Science.gov

Sample records for 3d medical scan

  1. 3D light scanning macrography.

    PubMed

    Huber, D; Keller, M; Robert, D

    2001-08-01

    The technique of 3D light scanning macrography permits the non-invasive surface scanning of small specimens at magnifications up to 200x. Obviating both the problem of limited depth of field inherent to conventional close-up macrophotography and the metallic coating required by scanning electron microscopy, 3D light scanning macrography provides three-dimensional digital images of intact specimens without the loss of colour, texture and transparency information. This newly developed technique offers a versatile, portable and cost-efficient method for the non-invasive digital and photographic documentation of small objects. Computer controlled device operation and digital image acquisition facilitate fast and accurate quantitative morphometric investigations, and the technique offers a broad field of research and educational applications in biological, medical and materials sciences. PMID:11489078

  2. Remote 3D Medical Consultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Greg; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Fuchs, Henry; Cairns, Bruce; Mayer-Patel, Ketan; Yang, Ruigang; State, Andrei; Towles, Herman; Ilie, Adrian; Krishnan, Srinivas; Söderholm, Hanna M.

    Two-dimensional (2D) video-based telemedical consultation has been explored widely in the past 15-20 years. Two issues that seem to arise in most relevant case studies are the difficulty associated with obtaining the desired 2D camera views, and poor depth perception. To address these problems we are exploring the use of a small array of cameras to synthesize a spatially continuous range of dynamic three-dimensional (3D) views of a remote environment and events. The 3D views can be sent across wired or wireless networks to remote viewers with fixed displays or mobile devices such as a personal digital assistant (PDA). The viewpoints could be specified manually or automatically via user head or PDA tracking, giving the remote viewer virtual head- or hand-slaved (PDA-based) remote cameras for mono or stereo viewing. We call this idea remote 3D medical consultation (3DMC). In this article we motivate and explain the vision for 3D medical consultation; we describe the relevant computer vision/graphics, display, and networking research; we present a proof-of-concept prototype system; and we present some early experimental results supporting the general hypothesis that 3D remote medical consultation could offer benefits over conventional 2D televideo.

  3. 3D surface measurement for medical application--technical comparison of two established industrial surface scanning systems.

    PubMed

    Schwenzer-Zimmerer, K; Haberstok, J; Kovacs, L; Boerner, B I; Schwenzer, N; Juergens, P; Zeihofer, H F; Holberg, C

    2008-02-01

    In 3D mapping of flexible surfaces (e.g. human faces) measurement errors due to movement or positioning occur. Aggravated by equipment- or researcher-caused mistakes considerable deviations can result. Therefore first the appliances' precision handling and reliability in clinical environment must be established. Aim of this study was to investigate accuracy and precision of two contact-free 3D measurement systems (white light vs. laser). Standard specimens of known diameter for sphere deviation, touch deviation and plane deviation were tested. Both systems are appropriate for medical application acquiring solid data (

  4. 3D medical thermography device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghadam, Peyman

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a novel handheld 3D medical thermography system is introduced. The proposed system consists of a thermal-infrared camera, a color camera and a depth camera rigidly attached in close proximity and mounted on an ergonomic handle. As a practitioner holding the device smoothly moves it around the human body parts, the proposed system generates and builds up a precise 3D thermogram model by incorporating information from each new measurement in real-time. The data is acquired in motion, thus it provides multiple points of view. When processed, these multiple points of view are adaptively combined by taking into account the reliability of each individual measurement which can vary due to a variety of factors such as angle of incidence, distance between the device and the subject and environmental sensor data or other factors influencing a confidence of the thermal-infrared data when captured. Finally, several case studies are presented to support the usability and performance of the proposed system.

  5. An automatic approach for 3D registration of CT scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yang; Saber, Eli; Dianat, Sohail; Vantaram, Sreenath Rao; Abhyankar, Vishwas

    2012-03-01

    CT (Computed tomography) is a widely employed imaging modality in the medical field. Normally, a volume of CT scans is prescribed by a doctor when a specific region of the body (typically neck to groin) is suspected of being abnormal. The doctors are required to make professional diagnoses based upon the obtained datasets. In this paper, we propose an automatic registration algorithm that helps healthcare personnel to automatically align corresponding scans from 'Study' to 'Atlas'. The proposed algorithm is capable of aligning both 'Atlas' and 'Study' into the same resolution through 3D interpolation. After retrieving the scanned slice volume in the 'Study' and the corresponding volume in the original 'Atlas' dataset, a 3D cross correlation method is used to identify and register various body parts.

  6. Integrating visible light 3D scanning into the everyday world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    Visible light 3D scanning offers the potential to non-invasively and nearly non-perceptibly incorporate 3D imaging into the everyday world. This paper considers the various possible uses of visible light 3D scanning technology. It discusses multiple possible usage scenarios including in hospitals, security perimeter settings and retail environments. The paper presents a framework for assessing the efficacy of visible light 3D scanning for a given application (and compares this to other scanning approaches such as those using blue light or lasers). It also discusses ethical and legal considerations relevant to real-world use and concludes by presenting a decision making framework.

  7. 3D scanning modeling method application in ancient city reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Pu; Zhou, Mingquan; Du, Guoguang; Shui, Wuyang; Zhou, Pengbo

    2015-07-01

    With the development of optical engineering technology, the precision of 3D scanning equipment becomes higher, and its role in 3D modeling is getting more distinctive. This paper proposed a 3D scanning modeling method that has been successfully applied in Chinese ancient city reconstruction. On one hand, for the existing architectures, an improved algorithm based on multiple scanning is adopted. Firstly, two pieces of scanning data were rough rigid registered using spherical displacers and vertex clustering method. Secondly, a global weighted ICP (iterative closest points) method is used to achieve a fine rigid registration. On the other hand, for the buildings which have already disappeared, an exemplar-driven algorithm for rapid modeling was proposed. Based on the 3D scanning technology and the historical data, a system approach was proposed for 3D modeling and virtual display of ancient city.

  8. Optical monitoring of scoliosis by 3D medical laser scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Quiñonez, Julio C.; Sergiyenko, Oleg Yu.; Preciado, Luis C. Basaca; Tyrsa, Vera V.; Gurko, Alexander G.; Podrygalo, Mikhail A.; Lopez, Moises Rivas; Balbuena, Daniel Hernandez

    2014-03-01

    Three dimensional recording of the human body surface or anatomical areas have gained importance in many medical applications. In this paper, our 3D Medical Laser Scanner is presented. It is based on the novel principle of dynamic triangulation. We analyze the method of operation, medical applications, orthopedically diseases as Scoliosis and the most common types of skin to employ the system the most proper way. It is analyzed a group of medical problems related to the application of optical scanning in optimal way. Finally, experiments are conducted to verify the performance of the proposed system and its method uncertainty.

  9. 3D medical volume reconstruction using web services.

    PubMed

    Kooper, Rob; Shirk, Andrew; Lee, Sang-Chul; Lin, Amy; Folberg, Robert; Bajcsy, Peter

    2008-04-01

    We address the problem of 3D medical volume reconstruction using web services. The use of proposed web services is motivated by the fact that the problem of 3D medical volume reconstruction requires significant computer resources and human expertise in medical and computer science areas. Web services are implemented as an additional layer to a dataflow framework called data to knowledge. In the collaboration between UIC and NCSA, pre-processed input images at NCSA are made accessible to medical collaborators for registration. Every time UIC medical collaborators inspected images and selected corresponding features for registration, the web service at NCSA is contacted and the registration processing query is executed using the image to knowledge library of registration methods. Co-registered frames are returned for verification by medical collaborators in a new window. In this paper, we present 3D volume reconstruction problem requirements and the architecture of the developed prototype system at http://isda.ncsa.uiuc.edu/MedVolume. We also explain the tradeoffs of our system design and provide experimental data to support our system implementation. The prototype system has been used for multiple 3D volume reconstructions of blood vessels and vasculogenic mimicry patterns in histological sections of uveal melanoma studied by fluorescent confocal laser scanning microscope. PMID:18336808

  10. Implementation of 3D Optical Scanning Technology for Automotive Applications.

    PubMed

    Kuş, Abdil

    2009-01-01

    Reverse engineering (RE) is a powerful tool for generating a CAD model from the 3D scan data of a physical part that lacks documentation or has changed from the original CAD design of the part. The process of digitizing a part and creating a CAD model from 3D scan data is less time consuming and provides greater accuracy than manually measuring the part and designing the part from scratch in CAD. 3D optical scanning technology is one of the measurement methods which have evolved over the last few years and it is used in a wide range of areas from industrial applications to art and cultural heritage. It is also used extensively in the automotive industry for applications such as part inspections, scanning of tools without CAD definition, scanning the casting for definition of the stock (i.e. the amount of material to be removed from the surface of the castings) model for CAM programs and reverse engineering. In this study two scanning experiments of automotive applications are illustrated. The first one examines the processes from scanning to re-manufacturing the damaged sheet metal cutting die, using a 3D scanning technique and the second study compares the scanned point clouds data to 3D CAD data for inspection purposes. Furthermore, the deviations of the part holes are determined by using different lenses and scanning parameters. PMID:22573995

  11. Implementation of 3D Optical Scanning Technology for Automotive Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kuş, Abdil

    2009-01-01

    Reverse engineering (RE) is a powerful tool for generating a CAD model from the 3D scan data of a physical part that lacks documentation or has changed from the original CAD design of the part. The process of digitizing a part and creating a CAD model from 3D scan data is less time consuming and provides greater accuracy than manually measuring the part and designing the part from scratch in CAD. 3D optical scanning technology is one of the measurement methods which have evolved over the last few years and it is used in a wide range of areas from industrial applications to art and cultural heritage. It is also used extensively in the automotive industry for applications such as part inspections, scanning of tools without CAD definition, scanning the casting for definition of the stock (i.e. the amount of material to be removed from the surface of the castings) model for CAM programs and reverse engineering. In this study two scanning experiments of automotive applications are illustrated. The first one examines the processes from scanning to re-manufacturing the damaged sheet metal cutting die, using a 3D scanning technique and the second study compares the scanned point clouds data to 3D CAD data for inspection purposes. Furthermore, the deviations of the part holes are determined by using different lenses and scanning parameters. PMID:22573995

  12. Array servo scanning micro EDM of 3D micro cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Hao; Li, Yong; Yi, Futing

    2010-12-01

    Micro electro discharge machining (Micro EDM) is a non-traditional processing technology with the special advantages of low set-up cost and few cutting force in machining any conductive materials regardless of their hardness. As well known, die-sinking EDM is unsuitable for machining the complex 3D micro cavity less than 1mm due to the high-priced fabrication of 3D microelectrode itself and its serous wear during EDM process. In our former study, a servo scanning 3D micro-EDM (3D SSMEDM) method was put forward, and our experiments showed it was available to fabricate complex 3D micro-cavities. In this study, in order to improve machining efficiency and consistency accuracy for array 3D micro-cavities, an array-servo-scanning 3D micro EDM (3D ASSMEDM) method is presented considering the complementary advantages of the 3D SSMEDM and the array micro electrodes with simple cross-section. During 3D ASSMEDM process, the array cavities designed by CAD / CAM system can be batch-manufactured by servo scanning layer by layer using array-rod-like micro tool electrodes, and the axial wear of the array electrodes is compensated in real time by keeping discharge gap. To verify the effectiveness of the 3D ASSMEDM, the array-triangle-micro cavities (side length 630 μm) are batch-manufactured on P-doped silicon by applying the array-micro-electrodes with square-cross-section fabricated by LIGA process. Our exploratory experiment shows that the 3D ASSMEDM provides a feasible approach for the batch-manufacture of 3D array-micro-cavities of conductive materials.

  13. Array servo scanning micro EDM of 3D micro cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Hao; Li, Yong; Yi, Futing

    2011-05-01

    Micro electro discharge machining (Micro EDM) is a non-traditional processing technology with the special advantages of low set-up cost and few cutting force in machining any conductive materials regardless of their hardness. As well known, die-sinking EDM is unsuitable for machining the complex 3D micro cavity less than 1mm due to the high-priced fabrication of 3D microelectrode itself and its serous wear during EDM process. In our former study, a servo scanning 3D micro-EDM (3D SSMEDM) method was put forward, and our experiments showed it was available to fabricate complex 3D micro-cavities. In this study, in order to improve machining efficiency and consistency accuracy for array 3D micro-cavities, an array-servo-scanning 3D micro EDM (3D ASSMEDM) method is presented considering the complementary advantages of the 3D SSMEDM and the array micro electrodes with simple cross-section. During 3D ASSMEDM process, the array cavities designed by CAD / CAM system can be batch-manufactured by servo scanning layer by layer using array-rod-like micro tool electrodes, and the axial wear of the array electrodes is compensated in real time by keeping discharge gap. To verify the effectiveness of the 3D ASSMEDM, the array-triangle-micro cavities (side length 630 μm) are batch-manufactured on P-doped silicon by applying the array-micro-electrodes with square-cross-section fabricated by LIGA process. Our exploratory experiment shows that the 3D ASSMEDM provides a feasible approach for the batch-manufacture of 3D array-micro-cavities of conductive materials.

  14. The dimension added by 3D scanning and 3D printing of meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vet, S. J.

    2016-01-01

    An overview for the 3D photodocumentation of meteorites is presented, focussing on two 3D scanning methods in relation to 3D printing. The 3D photodocumention of meteorites provides new ways for the digital preservation of culturally, historically or scientifically unique meteorites. It has the potential for becoming a new documentation standard of meteorites that can exist complementary to traditional photographic documentation. Notable applications include (i.) use of physical properties in dark flight-, strewn field-, or aerodynamic modelling; (ii.) collection research of meteorites curated by different museum collections, and (iii.) public dissemination of meteorite models as a resource for educational users. The possible applications provided by the additional dimension of 3D illustrate the benefits for the meteoritics community.

  15. Steering knuckle diameter measurement based on optical 3D scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Li-mei; Li, Da-peng; Chang, Yu-lan; Xi, Jiang-tao; Guo, Qing-hua

    2014-11-01

    To achieve accurate measurements, the creating a fitting hole for internal diameter (CFHID) measurement method and the establishing multi-sectional curve for external diameter (EMCED) measurement method are proposed in this paper, which are based on computer vision principle and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction. The methods are able to highlight the 3D characteristics of the scanned object and to achieve the accurate measurement of 3D data. It can create favorable conditions for realizing the reverse design and 3D reconstruction of scanned object. These methods can also be applied to dangerous work environment or the occasion that traditional contact measurement can not meet the demands, and they can improve the security in measurement.

  16. On averaging multiview relations for 3D scan registration.

    PubMed

    Govindu, Venu Madhav; Pooja, A

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we present an extension of the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm that simultaneously registers multiple 3D scans. While ICP fails to utilize the multiview constraints available, our method exploits the information redundancy in a set of 3D scans by using the averaging of relative motions. This averaging method utilizes the Lie group structure of motions, resulting in a 3D registration method that is both efficient and accurate. In addition, we present two variants of our approach, i.e., a method that solves for multiview 3D registration while obeying causality and a transitive correspondence variant that efficiently solves the correspondence problem across multiple scans. We present experimental results to characterize our method and explain its behavior as well as those of some other multiview registration methods in the literature. We establish the superior accuracy of our method in comparison to these multiview methods with registration results on a set of well-known real datasets of 3D scans. PMID:23412615

  17. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.

    PubMed

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:26562233

  18. 3D scanning and printing skeletal tissues for anatomy education.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Daniel B; Hiscox, Jessica D; Dixon, Blair J; Potgieter, Johan

    2016-09-01

    Detailed anatomical models can be produced with consumer-level 3D scanning and printing systems. 3D replication techniques are significant advances for anatomical education as they allow practitioners to more easily introduce diverse or numerous specimens into classrooms. Here we present a methodology for producing anatomical models in-house, with the chondrocranium cartilage from a spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) and the skeleton of a cane toad (Rhinella marina) as case studies. 3D digital replicas were produced using two consumer-level scanners and specimens were 3D-printed with selective laser sintering. The fidelity of the two case study models was determined with respect to key anatomical features. Larger-scale features of the dogfish chondrocranium and frog skeleton were all well-resolved and distinct in the 3D digital models, and many finer-scale features were also well-resolved, but some more subtle features were absent from the digital models (e.g. endolymphatic foramina in chondrocranium). All characters identified in the digital chondrocranium could be identified in the subsequent 3D print; however, three characters in the 3D-printed frog skeleton could not be clearly delimited (palatines, parasphenoid and pubis). Characters that were absent in the digital models or 3D prints had low-relief in the original scanned specimen and represent a minor loss of fidelity. Our method description and case studies show that minimal equipment and training is needed to produce durable skeletal specimens. These technologies support the tailored production of models for specific classes or research aims. PMID:27146106

  19. Pavement cracking measurements using 3D laser-scan images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, W.; Xu, B.

    2013-10-01

    Pavement condition surveying is vital for pavement maintenance programs that ensure ride quality and traffic safety. This paper first introduces an automated pavement inspection system which uses a three-dimensional (3D) camera and a structured laser light to acquire dense transverse profiles of a pavement lane surface when it carries a moving vehicle. After the calibration, the 3D system can yield a depth resolution of 0.5 mm and a transverse resolution of 1.56 mm pixel-1 at 1.4 m camera height from the ground. The scanning rate of the camera can be set to its maximum at 5000 lines s-1, allowing the density of scanned profiles to vary with the vehicle's speed. The paper then illustrates the algorithms that utilize 3D information to detect pavement distress, such as transverse, longitudinal and alligator cracking, and presents the field tests on the system's repeatability when scanning a sample pavement in multiple runs at the same vehicle speed, at different vehicle speeds and under different weather conditions. The results show that this dedicated 3D system can capture accurate pavement images that detail surface distress, and obtain consistent crack measurements in repeated tests and under different driving and lighting conditions.

  20. Highlighting the medical applications of 3D printing in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hafez, Mahmoud A; Abdelghany, Khaled; Hamza, Hosamuddin

    2015-12-01

    Computer-assisted designing/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology has enabled medical practitioners to tailor physical models in a patient and purpose-specific fashion. It allows the designing and manufacturing of templates, appliances and devices with a high range of accuracy using biocompatible materials. The technique, nevertheless, relies on digital scanning (e.g., using intraoral scanners) and/or digital imaging (e.g., CT and MRI). In developing countries, there are some technical and financial limitations of implementing such advanced tools as an essential portion of medical applications. This paper focuses on the surgical and dental use of 3D printing technology in Egypt as a developing country. PMID:26807414

  1. Highlighting the medical applications of 3D printing in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Abdelghany, Khaled; Hamza, Hosamuddin

    2015-01-01

    Computer-assisted designing/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology has enabled medical practitioners to tailor physical models in a patient and purpose-specific fashion. It allows the designing and manufacturing of templates, appliances and devices with a high range of accuracy using biocompatible materials. The technique, nevertheless, relies on digital scanning (e.g., using intraoral scanners) and/or digital imaging (e.g., CT and MRI). In developing countries, there are some technical and financial limitations of implementing such advanced tools as an essential portion of medical applications. This paper focuses on the surgical and dental use of 3D printing technology in Egypt as a developing country. PMID:26807414

  2. Automation of 3D scan data capturing and processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitnik, Robert; Karaszewski, Maciej; Załuski, Wojciech; Rutkiewicz, Jan

    2010-02-01

    In this paper a fully automated 3D shape measurement and processing method is presented. It assumes that positioning of measurement head in relation to measured object can be realized by specialized computer-controlled manipulator. On the base of existing 3D scans, the proposed method calculates "next best view" position for measurement head. All 3D data processing (filtering, ICP based fitting and final views integration) is performed automatically. Final 3D model is created on the base of user specified parameters like accuracy of surface representation or density of surface sampling. Exemplary system that implements all mentioned functionalities will be presented. The goal of this system is to automatically (without any user attention) and rapidly (from days and weeks to hours) measure whole object with some limitations to its properties: maximum measurement volume is described as a cylinder with 2,5m height and 1m radius, maximum object's weight is 2 tons. Measurement head is automatically calibrated by the system and its possible working volume starts from 120mm x 80mm x 60mm and ends up to 1,2m x 0,8m x 0,6m. Exemplary measurement result is presented.

  3. From 3D Scanning to Analytical Heritage Documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaich, M.

    During the last few years, the number of historical and archaeological items recorded using innovative, three dimensional surveying technologies has increased considerably. Comprehensive digital, photo-realistic 3D recording and modelling yields a huge range of new possibilities for documenting, analysing and safeguarding items of cultural importance. ArcTron GmbH has specialised in electronic surveying and the development of CAD and database information systems for heritage and archaeology for over 12 years employing total stations, laser pantographs and photogrammetry, as well as a variety of laser scanning systems, to generate 3D recordings. Innovative complementary combinations of these technologies allow their respective strengths to be fully exploited. The data resulting from recording techniques of these kinds can be used as a basis for producing documentation of outstanding quality. 3D digital models with photo-realistic texturing, orthophotos, coloured point clouds, 3D damage mapping, rapid prototyping models and multi-media presentations are just some of the potential resulting forms of documentation. Historical monuments and items ranging from huge sections of terrain down to the smallest artefact can be reproduced with such accuracy and to such a high level of realism that documentation of this kind is not only extremely useful for archaeologists, conservators and architectural historians etc. but practically indispensable.

  4. 3D range scan enhancement using image-based methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbort, Steffen; Gerken, Britta; Schugk, Daniel; Wöhler, Christian

    2013-10-01

    This paper addresses the problem of 3D surface scan refinement, which is desirable due to noise, outliers, and missing measurements being present in the 3D surfaces obtained with a laser scanner. We present a novel algorithm for the fusion of absolute laser scanner depth profiles and photometrically estimated surface normal data, which yields a noise-reduced and highly detailed depth profile with large scale shape robustness. In contrast to other approaches published in the literature, the presented algorithm (1) regards non-Lambertian surfaces, (2) simultaneously computes surface reflectance (i.e. BRDF) parameters required for 3D reconstruction, (3) models pixelwise incident light and viewing directions, and (4) accounts for interreflections. The algorithm as such relies on the minimization of a three-component error term, which penalizes intensity deviations, integrability deviations, and deviations from the known large-scale surface shape. The solution of the error minimization is obtained iteratively based on a calculus of variations. BRDF parameters are estimated by initially reducing and then iteratively refining the optical resolution, which provides the required robust data basis. The 3D reconstruction of concave surface regions affected by interreflections is improved by compensating global illumination in the image data. The algorithm is evaluated based on eight objects with varying albedos and reflectance behaviors (diffuse, specular, metallic). The qualitative evaluation shows a removal of outliers and a strong reduction of noise, while the large scale shape is preserved. Fine surface details Which are previously not contained in the surface scans, are incorporated through using image data. The algorithm is evaluated with respect to its absolute accuracy using two caliper objects of known shape, and based on synthetically generated data. The beneficial effect of interreflection compensation on the reconstruction accuracy is evaluated quantitatively in a

  5. Parsing optical scanned 3D data by Bayesian inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Hanwei; Xu, Jun; Xu, Chenxi; Pan, Ming

    2015-10-01

    Optical devices are always used to digitize complex objects to get their shapes in form of point clouds. The results have no semantic meaning about the objects, and tedious process is indispensable to segment the scanned data to get meanings. The reason for a person to perceive an object correctly is the usage of knowledge, so Bayesian inference is used to the goal. A probabilistic And-Or-Graph is used as a unified framework of representation, learning, and recognition for a large number of object categories, and a probabilistic model defined on this And-Or-Graph is learned from a relatively small training set per category. Given a set of 3D scanned data, the Bayesian inference constructs a most probable interpretation of the object, and a semantic segment is obtained from the part decomposition. Some examples are given to explain the method.

  6. 3D dosimetry by optical-CT scanning

    PubMed Central

    Oldham, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The need for an accurate, practical, low-cost 3D dosimetry system is becoming ever more critical as modern dose delivery techniques increase in complexity and sophistication. A recent report from the Radiological Physics Center (RPC) (1), revealed that 38% of institutions failed the head-and-neck IMRT phantom credentialing test at the first attempt. This was despite generous passing criteria (within 7% dose-difference or 4mm distance-to-agreement) evaluated at a half-dozen points and a single axial plane. The question that arises from this disturbing finding is – what percentage of institutions would have failed if a comprehensive 3D measurement had been feasible, rather than measurements restricted to the central film-plane and TLD points? This question can only be adequately answered by a comprehensive 3D-dosimetry system, which presents a compelling argument for its development as a clinically viable low cost dosimetry solution. Optical-CT dosimetry is perhaps the closest system to providing such a comprehensive solution. In this article, we review the origins and recent developments of optical-CT dosimetry systems. The principle focus is on first generation systems known to have highest accuracy but longer scan times. PMID:17460781

  7. An omnidirectional 3D sensor with line laser scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jing; Gao, Bingtuan; Liu, Chuande; Wang, Peng; Gao, Shuanglei

    2016-09-01

    An active omnidirectional vision owns the advantages of the wide field of view (FOV) imaging, resulting in an entire 3D environment scene, which is promising in the field of robot navigation. However, the existing omnidirectional vision sensors based on line laser can measure points only located on the optical plane of the line laser beam, resulting in the low-resolution reconstruction. Whereas, to improve resolution, some other omnidirectional vision sensors with the capability of projecting 2D encode pattern from projector and curved mirror. However, the astigmatism property of curve mirror causes the low-accuracy reconstruction. To solve the above problems, a rotating polygon scanning mirror is used to scan the object in the vertical direction so that an entire profile of the observed scene can be obtained at high accuracy, without of astigmatism phenomenon. Then, the proposed method is calibrated by a conventional 2D checkerboard plate. The experimental results show that the measurement error of the 3D omnidirectional sensor is approximately 1 mm. Moreover, the reconstruction of objects with different shapes based on the developed sensor is also verified.

  8. Ultrafast superpixel segmentation of large 3D medical datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblond, Antoine; Kauffmann, Claude

    2016-03-01

    Even with recent hardware improvements, superpixel segmentation of large 3D medical images at interactive speed (<500 ms) remains a challenge. We will describe methods to achieve such performances using a GPU based hybrid framework implementing wavefront propagation and cellular automata resolution. Tasks will be scheduled in blocks (work units) using a wavefront propagation strategy, therefore allowing sparse scheduling. Because work units has been designed as spatially cohesive, the fast Thread Group Shared Memory can be used and reused through a Gauss-Seidel like acceleration. The work unit partitioning scheme will however vary on odd- and even-numbered iterations to reduce convergence barriers. Synchronization will be ensured by an 8-step 3D variant of the traditional Red Black Ordering scheme. An attack model and early termination will also be described and implemented as additional acceleration techniques. Using our hybrid framework and typical operating parameters, we were able to compute the superpixels of a high-resolution 512x512x512 aortic angioCT scan in 283 ms using a AMD R9 290X GPU. We achieved a 22.3X speed-up factor compared to the published reference GPU implementation.

  9. Whole-body 3D scanner and scan data report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addleman, Stephen R.

    1997-03-01

    With the first whole-body 3D scanner now available the next adventure confronting the user is what to do with all of the data. While the system was built for anthropologists, it has created interest among users from a wide variety of fields. Users with applications in the fields of anthropology, costume design, garment design, entertainment, VR and gaming have a need for the data in formats unique to their fields. Data from the scanner is being converted to solid models for art and design and NURBS for computer graphics applications. Motion capture has made scan data move and dance. The scanner has created a need for advanced application software just as other scanners have in the past.

  10. 3D body scanning technology for fashion and apparel industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Apuzzo, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of 3D body scanning technologies with applications to the fashion and apparel industry. Complete systems for the digitization of the human body exist since more than fifteen years. One of the main users of this technology with application in the textile field was the military industry. In fact, body scanning technology is being successfully employed since many years in military bases for a fast selection of the correct size of uniforms for the entire staff. Complete solutions were especially developed for this field of application. Many different research projects were issued for the exploitation of the same technology in the commercial field. Experiments were performed and start-up projects are to time running in different parts of the world by installing full body scanning systems in various locations such as shopping malls, boutiques or dedicated scanning centers. Everything is actually ready to be exploited and all the required hardware, software and solutions are available: full body scanning systems, software for the automatic and reliable extraction of body measurements, e-kiosk and web solutions for the presentation of garments, high-end and low-end virtual-try-on systems. However, complete solutions in this area have still not yet found the expected commercial success. Today, with the on-going large cost reduction given by the appearance of new competitors, methods for digitization of the human body becomes more interesting for the fashion and apparel industry. Therefore, a large expansion of these technologies is expected in the near future. To date, different methods are used commercially for the measurement of the human body. These can be divided into three major distinguished groups: laser-scanning, projection of light patterns, combination modeling and image processing. The different solutions have strengths and weaknesses that profile their suitability for specific applications. This paper gives an overview of their

  11. 3D annotation and manipulation of medical anatomical structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitanovski, Dime; Schaller, Christian; Hahn, Dieter; Daum, Volker; Hornegger, Joachim

    2009-02-01

    Although the medical scanners are rapidly moving towards a three-dimensional paradigm, the manipulation and annotation/labeling of the acquired data is still performed in a standard 2D environment. Editing and annotation of three-dimensional medical structures is currently a complex task and rather time-consuming, as it is carried out in 2D projections of the original object. A major problem in 2D annotation is the depth ambiguity, which requires 3D landmarks to be identified and localized in at least two of the cutting planes. Operating directly in a three-dimensional space enables the implicit consideration of the full 3D local context, which significantly increases accuracy and speed. A three-dimensional environment is as well more natural optimizing the user's comfort and acceptance. The 3D annotation environment requires the three-dimensional manipulation device and display. By means of two novel and advanced technologies, Wii Nintendo Controller and Philips 3D WoWvx display, we define an appropriate 3D annotation tool and a suitable 3D visualization monitor. We define non-coplanar setting of four Infrared LEDs with a known and exact position, which are tracked by the Wii and from which we compute the pose of the device by applying a standard pose estimation algorithm. The novel 3D renderer developed by Philips uses either the Z-value of a 3D volume, or it computes the depth information out of a 2D image, to provide a real 3D experience without having some special glasses. Within this paper we present a new framework for manipulation and annotation of medical landmarks directly in three-dimensional volume.

