signal (RTS) amplitudes on the device dimensions and on the position of the trapped charge in the channel are studied in detail. Later, in full-scale, atomistic simulations assuming discrete charge for both randomly placed dopants and the trapped electron, we highlight the importance of current percolation and of traps with strategic position where the trapped electron blocks a dominant current path.

  4. Transport of iron oxide nanoparticles in saturated porous media: a large-scale 3D study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velimirovic, Milica; Schmid, Doris; Micić, Vesna; Miyajima, Kumiko; Klaas, Norbert; Braun, Jürgen; Bosch, Julian; Meckenstock, Rainer; von der Kammer, Frank; Hofmann, Thilo

    2016-04-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (FeOxNp) have a high potential as electron acceptor for in situ microbial oxidation of a wide range of recalcitrant groundwater contaminants (Bosch et al., 2010). Tosco et al. (2012) reported on high colloidal stability of FeOxNp dispersed in water, their low deposition behavior, and consequently improved transport in column experiments compared to extensively studied zerovalent iron nanoparticles. However, determination of FeOxNp transport behavior at the field-relevant conditions has not been done before. The present work is aimed to evaluate different complementary methods for detection, quantification and transport characterization of FeOxNp in a large-scale three-dimensional (3D) model aquifer. Prior to that, batch-scale experiments were performed in order to elucidate the potential of the selected methods for direct and indirect characterization and detection of FeOxNp. Direct methods included measurements of particle size distribution, particle concentration, Fetot content and turbidity of the FeOxNp suspension. Indirect methods included measurements of particle zeta potential, as well as TOC content and pH of the FeOxNp suspension. The results of the batch experiments indicated that the most suitable approach for detecting and quantifying FeOxNp was measuring Fetot content and suspension turbidity, as well as particle size determined using dynamic light scattering principle. These complementary methods were further applied in a large-scale 3D study containing medium and coarse sand in order to 1) assess the transport of FeOxNp in saturated porous medium during injection (VFeOx = 6 m3, cparticle = 20 g/L, Qinj = 0.7 m3/h), and 2) illustrate their spatial distribution after injection. The outcomes of the large-scale 3D study confirmed that FeOxNp transport can be successfully investigated applying complementary methods. Monitoring data including Fetot content, turbidity and particle size showed the transport of particles towards the

  5. 3D models as a platform for urban analysis and studies on human perception of space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher-Gewirtzman, D.

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this work is to develop an integrated visual analysis and modelling for environmental and urban systems in respect to interior space layout and functionality. This work involves interdisciplinary research efforts that focus primarily on architecture design discipline, yet incorporates experts from other and different disciplines, such as Geoinformatics, computer sciences and environment-behavior studies. This work integrates an advanced Spatial Openness Index (SOI) model within realistic geovisualized Geographical Information System (GIS) environment and assessment using subjective residents' evaluation. The advanced SOI model measures the volume of visible space at any required view point practically, for every room or function. This model enables accurate 3D simulation of the built environment regarding built structure and surrounding vegetation. This paper demonstrates the work on a case study. A 3D model of Neve-Shaanan neighbourhood in Haifa was developed. Students that live in this neighbourhood had participated in this research. Their apartments were modelled in details and inserted into a general model, representing topography and the volumes of buildings. The visual space for each room in every apartment was documented and measured and at the same time the students were asked to answer questions regarding their perception of space and view from their residence. The results of this research work had shown potential contribution to professional users, such as researchers, designers and city planners. This model can be easily used by professionals and by non-professionals such as city dwellers, contractors and developers. This work continues with additional case studies having different building typologies and functions variety, using virtual reality tools.