  12. Scanning fringe projection for fast 3D inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honegger, Marc; Kahl, Michael; Trunz, Sandra; Rinner, Stefan; Ettemeyer, Andreas; Lambelet, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    In an earlier paper we have described a concept for high speed 3D inspection using fringe projection techniques. We use a special CMOS camera with 300 x 300 px which can calculate the phase on board. The focus of the first step of development had been a fringe projector, which was able to modulate the projected fringes with up to 250 kHz. In the second step the image acquisition part of the system was developed. In case of 3D measurement with a matrix camera, the camera resp. the measuring object has to be moved stepwise in the lateral direction to cover multiple acquisition areas of the measurement object. Between each image the lateral movement has to correspond to the field of view of the camera. At the intended very high image acquisition rates the high acceleration of the system between each image will lead to inacceptable mechanical forces. In order to obtain a continuous scanning procedure and at the same time to use the performance of a matrix camera, a special lens system was developed. A measurement field 120 mm long and 3 mm wide is imaged onto the camera. The width of the measuring field is imaged onto the 300 rows of the camera, giving a lateral resolution of 10 μm. In the longitudinal direction the 120 mm object length is divided into 12'000 lines to reach the same resolution of 10 μm. Due to technical reasons that will be described later only 240 of the 300 pixel rows on the chip were used. Consequently, with each camera shot 240 separated lines are imaged onto the chip. Between each of these 240 lines there is a large empty space, which is not imaged by the camera. In principle, the camera is operating as 240 single line cameras. Therefore, if the camera is shifted in an inclined direction to the camera orientation over the object, the empty spaces can be recorded as well. In an optimum alignment, the complete measuring object can be scanned in a continuous movement, covering the total length of 120 mm. In this paper we will describe this image

  13. How 3D immersive visualization is changing medical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koning, Anton H. J.

    2011-03-01

    Originally the only way to look inside the human body without opening it up was by means of two dimensional (2D) images obtained using X-ray equipment. The fact that human anatomy is inherently three dimensional leads to ambiguities in interpretation and problems of occlusion. Three dimensional (3D) imaging modalities such as CT, MRI and 3D ultrasound remove these drawbacks and are now part of routine medical care. While most hospitals 'have gone digital', meaning that the images are no longer printed on film, they are still being viewed on 2D screens. However, this way valuable depth information is lost, and some interactions become unnecessarily complex or even unfeasible. Using a virtual reality (VR) system to present volumetric data means that depth information is presented to the viewer and 3D interaction is made possible. At the Erasmus MC we have developed V-Scope, an immersive volume visualization system for visualizing a variety of (bio-)medical volumetric datasets, ranging from 3D ultrasound, via CT and MRI, to confocal microscopy, OPT and 3D electron-microscopy data. In this talk we will address the advantages of such a system for both medical diagnostics as well as for (bio)medical research.

  14. Effects of scanning orientation on outlier formation in 3D laser scanning of reflective surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yutao; Feng, Hsi-Yung

    2016-06-01

    Inspecting objects with reflective surfaces using 3D laser scanning is a demanded but challenging part inspection task due to undesirable specular reflections, which produce extensive outliers in the scanned point cloud. These outliers need to be removed in order to alleviate subsequent data processing issues. Many existing automatic outlier removal methods do not detect outliers according to the outlier formation properties. As a result, these methods only offer limited capabilities in removing extensive and complex outliers from scanning objects with reflective surfaces. This paper reports an empirical study which experimentally investigates the outlier formation characteristics in relation to the scanning orientation of the laser probe. The objective is to characterize the scanning orientation effects on outlier formation in order to facilitate the development of an effective outlier detection and removal method. Such an experimental investigation was hardly done before. It has been found in this work that scanning orientation can directly affect outlier extensity and occurrence in 3D laser scanning. A general guidance on proper scan path planning can then be provided with an aim to reduce the occurrence of outliers. Further, the observed dependency of outlier formation on scanning orientation can be exploited to facilitate effective and automatic outlier detection and removal.

  15. 3D Medical Collaboration Technology to Enhance Emergency Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Greg; Sonnenwald, Diane H; Fuchs, Henry; Cairns, Bruce; Mayer-Patel, Ketan; Söderholm, Hanna M.; Yang, Ruigang; State, Andrei; Towles, Herman; Ilie, Adrian; Ampalam, Manoj; Krishnan, Srinivas; Noel, Vincent; Noland, Michael; Manning, James E.

    2009-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) videoconferencing has been explored widely in the past 15–20 years to support collaboration in healthcare. Two issues that arise in most evaluations of 2D videoconferencing in telemedicine are the difficulty obtaining optimal camera views and poor depth perception. To address these problems, we are exploring the use of a small array of cameras to reconstruct dynamic three-dimensional (3D) views of a remote environment and of events taking place within. The 3D views could be sent across wired or wireless networks to remote healthcare professionals equipped with fixed displays or with mobile devices such as personal digital assistants (PDAs). The remote professionals’ viewpoints could be specified manually or automatically (continuously) via user head or PDA tracking, giving the remote viewers head-slaved or hand-slaved virtual cameras for monoscopic or stereoscopic viewing of the dynamic reconstructions. We call this idea remote 3D medical collaboration. In this article we motivate and explain the vision for 3D medical collaboration technology; we describe the relevant computer vision, computer graphics, display, and networking research; we present a proof-of-concept prototype system; and we present evaluation results supporting the general hypothesis that 3D remote medical collaboration technology could offer benefits over conventional 2D videoconferencing in emergency healthcare. PMID:19521951

  16. Hybrid segmentation framework for 3D medical image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ting; Metaxas, Dimitri N.

    2003-05-01

    Medical image segmentation is the process that defines the region of interest in the image volume. Classical segmentation methods such as region-based methods and boundary-based methods cannot make full use of the information provided by the image. In this paper we proposed a general hybrid framework for 3D medical image segmentation purposes. In our approach we combine the Gibbs Prior model, and the deformable model. First, Gibbs Prior models are applied onto each slice in a 3D medical image volume and the segmentation results are combined to a 3D binary masks of the object. Then we create a deformable mesh based on this 3D binary mask. The deformable model will be lead to the edge features in the volume with the help of image derived external forces. The deformable model segmentation result can be used to update the parameters for Gibbs Prior models. These methods will then work recursively to reach a global segmentation solution. The hybrid segmentation framework has been applied to images with the objective of lung, heart, colon, jaw, tumor, and brain. The experimental data includes MRI (T1, T2, PD), CT, X-ray, Ultra-Sound images. High quality results are achieved with relatively efficient time cost. We also did validation work using expert manual segmentation as the ground truth. The result shows that the hybrid segmentation may have further clinical use.

  17. Automated 3D reconstruction of interiors with multiple scan views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sequeira, Vitor; Ng, Kia C.; Wolfart, Erik; Goncalves, Joao G. M.; Hogg, David C.

    1998-12-01

    This paper presents two integrated solutions for realistic 3D model acquisition and reconstruction; an early prototype, in the form of a push trolley, and a later prototype in the form of an autonomous robot. The systems encompass all hardware and software required, from laser and video data acquisition, processing and output of texture-mapped 3D models in VRML format, to batteries for power supply and wireless network communications. The autonomous version is also equipped with a mobile platform and other sensors for the purpose of automatic navigation. The applications for such a system range from real estate and tourism (e.g., showing a 3D computer model of a property to a potential buyer or tenant) or as tool for content creation (e.g., creating 3D models of heritage buildings or producing broadcast quality virtual studios). The system can also be used in industrial environments as a reverse engineering tool to update the design of a plant, or as a 3D photo-archive for insurance purposes. The system is Internet compatible: the photo-realistic models can be accessed via the Internet and manipulated interactively in 3D using a common Web browser with a VRML plug-in. Further information and example reconstructed models are available on- line via the RESOLV web-page at http://www.scs.leeds.ac.uk/resolv/.

  18. 3D scanning of internal structure in gel engineering materials with visual scanning microscopic light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yosuke; Gong, Jing; Masato, Makino; Kabir, M. Hasnat; Furukawa, Hidemitsu

    2014-04-01

    The 3D printing technology, causing much attention from the beginning of 2013, will be possibly an alternative method to fabricate the biological soft tissues. Recently our group of Yamagata University has developed the world-first 3D Gel Printer to fabricate the complicated gel-materials with high-strength and biocompatibility. However, there are no 3D scanners that collect the data from the internal structure of complicated gel objects such as eye lens. It means that a new system for scanning the internal structure is needed now. In this study, firstly, we have tried to investigate the gel network of synthetic and biological gel with scanning microscopic light scattering (SMILS). We calculated the Young's modulus of synthetic gels with the SMILS and with the tensile test, and precisely compared the results between them. The temperature dependences of the inside structure and the transparency are observed in the pig crystalline lens. The quantitative analysis indicates the importance of the internal structure of real object. Secondary, we show the new system named Gel-scanner that can provide the 2-dimentional data of the internal structure. From examining our findings, the scanning of internal structure will enable us to expect physical properties of the real object. We convince that the gelscanner will play major role in the various fields.

  19. Development of a 3D printer using scanning projection stereolithography

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Michael P.; Cooper, Geoffrey J. T.; Hinkley, Trevor; Gibson, Graham M.; Padgett, Miles J.; Cronin, Leroy

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a system for the rapid fabrication of low cost 3D devices and systems in the laboratory with micro-scale features yet cm-scale objects. Our system is inspired by maskless lithography, where a digital micromirror device (DMD) is used to project patterns with resolution up to 10 µm onto a layer of photoresist. Large area objects can be fabricated by stitching projected images over a 5cm2 area. The addition of a z-stage allows multiple layers to be stacked to create 3D objects, removing the need for any developing or etching steps but at the same time leading to true 3D devices which are robust, configurable and scalable. We demonstrate the applications of the system by printing a range of micro-scale objects as well as a fully functioning microfluidic droplet device and test its integrity by pumping dye through the channels. PMID:25906401

  20. The use of 3D scanning for sporting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friel, Kevin; Ajjimaporn, Pann; Straub, Jeremy; Kerlin, Scott

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes the process and research that went into creating a set of 3D models to characterize a golf swing. The purpose of this work is to illustrate how a 3D scanner could be used for assessing athlete performance in sporting applications. In this case, introductory work has been performed to show how the scanner could be used to show the errors a golfer made in a swing. Multiple factors must be taken into account when assessing golfers' swings including the position and movement of the golfer's hands, arms, and foot placement as well as the position of the club head and shaft of the golf club.

  1. Audiovisual biofeedback improves image quality and reduces scan time for respiratory-gated 3D MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D.; Greer, P. B.; Arm, J.; Keall, P.; Kim, T.

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that audiovisual (AV) biofeedback can improve image quality and reduce scan time for respiratory-gated 3D thoracic MRI. For five healthy human subjects respiratory motion guidance in MR scans was provided using an AV biofeedback system, utilizing real-time respiratory motion signals. To investigate the improvement of respiratory-gated 3D MR images between free breathing (FB) and AV biofeedback (AV), each subject underwent two imaging sessions. Respiratory-related motion artifacts and imaging time were qualitatively evaluated in addition to the reproducibility of external (abdominal) motion. In the results, 3D MR images in AV biofeedback showed more anatomic information such as a clear distinction of diaphragm, lung lobes and sharper organ boundaries. The scan time was reduced from 401±215 s in FB to 334±94 s in AV (p-value 0.36). The root mean square variation of the displacement and period of the abdominal motion was reduced from 0.4±0.22 cm and 2.8±2.5 s in FB to 0.1±0.15 cm and 0.9±1.3 s in AV (p-value of displacement <0.01 and p-value of period 0.12). This study demonstrated that audiovisual biofeedback improves image quality and reduces scan time for respiratory-gated 3D MRI. These results suggest that AV biofeedback has the potential to be a useful motion management tool in medical imaging and radiation therapy procedures.

  2. Chest wall segmentation in automated 3D breast ultrasound scans.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tao; Platel, Bram; Mann, Ritse M; Huisman, Henkjan; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we present an automatic method to segment the chest wall in automated 3D breast ultrasound images. Determining the location of the chest wall in automated 3D breast ultrasound images is necessary in computer-aided detection systems to remove automatically detected cancer candidates beyond the chest wall and it can be of great help for inter- and intra-modal image registration. We show that the visible part of the chest wall in an automated 3D breast ultrasound image can be accurately modeled by a cylinder. We fit the surface of our cylinder model to a set of automatically detected rib-surface points. The detection of the rib-surface points is done by a classifier using features representing local image intensity patterns and presence of rib shadows. Due to attenuation of the ultrasound signal, a clear shadow is visible behind the ribs. Evaluation of our segmentation method is done by computing the distance of manually annotated rib points to the surface of the automatically detected chest wall. We examined the performance on images obtained with the two most common 3D breast ultrasound devices in the market. In a dataset of 142 images, the average mean distance of the annotated points to the segmented chest wall was 5.59 ± 3.08 mm. PMID:23273891

  3. 3D scanning and 3D printing as innovative technologies for fabricating personalized topical drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Goyanes, Alvaro; Det-Amornrat, Usanee; Wang, Jie; Basit, Abdul W; Gaisford, Simon

    2016-07-28

    Acne is a multifactorial inflammatory skin disease with high prevalence. In this work, the potential of 3D printing to produce flexible personalised-shape anti-acne drug (salicylic acid) loaded devices was demonstrated by two different 3D printing (3DP) technologies: Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) and stereolithography (SLA). 3D scanning technology was used to obtain a 3D model of a nose adapted to the morphology of an individual. In FDM 3DP, commercially produced Flex EcoPLA™ (FPLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL) filaments were loaded with salicylic acid by hot melt extrusion (HME) (theoretical drug loading - 2% w/w) and used as feedstock material for 3D printing. Drug loading in the FPLA-salicylic acid and PCL-salicylic acid 3D printed patches was 0.4% w/w and 1.2% w/w respectively, indicating significant thermal degradation of drug during HME and 3D printing. Diffusion testing in Franz cells using a synthetic membrane revealed that the drug loaded printed samples released <187μg/cm(2) within 3h. FPLA-salicylic acid filament was successfully printed as a nose-shape mask by FDM 3DP, but the PCL-salicylic acid filament was not. In the SLA printing process, the drug was dissolved in different mixtures of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) that were solidified by the action of a laser beam. SLA printing led to 3D printed devices (nose-shape) with higher resolution and higher drug loading (1.9% w/w) than FDM, with no drug degradation. The results of drug diffusion tests revealed that drug diffusion was faster than with the FDM devices, 229 and 291μg/cm(2) within 3h for the two formulations evaluated. In this study, SLA printing was the more appropriate 3D printing technology to manufacture anti-acne devices with salicylic acid. The combination of 3D scanning and 3D printing has the potential to offer solutions to produce personalised drug loaded devices, adapted in shape and size to individual patients. PMID:27189134

  4. Ideal Positions: 3D Sonography, Medical Visuality, Popular Culture.

    PubMed

    Seiber, Tim

    2016-03-01

    As digital technologies are integrated into medical environments, they continue to transform the experience of contemporary health care. Importantly, medicine is increasingly visual. In the history of sonography, visibility has played an important role in accessing fetal bodies for diagnostic and entertainment purposes. With the advent of three-dimensional (3D) rendering, sonography presents the fetus visually as already a child. The aesthetics of this process and the resulting imagery, made possible in digital networks, discloses important changes in the relationship between technology and biology, reproductive health and political debates, and biotechnology and culture. PMID:26164291

  5. Filtering method for 3D laser scanning point cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Da; Wang, Li; Hao, Yuncai; Zhang, Jun

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, with the rapid development of the hardware and software of the three-dimensional model acquisition, three-dimensional laser scanning technology is utilized in various aspects, especially in space exploration. The point cloud filter is very important before using the data. In the paper, considering both the processing quality and computing speed, an improved mean-shift point cloud filter method is proposed. Firstly, by analyze the relevance of the normal vector between the upcoming processing point and the near points, the iterative neighborhood of the mean-shift is selected dynamically, then the high frequency noise is constrained. Secondly, considering the normal vector of the processing point, the normal vector is updated. Finally, updated position is calculated for each point, then each point is moved in the normal vector according to the updated position. The experimental results show that the large features are retained, at the same time, the small sharp features are also existed for different size and shape of objects, so the target feature information is protected precisely. The computational complexity of the proposed method is not high, it can bring high precision results with fast speed, so it is very suitable for space application. It can also be utilized in civil, such as large object measurement, industrial measurement, car navigation etc. In the future, filter with the help of point strength will be further exploited.

  6. Reduced Scan Time 3D FLAIR using Modulated Inversion and Repetition Time

    PubMed Central

    Gai, Neville D.; Butman, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To design and evaluate a new reduced scan time 3D FLuid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) sequence. Materials and Methods The 3D FLAIR sequence was modified so that the repetition time was modulated in a predetermined smooth fashion (3D mFLAIR). Inversion times were adjusted accordingly to maintain CSF suppression. Simulations were performed to determine SNR for gray matter (GM), white matter (WM) and CSF. Fourteen volunteers were imaged using the modified and product sequence. SNR measurements were performed in GM, WM and CSF. Mean value and the 95% confidence interval ([CI]) were assessed. Scan time for the 3D FLAIR and 3D mFLAIR sequences was measured. Results There was no statistically significant difference in the SNR measured in GM (P value = 0.5; mean SNR = 42.8 [CI]: 38.2-45.5 vs 42.2 [CI]: 38.3-46.1 for 3D FLAIR and 3D mFLAIR, respectively) and WM (P value = 0.25; mean SNR = 32.1 [CI]: 30.3-33.8 vs 32.9 [CI]: 31.1-34.7). Scan time reduction greater than 30% was achieved for the given parameter set with the 3D mFLAIR sequence. Conclusion Scan time for 3D FLAIR can be effectively reduced by modulating repetition and inversion time in a predetermined fashion while maintaining the SNR and CNR of a constant TR sequence. PMID:24979311

  7. With the advent of domestic 3-dimensional (3D) printers and their associated reduced cost, is it now time for every medical school to have their own 3D printer?

    PubMed

    Balestrini, Christopher; Campo-Celaya, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy is the backbone of medical education and new techniques to improve learning are frequently explored. With the introduction of 3D printers specifically for the home market, the price of this technology has reached affordable levels. Using patient scan data, accurate 3D models can be printed that represent real human variation in anatomy to provide an innovative, inexpensive and valuable adjunct to anatomical teaching. Is it now time for every medical school to have their own 3D printer? PMID:26383082

  8. Fast 3D visualization of endogenous brain signals with high-sensitivity laser scanning photothermal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Jun; Iida, Tadatsune; Tanaka, Shinji; Hayashi-Takagi, Akiko; Kasai, Haruo; Okabe, Shigeo; Kobayashi, Takayoshi

    2016-05-01

    A fast, high-sensitivity photothermal microscope was developed by implementing a spatially segmented balanced detection scheme into a laser scanning microscope. We confirmed a 4.9 times improvement in signal-to-noise ratio in the spatially segmented balanced detection compared with that of conventional detection. The system demonstrated simultaneous bi-modal photothermal and confocal fluorescence imaging of transgenic mouse brain tissue with a pixel dwell time of 20 μs. The fluorescence image visualized neurons expressing yellow fluorescence proteins, while the photothermal signal detected endogenous chromophores in the mouse brain, allowing 3D visualization of the distribution of various features such as blood cells and fine structures probably due to lipids. This imaging modality was constructed using compact and cost-effective laser diodes, and will thus be widely useful in the life and medical sciences. PMID:27231615

  9. Fast 3D visualization of endogenous brain signals with high-sensitivity laser scanning photothermal microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Jun; Iida, Tadatsune; Tanaka, Shinji; Hayashi-Takagi, Akiko; Kasai, Haruo; Okabe, Shigeo; Kobayashi, Takayoshi

    2016-01-01

    A fast, high-sensitivity photothermal microscope was developed by implementing a spatially segmented balanced detection scheme into a laser scanning microscope. We confirmed a 4.9 times improvement in signal-to-noise ratio in the spatially segmented balanced detection compared with that of conventional detection. The system demonstrated simultaneous bi-modal photothermal and confocal fluorescence imaging of transgenic mouse brain tissue with a pixel dwell time of 20 μs. The fluorescence image visualized neurons expressing yellow fluorescence proteins, while the photothermal signal detected endogenous chromophores in the mouse brain, allowing 3D visualization of the distribution of various features such as blood cells and fine structures probably due to lipids. This imaging modality was constructed using compact and cost-effective laser diodes, and will thus be widely useful in the life and medical sciences. PMID:27231615

  10. Application to monitoring of tailings dam based on 3D laser scanning technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Fang; Zhang, Aiwu

    2011-06-01

    This paper presented a new method of monitoring of tailing dam based on 3D laser scanning technology and gave the method flow of acquiring and processing the tailing dam data. Taking the measured data for example, the author analyzed the dam deformation by generating the TIN, DEM and the curvature graph, and proved that it's feasible to global monitor the tailing dam using 3D laser scanning technology from the theory and method.

  11. Distributed network, wireless and cloud computing enabled 3-D ultrasound; a new medical technology paradigm.

    PubMed

    Meir, Arie; Rubinsky, Boris

    2009-01-01

    Medical technologies are indispensable to modern medicine. However, they have become exceedingly expensive and complex and are not available to the economically disadvantaged majority of the world population in underdeveloped as well as developed parts of the world. For example, according to the World Health Organization about two thirds of the world population does not have access to medical imaging. In this paper we introduce a new medical technology paradigm centered on wireless technology and cloud computing that was designed to overcome the problems of increasing health technology costs. We demonstrate the value of the concept with an example; the design of a wireless, distributed network and central (cloud) computing enabled three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound system. Specifically, we demonstrate the feasibility of producing a 3-D high end ultrasound scan at a central computing facility using the raw data acquired at the remote patient site with an inexpensive low end ultrasound transducer designed for 2-D, through a mobile device and wireless connection link between them. Producing high-end 3D ultrasound images with simple low-end transducers reduces the cost of imaging by orders of magnitude. It also removes the requirement of having a highly trained imaging expert at the patient site, since the need for hand-eye coordination and the ability to reconstruct a 3-D mental image from 2-D scans, which is a necessity for high quality ultrasound imaging, is eliminated. This could enable relatively untrained medical workers in developing nations to administer imaging and a more accurate diagnosis, effectively saving the lives of people. PMID:19936236

  12. Distributed Network, Wireless and Cloud Computing Enabled 3-D Ultrasound; a New Medical Technology Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Meir, Arie; Rubinsky, Boris

    2009-01-01

    Medical technologies are indispensable to modern medicine. However, they have become exceedingly expensive and complex and are not available to the economically disadvantaged majority of the world population in underdeveloped as well as developed parts of the world. For example, according to the World Health Organization about two thirds of the world population does not have access to medical imaging. In this paper we introduce a new medical technology paradigm centered on wireless technology and cloud computing that was designed to overcome the problems of increasing health technology costs. We demonstrate the value of the concept with an example; the design of a wireless, distributed network and central (cloud) computing enabled three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound system. Specifically, we demonstrate the feasibility of producing a 3-D high end ultrasound scan at a central computing facility using the raw data acquired at the remote patient site with an inexpensive low end ultrasound transducer designed for 2-D, through a mobile device and wireless connection link between them. Producing high-end 3D ultrasound images with simple low-end transducers reduces the cost of imaging by orders of magnitude. It also removes the requirement of having a highly trained imaging expert at the patient site, since the need for hand-eye coordination and the ability to reconstruct a 3-D mental image from 2-D scans, which is a necessity for high quality ultrasound imaging, is eliminated. This could enable relatively untrained medical workers in developing nations to administer imaging and a more accurate diagnosis, effectively saving the lives of people. PMID:19936236

  13. Remote z-scanning with a macroscopic voice coil motor for fast 3D multiphoton laser scanning microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Rupprecht, Peter; Prendergast, Andrew; Wyart, Claire; Friedrich, Rainer W

    2016-01-01

    There is a high demand for 3D multiphoton imaging in neuroscience and other fields but scanning in axial direction presents technical challenges. We developed a focusing technique based on a remote movable mirror that is conjugate to the specimen plane and translated by a voice coil motor. We constructed cost-effective z-scanning modules from off-the-shelf components that can be mounted onto standard multiphoton laser scanning microscopes to extend scan patterns from 2D to 3D. Systems were designed for large objectives and provide high resolution, high speed and a large z-scan range (>300 μm). We used these systems for 3D multiphoton calcium imaging in the adult zebrafish brain and measured odor-evoked activity patterns across >1500 neurons with single-neuron resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio. PMID:27231612

  14. Remote z-scanning with a macroscopic voice coil motor for fast 3D multiphoton laser scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Rupprecht, Peter; Prendergast, Andrew; Wyart, Claire; Friedrich, Rainer W

    2016-05-01

    There is a high demand for 3D multiphoton imaging in neuroscience and other fields but scanning in axial direction presents technical challenges. We developed a focusing technique based on a remote movable mirror that is conjugate to the specimen plane and translated by a voice coil motor. We constructed cost-effective z-scanning modules from off-the-shelf components that can be mounted onto standard multiphoton laser scanning microscopes to extend scan patterns from 2D to 3D. Systems were designed for large objectives and provide high resolution, high speed and a large z-scan range (>300 μm). We used these systems for 3D multiphoton calcium imaging in the adult zebrafish brain and measured odor-evoked activity patterns across >1500 neurons with single-neuron resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio. PMID:27231612

  15. Modeling and modification of medical 3D objects. The benefit of using a haptic modeling tool.

    PubMed

    Kling-Petersen, T; Rydmark, M

    2000-01-01

    The Computer Laboratory of the medical faculty in Goteborg (Mednet) has since the end of 1998 been one of a limited numbers of participants in the development of a new modeling tool together with SensAble Technologies Inc [http:¿www.sensable.com/]. The software called SensAble FreeForm was officially released at Siggraph September 1999. Briefly, the software mimics the modeling techniques traditionally used by clay artists. An imported model or a user defined block of "clay" can be modified using different tools such as a ball, square block, scrape etc via the use of a SensAble Technologies PHANToM haptic arm. The model will deform in 3D as a result of touching the "clay" with any selected tool and the amount of deformation is linear to the force applied. By getting instantaneous haptic as well as visual feedback, precise and intuitive changes are easily made. While SensAble FreeForm lacks several of the features normally associated with a 3D modeling program (such as text handling, application of surface and bumpmaps, high-end rendering engines, etc) it's strength lies in the ability to rapidly create non-geometric 3D models. For medical use, very few anatomically correct models are created from scratch. However, FreeForm features tools enable advanced modification of reconstructed or 3D scanned models. One of the main problems with 3D laserscanning of medical specimens is that the technique usually leaves holes or gaps in the dataset corresponding to areas in shadows such as orifices, deep grooves etc. By using FreeForms different tools, these defects are easily corrected and gaps are filled out. Similarly, traditional 3D reconstruction (based on serial sections etc) often shows artifacts as a result of the triangulation and/or tessellation processes. These artifacts usually manifest as unnatural ridges or uneven areas ("the accordion effect"). FreeForm contains a smoothing algorithm that enables the user to select an area to be modified and subsequently apply

  16. Comparison of 3d Reconstruction Services and Terrestrial Laser Scanning for Cultural Heritage Documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasztovits, S.; Dorninger, P.

    2013-07-01

    Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) is an established method to reconstruct the geometrical surface of given objects. Current systems allow for fast and efficient determination of 3D models with high accuracy and richness in detail. Alternatively, 3D reconstruction services are using images to reconstruct the surface of an object. While the instrumental expenses for laser scanning systems are high, upcoming free software services as well as open source software packages enable the generation of 3D models using digital consumer cameras. In addition, processing TLS data still requires an experienced user while recent web-services operate completely automatically. An indisputable advantage of image based 3D modeling is its implicit capability for model texturing. However, the achievable accuracy and resolution of the 3D models is lower than those of laser scanning data. Within this contribution, we investigate the results of automated web-services for image based 3D model generation with respect to a TLS reference model. For this, a copper sculpture was acquired using a laser scanner and using image series of different digital cameras. Two different webservices, namely Arc3D and AutoDesk 123D Catch were used to process the image data. The geometric accuracy was compared for the entire model and for some highly structured details. The results are presented and interpreted based on difference models. Finally, an economical comparison of the generation of the models is given considering the interactive and processing time costs.

  17. Using optically scanned 3D data in the restoration of Michelangelo's David

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scopigno, Roberto; Cignoni, Paolo; Callieri, Marco; Ganovelli, Fabio; Impoco, G.; Pingi, P.; Ponchio, F.

    2003-10-01

    Modern 3D scanning technologies allow to reconstruct 3D digital representations of Cultural Heritage artifacts in a semi-automatic way, characterized by very high accuracy and wealth of details. The availability of an accurate digital representation opens several possibilities of utilization to experts (restorers, archivists, museum curators), or to ordinary people (students, museum visitors). 3D scanned data are commonly used for the production of animations, interactive visualizations, or virtual reality applications. A much more exciting opportunity is to use these data in the restoration of Cultural Heritage artworks. The integration between 3D graphic and restoration represents an open research field where many new supporting tools are required; the David restoration project has given several starting points and guidelines to the definition and development of innovative solutions. Digital 3D models can be used in two different but not subsidiary modes: as an instrument for the execution of specific investigations and as a supporting media for the archival and integration of all the restoration-related information, gathered with the different studies and analysis performed on the artwork. In this paper we present some recent work done in the framework of the Michelangelo's David restoration project. A 3D model of the David was reconstructed by the Digital Michelangelo Project, using laser-based 3D scanning technology. We have developed some tools to make those data accessible and useful in the restoration. Preliminary results are reported here together with some directions for further research.

  18. Medical Applications for 3D Printing: Current and Projected Uses.

    PubMed

    Ventola, C Lee

    2014-10-01

    3D printing is expected to revolutionize health care through uses in tissue and organ fabrication; creation of customized prosthetics, implants, and anatomical models; and pharmaceutical research regarding drug dosage forms, delivery, and discovery. PMID:25336867

  19. An enhanced method for registration of dental surfaces partially scanned by a 3D dental laser scanning.

    PubMed

    Park, Seongjin; Kang, Ho Chul; Lee, Jeongjin; Shin, Juneseuk; Shin, Yeong Gil

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose the fast and accurate registration method of partially scanned dental surfaces in a 3D dental laser scanning. To overcome the multiple point correspondence problems of conventional surface registration methods, we propose the novel depth map-based registration method to register 3D surface models. First, we convert a partially scanned 3D dental surface into a 2D image by generating the 2D depth map image of the surface model by applying a 3D rigid transformation into this model. Then, the image-based registration method using 2D depth map images accurately estimates the initial transformation between two consequently acquired surface models. To further increase the computational efficiency, we decompose the 3D rigid transformation into out-of-plane (i.e. x-, y-rotation, and z-translation) and in-plane (i.e. x-, y-translation, and z-rotation) transformations. For the in-plane transformation, we accelerate the transformation process by transforming the 2D depth map image instead of transforming the 3D surface model. For the more accurate registration of 3D surface models, we enhance iterative closest point (ICP) method for the subsequent fine registration. Our initial depth map-based registration well aligns each surface model. Therefore, our subsequent ICP method can accurately register two surface models since it is highly probable that the closest point pairs are the exact corresponding point pairs. The experimental results demonstrated that our method accurately registered partially scanned dental surfaces. Regarding the computational performance, our method delivered about 1.5 times faster registration than the conventional method. Our method can be successfully applied to the accurate reconstruction of 3D dental objects for orthodontic and prosthodontic treatment. PMID:25453381

  20. A novel two-axis micromechanical scanning transducer for handheld 3D ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chih-Hsien; Zou, Jun

    2016-03-01

    This paper reports the development of a new two-axis micromechanical scanning transducer for handheld 3D ultrasound imaging. It consists of a miniaturized single-element ultrasound transducer driven by a unique 2-axis liquid-immersible electromagnetic microactuator. With a mechanical scanning frequency of 19.532 Hz and an ultrasound pulse repetition rate of 5 kHz, the scanning transducer was scanned along 60 concentric paths with 256 detection points on each to simulate a physical 2D ultrasound transducer array of 60 × 256 elements. Using the scanning transducer, 3D pulse-echo ultrasound imaging of two silicon discs immersed in water as the imaging target was successfully conducted. The lateral resolution of the 3D ultrasound image was further improved with the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT). The new two-axis micromechanical scanning transducer doesn't require complex and expensive multi-channel data acquisition (DAQ) electronics. Therefore, it could provide a new approach to achieve compact and low-cost 3D ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging systems, especially for handheld operations.

  1. Angle extended linear MEMS scanning system for 3D laser vision sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Yajun; Zhang, Yinxin; Yang, Huaidong; Zhu, Pan; Gai, Ye; Zhao, Jian; Huang, Zhanhua

    2016-09-01

    Scanning system is often considered as the most important part for 3D laser vision sensor. In this paper, we propose a method for the optical system design of angle extended linear MEMS scanning system, which has features of huge scanning degree, small beam divergence angle and small spot size for 3D laser vision sensor. The principle of design and theoretical formulas are derived strictly. With the help of software ZEMAX, a linear scanning optical system based on MEMS has been designed. Results show that the designed system can extend scanning angle from ±8° to ±26.5° with a divergence angle small than 3.5 mr, and the spot size is reduced for 4.545 times.

  2. MO-A-9A-01: Innovation in Medical Physics Practice: 3D Printing Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ehler, E; Perks, J; Rasmussen, K; Bakic, P

    2014-06-15

    3D printing, also called additive manufacturing, has great potential to advance the field of medicine. Many medical uses have been exhibited from facial reconstruction to the repair of pulmonary obstructions. The strength of 3D printing is to quickly convert a 3D computer model into a physical object. Medical use of 3D models is already ubiquitous with technologies such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Thus tailoring 3D printing technology to medical functions has the potential to impact patient care. This session will discuss applications to the field of Medical Physics. Topics discussed will include introduction to 3D printing methods as well as examples of real-world uses of 3D printing spanning clinical and research practice in diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy. The session will also compare 3D printing to other manufacturing processes and discuss a variety of uses of 3D printing technology outside the field of Medical Physics. Learning Objectives: Understand the technologies available for 3D Printing Understand methods to generate 3D models Identify the benefits and drawbacks to rapid prototyping / 3D Printing Understand the potential issues related to clinical use of 3D Printing.

  3. Taking Advantage of Selective Change Driven Processing for 3D Scanning

    PubMed Central

    Vegara, Francisco; Zuccarello, Pedro; Boluda, Jose A.; Pardo, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with the application of the principles of SCD (Selective Change Driven) vision to 3D laser scanning. Two experimental sets have been implemented: one with a classical CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor) sensor, and the other one with a recently developed CMOS SCD sensor for comparative purposes, both using the technique known as Active Triangulation. An SCD sensor only delivers the pixels that have changed most, ordered by the magnitude of their change since their last readout. The 3D scanning method is based on the systematic search through the entire image to detect pixels that exceed a certain threshold, showing the SCD approach to be ideal for this application. Several experiments for both capturing strategies have been performed to try to find the limitations in high speed acquisition/processing. The classical approach is limited by the sequential array acquisition, as predicted by the Nyquist–Shannon sampling theorem, and this has been experimentally demonstrated in the case of a rotating helix. These limitations are overcome by the SCD 3D scanning prototype achieving a significantly higher performance. The aim of this article is to compare both capturing strategies in terms of performance in the time and frequency domains, so they share all the static characteristics including resolution, 3D scanning method, etc., thus yielding the same 3D reconstruction in static scenes. PMID:24084110

  4. Faster, higher quality volume visualization for 3D medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvin, Alan D.; Laine, Andrew F.; Song, Ting

    2008-03-01

    The two major volume visualization methods used in biomedical applications are Maximum Intensity Projection (MIP) and Volume Rendering (VR), both of which involve the process of creating sets of 2D projections from 3D images. We have developed a new method for very fast, high-quality volume visualization of 3D biomedical images, based on the fact that the inverse of this process (transforming 2D projections into a 3D image) is essentially equivalent to tomographic image reconstruction. This new method uses the 2D projections acquired by the scanner, thereby obviating the need for the two computationally expensive steps currently required in the complete process of biomedical visualization, that is, (i) reconstructing the 3D image from 2D projection data, and (ii) computing the set of 2D projections from the reconstructed 3D image As well as improvements in computation speed, this method also results in improvements in visualization quality, and in the case of x-ray CT we can exploit this quality improvement to reduce radiation dosage. In this paper, demonstrate the benefits of developing biomedical visualization techniques by directly processing the sensor data acquired by body scanners, rather than by processing the image data reconstructed from the sensor data. We show results of using this approach for volume visualization for tomographic modalities, like x-ray CT, and as well as for MRI.

  5. Development of 3D in Vitro Technology for Medical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Keng-Liang; Hosseinkhani, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    In the past few years, biomaterials technologies together with significant efforts on developing biology have revolutionized the process of engineered materials. Three dimensional (3D) in vitro technology aims to develop set of tools that are simple, inexpensive, portable and robust that could be commercialized and used in various fields of biomedical sciences such as drug discovery, diagnostic tools, and therapeutic approaches in regenerative medicine. The proliferation of cells in the 3D scaffold needs an oxygen and nutrition supply. 3D scaffold materials should provide such an environment for cells living in close proximity. 3D scaffolds that are able to regenerate or restore tissue and/or organs have begun to revolutionize medicine and biomedical science. Scaffolds have been used to support and promote the regeneration of tissues. Different processing techniques have been developed to design and fabricate three dimensional scaffolds for tissue engineering implants. Throughout the chapters we discuss in this review, we inform the reader about the potential applications of different 3D in vitro systems that can be applied for fabricating a wider range of novel biomaterials for use in tissue engineering. PMID:25299693

  6. Development of 3D in vitro technology for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Ou, Keng-Liang; Hosseinkhani, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    In the past few years, biomaterials technologies together with significant efforts on developing biology have revolutionized the process of engineered materials. Three dimensional (3D) in vitro technology aims to develop set of tools that are simple, inexpensive, portable and robust that could be commercialized and used in various fields of biomedical sciences such as drug discovery, diagnostic tools, and therapeutic approaches in regenerative medicine. The proliferation of cells in the 3D scaffold needs an oxygen and nutrition supply. 3D scaffold materials should provide such an environment for cells living in close proximity. 3D scaffolds that are able to regenerate or restore tissue and/or organs have begun to revolutionize medicine and biomedical science. Scaffolds have been used to support and promote the regeneration of tissues. Different processing techniques have been developed to design and fabricate three dimensional scaffolds for tissue engineering implants. Throughout the chapters we discuss in this review, we inform the reader about the potential applications of different 3D in vitro systems that can be applied for fabricating a wider range of novel biomaterials for use in tissue engineering. PMID:25299693

  7. The fast and accurate 3D-face scanning technology based on laser triangle sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinjiang; Chang, Tianyu; Ge, Baozhen; Tian, Qingguo; Chen, Yang; Kong, Bin

    2013-08-01

    A laser triangle scanning method and the structure of 3D-face measurement system were introduced. In presented system, a liner laser source was selected as an optical indicated signal in order to scanning a line one times. The CCD image sensor was used to capture image of the laser line modulated by human face. The system parameters were obtained by system calibrated calculated. The lens parameters of image part of were calibrated with machine visual image method and the triangle structure parameters were calibrated with fine wire paralleled arranged. The CCD image part and line laser indicator were set with a linear motor carry which can achieve the line laser scanning form top of the head to neck. For the nose is ledge part and the eyes are sunk part, one CCD image sensor can not obtain the completed image of laser line. In this system, two CCD image sensors were set symmetric at two sides of the laser indicator. In fact, this structure includes two laser triangle measure units. Another novel design is there laser indicators were arranged in order to reduce the scanning time for it is difficult for human to keep static for longer time. The 3D data were calculated after scanning. And further data processing include 3D coordinate refine, mesh calculate and surface show. Experiments show that this system has simply structure, high scanning speed and accurate. The scanning range covers the whole head of adult, the typical resolution is 0.5mm.

  8. 3-D reconstruction of neurons from multichannel confocal laser scanning image series.

    PubMed

    Wouterlood, Floris G

    2014-01-01

    A confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) collects information from a thin, focal plane and ignores out-of-focus information. Scanning of a specimen, with stepwise axial (Z-) movement of the stage in between each scan, produces Z-series of confocal images of a tissue volume, which then can be used to 3-D reconstruct structures of interest. The operator first configures separate channels (e.g., laser, filters, and detector settings) for each applied fluorochrome and then acquires Z-series of confocal images: one series per channel. Channel signal separation is extremely important. Measures to avoid bleaching are vital. Post-acquisition deconvolution of the image series is often performed to increase resolution before 3-D reconstruction takes place. In the 3-D reconstruction programs described in this unit, reconstructions can be inspected in real time from any viewing angle. By altering viewing angles and by switching channels off and on, the spatial relationships of 3-D-reconstructed structures with respect to structures visualized in other channels can be studied. Since each brand of CLSM, computer program, and 3-D reconstruction package has its own proprietary set of procedures, a general approach is provided in this protocol wherever possible. PMID:24723320

  9. Vessel segmentation in 3D spectral OCT scans of the retina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemeijer, Meindert; Garvin, Mona K.; van Ginneken, Bram; Sonka, Milan; Abràmoff, Michael D.

    2008-03-01

    The latest generation of spectral optical coherence tomography (OCT) scanners is able to image 3D cross-sectional volumes of the retina at a high resolution and high speed. These scans offer a detailed view of the structure of the retina. Automated segmentation of the vessels in these volumes may lead to more objective diagnosis of retinal vascular disease including hypertensive retinopathy, retinopathy of prematurity. Additionally, vessel segmentation can allow color fundus images to be registered to these 3D volumes, possibly leading to a better understanding of the structure and localization of retinal structures and lesions. In this paper we present a method for automatically segmenting the vessels in a 3D OCT volume. First, the retina is automatically segmented into multiple layers, using simultaneous segmentation of their boundary surfaces in 3D. Next, a 2D projection of the vessels is produced by only using information from certain segmented layers. Finally, a supervised, pixel classification based vessel segmentation approach is applied to the projection image. We compared the influence of two methods for the projection on the performance of the vessel segmentation on 10 optic nerve head centered 3D OCT scans. The method was trained on 5 independent scans. Using ROC analysis, our proposed vessel segmentation system obtains an area under the curve of 0.970 when compared with the segmentation of a human observer.

  10. 3D Laser Scanning Modeling and Application on Dazu Thousand-hand Bodhisattva in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, M.; Zhang, X.; Wu, Y.; Hu, Y.

    2014-04-01

    The Dazu Thousand-hand Bodhisattva Statue is located at Baoding Mountain in Chongqing. It has the reputation as "the Gem of World's Rock Carving Art". At present,the Dazu Thousand-hand Bodhisattva Statue is basically well conserved, while the local damage is already very serious. However, the Dazu Thousand-hand Bodhisattva Statue is a three-dimensional caved statue, the present plane surveying and mapping device cannot reflect the preservation situation completely. Therefore, the documentation of the Dazu Thousand-hand Bodhisattva Statue using terrestrial laser scanning is of great significance. This paper will introduce a new method for superfine 3D modeling of Thousand-hand Bodhisattva based on the high-resolution 3D cloud points. By analyzing these 3D cloud points and 3D models, some useful information, such as several 3D statistics, 3D thematic map and 3D shape restoration suggestion of Thousand-hand Bodhisattva will be revealed, which are beneficial to restoration work and some other application.

  11. 3D Winding Number: Theory and Application to Medical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Becciu, Alessandro; Fuster, Andrea; Pottek, Mark; van den Heuvel, Bart; ter Haar Romeny, Bart; van Assen, Hans

    2011-01-01

    We develop a new formulation, mathematically elegant, to detect critical points of 3D scalar images. It is based on a topological number, which is the generalization to three dimensions of the 2D winding number. We illustrate our method by considering three different biomedical applications, namely, detection and counting of ovarian follicles and neuronal cells and estimation of cardiac motion from tagged MR images. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation emphasizes the reliability of the results. PMID:21317978

  12. Error analysis of 3D laser scanning system for gangue monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shaoxing; Xia, Yuyang; Zhang, Aiwu

    2012-01-01

    The paper put forward the system error evaluation method of 3D scanning system for gangue monitoring; analyzed system errors including integrated error which can be avoided, and measurement error which needed whole analysis; firstly established the system equation after understanding the relationship of each structure. Then, used error independent effect and spread law to set up the entire error analysis system, and simulated the trend of error changing along X, Y, Z directions. At last, it is analytic that the laser rangefinder carries some weight in system error, and the horizontal and vertical scanning angles have some influences on system error in the certain vertical and horizontal scanning parameters.

  13. Development of scanning laser sensor for underwater 3D imaging with the coaxial optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochimizu, Hideaki; Imaki, Masaharu; Kameyama, Shumpei; Saito, Takashi; Ishibashi, Shoujirou; Yoshida, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    We have developed the scanning laser sensor for underwater 3-D imaging which has the wide scanning angle of 120º (Horizontal) x 30º (Vertical) with the compact size of 25 cm diameter and 60 cm long. Our system has a dome lens and a coaxial optics to realize both the wide scanning angle and the compactness. The system also has the feature in the sensitivity time control (STC) circuit, in which the receiving gain is increased according to the time of flight. The STC circuit contributes to detect a small signal by suppressing the unwanted signals backscattered by marine snows. We demonstrated the system performance in the pool, and confirmed the 3-D imaging with the distance of 20 m. Furthermore, the system was mounted on the autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), and demonstrated the seafloor mapping at the depth of 100 m in the ocean.

  14. Bore-Sight Calibration of Multiple Laser Range Finders for Kinematic 3D Laser Scanning Systems

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jaehoon; Kim, Jeonghyun; Yoon, Sanghyun; Kim, Sangmin; Cho, Hyoungsig; Kim, Changjae; Heo, Joon

    2015-01-01

    The Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technique has been used for autonomous navigation of mobile systems; now, its applications have been extended to 3D data acquisition of indoor environments. In order to reconstruct 3D scenes of indoor space, the kinematic 3D laser scanning system, developed herein, carries three laser range finders (LRFs): one is mounted horizontally for system-position correction and the other two are mounted vertically to collect 3D point-cloud data of the surrounding environment along the system’s trajectory. However, the kinematic laser scanning results can be impaired by errors resulting from sensor misalignment. In the present study, the bore-sight calibration of multiple LRF sensors was performed using a specially designed double-deck calibration facility, which is composed of two half-circle-shaped aluminum frames. Moreover, in order to automatically achieve point-to-point correspondences between a scan point and the target center, a V-shaped target was designed as well. The bore-sight calibration parameters were estimated by a constrained least squares method, which iteratively minimizes the weighted sum of squares of residuals while constraining some highly-correlated parameters. The calibration performance was analyzed by means of a correlation matrix. After calibration, the visual inspection of mapped data and residual calculation confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed calibration approach. PMID:25946627

  15. Bore-Sight Calibration of Multiple Laser Range Finders for Kinematic 3D Laser Scanning Systems.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaehoon; Kim, Jeonghyun; Yoon, Sanghyun; Kim, Sangmin; Cho, Hyoungsig; Kim, Changjae; Heo, Joon

    2015-01-01

    The Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technique has been used for autonomous navigation of mobile systems; now, its applications have been extended to 3D data acquisition of indoor environments. In order to reconstruct 3D scenes of indoor space, the kinematic 3D laser scanning system, developed herein, carries three laser range finders (LRFs): one is mounted horizontally for system-position correction and the other two are mounted vertically to collect 3D point-cloud data of the surrounding environment along the system's trajectory. However, the kinematic laser scanning results can be impaired by errors resulting from sensor misalignment. In the present study, the bore-sight calibration of multiple LRF sensors was performed using a specially designed double-deck calibration facility, which is composed of two half-circle-shaped aluminum frames. Moreover, in order to automatically achieve point-to-point correspondences between a scan point and the target center, a V-shaped target was designed as well. The bore-sight calibration parameters were estimated by a constrained least squares method, which iteratively minimizes the weighted sum of squares of residuals while constraining some highly-correlated parameters. The calibration performance was analyzed by means of a correlation matrix. After calibration, the visual inspection of mapped data and residual calculation confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed calibration approach. PMID:25946627

  16. A novel high accuracy 3D scanning device for rock-art sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höll, T.; Holler, G.; Pinz, A.

    2014-06-01

    We are currently developing a novel 3D scanning device for rock-art. Within the European project 3D-Pitoti, this scanner shall be used to acquire 3D structure and radiometric surface properties of ancient rock-art sites in Valcamonica. Overall design goals include high spatial accuracy and precision, as well as radiometric quality beyond phototexture. This paper is devoted to the geometric measurement principle of the new scanner. We present a novel scanning scheme based on various constraints to Structure from Motion, that guarantees high accuracy of the resulting scans by combining tachymeter-based tracking of the scanner, stereo, and structure-from-motion. This method provides scale information (by calibrated stereo), and does not require ground control points, because outside-in tracking avoids the typical issues of drift in structure-from-motion. The system is designed for flexibility, high throughput, approx. 0.1 mm precision, and an overall accuracy of the reconstructed 3D structure that conforms with the specifications of the tachymeter.

  17. The Impact of Web3D Technologies on Medical Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Nigel W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a survey of medical applications that make use of Web3D technologies, covering the period from 1995 to 2005. We assess the impact that Web3D has made on medical education and training during this time and highlight current and future trends. The applications identified are categorized into: general education tools; tools for…

  18. Mapping gray-scale image to 3D surface scanning data by ray tracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peng; Jones, Peter R. M.

    1997-03-01

    The extraction and location of feature points from range imaging is an important but difficult task in machine vision based measurement systems. There exist some feature points which are not able to be detected from pure geometric characteristics, particularly in those measurement tasks related to the human body. The Loughborough Anthropometric Shadow Scanner (LASS) is a whole body surface scanner based on structured light technique. Certain applications of LASS require accurate location of anthropometric landmarks from the scanned data. This is sometimes impossible from existing raw data because some landmarks do not appear in the scanned data. Identification of these landmarks has to resort to surface texture of the scanned object. Modifications to LASS were made to allow gray-scale images to be captured before or after the object was scanned. Two-dimensional gray-scale image must be mapped to the scanned data to acquire the 3D coordinates of a landmark. The method to map 2D images to the scanned data is based on the colinearity conditions and ray-tracing method. If the camera center and image coordinates are known, the corresponding object point must lie on a ray starting from the camera center and connecting to the image coordinate. By intersecting the ray with the scanned surface of the object, the 3D coordinates of a point can be solved. Experimentation has demonstrated the feasibility of the method.

  19. Scanning Cloud Radar Observations at Azores: Preliminary 3D Cloud Products

    SciTech Connect

    Kollias, P.; Johnson, K.; Jo, I.; Tatarevic, A.; Giangrande, S.; Widener, K.; Bharadwaj, N.; Mead, J.

    2010-03-15

    The deployment of the Scanning W-Band ARM Cloud Radar (SWACR) during the AMF campaign at Azores signals the first deployment of an ARM Facility-owned scanning cloud radar and offers a prelude for the type of 3D cloud observations that ARM will have the capability to provide at all the ARM Climate Research Facility sites by the end of 2010. The primary objective of the deployment of Scanning ARM Cloud Radars (SACRs) at the ARM Facility sites is to map continuously (operationally) the 3D structure of clouds and shallow precipitation and to provide 3D microphysical and dynamical retrievals for cloud life cycle and cloud-scale process studies. This is a challenging task, never attempted before, and requires significant research and development efforts in order to understand the radar's capabilities and limitations. At the same time, we need to look beyond the radar meteorology aspects of the challenge and ensure that the hardware and software capabilities of the new systems are utilized for the development of 3D data products that address the scientific needs of the new Atmospheric System Research (ASR) program. The SWACR observations at Azores provide a first look at such observations and the challenges associated with their analysis and interpretation. The set of scan strategies applied during the SWACR deployment and their merit is discussed. The scan strategies were adjusted for the detection of marine stratocumulus and shallow cumulus that were frequently observed at the Azores deployment. Quality control procedures for the radar reflectivity and Doppler products are presented. Finally, preliminary 3D-Active Remote Sensing of Cloud Locations (3D-ARSCL) products on a regular grid will be presented, and the challenges associated with their development discussed. In addition to data from the Azores deployment, limited data from the follow-up deployment of the SWACR at the ARM SGP site will be presented. This effort provides a blueprint for the effort required for the

  20. Effect of random coincidences for quantitative cardiac PET studies using 3D oxygen-15 water scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchareb, Y.; Thielemans, K.; Spinks, T.; Rimoldi, O.; Camici, P. G.

    2006-03-01

    The effect of random coincidences estimation methods on the quantitative accuracy of iterative and analytic reconstruction methods to determine myocardial blood flow (MBF) in PET studies using H II 15O has been investigated. Dynamic scans were acquired on the EXACT3D PET scanner on pigs after H II 15O injection (resting and dipyridamoleinduced stress). Radioactive microspheres (MS) were used to provide a "gold standard" of MBF values. The online subtraction (OS) and maximum likelihood (ML) methods for estimating randoms were combined with (i) 3D-RP, (ii) FORE + attenuation-weighted OSEM, (iii) FORE-FBP and (iv) 3D-OSEM. Factor images were generated and resliced to short axis images; 16 ROIs were defined in the left myocardium and 2 ROIs in the left and right cavities. ROIs were projected onto the dynamic images to extract time-activity-curves, which were then fitted to a single compartment model to estimate absolute MBF. Microsphere measurements were obtained in a similar way and 64 pairs of measurements were made. The ML method improved the SNR of 3D-RP, FORE-FBP, FORE-OSEM, and 3D-OSEM by 8%, 8%, 7% and 3% respectively. Compared to the OS method, the ML method improved the accuracy of coronary flow reserve values of 3DOSEM, 3D-RP, FORE-OSEM and FORE-FBP by 9%, 7%, 1% and 3% respectively. Regression analysis provided better correlation with 3D-OSEM and FORE-OSEM when combined with the ML method. We conclude that the ML method for estimating randoms combined with 3D-OSEM and FORE-OSEM delivers the best performance for absolute quantification of MBF using H II 15O when compared with microsphere measurements.

  1. 3D laser scanning and modelling of the Dhow heritage for the Qatar National Museum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetherelt, A.; Cooper, J. P.; Zazzaro, C.

    2014-08-01

    Curating boats can be difficult. They are complex structures, often demanding to conserve whether in or out of the water; they are usually large, difficult to move on land, and demanding of gallery space. Communicating life on board to a visiting public in the terra firma context of a museum can be difficult. Boats in their native environment are inherently dynamic artifacts. In a museum they can be static and divorced from the maritime context that might inspire engagement. New technologies offer new approaches to these problems. 3D laser scanning and digital modeling offers museums a multifaceted means of recording, monitoring, studying and communicating watercraft in their care. In this paper we describe the application of 3D laser scanning and subsequent digital modeling. Laser scans were further developed using computer-generated imagery (CGI) modeling techniques to produce photorealistic 3D digital models for development into interactive, media-based museum displays. The scans were also used to generate 2D naval lines and orthographic drawings as a lasting curatorial record of the dhows held by the National Museum of Qatar.

  2. 3-D ice shape measurements using mid-infrared laser scanning.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiaoliang; Bansmer, Stephan

    2015-02-23

    A general approach based on mid-infrared (MIR) laser scanning is proposed to measure the 3-D ice shape no matter whether the ice is composed of clear ice, rime ice, mixed ice, or even supercooled water droplets or films. This is possible because MIR radiation penetrates ice and water only within a depth of less than 10 micrometers. First, an MIR laser point scanning technique is implemented and verified on transparent glass and clear ice. Then, to improve efficiency, an MIR laser line scanning method is developed and validated on different models. At last, several sequential MIR laser line scans are applied to trace the 3-D shape evolution of the continuous ice accretion on an airfoil in an icing wind tunnel. The ice growth process can be well observed in the results. The MIR scan shows a good agreement with the traditional visible laser scan on a plastic replication of the final ice shape made by the mold and casting method. PMID:25836526

  3. Combining laser scan and photogrammetry for 3D object modeling using a single digital camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Hanwei; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Xiangwei

    2009-07-01

    In the fields of industrial design, artistic design and heritage conservation, physical objects are usually digitalized by reverse engineering through some 3D scanning methods. Laser scan and photogrammetry are two main methods to be used. For laser scan, a video camera and a laser source are necessary, and for photogrammetry, a digital still camera with high resolution pixels is indispensable. In some 3D modeling tasks, two methods are often integrated to get satisfactory results. Although many research works have been done on how to combine the results of the two methods, no work has been reported to design an integrated device at low cost. In this paper, a new 3D scan system combining laser scan and photogrammetry using a single consumer digital camera is proposed. Nowadays there are many consumer digital cameras, such as Canon EOS 5D Mark II, they usually have features of more than 10M pixels still photo recording and full 1080p HD movie recording, so a integrated scan system can be designed using such a camera. A square plate glued with coded marks is used to place the 3d objects, and two straight wood rulers also glued with coded marks can be laid on the plate freely. In the photogrammetry module, the coded marks on the plate make up a world coordinate and can be used as control network to calibrate the camera, and the planes of two rulers can also be determined. The feature points of the object and the rough volume representation from the silhouettes can be obtained in this module. In the laser scan module, a hand-held line laser is used to scan the object, and the two straight rulers are used as reference planes to determine the position of the laser. The laser scan results in dense points cloud which can be aligned together automatically through calibrated camera parameters. The final complete digital model is obtained through a new a patchwise energy functional method by fusion of the feature points, rough volume and the dense points cloud. The design

  4. 3D imaging of the early embryonic chicken heart with focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Rennie, Monique Y.; Gahan, Curran G.; López, Claudia S.; Thornburg, Kent L.; Rugonyi, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Early embryonic heart development is a period of dynamic growth and remodeling, with rapid changes occurring at the tissue, cell, and subcellular levels. A detailed understanding of the events that establish the components of the heart wall has been hampered by a lack of methodologies for three dimensional (3D), high-resolution imaging. Focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) is a novel technology for imaging 3D tissue volumes at the subcellular level. FIB-SEM alternates between imaging the block face with a scanning electron beam and milling away thin sections of tissue with a focused ion beam, allowing for collection and analysis of 3D data. FIB-SEM was used to image the three layers of the day 4 chicken embryo heart: myocardium, cardiac jelly, and endocardium. Individual images obtained with FIB-SEM were comparable in quality and resolution to those obtained with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Up to 1100 serial images were obtained in 4 nm increments at 4.88 nm resolution, and image stacks were aligned to create volumes 800–1500 μm3 in size. Segmentation of organelles revealed their organization and distinct volume fractions between cardiac wall layers. We conclude that FIB-SEM is a powerful modality for 3D subcellular imaging of the embryonic heart wall. PMID:24742339

  5. Geomorphometric analysis of cave ceiling channels mapped with 3-D terrestrial laser scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallay, Michal; Hochmuth, Zdenko; Kaňuk, Ján; Hofierka, Jaroslav

    2016-05-01

    The change of hydrological conditions during the evolution of caves in carbonate rocks often results in a complex subterranean geomorphology, which comprises specific landforms such as ceiling channels, anastomosing half tubes, or speleothems organized vertically in different levels. Studying such complex environments traditionally requires tedious mapping; however, this is being replaced with terrestrial laser scanning technology. Laser scanning overcomes the problem of reaching high ceilings, providing new options to map underground landscapes with unprecedented level of detail and accuracy. The acquired point cloud can be handled conveniently with dedicated software, but applying traditional geomorphometry to analyse the cave surface is limited. This is because geomorphometry has been focused on parameterization and analysis of surficial terrain. The theoretical and methodological concept has been based on two-dimensional (2-D) scalar fields, which are sufficient for most cases of the surficial terrain. The terrain surface is modelled with a bivariate function of altitude (elevation) and represented by a raster digital elevation model. However, the cave is a 3-D entity; therefore, a different approach is required for geomorphometric analysis. In this paper, we demonstrate the benefits of high-resolution cave mapping and 3-D modelling to better understand the palaeohydrography of the Domica cave in Slovakia. This methodological approach adopted traditional geomorphometric methods in a unique manner and also new methods used in 3-D computer graphics, which can be applied to study other 3-D geomorphological forms.

  6. Virtual rough samples to test 3D nanometer-scale scanning electron microscopy stereo photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villarrubia, J. S.; Tondare, V. N.; Vladár, A. E.

    2016-03-01

    The combination of scanning electron microscopy for high spatial resolution, images from multiple angles to provide 3D information, and commercially available stereo photogrammetry software for 3D reconstruction offers promise for nanometer-scale dimensional metrology in 3D. A method is described to test 3D photogrammetry software by the use of virtual samples—mathematical samples from which simulated images are made for use as inputs to the software under test. The virtual sample is constructed by wrapping a rough skin with any desired power spectral density around a smooth near-trapezoidal line with rounded top corners. Reconstruction is performed with images simulated from different angular viewpoints. The software's reconstructed 3D model is then compared to the known geometry of the virtual sample. Three commercial photogrammetry software packages were tested. Two of them produced results for line height and width that were within close to 1 nm of the correct values. All of the packages exhibited some difficulty in reconstructing details of the surface roughness.

  7. Brain surface maps from 3-D medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jiuhuai; Hansen, Eric W.; Gazzaniga, Michael S.

    1991-06-01

    The anatomic and functional localization of brain lesions for neurologic diagnosis and brain surgery is facilitated by labeling the cortical surface in 3D images. This paper presents a method which extracts cortical contours from magnetic resonance (MR) image series and then produces a planar surface map which preserves important anatomic features. The resultant map may be used for manual anatomic localization as well as for further automatic labeling. Outer contours are determined on MR cross-sectional images by following the clear boundaries between gray matter and cerebral-spinal fluid, skipping over sulci. Carrying this contour below the surface by shrinking it along its normal produces an inner contour that alternately intercepts gray matter (sulci) and white matter along its length. This procedure is applied to every section in the set, and the image (grayscale) values along the inner contours are radially projected and interpolated onto a semi-cylindrical surface with axis normal to the slices and large enough to cover the whole brain. A planar map of the cortical surface results by flattening this cylindrical surface. The projection from inner contour to cylindrical surface is unique in the sense that different points on the inner contour correspond to different points on the cylindrical surface. As the outer contours are readily obtained by automatic segmentation, cortical maps can be made directly from an MR series.

  8. Analysis of the Possibilities of Using Low-Cost Scanning System in 3d Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedzierski, M.; Wierzbickia, D.; Fryskowska, A.; Chlebowska, B.