  6. Challenge for 3D culture technology: Application in carcinogenesis studies with human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Emura, M; Aufderheide, M

    2016-05-01

    Lung cancer is still one of the major intractable diseases and we urgently need more efficient preventive and curative measures. Recent molecular studies have provided strong evidence that allows us to believe that classically well-known early airway lesions such as hyperplasia, metaplasia, dysplasia and carcinoma in situ are really precancerous lesions progressing toward cancer but not necessarily transient and reversible alteration. This suggests that adequate early control of the precancerous lesions may lead to improved prevention of lung cancer. This knowledge is encouraging in view of the imminent necessity for additional experimental systems to investigate the causal mechanisms of cancers directly in human cells and tissues. There are many questions with regard to various precancerous lesions of the airways. For example, should cells, before reaching a stage of invasive carcinoma, undergo all precancerous stages such as hyperplasia or metaplasia and dysplasia, or is there any shortcut to bypass one or more of the precancerous stages? For the study of such questions, the emerging 3-dimensional (3D) cell culture technology appears to provide an effective and valuable tool. Though a great challenge, it is expected that this in vitro technology will be rapidly and reliably improved to enable the cultures to be maintained in an in vivo-mimicking state of differentiation for much longer than a period of at best a few months, as is currently the case. With the help of a "causes recombination-Lox" (Cre-lox) technology, it has been possible to trace cells giving rise to specific lung tumor types. In this short review we have attempted to assess the future role of 3D technology in the study of lung carcinogenesis. PMID:26951634

  7. 3-D study of texture and elastic anisotropy on rocks from NW Italy Ivrea zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pros, Z.; Lokajicek, T.; Prikryl, R.; Klima, K.; Nikitin, A. N.; Ivankina, T. I.; Martinkova, M.

    2003-04-01

    The direct measurement of physical properties of lower crustal and upper mantle rocks, which can be found on the Earth's surface, could be used for the improving of our knowledge of deep rocks. These results could be used mainly for the correction of geological and geophysical models based on the indirect data. Elastic properties of rocks are one of the most important parameters studied and could be applied in many fields of Earth sciences. In this study several quite different methods were applied to determine elastic properties. P-wave ultrasonic sounding of mafic and ultrabasic rock samples in 132 independent directions at several levels of confining pressure enable to determine elastic anisotropy of P-wave velocity. The samples were collected in nearby of Balmuccia ultra basic massif (Ivrea zone, southern Alps, NW Italy). This method revealed large directional variance of maximum P-wave velocity and different symmetric (orthorhombic vs. transversal isotropic) of elastic waves 3-D distribution, that has not been found on these rocks before. Identical samples were studied by means of neutron diffraction. Neutron diffraction provide data on CPO orientation in identical spherical samples, on which was measured P-wave velocity. Laboratory 3-D measurement of P-wave velocity thus present powerful method for detection of magmatic fabric features not visible by naked eye. One dunite sample exhibits P-wave velocity approaching to that of olivine crystal 9.8 km/s due to the strong CPO of olivine in this sample. Such observation was not done before on the natural olivine-rich rocks. It follows from the comparison of measured and calculated P-wave velocities, that these values are more reliable than data obtained from measurement in few directions only. This project was supported by Grant Agency of the Czech Republic No.: 205/01/1430.

  8. Study on basic problems in real-time 3D holographic display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Jia; Liu, Juan; Wang, Yongtian; Pan, Yijie; Li, Xin

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, real-time three-dimensional (3D) holographic display has attracted more and more attentions. Since a holographic display can entirely reconstruct the wavefront of an actual 3D scene, it can provide all the depth cues for human eye's observation and perception, and it is believed to be the most promising technology for future 3D display. However, there are several unsolved basic problems for realizing large-size real-time 3D holographic display with a wide field of view. For examples, commercial pixelated spatial light modulators (SLM) always lead to zero-order intensity distortion; 3D holographic display needs a huge number of sampling points for the actual objects or scenes, resulting in enormous computational time; The size and the viewing zone of the reconstructed 3D optical image are limited by the space bandwidth product of the SLM; Noise from the coherent light source as well as from the system severely degrades the quality of the 3D image; and so on. Our work is focused on these basic problems, and some initial results are presented, including a technique derived theoretically and verified experimentally to eliminate the zero-order beam caused by a pixelated phase-only SLM; a method to enlarge the reconstructed 3D image and shorten the reconstruction distance using a concave reflecting mirror; and several algorithms to speed up the calculation of computer generated holograms (CGH) for the display.