    2016-06-01

    The laser scanning technique is still a very popular and fast growing method of obtaining information on modeling 3D objects. The use of low-cost miniature scanners creates new opportunities for small objects of 3D modeling based on point clouds acquired from the scan. The same, the development of accuracy and methods of automatic processing of this data type is noticeable. The article presents methods of collecting raw datasets in the form of a point-cloud using a low-cost ground-based laser scanner FabScan. As part of the research work 3D scanner from an open source FabLab project was constructed. In addition, the results for the analysis of the geometry of the point clouds obtained by using a low-cost laser scanner were presented. Also, some analysis of collecting data of different structures (made of various materials such as: glass, wood, paper, gum, plastic, plaster, ceramics, stoneware clay etc. and of different shapes: oval and similar to oval and prism shaped) have been done. The article presents two methods used for analysis: the first one - visual (general comparison between the 3D model and the real object) and the second one - comparative method (comparison between measurements on models and scanned objects using the mean error of a single sample of observations). The analysis showed, that the low-budget ground-based laser scanner FabScan has difficulties with collecting data of non-oval objects. Items built of glass painted black also caused problems for the scanner. In addition, the more details scanned object contains, the lower the accuracy of the collected point-cloud is. Nevertheless, the accuracy of collected data (using oval-straight shaped objects) is satisfactory. The accuracy, in this case, fluctuates between ± 0,4 mm and ± 1,0 mm whereas when using more detailed objects or a rectangular shaped prism the accuracy is much more lower, between 2,9 mm and ± 9,0 mm. Finally, the publication presents the possibility (for the future expansion of

  9. Fast algorithm of 3D median filter for medical image despeckling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Chengyi; Hou, Jianhua; Gao, Zhirong; He, Xiang; Chen, Shaoping

    2007-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) median filtering is very useful to eliminate speckle noise from a medical imaging source, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and ultrasonic imaging. 3-D median filtering is characterized by its higher computation complexity. N 3(N 3-1)/2 comparison operations would be required for 3-D median filtering with N×N×N window if the conventional bubble-sorting algorithm is adopted. In this paper, an efficient fast algorithm for 3-D median filtering was presented, which considerably reduced the computation complexity for extracting the median of a 3-D data array. Compared to the state-of-the-art, the proposed method could reduce the computation complexity of 3-D median filtering by 33%. It results in efficiently reducing the system delay of the 3-D median filter by software implementation, and the system cost and power consumption by hardware implementation.

  10. Long-range laser scanning and 3D imaging for the Gneiss quarries survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenker, Filippo Luca; Spataro, Alessio; Pozzoni, Maurizio; Ambrosi, Christian; Cannata, Massimiliano; Günther, Felix; Corboud, Federico

    2016-04-01

    In Canton Ticino (Southern Switzerland), the exploitation of natural stone, mostly gneisses, is an important activity of valley's economies. Nowadays, these economic activities are menaced by (i) the exploitation costs related to geological phenomena such as fractures, faults and heterogeneous rocks that hinder the processing of the stone product, (ii) continuously changing demand because of the evolving natural stone fashion and (iii) increasing administrative limits and rules acting to protect the environment. Therefore, the sustainable development of the sector for the next decades needs new and effective strategies to regulate and plan the quarries. A fundamental step in this process is the building of a 3D geological model of the quarries to constrain the volume of commercial natural stone and the volume of waste. In this context, we conducted Terrestrial Laser Scanning surveys of the quarries in the Maggia Valley to obtain a detailed 3D topography onto which the geological units were mapped. The topographic 3D model was obtained with a long-range laser scanning Riegl VZ4000 that can measure from up to 4 km of distance with a speed of 147,000 points per second. It operates with the new V-line technology, which defines the surface relief by sensing differentiated signals (echoes), even in the presence of obstacles such as vegetation. Depending on the esthetics of the gneisses, we defined seven types of natural stones that, together with faults and joints, were mapped onto the 3D models of the exploitation sites. According to the orientation of the geological limits and structures, we projected the different rock units and fractures into the excavation front. This way, we obtained a 3D geological model from which we can quantitatively estimate the volume of the seven different natural stones (with different commercial value) and waste (with low commercial value). To verify the 3D geological models and to quantify exploited rock and waste volumes the same

  11. 3D imaging by serial block face scanning electron microscopy for materials science using ultramicrotomy.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Teruo; Thompson, George E; Zhou, Xiaorong; Withers, Philip J

    2016-04-01

    Mechanical serial block face scanning electron microscopy (SBFSEM) has emerged as a means of obtaining three dimensional (3D) electron images over volumes much larger than possible by focused ion beam (FIB) serial sectioning and at higher spatial resolution than achievable with conventional X-ray computed tomography (CT). Such high resolution 3D electron images can be employed for precisely determining the shape, volume fraction, distribution and connectivity of important microstructural features. While soft (fixed or frozen) biological samples are particularly well suited for nanoscale sectioning using an ultramicrotome, the technique can also produce excellent 3D images at electron microscope resolution in a time and resource-efficient manner for engineering materials. Currently, a lack of appreciation of the capabilities of ultramicrotomy and the operational challenges associated with minimising artefacts for different materials is limiting its wider application to engineering materials. Consequently, this paper outlines the current state of the art for SBFSEM examining in detail how damage is introduced during slicing and highlighting strategies for minimising such damage. A particular focus of the study is the acquisition of 3D images for a variety of metallic and coated systems. PMID:26855205

  12. Grammar-based Automatic 3D Model Reconstruction from Terrestrial Laser Scanning Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Q.; Helmholz, P.; Belton, D.; West, G.

    2014-04-01

    The automatic reconstruction of 3D buildings has been an important research topic during the last years. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to automatically reconstruct the 3D building models from segmented data based on pre-defined formal grammar and rules. Such segmented data can be extracted e.g. from terrestrial or mobile laser scanning devices. Two steps are considered in detail. The first step is to transform the segmented data into 3D shapes, for instance using the DXF (Drawing Exchange Format) format which is a CAD data file format used for data interchange between AutoCAD and other program. Second, we develop a formal grammar to describe the building model structure and integrate the pre-defined grammars into the reconstruction process. Depending on the different segmented data, the selected grammar and rules are applied to drive the reconstruction process in an automatic manner. Compared with other existing approaches, our proposed method allows the model reconstruction directly from 3D shapes and takes the whole building into account.

  13. ARCHAEO-SCAN: Portable 3D shape measurement system for archaeological field work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knopf, George K.; Nelson, Andrew J.

    2004-10-01

    Accurate measurement and thorough documentation of excavated artifacts are the essential tasks of archaeological fieldwork. The on-site recording and long-term preservation of fragile evidence can be improved using 3D spatial data acquisition and computer-aided modeling technologies. Once the artifact is digitized and geometry created in a virtual environment, the scientist can manipulate the pieces in a virtual reality environment to develop a "realistic" reconstruction of the object without physically handling or gluing the fragments. The ARCHAEO-SCAN system is a flexible, affordable 3D coordinate data acquisition and geometric modeling system for acquiring surface and shape information of small to medium sized artifacts and bone fragments. The shape measurement system is being developed to enable the field archaeologist to manually sweep the non-contact sensor head across the relic or artifact surface. A series of unique data acquisition, processing, registration and surface reconstruction algorithms are then used to integrate 3D coordinate information from multiple views into a single reference frame. A novel technique for automatically creating a hexahedral mesh of the recovered fragments is presented. The 3D model acquisition system is designed to operate from a standard laptop with minimal additional hardware and proprietary software support. The captured shape data can be pre-processed and displayed on site, stored digitally on a CD, or transmitted via the Internet to the researcher's home institution.

  14. A real-time 3D scanning system for pavement distortion inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qingguang; Yao, Ming; Yao, Xun; Xu, Bugao

    2010-01-01

    Pavement distortions, such as rutting and shoving, are the common pavement distress problems that need to be inspected and repaired in a timely manner to ensure ride quality and traffic safety. This paper introduces a real-time, low-cost inspection system devoted to detecting these distress features using high-speed 3D transverse scanning techniques. The detection principle is the dynamic generation and characterization of the 3D pavement profile based on structured light triangulation. To improve the accuracy of the system, a multi-view coplanar scheme is employed in the calibration procedure so that more feature points can be used and distributed across the field of view of the camera. A sub-pixel line extraction method is applied for the laser stripe location, which includes filtering, edge detection and spline interpolation. The pavement transverse profile is then generated from the laser stripe curve and approximated by line segments. The second-order derivatives of the segment endpoints are used to identify the feature points of possible distortions. The system can output the real-time measurements and 3D visualization of rutting and shoving distress in a scanned pavement.

  15. Implementation of 3D prostrate ring-scanning mechanism for NIR diffuse optical imaging phantom validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jhao-Ming; Chen, Liang-Yu; Pan, Min-Cheng; Hsu, Ya-Fen; Pan, Min-Chun

    2015-03-01

    Diffuse optical imaging (DOI) providing functional information of tissues has drawn great attention for the last two decades. Near infrared (NIR) DOI systems composed of scanning bench, opt-electrical measurement module, system control, and data processing and image reconstruction schemes are developed for the screening and diagnosis of breast tumors. Mostly, the scanning bench belonging to fixed source-and-detector configuration limits computed image resolution to an extent. To cope with the issue, we propose, design and implement a 3D prostrate ring-scanning equipment for NIR DOI with flexible combinations of illumination and detection, and with the function of radial, circular and vertical movement without hard compression of breast tissue like the imaging system using or incorporating with X-ray mammographic bench. Especially, a rotation-sliding-and-moving mechanism was designed for the guidance of source- and detection-channel movement. Following the previous justification for synthesized image reconstruction, in the paper the validation using varied phantoms is further conducted and 3D image reconstruction for their absorption and scattering coefficients is illustrated through the computation of our in-house coded schemes. The source and detection NIR data are acquired to reconstruct the 3D images through the operation of scanning bench in the movement of vertical, radial and circular directions. Rather than the fixed configuration, the addressed screening/diagnosing equipment has the flexibility for optical-channel expansion with a compromise among construction cost, operation time, and spatial resolution of reconstructed μa and μs' images.

  16. A Tool-Free Calibration Method for Turntable-Based 3D Scanning Systems.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xufang; Lau, Rynson W H; Song, Zhan; Li, Yangyan; He, Shengfeng

    2016-01-01

    Turntable-based 3D scanners are popular but require calibration of the turntable axis. Existing methods for turntable calibration typically make use of specially designed tools, such as a chessboard or criterion sphere, which users must manually install and dismount. In this article, the authors propose an automatic method to calibrate the turntable axis without any calibration tools. Given a scan sequence of the input object, they first recover the initial rotation axis from an automatic registration step. Then they apply an iterative procedure to obtain the optimized turntable axis. This iterative procedure alternates between two steps: refining the initial pose of the input scans and approximating the rotation matrix. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated on a structured light-based scanning system. PMID:25137724

  17. A multinational deployment of 3D laser scanning to study craniofacial dysmorphology in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Jeff; Wernert, Eric; Moore, Elizabeth; Ward, Richard; Wetherill, Leah F.; Foroud, Tatiana

    2007-01-01

    Craniofacial anthropometry (the measurement and analysis of head and face dimensions) has been used to assess and describe abnormal craniofacial variation (dysmorphology) and the facial phenotype in many medical syndromes. Traditionally, anthropometry measurements have been collected by the direct application of calipers and tape measures to the subject's head and face, and can suffer from inaccuracies due to restless subjects, erroneous landmark identification, clinician variability, and other forms of human error. Three-dimensional imaging technologies promise a more effective alternative that separates the acquisition and measurement phases to reduce these variabilities while also enabling novel measurements and longitudinal analysis of subjects. Indiana University (IU) is part of an international consortium of researchers studying fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Fetal alcohol exposure results in predictable craniofacial dysmorphologies, and anthropometry has been proven to be an effective diagnosis tool for the condition. IU is leading a project to study the use of 3D surface scanning to acquire anthropometry data in order to more accurately diagnose FASD, especially in its milder forms. This paper describes our experiences in selecting, verifying, supporting, and coordinating a set of 3D scanning systems for use in collecting facial scans and anthropometric data from around the world.

  18. A new approach of building 3D visualization framework for multimodal medical images display and computed assisted diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhenwei; Sun, Jianyong; Zhang, Jianguo

    2012-02-01

    As more and more CT/MR studies are scanning with larger volume of data sets, more and more radiologists and clinician would like using PACS WS to display and manipulate these larger data sets of images with 3D rendering features. In this paper, we proposed a design method and implantation strategy to develop 3D image display component not only with normal 3D display functions but also with multi-modal medical image fusion as well as compute-assisted diagnosis of coronary heart diseases. The 3D component has been integrated into the PACS display workstation of Shanghai Huadong Hospital, and the clinical practice showed that it is easy for radiologists and physicians to use these 3D functions such as multi-modalities' (e.g. CT, MRI, PET, SPECT) visualization, registration and fusion, and the lesion quantitative measurements. The users were satisfying with the rendering speeds and quality of 3D reconstruction. The advantages of the component include low requirements for computer hardware, easy integration, reliable performance and comfortable application experience. With this system, the radiologists and the clinicians can manipulate with 3D images easily, and use the advanced visualization tools to facilitate their work with a PACS display workstation at any time.

  19. 3D shape measurement for moving scenes using an interlaced scanning colour camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Senpeng; Cao, Yiping; Lu, Mingteng; Zhang, Qican

    2014-12-01

    A Fourier transform deinterlacing algorithm (FTDA) is proposed to eliminate the blurring and dislocation of the fringe patterns on a moving object captured by an interlaced scanning colour camera in phase measuring profilometry (PMP). Every frame greyscale fringe from three colour channels of every colour fringe is divided into even and odd field fringes respectively, each of which is respectively processed by FTDA. All of the six frames deinterlaced fringes from one colour fringe form two sets of three-step phase-shifted greyscale fringes, with which two 3D shapes corresponding to two different moments are reconstructed by PMP within a frame period. The deinterlaced fringe is identical with the exact frame fringe at the same moment theoretically. The simulation and experiments show its feasibility and validity. The method doubles the time resolution, maintains the precision of the traditional phase measurement profilometry, and has potential applications in the moving and online object’s 3D shape measurements.

  20. An efficient solid modeling system based on a hand-held 3D laser scan device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Hanwei; Xu, Jun; Xu, Chenxi; Pan, Ming

    2014-12-01

    The hand-held 3D laser scanner sold in the market is appealing for its port and convenient to use, but price is expensive. To develop such a system based cheap devices using the same principles as the commercial systems is impossible. In this paper, a simple hand-held 3D laser scanner is developed based on a volume reconstruction method using cheap devices. Unlike convenient laser scanner to collect point cloud of an object surface, the proposed method only scan few key profile curves on the surface. Planar section curve network can be generated from these profile curves to construct a volume model of the object. The details of design are presented, and illustrated by the example of a complex shaped object.

  1. Analysis of method of 3D shape reconstruction using scanning deflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novák, Jiří; Novák, Pavel; Mikš, Antonín.

    2013-04-01

    This work presents a scanning deflectometric approach to solving a 3D surface reconstruction problem, which is based on measurements of a surface gradient of optically smooth surfaces. It is shown that a description of this problem leads to a nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE) of the first order, from which the surface shape can be reconstructed numerically. The method for effective finding of the solution of this differential equation is proposed, which is based on the transform of the problem of PDE solving to the optimization problem. We describe different types of surface description for the shape reconstruction and a numerical simulation of the presented method is performed. The reconstruction process is analyzed by computer simulations and presented on examples. The performed analysis confirms a robustness of the reconstruction method and a good possibility for measurements and reconstruction of the 3D shape of specular surfaces.

  2. 3D scanning and imaging for quick documentation of crime and accident scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barazzetti, L.; Sala, R.; Scaioni, M.; Cattaneo, C.; Gibelli, D.; Giussani, A.; Poppa, P.; Roncoroni, F.; Vandone, A.

    2012-06-01

    Fast documentation of complex scenes where accidents or crimes occurred is fundamental not to lose information for post-event analyses and lesson learning. Today 3D terrestrial laser scanning and photogrammetry offer instruments capable of achieving this task. The former allows the fast geometric reconstruction of complex scenes through dense point clouds. Different kinds of instruments can be used according to the size of the area to survey and to the required level of details. The latter can be used for both geometric reconstruction and for photo-realistic texturing of laser scans. While photogrammetry better focuses on small details, laser scanning gives out a more comprehensive view of geometry of whole crime/accident scene. Both techniques can be used for recording a scene just after a crime or a disaster occurred, before the area is cleared out to recover regular activities. Visualization of results through an easy-to-use 3D environment is another import issue to offer useful data to investigators. Here two experiences of crime scene documentation are proposed.

  3. 3D camera assisted fully automated calibration of scanning laser Doppler vibrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sels, Seppe; Ribbens, Bart; Mertens, Luc; Vanlanduit, Steve

    2016-06-01

    Scanning laser Doppler vibrometers (LDV) are used to measure full-field vibration shapes of products and structures. In most commercially available scanning laser Doppler vibrometer systems the user manually draws a grid of measurement locations on a 2D camera image of the product. The determination of the correct physical measurement locations can be a time consuming and diffcult task. In this paper we present a new methodology for product testing and quality control that integrates 3D imaging techniques with vibration measurements. This procedure allows to test prototypes in a shorter period because physical measurements locations will be located automatically. The proposed methodology uses a 3D time-of-flight camera to measure the location and orientation of the test-object. The 3D image of the time-of-flight camera is then matched with the 3D-CAD model of the object in which measurement locations are pre-defined. A time of flight camera operates strictly in the near infrared spectrum. To improve the signal to noise ratio in the time-of-flight measurement, a time-of-flight camera uses a band filter. As a result of this filter, the laser spot of most laser vibrometers is invisible in the time-of-flight image. Therefore a 2D RGB-camera is used to find the laser-spot of the vibrometer. The laser spot is matched to the 3D image obtained by the time-of-flight camera. Next an automatic calibration procedure is used to aim the laser at the (pre)defined locations. Another benefit from this methodology is that it incorporates automatic mapping between a CAD model and the vibration measurements. This mapping can be used to visualize measurements directly on a 3D CAD model. Secondly the orientation of the CAD model is known with respect to the laser beam. This information can be used to find the direction of the measured vibration relatively to the surface of the object. With this direction, the vibration measurements can be compared more precisely with numerical

  4. Determining the 3-D structure and motion of objects using a scanning laser range sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nandhakumar, N.; Smith, Philip W.

    1993-01-01

    In order for the EVAHR robot to autonomously track and grasp objects, its vision system must be able to determine the 3-D structure and motion of an object from a sequence of sensory images. This task is accomplished by the use of a laser radar range sensor which provides dense range maps of the scene. Unfortunately, the currently available laser radar range cameras use a sequential scanning approach which complicates image analysis. Although many algorithms have been developed for recognizing objects from range images, none are suited for use with single beam, scanning, time-of-flight sensors because all previous algorithms assume instantaneous acquisition of the entire image. This assumption is invalid since the EVAHR robot is equipped with a sequential scanning laser range sensor. If an object is moving while being imaged by the device, the apparent structure of the object can be significantly distorted due to the significant non-zero delay time between sampling each image pixel. If an estimate of the motion of the object can be determined, this distortion can be eliminated; but, this leads to the motion-structure paradox - most existing algorithms for 3-D motion estimation use the structure of objects to parameterize their motions. The goal of this research is to design a rigid-body motion recovery technique which overcomes this limitation. The method being developed is an iterative, linear, feature-based approach which uses the non-zero image acquisition time constraint to accurately recover the motion parameters from the distorted structure of the 3-D range maps. Once the motion parameters are determined, the structural distortion in the range images is corrected.

  5. Diagnostic Capability of Peripapillary Retinal Thickness in Glaucoma Using 3D Volume Scans

    PubMed Central

    Simavli, Huseyin; Que, Christian John; Akduman, Mustafa; Rizzo, Jennifer L.; Tsikata, Edem; de Boer, Johannes F.; Chen, Teresa C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the diagnostic capability of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) peripapillary retinal thickness (RT) measurements from 3-dimensional (3D) volume scans for primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). Design Cross-sectional study. Methods Setting Institutional Study population 156 patients (89 POAG and 67 normal subjects) Observation procedures One eye of each subject was included. SD-OCT peripapillary RT values from 3D volume scans were calculated for four quadrants of three different sized annuli. Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness values were also determined. Main outcome measures Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) values, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratios. Results The top five RT AUROCs for all glaucoma patients and for a subset of early glaucoma patients were for the inferior quadrant of outer circumpapillary annulus of circular grid (OCA) 1 (0.959, 0.939), inferior quadrant of OCA2 (0.945, 0.921), superior quadrant of OCA1 (0.890, 0.811), inferior quadrant of OCA3 (0.887, 0.854), and superior quadrant of OCA2 (0.879, 0.807). Smaller RT annuli OCA1 and OCA2 consistently showed better diagnostic performance than the larger RT annulus OCA3. For both RNFL and RT measurements, best AUROC values were found for inferior RT OCA1 and OCA2, followed by inferior and overall RNFL thickness. Conclusion Peripapillary RT measurements from 3D volume scans showed excellent diagnostic performance for detecting both glaucoma and early glaucoma patients. Peripapillary RT values have the same or better diagnostic capability compared to peripapillary RNFL thickness measurements, while also having fewer algorithm errors. PMID:25498354

  6. 3D scanning electron microscopy applied to surface characterization of fluorosed dental enamel.

    PubMed

    Limandri, Silvina; Galván Josa, Víctor; Valentinuzzi, María Cecilia; Chena, María Emilia; Castellano, Gustavo

    2016-05-01

    The enamel surfaces of fluorotic teeth were studied by scanning electron stereomicroscopy. Different whitening treatments were applied to 25 pieces to remove stains caused by fluorosis and their surfaces were characterized by stereomicroscopy in order to obtain functional and amplitude parameters. The topographic features resulting for each treatment were determined through these parameters. The results obtained show that the 3D reconstruction achieved from the SEM stereo pairs is a valuable potential alternative for the surface characterization of this kind of samples. PMID:26930005

  7. 3D laser scanning microscopy of hypervelocity impact features in metal and aerogel targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillier, J. K.; Postberg, F.; Price, M. C.; Trieloff, M.; Li, Y. W.; Srama, R.

    2012-09-01

    We present the results of a study into the mapping of hypervelocity impact features using a Keyence VK-X200 3D laser scanning microscope. The impact features observed are impact craters in a variety of different metal targets (Al, Au and Cu) and impact tracks in aerogel targets, similar to those used in the Stardust mission. Differences in crater morphology between different target materials and impact velocities, as well as differences in track depth and diameter in aerogel, for particles of known constant dimensions, are discussed.

  8. Scanning cross-correlator for monitoring uniform 3D ellipsoidal laser beams

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenogorskii, V V; Andrianov, A V; Gacheva, E I; Gelikonov, G V; Mironov, S Yu; Potemkin, A K; Khazanov, E A; Krasilnikov, M; Stephan, F; Mart'yanov, M A; Syresin, E M

    2014-01-31

    The specific features of experimental implementation of a cross-correlator with a scan rate above 1600 cm s{sup -1} and a spatial delay amplitude of more than 15 mm are considered. The possibility of measuring the width of femtosecond pulses propagating in a train 300 μs in duration with a repetition rate of 1 MHz is demonstrated. A time resolution of 300 fs for the maximum time window of 50 ps is attained. The cross-correlator is aimed at testing 3D pulses of a laser driver of an electron photo-injector. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  9. The application of digital medical 3D printing technology on tumor operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jimin; Jiang, Yijian; Li, Yangsheng

    2016-04-01

    Digital medical 3D printing technology is a new hi-tech which combines traditional medical and digital design, computer science, bio technology and 3D print technology. At the present time there are four levels application: The printed 3D model is the first and simple application. The surgery makes use of the model to plan the processing before operation. The second is customized operation tools such as implant guide. It helps doctor to operate with special tools rather than the normal medical tools. The third level application of 3D printing in medical area is to print artificial bones or teeth to implant into human body. The big challenge is the fourth level which is to print organs with 3D printing technology. In this paper we introduced an application of 3D printing technology in tumor operation. We use 3D printing to print guide for invasion operation. Puncture needles were guided by printed guide in face tumors operation. It is concluded that this new type guide is dominantly advantageous.

  10. Optimization of 3D laser scanning speed by use of combined variable step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Cruz, X. M.; Sergiyenko, O. Yu.; Tyrsa, Vera; Rivas-Lopez, M.; Hernandez-Balbuena, D.; Rodriguez-Quiñonez, J. C.; Basaca-Preciado, L. C.; Mercorelli, P.

    2014-03-01

    The problem of 3D TVS slow functioning caused by constant small scanning step becomes its solution in the presented research. It can be achieved by combined scanning step application for the fast search of n obstacles in unknown surroundings. Such a problem is of keynote importance in automatic robot navigation. To maintain a reasonable speed robots must detect dangerous obstacles as soon as possible, but all known scanners able to measure distances with sufficient accuracy are unable to do it in real time. So, the related technical task of the scanning with variable speed and precise digital mapping only for selected spatial sectors is under consideration. A wide range of simulations in MATLAB 7.12.0 of several variants of hypothetic scenes with variable n obstacles in each scene (including variation of shapes and sizes) and scanning with incremented angle value (0.6° up to 15°) is provided. The aim of such simulation was to detect which angular values of interval still permit getting the maximal information about obstacles without undesired time losses. Three of such local maximums were obtained in simulations and then rectified by application of neuronal network formalism (Levenberg-Marquradt Algorithm). The obtained results in its turn were applied to MET (Micro-Electro-mechanical Transmission) design for practical realization of variable combined step scanning on an experimental prototype of our previously known laser scanner.

  11. A web-based 3D medical image collaborative processing system with videoconference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Sanbi; Han, Jun; Huang, Yonggang

    2013-07-01

    Three dimension medical images have been playing an irreplaceable role in realms of medical treatment, teaching, and research. However, collaborative processing and visualization of 3D medical images on Internet is still one of the biggest challenges to support these activities. Consequently, we present a new application approach for web-based synchronized collaborative processing and visualization of 3D medical Images. Meanwhile, a web-based videoconference function is provided to enhance the performance of the whole system. All the functions of the system can be available with common Web-browsers conveniently, without any extra requirement of client installation. In the end, this paper evaluates the prototype system using 3D medical data sets, which demonstrates the good performance of our system.

  12. Real-time auto-stereoscopic visualization of 3D medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portoni, Luisa; Patak, Alexandre; Noirard, Pierre; Grossetie, Jean-Claude; van Berkel, Cees

    2000-04-01

    The work here described regards multi-viewer auto- stereoscopic visualization of 3D models of anatomical structures and organs of the human body. High-quality 3D models of more than 1600 anatomical structures have been reconstructed using the Visualization Toolkit, a freely available C++ class library for 3D graphics and visualization. 2D images used for 3D reconstruction comes from the Visible Human Data Set. Auto-stereoscopic 3D image visualization is obtained using a prototype monitor developed at Philips Research Labs, UK. This special multiview 3D-LCD screen has been connected directly to a SGI workstation, where 3D reconstruction and medical imaging applications are executed. Dedicated software has been developed to implement multiview capability. A number of static or animated contemporary views of the same object can simultaneously be seen on the 3D-LCD screen by several observers, having a real 3D perception of the visualized scene without the use of extra media as dedicated glasses or head-mounted displays. Developed software applications allow real-time interaction with visualized 3D models, didactical animations and movies have been realized as well.

  13. 3D web based learning of medical equipment employed in intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Aydın

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, both synchronous and asynchronous web based learning of 3D medical equipment models used in hospital intensive care unit have been described over the moodle course management system. 3D medical equipment models were designed with 3ds Max 2008, then converted to ASE format and added interactivity displayed with Viewpoint-Enliven. 3D models embedded in a web page in html format with dynamic interactivity-rotating, panning and zooming by dragging a mouse over images-and descriptive information is embedded to 3D model by using xml format. A pilot test course having 15 h was applied to technicians who is responsible for intensive care unit at Medical Devices Repairing and Maintenance Center (TABOM) of Turkish High Specialized Hospital. PMID:20703738

  14. Subjective evaluation of user experience in interactive 3D visualization in a medical context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tourancheau, Sylvain; Sjöström, Mårten; Olsson, Roger; Persson, Anders; Ericson, Thomas; Rudling, Johan; Norén, Bengt

    2012-02-01

    New display technologies enable the usage of 3D-visualization in a medical context. Even though user performance seems to be enhanced with respect to 2D thanks to the addition of recreated depth cues, human factors, and more particularly visual comfort and visual fatigue can still be a bridle to the widespread use of these systems. This study aimed at evaluating and comparing two different 3D visualization systems (a market stereoscopic display, and a state-of-the-art multi-view display) in terms of quality of experience (QoE), in the context of interactive medical visualization. An adapted methodology was designed in order to subjectively evaluate the experience of users. 14 medical doctors and 15 medical students took part in the experiment. After solving different tasks using the 3D reconstruction of a phantom object, they were asked to judge their quality of the experience, according to specific features. They were also asked to give their opinion about the influence of 3D-systems on their work conditions. Results suggest that medical doctors are opened to 3D-visualization techniques and are confident concerning their beneficial influence on their work. However, visual comfort and visual fatigue are still an issue of 3D-displays. Results obtained with the multi-view display suggest that the use of continuous horizontal parallax might be the future response to these current limitations.

  15. Error Analysis of Terrestrial Laser Scanning Data by Means of Spherical Statistics and 3D Graphs

    PubMed Central

    Cuartero, Aurora; Armesto, Julia; Rodríguez, Pablo G.; Arias, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a complete analysis of the positional errors of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data based on spherical statistics and 3D graphs. Spherical statistics are preferred because of the 3D vectorial nature of the spatial error. Error vectors have three metric elements (one module and two angles) that were analyzed by spherical statistics. A study case has been presented and discussed in detail. Errors were calculating using 53 check points (CP) and CP coordinates were measured by a digitizer with submillimetre accuracy. The positional accuracy was analyzed by both the conventional method (modular errors analysis) and the proposed method (angular errors analysis) by 3D graphics and numerical spherical statistics. Two packages in R programming language were performed to obtain graphics automatically. The results indicated that the proposed method is advantageous as it offers a more complete analysis of the positional accuracy, such as angular error component, uniformity of the vector distribution, error isotropy, and error, in addition the modular error component by linear statistics. PMID:22163461

  16. Topographical surveys: Classical method versus 3D laser scanning. Case study - An application in civil engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoraş, I.-R.; Covăsnianu, A.; Pleşu, G.; Benedict, B.

    2009-04-01

    The paper describes an experiment which took place in Iasi town, Romania, consisted in two different topographical survey techniques applied for one and the same objective placed in a block within the city (western part) - a thermal power station. The purpose was to compare those methods and to determine which one is proper to be used in this domain in terms of fastness, optimization and speed of data processing. First technique applied for our survey was the classical one, with a total station. Using the CAD technique, we obtained a final product (a dwg file) and a list of coordinates (a text file). The second method, which we focused our attention more, was the measurement with a very precise 3D laser scanstation, also very suitable in archeology. The data obtained were processed with special software. Result was a 3D model of the thermal power plant composed of measurable cloud point data. Finally, analyzing the advantages and disadvantages of each method, we came to the conclusion that the 3D laser scanning which we used matches well the application, in this case civil engineering, but the future of accepting and implementing this technique is in the hands of Romanian authorities.

  17. State of the art of 3D scanning systems and inspection of textile surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montilla, M.; Orjuela-Vargas, S. A.; Philips, W.

    2014-02-01

    The rapid development of hardware and software in the digital image processing field has boosted research in computer vision for applications in industry. The development of new electronic devices and the tendency to decrease their prices makes possible new developments that few decades ago were possible only in the imagination. This is the case of 3D imaging technology which permits to detect failures in industrial products by inspecting aspects on their 3D surface. In search of an optimal solution for scanning textiles we present in this paper a review of existing techniques for digitizing 3D surfaces. Topographic details of textiles can be obtained by digitizing surfaces using laser line triangulation, phase shifting optical triangulation, projected-light, stereo-vision systems and silhouette analysis. Although we are focused on methods that have been used in the textile industry, we also consider potential mechanisms used for other applications. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the evaluated methods and state a summary of potential implementations for the textile industry.

  18. 3-D micro surface profilometry employing novel Mirau-based lateral scanning interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liang-Chia; Le, Manh-Trung; Lin, Yi-Shiuan

    2014-09-01

    An innovative 3-D surface imaging methodology for reconstructing micro surface profiles with a long depth measuring range and a nano-scale resolution was developed using the newly developed Mirau-based lateral scanning interferometry (LSI). The current measuring field of view (FOV) of conventional white light interferometers is limited by microscopic views of the existing interferometric objectives, such as those in Michelson, Mirau or Linnik designs. Moreover, the vertical scanning operation required for acquiring volumetric interferometric data is extremely time-consuming and makes white light vertical scanning interferometry (VSI) infeasible for automatic optical inspection (AOI) of micro 3-D structures. To resolve this, a newly developed white light LSI method based on Mirau’s optical configuration was developed by controlling the tilting angle of the reference mirror in the Mirau interferometric objective. With the proposed optical configuration, the surface is inspected at a tilting angle with respect to the maximum coherence plane of the interferometric system along its lateral scanning direction when the objective lies perpendicular to the tested surface. In addition, a system calibration method was developed to establish an accurate mathematical mapping model between the object depth and the lateral axis. To evaluate the feasibility of the methodology, a calibrated step height was measured for evaluating the accuracy and repeatability. Some industrial samples, such as photon spacers and other microstructures fabricated by nano-imprinting processes, were measured to verify the actual performance on real components. It was found that the measurement repeatability was controlled less than 60 nm within one standard deviation for a maximum measurable depth of 27.21 µm.

  19. 3D change detection at street level using mobile laser scanning point clouds and terrestrial images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Rongjun; Gruen, Armin

    2014-04-01

    Automatic change detection and geo-database updating in the urban environment are difficult tasks. There has been much research on detecting changes with satellite and aerial images, but studies have rarely been performed at the street level, which is complex in its 3D geometry. Contemporary geo-databases include 3D street-level objects, which demand frequent data updating. Terrestrial images provides rich texture information for change detection, but the change detection with terrestrial images from different epochs sometimes faces problems with illumination changes, perspective distortions and unreliable 3D geometry caused by the lack of performance of automatic image matchers, while mobile laser scanning (MLS) data acquired from different epochs provides accurate 3D geometry for change detection, but is very expensive for periodical acquisition. This paper proposes a new method for change detection at street level by using combination of MLS point clouds and terrestrial images: the accurate but expensive MLS data acquired from an early epoch serves as the reference, and terrestrial images or photogrammetric images captured from an image-based mobile mapping system (MMS) at a later epoch are used to detect the geometrical changes between different epochs. The method will automatically mark the possible changes in each view, which provides a cost-efficient method for frequent data updating. The methodology is divided into several steps. In the first step, the point clouds are recorded by the MLS system and processed, with data cleaned and classified by semi-automatic means. In the second step, terrestrial images or mobile mapping images at a later epoch are taken and registered to the point cloud, and then point clouds are projected on each image by a weighted window based z-buffering method for view dependent 2D triangulation. In the next step, stereo pairs of the terrestrial images are rectified and re-projected between each other to check the geometrical

  20. 3D surface scan of biological samples with a Push-broom Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Haibo; Kincaid, Russell; Hruska, Zuzana; Brown, Robert L.; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Cleveland, Thomas E.

    2013-08-01

    The food industry is always on the lookout for sensing technologies for rapid and nondestructive inspection of food products. Hyperspectral imaging technology integrates both imaging and spectroscopy into unique imaging sensors. Its application for food safety and quality inspection has made significant progress in recent years. Specifically, hyperspectral imaging has shown its potential for surface contamination detection in many food related applications. Most existing hyperspectral imaging systems use pushbroom scanning which is generally used for flat surface inspection. In some applications it is desirable to be able to acquire hyperspectral images on circular objects such as corn ears, apples, and cucumbers. Past research describes inspection systems that examine all surfaces of individual objects. Most of these systems did not employ hyperspectral imaging. These systems typically utilized a roller to rotate an object, such as an apple. During apple rotation, the camera took multiple images in order to cover the complete surface of the apple. The acquired image data lacked the spectral component present in a hyperspectral image. This paper discusses the development of a hyperspectral imaging system for a 3-D surface scan of biological samples. The new instrument is based on a pushbroom hyperspectral line scanner using a rotational stage to turn the sample. The system is suitable for whole surface hyperspectral imaging of circular objects. In addition to its value to the food industry, the system could be useful for other applications involving 3-D surface inspection.

  1. Automated kidney detection for 3D ultrasound using scan line searching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noll, Matthias; Nadolny, Anne; Wesarg, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasound (U/S) is a fast and non-expensive imaging modality that is used for the examination of various anatomical structures, e.g. the kidneys. One important task for automatic organ tracking or computer-aided diagnosis is the identification of the organ region. During this process the exact information about the transducer location and orientation is usually unavailable. This renders the implementation of such automatic methods exceedingly challenging. In this work we like to introduce a new automatic method for the detection of the kidney in 3D U/S images. This novel technique analyses the U/S image data along virtual scan lines. Here, characteristic texture changes when entering and leaving the symmetric tissue regions of the renal cortex are searched for. A subsequent feature accumulation along a second scan direction produces a 2D heat map of renal cortex candidates, from which the kidney location is extracted in two steps. First, the strongest candidate as well as its counterpart are extracted by heat map intensity ranking and renal cortex size analysis. This process exploits the heat map gap caused by the renal pelvis region. Substituting the renal pelvis detection with this combined cortex tissue feature increases the detection robustness. In contrast to model based methods that generate characteristic pattern matches, our method is simpler and therefore faster. An evaluation performed on 61 3D U/S data sets showed, that in 55 cases showing none or minor shadowing the kidney location could be correctly identified.

  2. Combining supine MRI and 3D optical scanning for improved surgical planning of breast conserving surgeries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallone, Matthew J.; Poplack, Steven P.; Barth, Richard J., Jr.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2012-02-01

    Image-guided wire localization is the current standard of care for the excision of non-palpable carcinomas during breast conserving surgeries (BCS). The efficacy of this technique depends upon the accuracy of wire placement, maintenance of the fixed wire position (despite patient movement), and the surgeon's understanding of the spatial relationship between the wire and tumor. Notably, breast shape can vary significantly between the imaging and surgical positions. Despite this method of localization, re-excision is needed in approximately 30% of patients due to the proximity of cancer to the specimen margins. These limitations make wire localization an inefficient and imprecise procedure. Alternatively, we investigate a method of image registration and finite element (FE) deformation which correlates preoperative supine MRIs with 3D optical scans of the breast surface. MRI of the breast can accurately define the extents of very small cancers. Furthermore, supine breast MR reduces the amount of tissue deformation between the imaging and surgical positions. At the time of surgery, the surface contour of the breast may be imaged using a handheld 3D laser scanner. With the MR images segmented by tissue type, the two scans are approximately registered using fiducial markers present in both acquisitions. The segmented MRI breast volume is then deformed to match the optical surface using a FE mechanical model of breast tissue. The resulting images provide the surgeon with 3D views and measurements of the tumor shape, volume, and position within the breast as it appears during surgery which may improve surgical guidance and obviate the need for wire localization.

  3. Measuring Fracture Properties of Meteorites: 3D Scans and Disruption Experiments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotto-Figueroa, Desireé; Asphaug, Erik; Morris, Melissa A.; Garvie, Laurence

    2014-11-01

    The Arizona State University (ASU) Center for Meteorite Studies (CMS) houses over 30,000 specimens that represent almost every known meteorite type. A number of these are available for fragmentation experiments in small samples, but in most cases non-destructive experiments are desired in order to determine the fundamental mechanical properties of meteorites, and by extension, the Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and other planetary bodies they derive from. We present results from an ongoing suite of measurements and experiments, featuring automated 3D topographic scans of a comprehensive suite of meteorites in the CMS collection, basic mechanical studies, and culminating in catastrophic fragmentation of four representative meteorites: Tamdakht (H5), Allende (CV3), Northwest Africa 869 (L3-6) and Chelyabinsk (LL5). Results will include high-resolution 3D color-shape models of meteorites, including specimens such as the 349g oriented and fusion crusted Martian (shergottite) Tissint, and the delicately fusion crusted and oriented 131g Whetstone Mountains (H5) ordinary chondrite. The 3D color-shape models will allow us to obtain basic physical properties (such as volume to derive density) and to derive fractal dimensions of fractured surfaces. Fractal dimension is closely related to the internal structural heterogeneity and fragmentation of the material, to macroscopic optical properties, and to rubble friction and cohesion. Freshly fractured surfaces of fragments that will result from catastrophic hypervelocity impact experiments will be subsequently scanned and analyzed in order to determine whether fractal dimension is preserved or if it changes with surface maturation.

  4. 3-D x-ray mirror metrology with a vertical scanning long trace profiler

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, P.Z.; Li, H.; Li, X.; Grindel, M.W.

    1996-09-01

    The long trace profiler (LTP) was originally developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory for the specific purpose of measuring the surface figure of large cylindrical mirrors used at grazing incidence in synchrotron radiation (SR) beamlines. In its original configuration, it could measure only along one line down the center of the cylinder. A single linear profile is often sufficient to gauge the quality of the optical surface on these kinds of mirrors. For some applications it is necessary to measure the topography of the entire surface, not just along one line but over a grid that covers the entire surface area. We have modified a standard LTP to enable measurement of the complete surface of Wolter telescope optics in a vertical configuration. The vertical scanning LTP (VSLTP) is capable of producing a complete 3-D map of the surface topography errors relative to the ideal desired surface on complete segments of paraboloids and hyperboloids. The instrument uses a penta prism assembly to scan the probe beam in the longitudinal direction parallel to the mirror symmetry axis and uses a precision rotary stage to provide scans in the azimuthal direction. A Risley prism pair and a dove prism are used to orient the probe beam in the proper direction for the azimuthal scans. The repeatability of the prototype instrument is better than 20 nm over trace lengths of 35 mm with a slope measurement accuracy of about 1 microradian. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. 3-D water vapor field in the atmospheric boundary layer observed with scanning differential absorption lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Späth, Florian; Behrendt, Andreas; Muppa, Shravan Kumar; Metzendorf, Simon; Riede, Andrea; Wulfmeyer, Volker

    2016-04-01

    High-resolution three-dimensional (3-D) water vapor data of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) are required to improve our understanding of land-atmosphere exchange processes. For this purpose, the scanning differential absorption lidar (DIAL) of the University of Hohenheim (UHOH) was developed as well as new analysis tools and visualization methods. The instrument determines 3-D fields of the atmospheric water vapor number density with a temporal resolution of a few seconds and a spatial resolution of up to a few tens of meters. We present three case studies from two field campaigns. In spring 2013, the UHOH DIAL was operated within the scope of the HD(CP)2 Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE) in western Germany. HD(CP)2 stands for High Definition of Clouds and Precipitation for advancing Climate Prediction and is a German research initiative. Range-height indicator (RHI) scans of the UHOH DIAL show the water vapor heterogeneity within a range of a few kilometers up to an altitude of 2 km and its impact on the formation of clouds at the top of the ABL. The uncertainty of the measured data was assessed for the first time by extending a technique to scanning data, which was formerly applied to vertical time series. Typically, the accuracy of the DIAL measurements is between 0.5 and 0.8 g m-3 (or < 6 %) within the ABL even during daytime. This allows for performing a RHI scan from the surface to an elevation angle of 90° within 10 min. In summer 2014, the UHOH DIAL participated in the Surface Atmosphere Boundary Layer Exchange (SABLE) campaign in southwestern Germany. Conical volume scans were made which reveal multiple water vapor layers in three dimensions. Differences in their heights in different directions can be attributed to different surface elevation. With low-elevation scans in the surface layer, the humidity profiles and gradients can be related to different land cover such as maize, grassland, and forest as well as different surface layer

  6. Use of 3D Printed Models in Medical Education: A Randomized Control Trial Comparing 3D Prints versus Cadaveric Materials for Learning External Cardiac Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Kah Heng Alexander; Loo, Zhou Yaw; Goldie, Stephen J.; Adams, Justin W.; McMenamin, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an emerging technology capable of readily producing accurate anatomical models, however, evidence for the use of 3D prints in medical education remains limited. A study was performed to assess their effectiveness against cadaveric materials for learning external cardiac anatomy. A double blind randomized…

  7. Server-based approach to web visualization of integrated 3-D medical image data.

    PubMed Central

    Poliakov, A. V.; Albright, E.; Corina, D.; Ojemann, G.; Martin, R. F.; Brinkley, J. F.

    2001-01-01

    Although computer processing power and network bandwidth are rapidly increasing, the average desktop is still not able to rapidly process large datasets such as 3-D medical image volumes. We have therefore developed a server side approach to this problem, in which a high performance graphics server accepts commands from web clients to load, process and render 3-D image volumes and models. The renderings are saved as 2-D snapshots on the server, where they are uploaded and displayed on the client. User interactions with the graphic interface on the client side are translated into additional commands to manipulate the 3-D scene, after which the server re-renders the scene and sends a new image to the client. Example forms-based and Java-based clients are described for a brain mapping application, but the techniques should be applicable to multiple domains where 3-D medical image visualization is of interest. PMID:11825248

  8. Performance assessment of 3D surface imaging technique for medical imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tuotuo; Geng, Jason; Li, Shidong

    2013-03-01

    Recent development in optical 3D surface imaging technologies provide better ways to digitalize the 3D surface and its motion in real-time. The non-invasive 3D surface imaging approach has great potential for many medical imaging applications, such as motion monitoring of radiotherapy, pre/post evaluation of plastic surgery and dermatology, to name a few. Various commercial 3D surface imaging systems have appeared on the market with different dimension, speed and accuracy. For clinical applications, the accuracy, reproducibility and robustness across the widely heterogeneous skin color, tone, texture, shape properties, and ambient lighting is very crucial. Till now, a systematic approach for evaluating the performance of different 3D surface imaging systems still yet exist. In this paper, we present a systematic performance assessment approach to 3D surface imaging system assessment for medical applications. We use this assessment approach to exam a new real-time surface imaging system we developed, dubbed "Neo3D Camera", for image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). The assessments include accuracy, field of view, coverage, repeatability, speed and sensitivity to environment, texture and color.

  9. A practical salient region feature based 3D multi-modality registration method for medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Dieter A.; Wolz, Gabriele; Sun, Yiyong; Hornegger, Joachim; Sauer, Frank; Kuwert, Torsten; Xu, Chenyang

    2006-03-01

    We present a novel representation of 3D salient region features and its integration into a hybrid rigid-body registration framework. We adopt scale, translation and rotation invariance properties of those intrinsic 3D features to estimate a transform between underlying mono- or multi-modal 3D medical images. Our method combines advantageous aspects of both feature- and intensity-based approaches and consists of three steps: an automatic extraction of a set of 3D salient region features on each image, a robust estimation of correspondences and their sub-pixel accurate refinement with outliers elimination. We propose a region-growing based approach for the extraction of 3D salient region features, a solution to the problem of feature clustering and a reduction of the correspondence search space complexity. Results of the developed algorithm are presented for both mono- and multi-modal intra-patient 3D image pairs (CT, PET and SPECT) that have been acquired for change detection, tumor localization, and time based intra-person studies. The accuracy of the method is clinically evaluated by a medical expert with an approach that measures the distance between a set of selected corresponding points consisting of both anatomical and functional structures or lesion sites. This demonstrates the robustness of the proposed method to image overlap, missing information and artefacts. We conclude by discussing potential medical applications and possibilities for integration into a non-rigid registration framework.

  10. Mitigation of tracheobronchomalacia with 3D-printed personalized medical devices in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Robert J; Hollister, Scott J; Niedner, Matthew F; Mahani, Maryam Ghadimi; Park, Albert H; Mehta, Deepak K; Ohye, Richard G; Green, Glenn E

    2015-04-29

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing offers the potential for rapid customization of medical devices. The advent of 3D-printable biomaterials has created the potential for device control in the fourth dimension: 3D-printed objects that exhibit a designed shape change under tissue growth and resorption conditions over time. Tracheobronchomalacia (TBM) is a condition of excessive collapse of the airways during respiration that can lead to life-threatening cardiopulmonary arrests. We demonstrate the successful application of 3D printing technology to produce a personalized medical device for treatment of TBM, designed to accommodate airway growth while preventing external compression over a predetermined time period before bioresorption. We implanted patient-specific 3D-printed external airway splints in three infants with severe TBM. At the time of publication, these infants no longer exhibited life-threatening airway disease and had demonstrated resolution of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary complications of their TBM. Long-term data show continued growth of the primary airways. This process has broad application for medical manufacturing of patient-specific 3D-printed devices that adjust to tissue growth through designed mechanical and degradation behaviors over time. PMID:25925683

  11. Mitigation of Tracheobronchomalacia with 3D-Printed Personalized Medical Devices in Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Robert J.; Hollister, Scott J.; Niedner, Matthew F.; Mahani, Maryam Ghadimi; Park, Albert H.; Mehta, Deepak K.; Ohye, Richard G.; Green, Glenn E.

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing offers the potential for rapid customization of medical devices. The advent of 3D-printable biomaterials has created the potential for device control in the fourth dimension: 3D-printed objects that exhibit a designed shape change under tissue growth and resorption conditions over time. Tracheobronchomalacia (TBM) is a condition of excessive collapse of the airways during respiration that can lead to life-threatening cardiopulmonary arrests. Here we demonstrate the successful application of 3D printing technology to produce a personalized medical device for treatment of TBM, designed to accommodate airway growth while preventing external compression over a pre-determined time period before bioresorption. We implanted patient-specific 3D-printed external airway splints in three infants with severe TBM. At the time of publication, these infants no longer exhibited life-threatening airway disease and had demonstrated resolution of both pulmonary and extra-pulmonary complications of their TBM. Long-term data show continued growth of the primary airways. This process has broad application for medical manufacturing of patient-specific 3D-printed devices that adjust to tissue growth through designed mechanical and degradation behaviors over time. PMID:25925683

  12. Underwater 3D Surface Measurement Using Fringe Projection Based Scanning Devices.

    PubMed

    Bräuer-Burchardt, Christian; Heinze, Matthias; Schmidt, Ingo; Kühmstedt, Peter; Notni, Gunther

    2015-01-01

    In this work we show the principle of optical 3D surface measurements based on the fringe projection technique for underwater applications. The challenges of underwater use of this technique are shown and discussed in comparison with the classical application. We describe an extended camera model which takes refraction effects into account as well as a proposal of an effective, low-effort calibration procedure for underwater optical stereo scanners. This calibration technique combines a classical air calibration based on the pinhole model with ray-based modeling and requires only a few underwater recordings of an object of known length and a planar surface. We demonstrate a new underwater 3D scanning device based on the fringe projection technique. It has a weight of about 10 kg and the maximal water depth for application of the scanner is 40 m. It covers an underwater measurement volume of 250 mm × 200 mm × 120 mm. The surface of the measurement objects is captured with a lateral resolution of 150 μm in a third of a second. Calibration evaluation results are presented and examples of first underwater measurements are given. PMID:26703624

  13. The study of craniofacial growth patterns using 3D laser scanning and geometric morphometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friess, Martin

    2006-02-01

    Throughout childhood, braincase and face grow at different rates and therefore exhibit variable proportions and positions relative to each other. Our understanding of the direction and magnitude of these growth patterns is crucial for many ergonomic applications and can be improved by advanced 3D morphometrics. The purpose of this study is to investigate this known growth allometry using 3D imaging techniques. The geometry of the head and face of 840 children, aged 2 to 19, was captured with a laser surface scanner and analyzed statistically. From each scan, 18 landmarks were extracted and registered using General Procrustes Analysis (GPA). GPA eliminates unwanted variation due to position, orientation and scale by applying a least-squares superimposition algorithm to individual landmark configurations. This approach provides the necessary normalization for the study of differences in size, shape, and their interaction (allometry). The results show that throughout adolescence, boys and girls follow a different growth trajectory, leading to marked differences not only in size but also in shape, most notably in relative proportions of the braincase. These differences can be observed during early childhood, but become most noticeable after the age of 13 years, when craniofacial growth in girls slows down significantly, whereas growth in boys continues for at least 3 more years.

  14. Underwater 3D Surface Measurement Using Fringe Projection Based Scanning Devices

    PubMed Central

    Bräuer-Burchardt, Christian; Heinze, Matthias; Schmidt, Ingo; Kühmstedt, Peter; Notni, Gunther

    2015-01-01

    In this work we show the principle of optical 3D surface measurements based on the fringe projection technique for underwater applications. The challenges of underwater use of this technique are shown and discussed in comparison with the classical application. We describe an extended camera model which takes refraction effects into account as well as a proposal of an effective, low-effort calibration procedure for underwater optical stereo scanners. This calibration technique combines a classical air calibration based on the pinhole model with ray-based modeling and requires only a few underwater recordings of an object of known length and a planar surface. We demonstrate a new underwater 3D scanning device based on the fringe projection technique. It has a weight of about 10 kg and the maximal water depth for application of the scanner is 40 m. It covers an underwater measurement volume of 250 mm × 200 mm × 120 mm. The surface of the measurement objects is captured with a lateral resolution of 150 μm in a third of a second. Calibration evaluation results are presented and examples of first underwater measurements are given. PMID:26703624

  15. Shape Analysis of 3D Head Scan Data for U.S. Respirator Users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Ziqing; Slice, DennisE; Benson, Stacey; Lynch, Stephanie; Viscusi, DennisJ

    2010-12-01

    In 2003, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted a head-and-face anthropometric survey of diverse, civilian respirator users. Of the 3,997 subjects measured using traditional anthropometric techniques, surface scans and 26 three-dimensional (3D) landmark locations were collected for 947 subjects. The objective of this study was to report the size and shape variation of the survey participants using the 3D data. Generalized Procrustes Analysis (GPA) was conducted to standardize configurations of landmarks associated with individuals into a common coordinate system. The superimposed coordinates for each individual were used as commensurate variables that describe individual shape and were analyzed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to identify population variation. The first four principal components (PC) account for 49% of the total sample variation. The first PC indicates that overall size is an important component of facial variability. The second PC accounts for long and narrow or short and wide faces. Longer narrow orbits versus shorter wider orbits can be described by PC3, and PC4 represents variation in the degree of ortho/prognathism. Geometric Morphometrics provides a detailed and interpretable assessment of morphological variation that may be useful in assessing respirators and devising new test and certification standards.

  16. Laser Scanning for 3D Object Characterization: Infrastructure for Exploration and Analysis of Vegetation Signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, K.; Höfle, B.

    2012-04-01

    Mapping and characterization of the three-dimensional nature of vegetation is increasingly gaining in importance. Deeper insight is required for e.g. forest management, biodiversity assessment, habitat analysis, precision agriculture, renewable energy production or the analysis of interaction between biosphere and atmosphere. However the potential of 3D vegetation characterization has not been exploited so far and new technologies are needed. Laser scanning has evolved into the state-of-the-art technology for highly accurate 3D data acquisition. By now several studies indicated a high value of 3D vegetation description by using laser data. The laser sensors provide a detailed geometric presentation (geometric information) of scanned objects as well as a full profile of laser energy that was scattered back to the sensor (radiometric information). In order to exploit the full potential of these datasets, profound knowledge on laser scanning technology for data acquisition, geoinformation technology for data analysis and object of interest (e.g. vegetation) for data interpretation have to be joined. A signature database is a collection of signatures of reference vegetation objects acquired under known conditions and sensor parameters and can be used to improve information extraction from unclassified vegetation datasets. Different vegetation elements (leaves, branches, etc.) at different heights above ground with different geometric composition contribute to the overall description (i.e. signature) of the scanned object. The developed tools allow analyzing tree objects according to single features (e.g. echo width and signal amplitude) and to any relation of features and derived statistical values (e.g. ratio of laser point attributes). For example, a single backscatter cross section value does not allow for tree species determination, whereas the average echo width per tree segment can give good estimates. Statistical values and/or distributions (e.g. Gaussian

  17. Permanent 3D laser scanning system for an active landslide in Gresten (Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canli, Ekrem; Höfle, Bernhard; Hämmerle, Martin; Benni, Thiebes; Glade, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Terrestrial laser scanners (TLS) have widely been used for high spatial resolution data acquisition of topographic features and geomorphic analyses. Existing applications encompass different landslides including rockfall, translational or rotational landslides, debris flow, but also coastal cliff erosion, braided river evolution or river bank erosion. The main advantages of TLS are (a) the high spatial sampling density of XYZ-measurements (e.g. 1 point every 2-3 mm at 10 m distance), particularly in comparison with the low data density monitoring techniques such as GNSS or total stations, (b) the millimeter accuracy and precision of the range measurement to centimeter accuracy of the final DEM, and (c) the highly dense area-wide scanning that enables to look through vegetation and to measure bare ground. One of its main constraints is the temporal resolution of acquired data due to labor costs and time requirements for field campaigns. Thus, repetition measurements are generally performed only episodically. However, for an increased scientific understanding of the processes as well as for early warning purposes, we present a novel permanent 3D monitoring setup to increase the temporal resolution of TLS measurements. This accounts for different potential monitoring deliverables such as volumetric calculations, spatio-temporal movement patterns, predictions and even alerting. This system was installed at the active Salcher landslide in Gresten (Austria) that is situated in the transition zone of the Gresten Klippenbelt (Helvetic) and the Flyschzone (Penninic). The characteristic lithofacies are the Gresten Beds of Early Jurassic age that are covered by a sequence of marly and silty beds with intercalated sandy limestones. Permanent data acquisition can be implemented into our workflow with any long-range TLS system offering fully automated capturing. We utilize an Optech ILRIS-3D scanner. The time interval between two scans is currently set to 24 hours, but can be

  18. Application of a Hybrid 3D-2D Laser Scanning System to the Characterization of Slate Slabs

    PubMed Central

    López, Marcos; Martínez, Javier; Matías, José María; Vilán, José Antonio; Taboada, Javier

    2010-01-01

    Dimensional control based on 3D laser scanning techniques is widely used in practice. We describe the application of a hybrid 3D-2D laser scanning system to the characterization of slate slabs with structural defects that are difficult for the human eye to characterize objectively. Our study is based on automating the process using a 3D laser scanner and a 2D camera. Our results demonstrate that the application of this hybrid system optimally characterizes slate slabs in terms of the defects described by the Spanish UNE-EN 12326-1 standard. PMID:22219696

  19. 3D-printing and the effect on medical costs: a new era?

    PubMed

    Choonara, Yahya E; du Toit, Lisa C; Kumar, Pradeep; Kondiah, Pierre P D; Pillay, Viness

    2016-01-01

    3D-printing (3DP) is the art and science of printing in a new dimension using 3D printers to transform 3D computer aided designs (CAD) into life-changing products. This includes the design of more effective and patient-friendly pharmaceutical products as well as bio-inspired medical devices. It is poised as the next technology revolution for the pharmaceutical and medical-device industries. After decorous implementation scientists in collaboration with CAD designers have produced innovative medical devices ranging from pharmaceutical tablets to surgical transplants of the human face and skull, spinal implants, prosthetics, human organs and other biomaterials. While 3DP may be cost-efficient, a limitation exists in the availability of 3D printable biomaterials for most applications. In addition, the loss of skilled labor in producing medical devices such as prosthetics and other devices may affect developing economies. This review objectively explores the potential growth and impact of 3DP costs in the medical industry. PMID:26817398

  20. Fast and memory-efficient LOGISMOS graph search for intraretinal layer segmentation of 3D macular OCT scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyungmoo; Zhang, Li; Abramoff, Michael D.; Sonka, Milan

    2015-03-01

    Image segmentation is important for quantitative analysis of medical image data. Recently, our research group has introduced a 3-D graph search method which can simultaneously segment optimal interacting surfaces with respect to the cost function in volumetric images. Although it provides excellent segmentation accuracy, it is computationally demanding (both CPU and memory) to simultaneously segment multiple surfaces from large volumetric images. Therefore, we propose a new, fast, and memory-efficient graph search method for intraretinal layer segmentation of 3-D macular optical coherence tomograpy (OCT) scans. The key idea is to reduce the size of a graph by combining the nodes with high costs based on the multiscale approach. The new approach requires significantly less memory and achieves significantly faster processing speeds (p < 0.01) with only small segmentation differences compared to the original graph search method. This paper discusses sub-optimality of this approach and assesses trade-off relationships between decreasing processing speed and increasing segmentation differences from that of the original method as a function of employed scale of the underlying graph construction.

  1. Regulatory Considerations in the Design and Manufacturing of Implantable 3D-Printed Medical Devices.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Robert J; Kashlan, Khaled N; Flanangan, Colleen L; Wright, Jeanne K; Green, Glenn E; Hollister, Scott J; Weatherwax, Kevin J

    2015-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing, or additive manufacturing, technology has rapidly penetrated the medical device industry over the past several years, and innovative groups have harnessed it to create devices with unique composition, structure, and customizability. These distinctive capabilities afforded by 3D printing have introduced new regulatory challenges. The customizability of 3D-printed devices introduces new complexities when drafting a design control model for FDA consideration of market approval. The customizability and unique build processes of 3D-printed medical devices pose unique challenges in meeting regulatory standards related to the manufacturing quality assurance. Consistent material powder properties and optimal printing parameters such as build orientation and laser power must be addressed and communicated to the FDA to ensure a quality build. Postprinting considerations unique to 3D-printed devices, such as cleaning, finishing and sterilization are also discussed. In this manuscript we illustrate how such regulatory hurdles can be navigated by discussing our experience with our group's 3D-printed bioresorbable implantable device. PMID:26243449

  2. Medical image retrieval system using multiple features from 3D ROIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Hongbing; Wang, Weiwei; Liao, Qimei; Zhang, Guopeng; Zhou, Zhiming

    2012-02-01

    Compared to a retrieval using global image features, features extracted from regions of interest (ROIs) that reflect distribution patterns of abnormalities would benefit more for content-based medical image retrieval (CBMIR) systems. Currently, most CBMIR systems have been designed for 2D ROIs, which cannot reflect 3D anatomical features and region distribution of lesions comprehensively. To further improve the accuracy of image retrieval, we proposed a retrieval method with 3D features including both geometric features such as Shape Index (SI) and Curvedness (CV) and texture features derived from 3D Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix, which were extracted from 3D ROIs, based on our previous 2D medical images retrieval system. The system was evaluated with 20 volume CT datasets for colon polyp detection. Preliminary experiments indicated that the integration of morphological features with texture features could improve retrieval performance greatly. The retrieval result using features extracted from 3D ROIs accorded better with the diagnosis from optical colonoscopy than that based on features from 2D ROIs. With the test database of images, the average accuracy rate for 3D retrieval method was 76.6%, indicating its potential value in clinical application.