  9. Adding a radial dimension to the assessment of esophagogastric junction relaxation: validation studies of the 3D-eSleeve

    PubMed Central

    Pandolfino, John E.; Lin, Zhiyue; Xiao, Yinglian; Escobar, Gabriela; Kahrilas, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution manometry (HRM) with esophageal pressure topography (EPT) allowed for the establishment of an objective quantitative measurement of esophagogastric junction (EGJ) relaxation, the integrated relaxation pressure (IRP). This study assessed whether or not a novel 3D-HRM assembly could improve on this measurement. Twenty-five normal subjects were studied with both a standard HRM assembly and a novel hybrid assembly (3D-HRM), including a 9.0 cm 3D-HRM segment composed of 96 radially dispersed independent pressure sensors. The standard IRP was computed using each assembly and compared with a novel paradigm, the 3D-IRP, an analysis premised on finding the axial maximum and radial minimum pressure at each sensor ring along the sleeve segment. Fourteen additional subjects underwent barium swallows with 3D-HRM and concurrent videofluoroscopy to compare the electronic sleeve (eSleeve) paradigm (circumferential average) to the 3D eSleeve paradigm (radial minimum) as a predictor of transphincteric flow. The 3D-IRP was significantly less than all other calculations of IRP with the upper limit of normal being 12 mmHg vs. 17 mmHg for the standard IRP. The sensitivity (0.78) and the specificity (0.88) of the 3D-eSleeve were also better than the standard eSleeve (0.55 and 0.85, respectively) for predicting flow permissive time verified fluoroscopically. The 3D-IRP and 3D-eSleeve calculated using the radial pressure minimum lowered the normative range of EGJ relaxation (upper limit of normal 12 mmHg) and yielded intraluminal pressure gradients that better correlated with bolus flow than did analysis paradigms based on circumferentially averaged pressure. PMID:22628033

  10. Adding a radial dimension to the assessment of esophagogastric junction relaxation: validation studies of the 3D-eSleeve.

    PubMed

    Nicodème, Frédéric; Pandolfino, John E; Lin, Zhiyue; Xiao, Yinglian; Escobar, Gabriela; Kahrilas, Peter J

    2012-08-01

    High-resolution manometry (HRM) with esophageal pressure topography (EPT) allowed for the establishment of an objective quantitative measurement of esophagogastric junction (EGJ) relaxation, the integrated relaxation pressure (IRP). This study assessed whether or not a novel 3D-HRM assembly could improve on this measurement. Twenty-five normal subjects were studied with both a standard HRM assembly and a novel hybrid assembly (3D-HRM), including a 9.0 cm 3D-HRM segment composed of 96 radially dispersed independent pressure sensors. The standard IRP was computed using each assembly and compared with a novel paradigm, the 3D-IRP, an analysis premised on finding the axial maximum and radial minimum pressure at each sensor ring along the sleeve segment. Fourteen additional subjects underwent barium swallows with 3D-HRM and concurrent videofluoroscopy to compare the electronic sleeve (eSleeve) paradigm (circumferential average) to the 3D eSleeve paradigm (radial minimum) as a predictor of transphincteric flow. The 3D-IRP was significantly less than all other calculations of IRP with the upper limit of normal being 12 mmHg vs. 17 mmHg for the standard IRP. The sensitivity (0.78) and the specificity (0.88) of the 3D-eSleeve were also better than the standard eSleeve (0.55 and 0.85, respectively) for predicting flow permissive time verified fluoroscopically. The 3D-IRP and 3D-eSleeve calculated using the radial pressure minimum lowered the normative range of EGJ relaxation (upper limit of normal 12 mmHg) and yielded intraluminal pressure gradients that better correlated with bolus flow than did analysis paradigms based on circumferentially averaged pressure. PMID:22628033