  3. Automated analysis of barley organs using 3D laser scanning: an approach for high throughput phenotyping.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Stefan; Dupuis, Jan; Riedel, Sebastian; Kuhlmann, Heiner

    2014-01-01

    Due to the rise of laser scanning the 3D geometry of plant architecture is easy to acquire. Nevertheless, an automated interpretation and, finally, the segmentation into functional groups are still difficult to achieve. Two barley plants were scanned in a time course, and the organs were separated by applying a histogram-based classification algorithm. The leaf organs were represented by meshing algorithms, while the stem organs were parameterized by a least-squares cylinder approximation. We introduced surface feature histograms with an accuracy of 96% for the separation of the barley organs, leaf and stem. This enables growth monitoring in a time course for barley plants. Its reliability was demonstrated by a comparison with manually fitted parameters with a correlation R(2) = 0:99 for the leaf area and R(2) = 0:98 for the cumulated stem height. A proof of concept has been given for its applicability for the detection of water stress in barley, where the extension growth of an irrigated and a non-irrigated plant has been monitored. PMID:25029283

  4. Automated Analysis of Barley Organs Using 3D Laser Scanning: An Approach for High Throughput Phenotyping

    PubMed Central

    Paulus, Stefan; Dupuis, Jan; Riedel, Sebastian; Kuhlmann, Heiner

    2014-01-01

    Due to the rise of laser scanning the 3D geometry of plant architecture is easy to acquire. Nevertheless, an automated interpretation and, finally, the segmentation into functional groups are still difficult to achieve. Two barley plants were scanned in a time course, and the organs were separated by applying a histogram-based classification algorithm. The leaf organs were represented by meshing algorithms, while the stem organs were parameterized by a least-squares cylinder approximation. We introduced surface feature histograms with an accuracy of 96% for the separation of the barley organs, leaf and stem. This enables growth monitoring in a time course for barley plants. Its reliability was demonstrated by a comparison with manually fitted parameters with a correlation R2 = 0.99 for the leaf area and R2 = 0.98 for the cumulated stem height. A proof of concept has been given for its applicability for the detection of water stress in barley, where the extension growth of an irrigated and a non-irrigated plant has been monitored. PMID:25029283

  5. 3D imaging of mammalian cells with ion-abrasion scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Heymann, Jurgen A W; Shi, Dan; Kim, Sang; Bliss, Donald; Milne, Jacqueline L S; Subramaniam, Sriram

    2009-04-01

    Understanding the hierarchical organization of molecules and organelles within the interior of large eukaryotic cells is a challenge of fundamental interest in cell biology. We are using ion-abrasion scanning electron microscopy (IA-SEM) to visualize this hierarchical organization in an approach that combines focused ion-beam milling with scanning electron microscopy. Here, we extend our previous studies on imaging yeast cells to image subcellular architecture in human melanoma cells and melanocytes at resolutions as high as approximately 6 and approximately 20 nm in the directions parallel and perpendicular, respectively, to the direction of ion-beam milling. The 3D images demonstrate the striking spatial relationships between specific organelles such as mitochondria and membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum, and the distribution of unique cellular components such as melanosomes. We also show that 10nm-sized gold particles and quantum dot particles with 7 nm-sized cores can be detected in single cross-sectional images. IA-SEM is thus a useful tool for imaging large mammalian cells in their entirety at resolutions in the nanometer range. PMID:19116171

  6. JP3D compressed-domain watermarking of volumetric medical data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouled Zaid, Azza; Makhloufi, Achraf; Olivier, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Increasing transmission of medical data across multiple user systems raises concerns for medical image watermarking. Additionaly, the use of volumetric images triggers the need for efficient compression techniques in picture archiving and communication systems (PACS), or telemedicine applications. This paper describes an hybrid data hiding/compression system, adapted to volumetric medical imaging. The central contribution is to integrate blind watermarking, based on turbo trellis-coded quantization (TCQ), to JP3D encoder. Results of our method applied to Magnetic Resonance (MR) and Computed Tomography (CT) medical images have shown that our watermarking scheme is robust to JP3D compression attacks and can provide relative high data embedding rate whereas keep a relative lower distortion.

  7. Accuracy of 3D white light scanning of abutment teeth impressions: evaluation of trueness and precision

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Jin-Hun; Kim, Hae-Young; Kim, Ji-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of digitizing dental impressions of abutment teeth using a white light scanner and to compare the findings among teeth types. MATERIALS AND METHODS To assess precision, impressions of the canine, premolar, and molar prepared to receive all-ceramic crowns were repeatedly scanned to obtain five sets of 3-D data (STL files). Point clouds were compared and error sizes were measured (n=10 per type). Next, to evaluate trueness, impressions of teeth were rotated by 10°-20° and scanned. The obtained data were compared with the first set of data for precision assessment, and the error sizes were measured (n=5 per type). The Kruskal-Wallis test was performed to evaluate precision and trueness among three teeth types, and post-hoc comparisons were performed using the Mann-Whitney U test with Bonferroni correction (α=.05). RESULTS Precision discrepancies for the canine, premolar, and molar were 3.7 µm, 3.2 µm, and 7.3 µm, respectively, indicating the poorest precision for the molar (P<.001). Trueness discrepancies for teeth types were 6.2 µm, 11.2 µm, and 21.8 µm, respectively, indicating the poorest trueness for the molar (P=.007). CONCLUSION In respect to accuracy the molar showed the largest discrepancies compared with the canine and premolar. Digitizing of dental impressions of abutment teeth using a white light scanner was assessed to be a highly accurate method and provided discrepancy values in a clinically acceptable range. Further study is needed to improve digitizing performance of white light scanning in axial wall. PMID:25551007

  8. 3D freehand ultrasound for medical assistance in diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Fabian; Fanti, Zian; Arambula Cosío, F.

    2013-11-01

    Image-guided interventions allow the physician to have a better planning and visualization of a procedure. 3D freehand ultrasound is a non-invasive and low-cost imaging tool that can be used to assist medical procedures. This tool can be used in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. There are common medical practices that involve large needles to obtain an accurate diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. In this study we propose the use of 3D freehand ultrasound for planning and guiding such procedures as core needle biopsy and radiofrequency ablation. The proposed system will help the physician to identify the lesion area, using image-processing techniques in the 3D freehand ultrasound images, and guide the needle to this area using the information of position and orientation of the surgical tools. We think that this system can upgrade the accuracy and efficiency of these procedures.

  9. Effects of Processing and Medical Sterilization Techniques on 3D-Printed and Molded Polylactic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geritano, Mariah Nicole

    Manufacturing industries have evolved tremendously in the past decade with the introduction of Additive Manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D Printing. The medical device industry has been a leader in adapting this new technology into research and development. 3D printing enables medical devices and implants to become more customizable, patient specific, and allows for low production numbers. This study compares the mechanical and thermal properties of traditionally manufactured parts versus parts manufactured through 3D printing before and after sterilization, and the ability of an FDM printer to produce reliable, identical samples. It was found that molded samples and 100% infill high-resolution samples have almost identical changes in properties when exposed to different sterilization methods, and similar cooling rates. The data shown throughout this investigation confirms that manipulation of printing parameters can result in an object with comparable material properties to that created through traditional manufacturing methods.

  10. Constructing topologically connected surfaces for the comprehensive analysis of 3-D medical structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvin, Alan D.; Cutting, Court B.; Haddad, Betsy; Noz, Marilyn E.

    1991-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) medical imaging deals with the visualization, manipulation, and measuring of objects in 3D medical images. So far, research efforts have concentrated primarily on visualization, using well-developed methods from computer graphics. Very little has been achieved in developing techniques for manipulating medical objects, or for extracting quantitative measurements from them beyond volume calculation (by counting voxels), and computing distances and angles between manually located surface points. A major reason for the slow pace in the development of manipulation and quantification methods lies with the limitations of current algorithms for constructing surfaces from 3D solid objects. We show that current surface construction algorithms either (a) do not construct valid surface descriptions of solid objects or (b) produce surface representations that are not particularly suitable for anything other than visualization. We present ALLIGATOR, a new surface construction algorithm that produces valid, topologically connected surface representations of solid objects. We have developed a modeling system based on the surface representations created by ALLIGATOR that is suitable for developing algorithms to visualize, manipulate, and quantify 3D medical objects. Using this modeling system we have developed a method for efficiently computing principle curvatures and directions on surfaces. These measurements form the basis for a new metric system being developed for morphometrics. The modeling system is also being used in the development of systems for quantitative pre-surgical planning and surgical augmentation.

  11. Interactive 3D medical data cutting using closed curve with arbitrary shape.

    PubMed

    Ning, Hai; Yang, Rongqian; Ma, Amin; Wu, Xiaoming

    2015-03-01

    Interactive 3D cutting is widely used as a flexible manual segmentation tool to extract medical data on regions of interest. A novel method for clipping 3D medical data is proposed to reveal the interior of volumetric data. The 3D cutting method retains or clips away selected voxels projected inside an arbitrary-shaped closed curve which is clipping geometry constructed by interactive tool to make cutting operation more flexible. Transformation between the world and screen coordinate frames is studied to project voxels of medical data onto the screen frame and avoid computing intersection of clipping geometry and volumetric data in 3D space. For facilitating the decision on whether the voxels should be retained, voxels through coordinate transformation are all projected onto a binary mask image on screen frame which the closed curve is also projected onto to conveniently obtain the voxels of intersection. The paper pays special attention to optimization algorithm of cutting process. The optimization algorithm that mixes octree with quad-tree decomposition is introduced to reduce computation complexity, save computation time, and match real time. The paper presents results obtained from raw and segmented medical volume datasets and the process time of cutting operation. PMID:25456145

  12. Vertical Scan (V-SCAN) for 3-D Grid Adaptive Mesh Refinement for an atmospheric Model Dynamical Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andronova, N. G.; Vandenberg, D.; Oehmke, R.; Stout, Q. F.; Penner, J. E.

    2009-12-01

    One of the major building blocks of a rigorous representation of cloud evolution in global atmospheric models is a parallel adaptive grid MPI-based communication library (an Adaptive Blocks for Locally Cartesian Topologies library -- ABLCarT), which manages the block-structured data layout, handles ghost cell updates among neighboring blocks and splits a block as refinements occur. The library has several modules that provide a layer of abstraction for adaptive refinement: blocks, which contain individual cells of user data; shells - the global geometry for the problem, including a sphere, reduced sphere, and now a 3D sphere; a load balancer for placement of blocks onto processors; and a communication support layer which encapsulates all data movement. A major performance concern with adaptive mesh refinement is how to represent calculations that have need to be sequenced in a particular order in a direction, such as calculating integrals along a specific path (e.g. atmospheric pressure or geopotential in the vertical dimension). This concern is compounded if the blocks have varying levels of refinement, or are scattered across different processors, as can be the case in parallel computing. In this paper we describe an implementation in ABLCarT of a vertical scan operation, which allows computing along vertical paths in the correct order across blocks transparent to their resolution and processor location. We test this functionality on a 2D and a 3D advection problem, which tests the performance of the model’s dynamics (transport) and physics (sources and sinks) for different model resolutions needed for inclusion of cloud formation.

  13. A primary study of appropriate intraoral scanning frequency of single 3D image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hong; Lyu, Peijun; Sun, Yuchun; Wang, Yong; Liang, Xiaoyue

    2015-07-01

    Objective To make a quantitative analysis between sampling frequencies and micro-movement distance of mark points on tooth surfaces, and to provide a reference for sampling frequency settings of intraoral scanning systems. Methods Mark points affixed to the incisors of five subjects. In total, 3600 groups of tracking point coordinates were obtained with frequencies of 60, 150 and 300 Hz using an optical 3D tracking system. The data was then re-sampled to obtain coordinates at lower frequencies (5, 10, 15 and 20 Hz) at equal intervals of groups of tracking point coordinates. Change in distance (Δd) was defined as the change in position of a single v from one sampling time point to another, and was valued by clinical accuracy requirement (20-100μm). The curve equation was fit quantitatively between Δd median (M) and the sampling frequency (f). The difference between upper and lower incisor mark points were analyzed by a non-parametric test; α=0.05. Result When the frequency (f) was 60 Hz, upper jaw Δd median (M) and interquartile (Q) were 14.4 μm and 9.2 μm, respectively, while the lower Δd(M) and (Q) were 6.4 μm and 10.2 μm, respectively. Every Δd value was less than 100 μm, while 74% of Δd vales were less than 20 μm. Δd(M) and f satisfy the power curve equation: Δd(M)=0.526×f-0.979(f∈[5,300]). Significant differences of incisor feature points were noted between upper and lower jaws of the same subject (P<0.01). Conclusion Clinical accuracy can be met when the sampling frequency of the intraoral scanning system is 60 Hz.

  14. Injectable 3-D Fabrication of Medical Electronics at the Target Biological Tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Chao; Zhang, Jie; Li, Xiaokang; Yang, Xueyao; Li, Jingjing; Liu, Jing

    2013-12-01

    Conventional transplantable biomedical devices generally request sophisticated surgery which however often causes big trauma and serious pain to the patients. Here, we show an alternative way of directly making three-dimensional (3-D) medical electronics inside the biological body through sequential injections of biocompatible packaging material and liquid metal ink. As the most typical electronics, a variety of medical electrodes with different embedded structures were demonstrated to be easily formed at the target tissues. Conceptual in vitro experiments provide strong evidences for the excellent performances of the injectable electrodes. Further in vivo animal experiments disclosed that the formed electrode could serve as both highly efficient ECG (Electrocardiograph) electrode and stimulator electrode. These findings clarified the unique features and practicability of the liquid metal based injectable 3-D fabrication of medical electronics. The present strategy opens the way for directly manufacturing electrophysiological sensors or therapeutic devices in situ via a truly minimally invasive approach.

  15. A web-based solution for 3D medical image visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Xiaoshuai; Sun, Jianyong; Zhang, Jianguo

    2015-03-01

    In this presentation, we present a web-based 3D medical image visualization solution which enables interactive large medical image data processing and visualization over the web platform. To improve the efficiency of our solution, we adopt GPU accelerated techniques to process images on the server side while rapidly transferring images to the HTML5 supported web browser on the client side. Compared to traditional local visualization solution, our solution doesn't require the users to install extra software or download the whole volume dataset from PACS server. By designing this web-based solution, it is feasible for users to access the 3D medical image visualization service wherever the internet is available.

  16. Injectable 3-D Fabrication of Medical Electronics at the Target Biological Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Chao; Zhang, Jie; Li, Xiaokang; Yang, Xueyao; Li, Jingjing; Liu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Conventional transplantable biomedical devices generally request sophisticated surgery which however often causes big trauma and serious pain to the patients. Here, we show an alternative way of directly making three-dimensional (3-D) medical electronics inside the biological body through sequential injections of biocompatible packaging material and liquid metal ink. As the most typical electronics, a variety of medical electrodes with different embedded structures were demonstrated to be easily formed at the target tissues. Conceptual in vitro experiments provide strong evidences for the excellent performances of the injectable electrodes. Further in vivo animal experiments disclosed that the formed electrode could serve as both highly efficient ECG (Electrocardiograph) electrode and stimulator electrode. These findings clarified the unique features and practicability of the liquid metal based injectable 3-D fabrication of medical electronics. The present strategy opens the way for directly manufacturing electrophysiological sensors or therapeutic devices in situ via a truly minimally invasive approach. PMID:24309385

  17. Scanned bi-orthogonal radiographs as a source for 3D cephalometric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanyan, Krishna; Dean, David

    1996-04-01

    We have developed a visualization environment, CEPH, for the analysis of plain film, biothogonally registered, head x-rays, i.e., cephalograms. Most importantly this program facilitates the collection of 3D landmark data from biorthogonal cephalogram pairs, i.e., correlated frontal and lateral images. To this end we have implemented tools for: contrast enhancement, image compression, morphological feature extraction, and grayscale shape recognition for automatic landmark detection. These data are useful for clinical craniofacial: (1) diagnosis, (2) treatment planning, (3) computed-assisted surgery, and (4) post-procedure follow-up. We are currently using the CEPH visualization environment to produce average landmark sets from the nearly 2000 'Bolton Standards' images. These images were collected for the Bolton-Brush Growth Study at Case Western Reserve University. Two dimensional landmark data captured from these images are universally recognized and used as diagnostic and treatment 'norms.' We are planning to make new three dimensional Bolton Standards data available this year. To this end we have scanned all of the Bolton Standards cephalograms at 2400 by 2400 resolution with 12 bits of grayscale information on a TDI scanner.

  18. Studying post depositional damage on Acheulian bifaces using 3-D scanning.

    PubMed

    Grosman, Leore; Sharon, Gonen; Goldman-Neuman, Talia; Smikt, Oded; Smilansky, Uzy

    2011-04-01

    In this study, we explore post-depositional damage observed on Acheulian bifacial tools by comparing two assemblages: a collection of archaeological handaxes which shows pronounced damage marks associated with high energy water accumulation system, and an experimental assemblage that was rolled and battered in a controlled simulation experiment. Scanning the two assemblages with a precise 3-D optical scanner and subjecting the measured surfaces to the same mathematical analysis enabled the development of quantitative measures assessing and comparing the degree of damage observed on archaeological and experimental tools. The method presented here enables the definition of morphological patterns typically resulting from battering and different from intentional controlled knapping. The most important kinds of damage included the formation of deep, random 'notch-like' scars on the lateral edges and substantial degrees of damage to the tip of the tools, but minimal damage to the artifact's butt. Quantifying the degree of damage and its location and morphological characters allows us to present a method by which post depositional damage on archaeological tools can be measured. PMID:20304464

  19. A real-time 3D scanning system for pavement rutting and pothole detections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qingguang; Yao, Ming; Yao, Xun; Yu, Wurong; Xu, Bugao

    2009-08-01

    Rutting and pothole are the common pavement distress problems that need to be timely inspected and repaired to ensure ride quality and safe traffic. This paper introduces a real-time, automated inspection system devoted for detecting these distress features using high-speed transverse scanning. The detection principle is based on the dynamic generation and characterization of 3D pavement profiles obtained from structured light measurements. The system implementation mainly involves three tasks: multi-view coplanar calibration, sub-pixel laser stripe location, and pavement distress recognition. The multi-view coplanar scheme was employed in the calibration procedure to increase the feature points and to make the points distributed across the field of view of the camera, which greatly improves the calibration precision. The laser stripe locating method was implemented in four steps: median filtering, coarse edge detection, fine edge adjusting, stripe curve mending and interpolation by cubic splines. The pavement distress recognition algorithms include line segment approximation of the profile, searching for the feature points, and parameters calculations. The parameter data of a curve segment between two feature points, such as width, depth and length, were used to differentiate rutting, pothole, and pothole under different constraints. The preliminary experiment results show that the system is capable of locating these pavement distresses, and meets the needs for real-time and accurate pavement inspection.

  20. Building a 3d Reference Model for Canal Tunnel Surveying Using Sonar and Laser Scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moisan, E.; Charbonnier, P.; Foucher, P.; Grussenmeyer, P.; Guillemin, S.; Koehl, M.

    2015-04-01

    Maintaining canal tunnels is not only a matter of cultural and historical preservation, but also a commercial necessity and a security issue. This contribution adresses the problem of building a full 3D reference model of a canal tunnel by merging SONAR (for underwater data recording) and LASER data (for the above-water parts). Although both scanning devices produce point clouds, their properties are rather different. In particular, SONAR data are very noisy and their processing raises several issues related to the device capacities, the acquisition setup and the tubular shape of the tunnel. The proposed methodology relies on a denoising step by meshing, followed by the registration of SONAR data with the geo-referenced LASER data. Since there is no overlap between point clouds, a 3-step procedure is proposed to robustly estimate the registration parameters. In this paper, we report a first experimental survey, which concerned the entrance of a canal tunnel. The obtained results are promising and the analysis of the method raises several improvement directions that will help obtaining more accurate models, in a more automated fashion, in the limits of the involved technology.

  1. Use of 3D printed models in medical education: A randomized control trial comparing 3D prints versus cadaveric materials for learning external cardiac anatomy.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kah Heng Alexander; Loo, Zhou Yaw; Goldie, Stephen J; Adams, Justin W; McMenamin, Paul G

    2016-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an emerging technology capable of readily producing accurate anatomical models, however, evidence for the use of 3D prints in medical education remains limited. A study was performed to assess their effectiveness against cadaveric materials for learning external cardiac anatomy. A double blind randomized controlled trial was undertaken on undergraduate medical students without prior formal cardiac anatomy teaching. Following a pre-test examining baseline external cardiac anatomy knowledge, participants were randomly assigned to three groups who underwent self-directed learning sessions using either cadaveric materials, 3D prints, or a combination of cadaveric materials/3D prints (combined materials). Participants were then subjected to a post-test written by a third party. Fifty-two participants completed the trial; 18 using cadaveric materials, 16 using 3D models, and 18 using combined materials. Age and time since completion of high school were equally distributed between groups. Pre-test scores were not significantly different (P = 0.231), however, post-test scores were significantly higher for 3D prints group compared to the cadaveric materials or combined materials groups (mean of 60.83% vs. 44.81% and 44.62%, P = 0.010, adjusted P = 0.012). A significant improvement in test scores was detected for the 3D prints group (P = 0.003) but not for the other two groups. The finding of this pilot study suggests that use of 3D prints do not disadvantage students relative to cadaveric materials; maximally, results suggest that 3D may confer certain benefits to anatomy learning and supports their use and ongoing evaluation as supplements to cadaver-based curriculums. Anat Sci Educ 9: 213-221. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:26468636

  2. Parallel graph search: application to intraretinal layer segmentation of 3D macular OCT scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyungmoo; Abràmoff, Michael D.; Garvin, Mona K.; Sonka, Milan

    2012-02-01

    Image segmentation is of paramount importance for quantitative analysis of medical image data. Recently, a 3-D graph search method which can detect globally optimal interacting surfaces with respect to the cost function of volumetric images has been introduced, and its utility demonstrated in several application areas. Although the method provides excellent segmentation accuracy, its limitation is a slow processing speed when many surfaces are simultaneously segmented in large volumetric datasets. Here, we propose a novel method of parallel graph search, which overcomes the limitation and allows the quick detection of multiple surfaces. To demonstrate the obtained performance with respect to segmentation accuracy and processing speedup, the new approach was applied to retinal optical coherence tomography (OCT) image data and compared with the performance of the former non-parallel method. Our parallel graph search methods for single and double surface detection are approximately 267 and 181 times faster than the original graph search approach in 5 macular OCT volumes (200 x 5 x 1024 voxels) acquired from the right eyes of 5 normal subjects. The resulting segmentation differences were small as demonstrated by the mean unsigned differences between the non-parallel and parallel methods of 0.0 +/- 0.0 voxels (0.0 +/- 0.0 μm) and 0.27 +/- 0.34 voxels (0.53 +/- 0.66 μm) for the single- and dual-surface approaches, respectively.

  3. Axial-Stereo 3-D Optical Metrology for Inner Profile of Pipes Using a Scanning Laser Endoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yuanzheng; Johnston, Richard S.; Melville, C. David; Seibel, Eric J.

    2015-07-01

    As the rapid progress in the development of optoelectronic components and computational power, 3-D optical metrology becomes more and more popular in manufacturing and quality control due to its flexibility and high speed. However, most of the optical metrology methods are limited to external surfaces. This article proposed a new approach to measure tiny internal 3-D surfaces with a scanning fiber endoscope and axial-stereo vision algorithm. A dense, accurate point cloud of internally machined threads was generated to compare with its corresponding X-ray 3-D data as ground truth, and the quantification was analyzed by Iterative Closest Points algorithm.

  4. 3D multiple optical tweezers based on time-shared scanning with a fast focus tunable lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Yoshio

    2013-02-01

    Three-dimensional controlled manipulation of individual micro-objects requires multiple optical tweezers that can be independently controlled in a 3D working space with high spatiotemporal resolution. Here, the author presents 3D multiple optical tweezers based on a time-shared scanning technique with an electrically focus tunable lens for axial steering and a two-axis steering mirror for lateral steering. Four typical examples of 3D controlled manipulation, including the rotation of a single bead on its axis, are demonstrated in real time. The optical system design and the control method are also described.

  5. Axial-Stereo 3-D Optical Metrology for Inner Profile of Pipes Using a Scanning Laser Endoscope

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Yuanzheng; Johnston, Richard S.; Melville, C. David; Seibel, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    As the rapid progress in the development of optoelectronic components and computational power, 3D optical metrology becomes more and more popular in manufacturing and quality control due to its flexibility and high speed. However, most of the optical metrology methods are limited to external surfaces. This paper proposed a new approach to measure tiny internal 3D surfaces with a scanning fiber endoscope and axial-stereo vision algorithm. A dense, accurate point cloud of internally machined threads was generated to compare with its corresponding X-ray 3D data as ground truth, and the quantification was analyzed by Iterative Closest Points algorithm. PMID:26640425

  6. Laser Scanning Holographic Lithography for Flexible 3D Fabrication of Multi-Scale Integrated Nano-structures and Optical Biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Liang (Leon); Herman, Peter R.

    2016-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) periodic nanostructures underpin a promising research direction on the frontiers of nanoscience and technology to generate advanced materials for exploiting novel photonic crystal (PC) and nanofluidic functionalities. However, formation of uniform and defect-free 3D periodic structures over large areas that can further integrate into multifunctional devices has remained a major challenge. Here, we introduce a laser scanning holographic method for 3D exposure in thick photoresist that combines the unique advantages of large area 3D holographic interference lithography (HIL) with the flexible patterning of laser direct writing to form both micro- and nano-structures in a single exposure step. Phase mask interference patterns accumulated over multiple overlapping scans are shown to stitch seamlessly and form uniform 3D nanostructure with beam size scaled to small 200 μm diameter. In this way, laser scanning is presented as a facile means to embed 3D PC structure within microfluidic channels for integration into an optofluidic lab-on-chip, demonstrating a new laser HIL writing approach for creating multi-scale integrated microsystems.

  7. Laser Scanning Holographic Lithography for Flexible 3D Fabrication of Multi-Scale Integrated Nano-structures and Optical Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Liang (Leon); Herman, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) periodic nanostructures underpin a promising research direction on the frontiers of nanoscience and technology to generate advanced materials for exploiting novel photonic crystal (PC) and nanofluidic functionalities. However, formation of uniform and defect-free 3D periodic structures over large areas that can further integrate into multifunctional devices has remained a major challenge. Here, we introduce a laser scanning holographic method for 3D exposure in thick photoresist that combines the unique advantages of large area 3D holographic interference lithography (HIL) with the flexible patterning of laser direct writing to form both micro- and nano-structures in a single exposure step. Phase mask interference patterns accumulated over multiple overlapping scans are shown to stitch seamlessly and form uniform 3D nanostructure with beam size scaled to small 200 μm diameter. In this way, laser scanning is presented as a facile means to embed 3D PC structure within microfluidic channels for integration into an optofluidic lab-on-chip, demonstrating a new laser HIL writing approach for creating multi-scale integrated microsystems. PMID:26922872

  8. Laser Scanning Holographic Lithography for Flexible 3D Fabrication of Multi-Scale Integrated Nano-structures and Optical Biosensors.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Liang Leon; Herman, Peter R

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) periodic nanostructures underpin a promising research direction on the frontiers of nanoscience and technology to generate advanced materials for exploiting novel photonic crystal (PC) and nanofluidic functionalities. However, formation of uniform and defect-free 3D periodic structures over large areas that can further integrate into multifunctional devices has remained a major challenge. Here, we introduce a laser scanning holographic method for 3D exposure in thick photoresist that combines the unique advantages of large area 3D holographic interference lithography (HIL) with the flexible patterning of laser direct writing to form both micro- and nano-structures in a single exposure step. Phase mask interference patterns accumulated over multiple overlapping scans are shown to stitch seamlessly and form uniform 3D nanostructure with beam size scaled to small 200 μm diameter. In this way, laser scanning is presented as a facile means to embed 3D PC structure within microfluidic channels for integration into an optofluidic lab-on-chip, demonstrating a new laser HIL writing approach for creating multi-scale integrated microsystems. PMID:26922872

  9. Augmented reality intravenous injection simulator based 3D medical imaging for veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Lee, S; Lee, J; Lee, A; Park, N; Lee, S; Song, S; Seo, A; Lee, H; Kim, J-I; Eom, K

    2013-05-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is a technology which enables users to see the real world, with virtual objects superimposed upon or composited with it. AR simulators have been developed and used in human medicine, but not in veterinary medicine. The aim of this study was to develop an AR intravenous (IV) injection simulator to train veterinary and pre-veterinary students to perform canine venipuncture. Computed tomographic (CT) images of a beagle dog were scanned using a 64-channel multidetector. The CT images were transformed into volumetric data sets using an image segmentation method and were converted into a stereolithography format for creating 3D models. An AR-based interface was developed for an AR simulator for IV injection. Veterinary and pre-veterinary student volunteers were randomly assigned to an AR-trained group or a control group trained using more traditional methods (n = 20/group; n = 8 pre-veterinary students and n = 12 veterinary students in each group) and their proficiency at IV injection technique in live dogs was assessed after training was completed. Students were also asked to complete a questionnaire which was administered after using the simulator. The group that was trained using an AR simulator were more proficient at IV injection technique using real dogs than the control group (P ≤ 0.01). The students agreed that they learned the IV injection technique through the AR simulator. Although the system used in this study needs to be modified before it can be adopted for veterinary educational use, AR simulation has been shown to be a very effective tool for training medical personnel. Using the technology reported here, veterinary AR simulators could be developed for future use in veterinary education. PMID:23103217

  10. Fusion of image and laser-scanning data in a large-scale 3D virtual environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Jhih-Syuan; Lin, Ta-Te

    2013-05-01

    Construction of large-scale 3D virtual environment is important in many fields such as robotic navigation, urban planning, transportation, and remote sensing, etc. Laser scanning approach is the most common method used in constructing 3D models. This paper proposes an automatic method to fuse image and laser-scanning data in a large-scale 3D virtual environment. The system comprises a laser-scanning device installed on a robot platform and the software for data fusion and visualization. The algorithms of data fusion and scene integration are presented. Experiments were performed for the reconstruction of outdoor scenes to test and demonstrate the functionality of the system. We also discuss the efficacy of the system and technical problems involved in this proposed method.

  11. 3D-printed biological organs: medical potential and patenting opportunity.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Seung-Schik

    2015-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting has emerged as a new disruptive technology that may address the ever-increasing demand for organ transplants. 3D bioprinting offers many technical features that allow for building functional biological tissue constructs by dispensing the individual or group of cells into specific locations along with various types of bio-scaffold materials and extracellular matrices, and thus, may provide flexibility needed for on-demand individualized construction of biological organs. Several key classes of 3D bioprinting techniques are reviewed, including potential medical and industrial applications. Several unanswered engineering components for the ultimate creation of printed biological organs are also discussed. The complicated nature of the human organs, in addition to the legal and ethical requirements for safe implantation into the human body, would require significant research and development to produce marketable bioprinted organs. This also suggests the possibility for further patenting and licensing opportunities from different sectors of the economy. PMID:25711801

  12. 3D nonrigid medical image registration using a new information theoretic measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bicao; Yang, Guanyu; Coatrieux, Jean Louis; Li, Baosheng; Shu, Huazhong

    2015-11-01

    This work presents a novel method for the nonrigid registration of medical images based on the Arimoto entropy, a generalization of the Shannon entropy. The proposed method employed the Jensen-Arimoto divergence measure as a similarity metric to measure the statistical dependence between medical images. Free-form deformations were adopted as the transformation model and the Parzen window estimation was applied to compute the probability distributions. A penalty term is incorporated into the objective function to smooth the nonrigid transformation. The goal of registration is to optimize an objective function consisting of a dissimilarity term and a penalty term, which would be minimal when two deformed images are perfectly aligned using the limited memory BFGS optimization method, and thus to get the optimal geometric transformation. To validate the performance of the proposed method, experiments on both simulated 3D brain MR images and real 3D thoracic CT data sets were designed and performed on the open source elastix package. For the simulated experiments, the registration errors of 3D brain MR images with various magnitudes of known deformations and different levels of noise were measured. For the real data tests, four data sets of 4D thoracic CT from four patients were selected to assess the registration performance of the method, including ten 3D CT images for each 4D CT data covering an entire respiration cycle. These results were compared with the normalized cross correlation and the mutual information methods and show a slight but true improvement in registration accuracy.

  13. Respiratory gating for proton beam scanning versus photon 3D-CRT for breast cancer radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Flejmer, Anna M; Edvardsson, Anneli; Dohlmar, Frida; Josefsson, Dan; Nilsson, Mats; Witt Nyström, Petra; Dasu, Alexandru

    2016-05-01

    Background Respiratory gating and proton therapy have both been proposed to reduce the cardiopulmonary burden in breast cancer radiotherapy. This study aims to investigate the additional benefit of proton radiotherapy for breast cancer with and without respiratory gating. Material and methods Twenty left-sided patients were planned on computed tomography (CT)-datasets acquired during enhanced inspiration gating (EIG) and free-breathing (FB), using photon three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) and scanned proton beams. Ten patients received treatment to the whole breast only (WBO) and 10 were treated to the breast and the regional lymph nodes (BRN). Dosimetric parameters characterizing the coverage of target volumes and the cardiopulmonary burden were compared using a paired, two-tailed Student's t-test. Results Protons ensured comparable or better target coverage than photons in all patients during both EIG and FB. The heterogeneity index decreased from 12% with photons to about 5% with protons. The mean dose to the ipsilateral lung was reduced in BRN patients from 12 Gy to 7 Gy  (RBE) in EIG and from 14 Gy to 6-7 Gy (RBE) in FB, while for WBO patients all values were about 5-6 Gy (RBE). The mean dose to heart decreased by a factor of four in WBO patients [from 1.1 Gy to 0.3 Gy (RBE) in EIG and from 2.1 Gy to 0.5 Gy (RBE) in FB] and 10 in BRN patients [from 2.1 Gy to 0.2 Gy (RBE) in EIG and from 3.4 Gy to 0.3 Gy (RBE) in FB]. Similarly, the mean and the near maximum dose to the left anterior descending artery (LAD) were significantly lower (p < 0.05) with protons in comparison with photons. Conclusion Proton spot scanning has a high potential to reduce the irradiation of organs at risk and other normal tissues for most patients, beyond what could be achieved with EIG and photon therapy. The largest dose sparing has been seen for BRN patients, both in terms of cardiopulmonary burden and integral dose. PMID:27027913

  14. A very low-cost system for capturing 3D motion scans with color and texture data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a technique for capturing 3D motion scans using hardware that can be constructed for approximately $5,000 in cost. This hardware-software solution, in addition to capturing the movement of the physical structures also captures color and texture data. The scanner configuration developed at the University of North Dakota is sufficient in size for capturing scans of a group of humans. Scanning starts with synchronization and then requires modeling of each frame. For some applications linking structural elements from frame-to-frame may also be required. The efficacy of this scanning approach is discussed and prospective applications for it are considered.

  15. Vertically dispersive holographic screens and autostereoscopic displays in 3D medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magalhães, Daniel S. F.; Serra, Rolando L.; Vannucci, André L.; Moreno, Alfredo B.; Magalhães, Lucas V. B.; Llovera, Juan J.; Li, Li M.

    2011-05-01

    In this work we describe a setup employed for the recording of vertical dispersive holographic screens that can be used for medical applications. We show how to obtain holographic screens with areas up to 1200 cm2, focal length of 25+/-2 cm and diffraction efficiency of 7.2%. We analyze the technique employed and the holographic screens obtained. Using this screen we describe a setup for the projection of Magnetic Resonance or Tomographic Images. We also describe and present the first results of an autostereoscopic system for 3D medical imaging.

  16. Web-based 3D digital pathology framework for large-mapping data scanned by FF-OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, ChiaKai; Tsai, Chien-Chung; Chien, Meng-Ting; Li, Yu-I.; Shun, Chia-Tung; Huang, Sheng-Lung

    2015-03-01

    Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography (FF-OCT) is a high resolution instrument in 3 dimensional (3D) space, including lateral and longitudinal direction. With FF-OCT, we can perform 3D scanning for excised biopsy or cell culture sample to obtain cellular information. In this work, we have set up a high resolution FF-OCT scanning instrument that can perform cellular resolution tomography scanning of skin tissue for histopathology study. In a scan range of 1cm(x), 1cm(y), 106μm(z), for example, digital data occupies 253 GB capacity. Copying these materials is time consuming, not to mention efficient browsing and analyzing of these data. To solve the problem of information delivery, we have established a network service to browse and analyze the huge volume data.

  17. Using a wireless motion controller for 3D medical image catheter interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitanovski, Dime; Hahn, Dieter; Daum, Volker; Hornegger, Joachim

    2009-02-01

    State-of-the-art morphological imaging techniques usually provide high resolution 3D images with a huge number of slices. In clinical practice, however, 2D slice-based examinations are still the method of choice even for these large amounts of data. Providing intuitive interaction methods for specific 3D medical visualization applications is therefore a critical feature for clinical imaging applications. For the domain of catheter navigation and surgery planning, it is crucial to assist the physician with appropriate visualization techniques, such as 3D segmentation maps, fly-through cameras or virtual interaction approaches. There has been an ongoing development and improvement for controllers that help to interact with 3D environments in the domain of computer games. These controllers are based on both motion and infrared sensors and are typically used to detect 3D position and orientation. We have investigated how a state-of-the-art wireless motion sensor controller (Wiimote), developed by Nintendo, can be used for catheter navigation and planning purposes. By default the Wiimote controller only measure rough acceleration over a range of +/- 3g with 10% sensitivity and orientation. Therefore, a pose estimation algorithm was developed for computing accurate position and orientation in 3D space regarding 4 Infrared LEDs. Current results show that for the translation it is possible to obtain a mean error of (0.38cm, 0.41cm, 4.94cm) and for the rotation (0.16, 0.28) respectively. Within this paper we introduce a clinical prototype that allows steering of a virtual fly-through camera attached to the catheter tip by the Wii controller on basis of a segmented vessel tree.

  18. DLP technology application: 3D head tracking and motion correction in medical brain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olesen, Oline V.; Wilm, Jakob; Paulsen, Rasmus R.; Højgaard, Liselotte; Larsen, Rasmus

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we present a novel sensing system, robust Near-infrared Structured Light Scanning (NIRSL) for three-dimensional human model scanning application. Human model scanning due to its nature of various hair and dress appearance and body motion has long been a challenging task. Previous structured light scanning methods typically emitted visible coded light patterns onto static and opaque objects to establish correspondence between a projector and a camera for triangulation. In the success of these methods rely on scanning objects with proper reflective surface for visible light, such as plaster, light colored cloth. Whereas for human model scanning application, conventional methods suffer from low signal to noise ratio caused by low contrast of visible light over the human body. The proposed robust NIRSL, as implemented with the near infrared light, is capable of recovering those dark surfaces, such as hair, dark jeans and black shoes under visible illumination. Moreover, successful structured light scan relies on the assumption that the subject is static during scanning. Due to the nature of body motion, it is very time sensitive to keep this assumption in the case of human model scan. The proposed sensing system, by utilizing the new near-infrared capable high speed LightCrafter DLP projector, is robust to motion, provides accurate and high resolution three-dimensional point cloud, making our system more efficient and robust for human model reconstruction. Experimental results demonstrate that our system is effective and efficient to scan real human models with various dark hair, jeans and shoes, robust to human body motion and produces accurate and high resolution 3D point cloud.

  19. "High-precision, reconstructed 3D model" of skull scanned by conebeam CT: Reproducibility verified using CAD/CAM data.

    PubMed

    Katsumura, Seiko; Sato, Keita; Ikawa, Tomoko; Yamamura, Keiko; Ando, Eriko; Shigeta, Yuko; Ogawa, Takumi

    2016-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) scanning has recently been introduced into forensic medicine and dentistry. However, the presence of metal restorations in the dentition can adversely affect the quality of three-dimensional reconstruction from CT scans. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the reproducibility of a "high-precision, reconstructed 3D model" obtained from a conebeam CT scan of dentition, a method that might be particularly helpful in forensic medicine. We took conebeam CT and helical CT images of three dry skulls marked with 47 measuring points; reconstructed three-dimensional images; and measured the distances between the points in the 3D images with a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) marker. We found that in comparison with the helical CT, conebeam CT is capable of reproducing measurements closer to those obtained from the actual samples. In conclusion, our study indicated that the image-reproduction from a conebeam CT scan was more accurate than that from a helical CT scan. Furthermore, the "high-precision reconstructed 3D model" facilitates reliable visualization of full-sized oral and maxillofacial regions in both helical and conebeam CT scans. PMID:26832374

  20. Simulated and Real Sheet-of-Light 3D Object Scanning Using a-Si:H Thin Film PSD Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Contreras, Javier; Tornero, Josep; Ferreira, Isabel; Martins, Rodrigo; Gomes, Luis; Fortunato, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    A MATLAB/SIMULINK software simulation model (structure and component blocks) has been constructed in order to view and analyze the potential of the PSD (Position Sensitive Detector) array concept technology before it is further expanded or developed. This simulation allows changing most of its parameters, such as the number of elements in the PSD array, the direction of vision, the viewing/scanning angle, the object rotation, translation, sample/scan/simulation time, etc. In addition, results show for the first time the possibility of scanning an object in 3D when using an a-Si:H thin film 128 PSD array sensor and hardware/software system. Moreover, this sensor technology is able to perform these scans and render 3D objects at high speeds and high resolutions when using a sheet-of-light laser within a triangulation platform. As shown by the simulation, a substantial enhancement in 3D object profile image quality and realism can be achieved by increasing the number of elements of the PSD array sensor as well as by achieving an optimal position response from the sensor since clearly the definition of the 3D object profile depends on the correct and accurate position response of each detector as well as on the size of the PSD array. PMID:26633403

  1. Simulated and Real Sheet-of-Light 3D Object Scanning Using a-Si:H Thin Film PSD Arrays.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Javier; Tornero, Josep; Ferreira, Isabel; Martins, Rodrigo; Gomes, Luis; Fortunato, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    A MATLAB/SIMULINK software simulation model (structure and component blocks) has been constructed in order to view and analyze the potential of the PSD (Position Sensitive Detector) array concept technology before it is further expanded or developed. This simulation allows changing most of its parameters, such as the number of elements in the PSD array, the direction of vision, the viewing/scanning angle, the object rotation, translation, sample/scan/simulation time, etc. In addition, results show for the first time the possibility of scanning an object in 3D when using an a-Si:H thin film 128 PSD array sensor and hardware/software system. Moreover, this sensor technology is able to perform these scans and render 3D objects at high speeds and high resolutions when using a sheet-of-light laser within a triangulation platform. As shown by the simulation, a substantial enhancement in 3D object profile image quality and realism can be achieved by increasing the number of elements of the PSD array sensor as well as by achieving an optimal position response from the sensor since clearly the definition of the 3D object profile depends on the correct and accurate position response of each detector as well as on the size of the PSD array. PMID:26633403

  2. A stereo matching model observer for stereoscopic viewing of 3D medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Gezheng; Markey, Mia K.; Muralidlhar, Gautam S.

    2014-03-01

    Stereoscopic viewing of 3D medical imaging data has the potential to increase the detection of abnormalities. We present a new stereo model observer inspired by the characteristics of stereopsis in human vision. Given a stereo pair of images of an object (i.e., left and right images separated by a small displacement), the model observer rst nds the corresponding points between the two views, and then fuses them together to create a 2D cyclopean view. Assuming that the cyclopean view has extracted most of the 3D information presented in the stereo pair, a channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) can be utilized to make decisions. We conduct a simulation study that attempts to mimic the detection of breast lesions on stereoscopic viewing of breast tomosynthesis projection images. We render voxel datasets that contain random 3D power-law noise to model normal breast tissues with various breast densities. 3D Gaussian signal is added to some of the datasets to model the presence of a breast lesion. By changing the separation angle between the two views, multiple stereo pairs of projection images are generated for each voxel dataset. The performance of the model is evaluated in terms of the accuracy of binary decisions on the presence of the simulated lesions.

  3. High performance 3D adaptive filtering for DSP based portable medical imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bockenbach, Olivier; Ali, Murtaza; Wainwright, Ian; Nadeski, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Portable medical imaging devices have proven valuable for emergency medical services both in the field and hospital environments and are becoming more prevalent in clinical settings where the use of larger imaging machines is impractical. Despite their constraints on power, size and cost, portable imaging devices must still deliver high quality images. 3D adaptive filtering is one of the most advanced techniques aimed at noise reduction and feature enhancement, but is computationally very demanding and hence often cannot be run with sufficient performance on a portable platform. In recent years, advanced multicore digital signal processors (DSP) have been developed that attain high processing performance while maintaining low levels of power dissipation. These processors enable the implementation of complex algorithms on a portable platform. In this study, the performance of a 3D adaptive filtering algorithm on a DSP is investigated. The performance is assessed by filtering a volume of size 512x256x128 voxels sampled at a pace of 10 MVoxels/sec with an Ultrasound 3D probe. Relative performance and power is addressed between a reference PC (Quad Core CPU) and a TMS320C6678 DSP from Texas Instruments.

  4. Documentation and Instructions for Running Two Python Scripts that Aid in Setting up 3D Measurements using the Polytec 3D Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer.

    SciTech Connect

    Rohe, Daniel Peter

    2015-08-24

    Sandia National Laboratories has recently purchased a Polytec 3D Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer for vibration measurement. This device has proven to be a very nice tool for making vibration measurements, and has a number of advantages over traditional sensors such as accelerometers. The non-contact nature of the laser vibrometer means there is no mass loading due to measuring the response. Additionally, the laser scanning heads can position the laser spot much more quickly and accurately than placing an accelerometer or performing a roving hammer impact. The disadvantage of the system is that a significant amount of time must be invested to align the lasers with each other and the part so that the laser spots can be accurately positioned. The Polytec software includes a number of nice tools to aid in this procedure; however, certain portions are still tedious. Luckily, the Polytec software is readily extensible by programming macros for the system, so tedious portions of the procedure can be made easier by automating the process. The Polytec Software includes a WinWrap (similar to Visual Basic) editor and interface to run macros written in that programming language. The author, however, is much more proficient in Python, and the latter also has a much larger set of libraries that can be used to create very complex macros, while taking advantage of Python’s inherent readability and maintainability.

  5. 3D shape reconstruction of medical images using a perspective shape-from-shading method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lei; Han, Jiu-qiang

    2008-06-01

    A 3D shape reconstruction approach for medical images using a shape-from-shading (SFS) method was proposed in this paper. A new reflectance map equation of medical images was analyzed with the assumption that the Lambertian reflectance surface was irradiated by a point light source located at the light center and the image was formed under perspective projection. The corresponding static Hamilton-Jacobi (H-J) equation of the reflectance map equation was established. So the shape-from-shading problem turned into solving the viscosity solution of the static H-J equation. Then with the conception of a viscosity vanishing approximation, the Lax-Friedrichs fast sweeping numerical method was used to compute the viscosity solution of the H-J equation and a new iterative SFS algorithm was gained. Finally, experiments on both synthetic images and real medical images were performed to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed SFS method.

  6. A software tool for automatic classification and segmentation of 2D/3D medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strzelecki, Michal; Szczypinski, Piotr; Materka, Andrzej; Klepaczko, Artur

    2013-02-01

    Modern medical diagnosis utilizes techniques of visualization of human internal organs (CT, MRI) or of its metabolism (PET). However, evaluation of acquired images made by human experts is usually subjective and qualitative only. Quantitative analysis of MR data, including tissue classification and segmentation, is necessary to perform e.g. attenuation compensation, motion detection, and correction of partial volume effect in PET images, acquired with PET/MR scanners. This article presents briefly a MaZda software package, which supports 2D and 3D medical image analysis aiming at quantification of image texture. MaZda implements procedures for evaluation, selection and extraction of highly discriminative texture attributes combined with various classification, visualization and segmentation tools. Examples of MaZda application in medical studies are also provided.

  7. 3D nonrigid medical image registration using a new information theoretic measure.

    PubMed

    Li, Bicao; Yang, Guanyu; Coatrieux, Jean Louis; Li, Baosheng; Shu, Huazhong

    2015-11-21

    This work presents a novel method for the nonrigid registration of medical images based on the Arimoto entropy, a generalization of the Shannon entropy. The proposed method employed the Jensen-Arimoto divergence measure as a similarity metric to measure the statistical dependence between medical images. Free-form deformations were adopted as the transformation model and the Parzen window estimation was applied to compute the probability distributions. A penalty term is incorporated into the objective function to smooth the nonrigid transformation. The goal of registration is to optimize an objective function consisting of a dissimilarity term and a penalty term, which would be minimal when two deformed images are perfectly aligned using the limited memory BFGS optimization method, and thus to get the optimal geometric transformation. To validate the performance of the proposed method, experiments on both simulated 3D brain MR images and real 3D thoracic CT data sets were designed and performed on the open source elastix package. For the simulated experiments, the registration errors of 3D brain MR images with various magnitudes of known deformations and different levels of noise were measured. For the real data tests, four data sets of 4D thoracic CT from four patients were selected to assess the registration performance of the method, including ten 3D CT images for each 4D CT data covering an entire respiration cycle. These results were compared with the normalized cross correlation and the mutual information methods and show a slight but true improvement in registration accuracy. PMID:26528821

  8. VIRO 3D: fast three-dimensional full-body scanning for humans and other living objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Norbert; Minge, Bernhard

    1998-03-01

    The development of a family of partial and whole body scanners provides a complete technology for fully three-dimensional and contact-free scans on human bodies or other living objects within seconds. This paper gives insight into the design and the functional principles of the whole body scanner VIRO 3D operating on the basis of the laser split-beam method. The arrangement of up to 24 camera/laser combinations, thus dividing the area into different camera fields and an all- around sensor configuration travelling in vertical direction allow the complete 360-degree-scan of an object within 6 - 20 seconds. Due to a special calibration process the different sensors are matched and the measured data are combined. Up to 10 million 3D measuring points with a resolution of approximately 1 mm are processed in all coordinate axes to generate a 3D model. By means of high-performance processors in combination with real-time image processing chips the image data from almost any number of sensors can be recorded and evaluated synchronously in video real-time. VIRO 3D scanning systems have already been successfully implemented in various applications and will open up new perspectives in different other fields, ranging from industry, orthopaedic medicine, plastic surgery to art and photography.

  9. Web-based interactive 2D/3D medical image processing and visualization software.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudi, Seyyed Ehsan; Akhondi-Asl, Alireza; Rahmani, Roohollah; Faghih-Roohi, Shahrooz; Taimouri, Vahid; Sabouri, Ahmad; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid

    2010-05-01

    There are many medical image processing software tools available for research and diagnosis purposes. However, most of these tools are available only as local applications. This limits the accessibility of the software to a specific machine, and thus the data and processing power of that application are not available to other workstations. Further, there are operating system and processing power limitations which prevent such applications from running on every type of workstation. By developing web-based tools, it is possible for users to access the medical image processing functionalities wherever the internet is available. In this paper, we introduce a pure web-based, interactive, extendable, 2D and 3D medical image processing and visualization application that requires no client installation. Our software uses a four-layered design consisting of an algorithm layer, web-user-interface layer, server communication layer, and wrapper layer. To compete with extendibility of the current local medical image processing software, each layer is highly independent of other layers. A wide range of medical image preprocessing, registration, and segmentation methods are implemented using open source libraries. Desktop-like user interaction is provided by using AJAX technology in the web-user-interface. For the visualization functionality of the software, the VRML standard is used to provide 3D features over the web. Integration of these technologies has allowed implementation of our purely web-based software with high functionality without requiring powerful computational resources in the client side. The user-interface is designed such that the users can select appropriate parameters for practical research and clinical studies. PMID:20022133

  10. Method for accurate sizing of pulmonary vessels from 3D medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dell, Walter G.

    2015-03-01

    Detailed characterization of vascular anatomy, in particular the quantification of changes in the distribution of vessel sizes and of vascular pruning, is essential for the diagnosis and management of a variety of pulmonary vascular diseases and for the care of cancer survivors who have received radiation to the thorax. Clinical estimates of vessel radii are typically based on setting a pixel intensity threshold and counting how many "On" pixels are present across the vessel cross-section. A more objective approach introduced recently involves fitting the image with a library of spherical Gaussian filters and utilizing the size of the best matching filter as the estimate of vessel diameter. However, both these approaches have significant accuracy limitations including mis-match between a Gaussian intensity distribution and that of real vessels. Here we introduce and demonstrate a novel approach for accurate vessel sizing using 3D appearance models of a tubular structure along a curvilinear trajectory in 3D space. The vessel branch trajectories are represented with cubic Hermite splines and the tubular branch surfaces represented as a finite element surface mesh. An iterative parameter adjustment scheme is employed to optimally match the appearance models to a patient's chest X-ray computed tomography (CT) scan to generate estimates for branch radii and trajectories with subpixel resolution. The method is demonstrated on pulmonary vasculature in an adult human CT scan, and on 2D simulated test cases.

  11. Fast high-resolution 3D total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy by incidence angle scanning and azimuthal averaging

    PubMed Central

    Boulanger, Jérôme; Gueudry, Charles; Münch, Daniel; Cinquin, Bertrand; Paul-Gilloteaux, Perrine; Bardin, Sabine; Guérin, Christophe; Senger, Fabrice; Blanchoin, Laurent; Salamero, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) is the method of choice to visualize a variety of cellular processes in particular events localized near the plasma membrane of live adherent cells. This imaging technique not relying on particular fluorescent probes provides a high sectioning capability. It is, however, restricted to a single plane. We present here a method based on a versatile design enabling fast multiwavelength azimuthal averaging and incidence angles scanning to computationally reconstruct 3D images sequences. We achieve unprecedented 50-nm axial resolution over a range of 800 nm above the coverslip. We apply this imaging modality to obtain structural and dynamical information about 3D actin architectures. We also temporally decipher distinct Rab11a-dependent exocytosis events in 3D at a rate of seven stacks per second. PMID:25404337

  12. Laser-wakefield accelerators as hard x-ray sources for 3D medical imaging of human bone.

    PubMed

    Cole, J M; Wood, J C; Lopes, N C; Poder, K; Abel, R L; Alatabi, S; Bryant, J S J; Jin, A; Kneip, S; Mecseki, K; Symes, D R; Mangles, S P D; Najmudin, Z

    2015-01-01

    A bright μm-sized source of hard synchrotron x-rays (critical energy Ecrit > 30 keV) based on the betatron oscillations of laser wakefield accelerated electrons has been developed. The potential of this source for medical imaging was demonstrated by performing micro-computed tomography of a human femoral trabecular bone sample, allowing full 3D reconstruction to a resolution below 50 μm. The use of a 1 cm long wakefield accelerator means that the length of the beamline (excluding the laser) is dominated by the x-ray imaging distances rather than the electron acceleration distances. The source possesses high peak brightness, which allows each image to be recorded with a single exposure and reduces the time required for a full tomographic scan. These properties make this an interesting laboratory source for many tomographic imaging applications. PMID:26283308

  13. Laser-wakefield accelerators as hard x-ray sources for 3D medical imaging of human bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, J. M.; Wood, J. C.; Lopes, N. C.; Poder, K.; Abel, R. L.; Alatabi, S.; Bryant, J. S. J.; Jin, A.; Kneip, S.; Mecseki, K.; Symes, D. R.; Mangles, S. P. D.; Najmudin, Z.

    2015-08-01

    A bright μm-sized source of hard synchrotron x-rays (critical energy Ecrit > 30 keV) based on the betatron oscillations of laser wakefield accelerated electrons has been developed. The potential of this source for medical imaging was demonstrated by performing micro-computed tomography of a human femoral trabecular bone sample, allowing full 3D reconstruction to a resolution below 50 μm. The use of a 1 cm long wakefield accelerator means that the length of the beamline (excluding the laser) is dominated by the x-ray imaging distances rather than the electron acceleration distances. The source possesses high peak brightness, which allows each image to be recorded with a single exposure and reduces the time required for a full tomographic scan. These properties make this an interesting laboratory source for many tomographic imaging applications.

  14. Structured Light Based 3d Scanning for Specular Surface by the Combination of Gray Code and Phase Shifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yujia; Yilmaz, Alper

    2016-06-01

    Surface reconstruction using coded structured light is considered one of the most reliable techniques for high-quality 3D scanning. With a calibrated projector-camera stereo system, a light pattern is projected onto the scene and imaged by the camera. Correspondences between projected and recovered patterns are computed in the decoding process, which is used to generate 3D point cloud of the surface. However, the indirect illumination effects on the surface, such as subsurface scattering and interreflections, will raise the difficulties in reconstruction. In this paper, we apply maximum min-SW gray code to reduce the indirect illumination effects of the specular surface. We also analysis the errors when comparing the maximum min-SW gray code and the conventional gray code, which justifies that the maximum min-SW gray code has significant superiority to reduce the indirect illumination effects. To achieve sub-pixel accuracy, we project high frequency sinusoidal patterns onto the scene simultaneously. But for specular surface, the high frequency patterns are susceptible to decoding errors. Incorrect decoding of high frequency patterns will result in a loss of depth resolution. Our method to resolve this problem is combining the low frequency maximum min-SW gray code and the high frequency phase shifting code, which achieves dense 3D reconstruction for specular surface. Our contributions include: (i) A complete setup of the structured light based 3D scanning system; (ii) A novel combination technique of the maximum min-SW gray code and phase shifting code. First, phase shifting decoding with sub-pixel accuracy. Then, the maximum min-SW gray code is used to resolve the ambiguity resolution. According to the experimental results and data analysis, our structured light based 3D scanning system enables high quality dense reconstruction of scenes with a small number of images. Qualitative and quantitative comparisons are performed to extract the advantages of our new

  15. Study of Shortwave Spectra in Fully 3D Environment: Synergy Between Scanning Radars and Spectral Radiation Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiscombe, Warren J.

    2012-01-01

    The main theme for our research is the understanding and closure of the surface spectral shortwave radiation problem in fully 3D cloud situations by combining the new ARM scanning radars, shortwave spectrometers, and microwave radiometers with the arsenal of radiative transfer tools developed by our group. In particular, we define first a large number of cloudy test cases spanning all 3D possibilities not just the customary uniform-overcast ones. Second, for each case, we define a "Best Estimate of Clouds That Affect Shortwave Radiation" using all relevant ARM instruments, notably the new scanning radars, and contribute this to the ARM Archive. Third, we test the ASR-signature radiative transfer model RRTMG_SW for those cases, focusing on the near-IR because of long-standing problems in this spectral region, and work with the developers to improve RRTMG_SW in order to increase its penetration into the modeling community.

  16. Feasibility study on 3-D shape analysis of high-aspect-ratio features using through-focus scanning optical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Attota, Ravi Kiran; Weck, Peter; Kramar, John A; Bunday, Benjamin; Vartanian, Victor

    2016-07-25

    In-line metrologies currently used in the semiconductor industry are being challenged by the aggressive pace of device scaling and the adoption of novel device architectures. Metrology and process control of three-dimensional (3-D) high-aspect-ratio (HAR) features are becoming increasingly important and also challenging. In this paper we present a feasibility study of through-focus scanning optical microscopy (TSOM) for 3-D shape analysis of HAR features. TSOM makes use of 3-D optical data collected using a conventional optical microscope for 3-D shape analysis. Simulation results of trenches and holes down to the 11 nm node are presented. The ability of TSOM to analyze an array of HAR features or a single isolated HAR feature is also presented. This allows for the use of targets with area over 100 times smaller than that of conventional gratings, saving valuable real estate on the wafers. Indications are that the sensitivity of TSOM may match or exceed the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) measurement requirements for the next several years. Both simulations and preliminary experimental results are presented. The simplicity, lowcost, high throughput, and nanometer scale 3-D shape sensitivity of TSOM make it an attractive inspection and process monitoring solution for nanomanufacturing. PMID:27464112

  17. Feasibility study on 3-D shape analysis of high-aspect-ratio features using through-focus scanning optical microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Attota, Ravi Kiran; Weck, Peter; Kramar, John A.; Bunday, Benjamin; Vartanian, Victor

    2016-01-01

    In-line metrologies currently used in the semiconductor industry are being challenged by the aggressive pace of device scaling and the adoption of novel device architectures. Metrology and process control of three-dimensional (3-D) high-aspect-ratio (HAR) features are becoming increasingly important and also challenging. In this paper we present a feasibility study of through-focus scanning optical microscopy (TSOM) for 3-D shape analysis of HAR features. TSOM makes use of 3-D optical data collected using a conventional optical microscope for 3-D shape analysis. Simulation results of trenches and holes down to the 11 nm node are presented. The ability of TSOM to analyze an array of HAR features or a single isolated HAR feature is also presented. This allows for the use of targets with area over 100 times smaller than that of conventional gratings, saving valuable real estate on the wafers. Indications are that the sensitivity of TSOM may match or exceed the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) measurement requirements for the next several years. Both simulations and preliminary experimental results are presented. The simplicity, lowcost, high throughput, and nanometer scale 3-D shape sensitivity of TSOM make it an attractive inspection and process monitoring solution for nanomanufacturing. PMID:27464112

  18. Model based assessment of vestibular jawbone thickness using high frequency 3D ultrasound micro-scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habor, Daniel; Neuhaus, Sarah; Vollborn, Thorsten; Wolfart, Stefan; Radermacher, Klaus; Heger, Stefan

    2013-03-01

    Endosseous implants are well-established in modern dentistry. However, without appropriate therapeutic intervention, progressive peri-implant bone loss may lead to failing implants. Conventionally, the particularly relevant vestibular jawbone thickness is monitored using radiographic 3D imaging methods. Ionizing radiation, as well as imaging artifacts caused by metallic implants and superstructures are major drawbacks of these imaging modalities. In this study, a high frequency ultrasound (HFUS) based approach to assess the vestibular jawbone thickness is being introduced. It should be emphasized that the presented method does not require ultrasound penetration of the jawbone. An in-vitro study using two porcine specimens with inserted endosseous implants has been carried out to assess the accuracy of our approach. The implant of the first specimen was equipped with a gingiva former while a polymer superstructure was mounted onto the implant of the second specimen. Ultrasound data has been acquired using a 4 degree of freedom (DOF) high frequency (<50MHz) laboratory ultrasound scanner. The ultrasound raw data has been converted to polygon meshes including the surfaces of bone, gingiva, gingiva former (first specimen) and superstructure (second specimen). The meshes are matched with a-priori acquired 3D models of the implant, the superstructure and the gingiva former using a best-fit algorithm. Finally, the vestibular peri-implant bone thickness has been assessed in the resulting 3D models. The accuracy of this approach has been evaluated by comparing the ultrasound based thickness measurement with a reference measurement acquired with an optical extra-oral 3D scanner prior to covering the specimens with gingiva. As a final result, the bone thicknesses of the two specimens were measured yielding an error of -46+/-89μm (first specimen) and 70+/-93μm (second specimen).

  19. Accurate 3d Scanning of Damaged Ancient Greek Inscriptions for Revealing Weathered Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadaki, A. I.; Agrafiotis, P.; Georgopoulos, A.; Prignitz, S.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper two non-invasive non-destructive alternative techniques to the traditional and invasive technique of squeezes are presented alongside with specialized developed processing methods, aiming to help the epigraphists to reveal and analyse weathered letters in ancient Greek inscriptions carved in masonry or marble. The resulting 3D model would serve as a detailed basis for the epigraphists to try to decipher the inscription. The data were collected by using a Structured Light scanner. The creation of the final accurate three dimensional model is a complicated procedure requiring large computation cost and human effort. It includes the collection of geometric data in limited space and time, the creation of the surface, the noise filtering and the merging of individual surfaces. The use of structured light scanners is time consuming and requires costly hardware and software. Therefore an alternative methodology for collecting 3D data of the inscriptions was also implemented for reasons of comparison. Hence, image sequences from varying distances were collected using a calibrated DSLR camera aiming to reconstruct the 3D scene through SfM techniques in order to evaluate the efficiency and the level of precision and detail of the obtained reconstructed inscriptions. Problems in the acquisition processes as well as difficulties in the alignment step and mesh optimization are also encountered. A meta-processing framework is proposed and analysed. Finally, the results of processing and analysis and the different 3D models are critically inspected and then evaluated by a specialist in terms of accuracy, quality and detail of the model and the capability of revealing damaged and "hidden" letters.

  20. Computer-aided diagnosis of pulmonary nodules on CT scans: Segmentation and classification using 3D active contours

    PubMed Central

    Way, Ted W.; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Sahiner, Berkman; Chan, Heang-Ping; Cascade, Philip N.; Kazerooni, Ella A.; Bogot, Naama; Zhou, Chuan

    2009-01-01

    We are developing a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system to classify malignant and benign lung nodules found on CT scans. A fully automated system was designed to segment the nodule from its surrounding structured background in a local volume of interest (VOI) and to extract image features for classification. Image segmentation was performed with a three-dimensional (3D) active contour (AC) method. A data set of 96 lung nodules (44 malignant, 52 benign) from 58 patients was used in this study. The 3D AC model is based on two-dimensional AC with the addition of three new energy components to take advantage of 3D information: (1) 3D gradient, which guides the active contour to seek the object surface, (2) 3D curvature, which imposes a smoothness constraint in the z direction, and (3) mask energy, which penalizes contours that grow beyond the pleura or thoracic wall. The search for the best energy weights in the 3D AC model was guided by a simplex optimization method. Morphological and gray-level features were extracted from the segmented nodule. The rubber band straightening transform (RBST) was applied to the shell of voxels surrounding the nodule. Texture features based on run-length statistics were extracted from the RBST image. A linear discriminant analysis classifier with stepwise feature selection was designed using a second simplex optimization to select the most effective features. Leave-one-case-out resampling was used to train and test the CAD system. The system achieved a test area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az) of 0.83±0.04. Our preliminary results indicate that use of the 3D AC model and the 3D texture features surrounding the nodule is a promising approach to the segmentation and classification of lung nodules with CAD. The segmentation performance of the 3D AC model trained with our data set was evaluated with 23 nodules available in the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC). The lung nodule volumes segmented by the 3D AC

  1. High-resolution 3D OCT imaging with a MEMS scanning endoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Li S.; Piyawattanametha, Wibool; Wu, Ming C.; Aguirre, Aaron D.; Herz, Paul R.; Chen, Yu; Fujimoto, James G.

    2005-01-01

    Three-dimensional imaging is achieved by optical coherence tomography (OCT) integrated with a two-axis MEMS scanner to enable noninvasive volume imaging of biological tissues. The longitudinal scan is obtained by optical coherence interferometry. The transverse scan is obtained by tilting the two-axis MEMS mirror to scan the optical beam across the target. High-resolution OCT imaging has enabled in vivo observation of tissue architectural layers and differentiation of normal from tumor lesions within the human gastrointestinal tract. MEMS scanner based catheters with distal beam scanning can image with higher speed, precision, and repeatability than conventional linear scanning catheters. In this work, a 1-mm diameter MEMS scanning mirror with collimator and focusing optics is integrated into a compact 5-mm diameter package that is compatible with limited space in the endoscope. A large fill factor mirror provides high aperture over large scan angle and frequencies of hundreds of Hz in both axes. Using a broadband femtosecond laser light source, high axial image resolution of ~5 um is achieved at 1.06 um wavelength. Transverse resolution of ~ 12-um is demonstrated for cross-sectional image with the endoscope.

  2. Continuous-scanning laser Doppler vibrometry: Extensions to arbitrary areas, multi-frequency and 3D capture

    SciTech Connect

    Weekes, B.; Ewins, D.; Acciavatti, F.

    2014-05-27

    To date, differing implementations of continuous scan laser Doppler vibrometry have been demonstrated by various academic institutions, but since the scan paths were defined using step or sine functions from function generators, the paths were typically limited to 1D line scans or 2D areas such as raster paths or Lissajous trajectories. The excitation was previously often limited to a single frequency due to the specific signal processing performed to convert the scan data into an ODS. In this paper, a configuration of continuous-scan laser Doppler vibrometry is demonstrated which permits scanning of arbitrary areas, with the benefit of allowing multi-frequency/broadband excitation. Various means of generating scan paths to inspect arbitrary areas are discussed and demonstrated. Further, full 3D vibration capture is demonstrated by the addition of a range-finding facility to the described configuration, and iteratively relocating a single scanning laser head. Here, the range-finding facility was provided by a Microsoft Kinect, an inexpensive piece of consumer electronics.

  3. Continuous-scanning laser Doppler vibrometry: Extensions to arbitrary areas, multi-frequency and 3D capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weekes, B.; Ewins, D.; Acciavatti, F.

    2014-05-01

    To date, differing implementations of continuous scan laser Doppler vibrometry have been demonstrated by various academic institutions, but since the scan paths were defined using step or sine functions from function generators, the paths were typically limited to 1D line scans or 2D areas such as raster paths or Lissajous trajectories. The excitation was previously often limited to a single frequency due to the specific signal processing performed to convert the scan data into an ODS. In this paper, a configuration of continuous-scan laser Doppler vibrometry is demonstrated which permits scanning of arbitrary areas, with the benefit of allowing multi-frequency/broadband excitation. Various means of generating scan paths to inspect arbitrary areas are discussed and demonstrated. Further, full 3D vibration capture is demonstrated by the addition of a range-finding facility to the described configuration, and iteratively relocating a single scanning laser head. Here, the range-finding facility was provided by a Microsoft Kinect, an inexpensive piece of consumer electronics.

  4. Multi-frequency, 3D ODS measurement by continuous scan laser Doppler vibrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weekes, Ben; Ewins, David

    2015-06-01

    Continuous scan laser Doppler vibrometry (CSLDV) is a technique which has been described and explored in the literature for over two decades, but remains niche compared to SLDV inspection by a series of discrete-point measurements. This is in part because of the unavoidable phenomenon of laser speckle, which deteriorates signal quality when velocity data is captured from a moving spot measurement. Further, applicability of CSLDV has typically been limited to line scans and rectangular areas by the application of sine, step, or ramp functions to the scanning mirrors which control the location of the measurement laser spot. In this paper it is shown that arbitrary functions to scan any area can easily be derived from a basic calibration routine, equivalent to the calibration performed in conventional discrete-point laser vibrometry. This is extended by performing the same scan path upon a test surface from three independent locations of the laser head, and decomposing the three sets of one-dimensional deflection shapes into a single set of three-dimensional deflection shapes. The test was performed with multi-sine excitation, yielding 34 operating deflection shapes from each scan.

  5. Traversing and labeling interconnected vascular tree structures from 3D medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dell, Walter G.; Govindarajan, Sindhuja Tirumalai; Salgia, Ankit; Hegde, Satyanarayan; Prabhakaran, Sreekala; Finol, Ender A.; White, R. James

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: Detailed characterization of pulmonary vascular anatomy has important applications for the diagnosis and management of a variety of vascular diseases. Prior efforts have emphasized using vessel segmentation to gather information on the number or branches, number of bifurcations, and branch length and volume, but accurate traversal of the vessel tree to identify and repair erroneous interconnections between adjacent branches and neighboring tree structures has not been carefully considered. In this study, we endeavor to develop and implement a successful approach to distinguishing and characterizing individual vascular trees from among a complex intermingling of trees. Methods: We developed strategies and parameters in which the algorithm identifies and repairs false branch inter-tree and intra-tree connections to traverse complicated vessel trees. A series of two-dimensional (2D) virtual datasets with a variety of interconnections were constructed for development, testing, and validation. To demonstrate the approach, a series of real 3D computed tomography (CT) lung datasets were obtained, including that of an anthropomorphic chest phantom; an adult human chest CT; a pediatric patient chest CT; and a micro-CT of an excised rat lung preparation. Results: Our method was correct in all 2D virtual test datasets. For each real 3D CT dataset, the resulting simulated vessel tree structures faithfully depicted the vessel tree structures that were originally extracted from the corresponding lung CT scans. Conclusion: We have developed a comprehensive strategy for traversing and labeling interconnected vascular trees and successfully implemented its application to pulmonary vessels observed using 3D CT images of the chest.

  6. Deconvolution approach for 3D scanning microscopy with helical phase engineering.

    PubMed

    Roider, Clemens; Heintzmann, Rainer; Piestun, Rafael; Jesacher, Alexander

    2016-07-11

    RESCH (refocusing after scanning using helical phase engineering) microscopy is a scanning technique using engineered point spread functions which provides volumetric information. We present a strategy for processing the collected raw data with a multi-view maximum likelihood deconvolution algorithm, which inherently comprises the resolution gain of pixel-reassignment microscopy. The method, which we term MD-RESCH (for multi-view deconvolved RESCH), achieves in our current implementation a 20% resolution advantage along all three axes compared to RESCH and confocal microscopy. Along the axial direction, the resolution is comparable to that of image scanning microscopy. However, because the method inherently reconstructs a volume from a single 2D scan, a significantly higher optical sectioning becomes directly visible to the user, which would otherwise require collecting multiple 2D scans taken at a series of axial positions. Further, we introduce the use of a single-helical detection PSF to obtain an increased post-acquisition refocusing range. We present data from numerical simulations as well as experiments to confirm the validity of our approach. PMID:27410820

  7. Development of a temporal multiplexed 3D beam-scanning Lissajous trajectory microscope for rapid multimodal volumetric imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Justin A.; Sullivan, Shane Z.; Dinh, Janny; Sarkar, Sreya; Simpson, Garth J.

    2016-03-01

    A beam-scanning microscope is described based on a temporally multiplexed Lissajous trajectory for achieving 1 kHz frame rate 3D imaging. The microscope utilizes two fast-scan resonant mirrors to direct the optical beam on a circuitous, Lissajous trajectory through the field of view. Acquisition of two simultaneous focal planes is achieved by implementation of an optical delay line, producing a second incident beam at a different focal plane relative to the initial incident beam. High frame rates are achieved by separating the full time-domain data into shorter sub-trajectories resulting in undersampling of the field of view. A model-based image reconstruction (MBIR) 3D in-painting algorithm is utilized for interpolating the missing data to recover full images. The MBIR algorithm uses a maximum a posteriori estimation with a generalized Gaussian Markov random field prior model for image interpolation. Because images are acquired using photomultiplier tubes or photodiodes, parallelization for multi-channel imaging is straightforward. Preliminary results obtained using a Lissajous trajectory beam-scanning approach coupled with temporal multiplexing by the implementation of an optical delay line demonstrate the ability to acquire 2 distinct focal planes simultaneously at frame rates >450 Hz for full 512 × 512 images. The use of multi-channel data acquisition cards allows for simultaneous multimodal image acquisition with perfect image registry between all imaging modalities. Also discussed here is the implementation of Lissajous trajectory beam-scanning on commercially available microscope hardware.

  8. Analysis of thin baked-on silicone layers by FTIR and 3D-Laser Scanning Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Funke, Stefanie; Matilainen, Julia; Nalenz, Heiko; Bechtold-Peters, Karoline; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Friess, Wolfgang

    2015-10-01

    Pre-filled syringes (PFS) and auto-injection devices with cartridges are increasingly used for parenteral administration. To assure functionality, silicone oil is applied to the inner surface of the glass barrel. Silicone oil migration into the product can be minimized by applying a thin but sufficient layer of silicone oil emulsion followed by thermal bake-on versus spraying-on silicone oil. Silicone layers thicker than 100nm resulting from regular spray-on siliconization can be characterized using interferometric profilometers. However, the analysis of thin silicone layers generated by bake-on siliconization is more challenging. In this paper, we have evaluated Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy after solvent extraction and a new 3D-Laser Scanning Microscopy (3D-LSM) to overcome this challenge. A multi-step solvent extraction and subsequent FTIR spectroscopy enabled to quantify baked-on silicone levels as low as 21-325μg per 5mL cartridge. 3D-LSM was successfully established to visualize and measure baked-on silicone layers as thin as 10nm. 3D-LSM was additionally used to analyze the silicone oil distribution within cartridges at such low levels. Both methods provided new, highly valuable insights to characterize the siliconization after processing, in order to achieve functionality. PMID:26316044

  9. Semi-automated extraction and delineation of 3D roads of street scene from mobile laser scanning point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bisheng; Fang, Lina; Li, Jonathan

    2013-05-01

    Accurate 3D road information is important for applications such as road maintenance and virtual 3D modeling. Mobile laser scanning (MLS) is an efficient technique for capturing dense point clouds that can be used to construct detailed road models for large areas. This paper presents a method for extracting and delineating roads from large-scale MLS point clouds. The proposed method partitions MLS point clouds into a set of consecutive "scanning lines", which each consists of a road cross section. A moving window operator is used to filter out non-ground points line by line, and curb points are detected based on curb patterns. The detected curb points are tracked and refined so that they are both globally consistent and locally similar. To evaluate the validity of the proposed method, experiments were conducted using two types of street-scene point clouds captured by Optech's Lynx Mobile Mapper System. The completeness, correctness, and quality of the extracted roads are over 94.42%, 91.13%, and 91.3%, respectively, which proves the proposed method is a promising solution for extracting 3D roads from MLS point clouds.

  10. Design of a VLSI scan conversion processor for high-performance 3-D graphics systems

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.U.

    1988-01-01

    Scan-conversion processing is the bottleneck in the image generation process. To solve the problem of smooth shading and hidden surface elimination, a new processor architecture was invented which has been labeled as a scan-conversion processor architecture (SCP). The SCP is designed to perform hidden surface elimination and scan conversion for 64 pixels. The color intensities are dual-buffered so that when one buffer is being updated the other can be scanned out. Z-depth is used to perform the hidden surface elimination. The key operation performed by the SCP is the evaluation of linear functions of a form like F(X,Y) = A X + B Y + C. The computation is further simplified by using incremental addition. The z-depth buffer and the color buffers are incorporated onto the same chip. The SCP receives from its preprocessor the information for the definition of polygons and the computation of z-depth and RGB color intensities. Many copies of this processor will be used in a high-performance graphics system.

  11. Increase of Readability and Accuracy of 3d Models Using Fusion of Close Range Photogrammetry and Laser Scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gašparović, M.; Malarić, I.

    2012-07-01

    The development of laser scanning technology has opened a new page in geodesy and enabled an entirely new way of presenting data. Products obtained by the method of laser scanning are used in many sciences, as well as in archaeology. It should be noted that 3D models of archaeological artefacts obtained by laser scanning are fully measurable, written in 1:1 scale and have high accuracy. On the other hand, texture and RGB values of the surface of the object obtained by a laser scanner have lower resolution and poorer radiometric characteristics in relation to the textures captured with a digital camera. Scientific research and the goal of this paper are to increase the accuracy and readability of the 3D model with textures obtained with a digital camera. Laser scanning was performed with triangulation scanner of high accuracy, Vivid 9i (Konica Minolta), while for photogrammetric recording digital camera Nikon D90 with a lens of fixed focal length 20 mm, was used. It is important to stress that a posteriori accuracy score of the global registration of point clouds in the form of the standard deviation was ± 0.136 mm while the average distance was only ± 0.080 mm. Also research has proven that the quality projection texture model increases readability. Recording of archaeological artefacts and making their photorealistic 3D model greatly contributes to archaeology as a science, accelerates processing and reconstruction of the findings. It also allows the presentation of findings to the general public, not just to the experts.

  12. Uncertainty studies of topographical measurements on steel surface corrosion by 3D scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kang, K W; Pereda, M D; Canafoglia, M E; Bilmes, P; Llorente, C; Bonetto, R

    2012-02-01

    Pitting corrosion is a damage mechanism quite serious and dangerous in both carbon steel boiler tubes for power plants which are vital to most industries and stainless steels for orthopedic human implants whose demand, due to the increase of life expectation and rate of traffic accidents, has sharply increased. Reliable methods to characterize this kind of damage are becoming increasingly necessary, when trying to evaluate the advance of damage and to establish the best procedures for component inspection in order to determine remaining lives and failure mitigation. A study about the uncertainties on the topographies of corrosion pits from 3D SEM images, obtained at low magnifications (where errors are greater) and different stage tilt angles were carried out using an in-house software previously developed. Additionally, measurements of pit depths on biomaterial surfaces, subjected to two different surface treatments on stainless steels, were carried out. The different depth distributions observed were in agreement with electrochemical measurements. PMID:22051087

  13. Restoration of 3D medical images with total variation scheme on wavelet domains (TVW)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogier, Arnaud; Hellier, Pierre; Barillot, Christian

    2006-03-01

    The multiplicity of sensors used in medical imaging leads to different noises. Non informative noise can damage the image interpretation process and the performance of automatic analysis. The method proposed in this paper allows compensating highly noisy image data from non informative noise without sophisticated modeling of the noise statistics. This generic approach uses jointly a wavelet decomposition scheme and a non-isotropic Total Variation filtering of the transform coefficients. This framework benefits from both the hierarchical capabilities of the wavelet transform and the well-posed regularization scheme of the Total Variation. This algorithm has been tested and validated on test-bed data, as well as different clinical MR and 3D ultrasound images, enhancing the capabilities of the proposed method to cope with different noise models.

  14. Nonrigid 3D medical image registration and fusion based on deformable models.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Eberhardt, Benjamin; Wybranski, Christian; Ricke, Jens; Lüdemann, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    For coregistration of medical images, rigid methods often fail to provide enough freedom, while reliable elastic methods are available clinically for special applications only. The number of degrees of freedom of elastic models must be reduced for use in the clinical setting to archive a reliable result. We propose a novel geometry-based method of nonrigid 3D medical image registration and fusion. The proposed method uses a 3D surface-based deformable model as guidance. In our twofold approach, the deformable mesh from one of the images is first applied to the boundary of the object to be registered. Thereafter, the non-rigid volume deformation vector field needed for registration and fusion inside of the region of interest (ROI) described by the active surface is inferred from the displacement of the surface mesh points. The method was validated using clinical images of a quasirigid organ (kidney) and of an elastic organ (liver). The reduction in standard deviation of the image intensity difference between reference image and model was used as a measure of performance. Landmarks placed at vessel bifurcations in the liver were used as a gold standard for evaluating registration results for the elastic liver. Our registration method was compared with affine registration using mutual information applied to the quasi-rigid kidney. The new method achieved 15.11% better quality with a high confidence level of 99% for rigid registration. However, when applied to the quasi-elastic liver, the method has an averaged landmark dislocation of 4.32 mm. In contrast, affine registration of extracted livers yields a significantly (P = 0.000001) smaller dislocation of 3.26 mm. In conclusion, our validation shows that the novel approach is applicable in cases where internal deformation is not crucial, but it has limitations in cases where internal displacement must also be taken into account. PMID:23690883

  15. Digital-Particle-Image-Velocimetry (DPIV) in a scanning light-sheet: 3D starting flow around a short cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brücker, Ch.

    1995-08-01

    Scanning-Particle-Image-Velocimetry Technique (SPIV), introduced by Brücker (1992) and Brücker and Althaus (1992), offers the quantitative investigation of three-dimensional vortical structures in unsteady flows. On principle, this technique combines classical Particle-Image-Velocimetry (PIV) with volume scanning using a scanning light-sheet. In our previous studies, single scans obtained from photographic frame series were evaluated to show the instantaneous vortical structure of the respective flow phenomena. Here, continuous video recordings are processed to capture also the temporal information for the study of the set-up of 3D effects in the cylinder wake. The flow is continuously sampled in depth by the scanning light-sheet and in each of the parallel planes frame-to-frame cross-correlation of the video images (DPIV) is applied to obtain the 2D velocity field. Because the scanning frequency and repetition rate is high in comparison with the characteristic time-scale of the flow, the evaluation provides a complete time-record of the 3D flow during the starting process. With use of the continuity concept as described by Robinson and Rockwell (1993), we obtained in addition the out-of-plane component of the velocity in spanwise direction. This in view, the described technique enabled the reconstruction of the three-dimensional time-dependent velocity and vorticity field. The visualization of the dynamical behaviour of these quantities as, e.g. by video, gave a good impression of the spanwise flow showing the “tornado-like” suction effect of the starting vortices.

  16. Development, Calibration and Evaluation of a Portable and Direct Georeferenced Laser Scanning System for Kinematic 3D Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, Erik; Eling, Christian; Wieland, Markus; Klingbeil, Lasse; Kuhlmann, Heiner

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, kinematic laser scanning has become increasingly popular because it offers many benefits compared to static laser scanning. The advantages include both saving of time in the georeferencing and a more favorable scanning geometry. Often mobile laser scanning systems are installed on wheeled platforms, which may not reach all parts of the object. Hence, there is an interest in the development of portable systems, which remain operational even in inaccessible areas. The development of such a portable laser scanning system is presented in this paper. It consists of a lightweight direct georeferencing unit for the position and attitude determination and a small low-cost 2D laser scanner. This setup provides advantages over existing portable systems that employ heavy and expensive 3D laser scanners in a profiling mode. A special emphasis is placed on the system calibration, i. e. the determination of the transformation between the coordinate frames of the direct georeferencing unit and the 2D laser scanner. To this end, a calibration field is used, which consists of differently orientated georeferenced planar surfaces, leading to estimates for the lever arms and boresight angles with an accuracy of mm and one-tenth of a degree. Finally, point clouds of the mobile laser scanning system are compared with georeferenced point clouds of a high-precision 3D laser scanner. Accordingly, the accuracy of the system is in the order of cm to dm. This is in good agreement with the expected accuracy, which has been derived from the error propagation of previously estimated variance components.

  17. Application of 3D laser scanning technology in historical building preservation: a case study of a Chinese temple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yu Min; Lu, Nien Hua; Wu, Tsung Chiang

    2005-06-01

    This study applies 3D Laser scanning technology to develop a high-precision measuring system for digital survey of historical building. It outperformed other methods in obtaining abundant high-precision measuring points and computing data instantly. In this study, the Pei-tien Temple, a Chinese Taoism temple in southern Taiwan famous for its highly intricate architecture and more than 300-year history, was adopted as the target to proof the high accuracy and efficiency of this system. By using French made MENSI GS-100 Laser Scanner, numerous measuring points were precisely plotted to present the plane map, vertical map and 3D map of the property. Accuracies of 0.1-1 mm in the digital data have consistently been achieved for the historical heritage measurement.

  18. Study of 3D remote sensing system based on optical scanning holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shihu; Yan, Lei

    2009-06-01

    High-precision and real-time remote sensing imaging system is an important part of remote sensing development. Holography is a method of wave front record and recovery which was presented by Dennis Gabor. As a new kind of holography techniques, Optical scanning holography (OSH) and remote sensing imaging are intended to be combined together and applied in acquisition and interference measurement of remote sensing. The key principles and applicability of OSH are studied and the mathematic relation between Fresnel Zone Plate number, numerical aperture and object distance was deduced, which are proved to be feasible for OSH to apply in large scale remote sensing. At last, a new three-dimensional reflected OSH remote sensing imaging system is designed with the combination of scanning technique to record hologram patterns of large scale remote sensing scenes. This scheme is helpful for expanding OSH technique to remote sensing in future.

  19. Nanoscale 3D cellular imaging by axial scanning transmission electron tomography

    PubMed Central

    Hohmann-Marriott, Martin F.; Sousa, Alioscka A.; Azari, Afrouz A.; Glushakova, Svetlana; Zhang, Guofeng; Zimmerberg, Joshua; Leapman, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    Electron tomography provides three-dimensional structural information about supramolecular assemblies and organelles in a cellular context but image degradation, caused by scattering of transmitted electrons, limits applicability in specimens thicker than 300 nm. We show that scanning transmission electron tomography of 1000 nm thick samples using axial detection provides resolution comparable to conventional electron tomography. The method is demonstrated by reconstructing a human erythrocyte infected with the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. PMID:19718033

  20. Full-color holographic 3D imaging system using color optical scanning holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hayan; Kim, You Seok; Kim, Taegeun

    2016-06-01

    We propose a full-color holographic three-dimensional imaging system that composes a recording stage, a transmission and processing stage and reconstruction stage. In recording stage, color optical scanning holography (OSH) records the complex RGB holograms of an object. In transmission and processing stage, the recorded complex RGB holograms are transmitted to the reconstruction stage after conversion to off-axis RGB holograms. In reconstruction stage, the off-axis RGB holograms are reconstructed optically.

  1. Photo-Based 3d Scanning VS. Laser Scanning - Competitive Data Acquisition Methods for Digital Terrain Modelling of Steep Mountain Slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolecka, N.

    2011-09-01

    The paper presents how terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and terrestrial digital photogrammetry were used to create a 3D model of a steep mountain wall. Terrestrial methods of data acquisition are the most suitable for such relief, as the most effective registration is perpendicular to the surface. First, various aspects of photo-based scanning and laser scanning were discussed. The general overview of both technologies was followed by the description of a case study of the western wall of the Kościelec Mountain (2155 m). The case study area is one of the most interesting and popular rock climbing areas in the Polish High Tatra Mts. The wall is about 300 meters high, has varied relief and some parts are overhung. Triangular irregular mesh was chosen to represent the true- 3D surface with its complicated relief. To achieve a more smooth result for visualization NURBS curves and surfaces were utilized. Both 3D models were then compared to the standard DTM of the Tatra Mountains in TIN format, obtained from aerial photographs (0.2 m ground pixel size). The results showed that both TLS and terrestrial photogrammetry had similar accuracy and level of detail and could effectively supplement very high resolution DTMs of the mountain areas.

  2. Morphologic 3D scanning of fallopian tubes to assist ovarian cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madore, Wendy-Julie; De Montigny, Etienne; Deschênes, Andréanne; Benboujja, Fouzi; Leduc, Mikael; Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie; Provencher, Diane M.; Rahimi, Kurosh; Boudoux, Caroline; Godbout, Nicolas

    2016-02-01

    Pathological evaluation of the fallopian tubes is an important diagnostic result but tumors can be missed using routine approaches. As the majority of high-grade serous ovarian cancers are now believed to originate in the fallopian tubes, pathological examination should include in a thorough examination of the excised ovaries and fallopian tubes. We present an dedicated imaging system for diagnostic exploration of human fallopian tubes. This system is based on optical coherence tomography (OCT), a laser imaging modality giving access to sub- epithelial tissue architecture. This system produces cross-sectional images up to 3 mm in depth, with a lateral resolution of ≍15μm and an axial resolution of ≍12μm. An endoscopic single fiber probe was developed to fit in a human fallopian tube. This 1.2 mm probe produces 3D volume data of the entire inner tube within a few minutes. To demonstrate the clinical potential of OCT for lesion identification, we studied 5 different ovarian lesions and healthy fallopian tubes. We imaged 52 paraffin-embedded human surgical specimens with a benchtop system and compared these images with histology slides. We also imaged and compared healthy oviducts from 3 animal models to find one resembling the human anatomy and to develop a functional ex vivo imaging procedure with the endoscopic probe. We also present an update on an ongoing clinical pilot study on women undergoing prophylactic or diagnostic surgery in which we image ex vivo fallopian tubes with the endoscopic probe.

  3. Foot roll-over evaluation based on 3D dynamic foot scan.

    PubMed

    Samson, William; Van Hamme, Angèle; Sanchez, Stéphane; Chèze, Laurence; Van Sint Jan, Serge; Feipel, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Foot roll-over is commonly analyzed to evaluate gait pathologies. The current study utilized a dynamic foot scanner (DFS) to analyze foot roll-over. The right feet of ten healthy subjects were assessed during gait trials with a DFS system integrated into a walkway. A foot sole picture was computed by vertically projecting points from the 3D foot shape which were lower than a threshold height of 15 mm. A 'height' value of these projected points was determined; corresponding to the initial vertical coordinates prior to projection. Similar to pedobarographic analysis, the foot sole picture was segmented into anatomical regions of interest (ROIs) to process mean height (average of height data by ROI) and projected surface (area of the projected foot sole by ROI). Results showed that these variables evolved differently to plantar pressure data previously reported in the literature, mainly due to the specificity of each physical quantity (millimeters vs Pascals). Compared to plantar pressure data arising from surface contact by the foot, the current method takes into account the whole plantar aspect of the foot, including the parts that do not make contact with the support surface. The current approach using height data could contribute to a better understanding of specific aspects of foot motion during walking, such as plantar arch height and the windlass mechanism. Results of this study show the underlying method is reliable. Further investigation is required to validate the DFS measurements within a clinical context, prior to implementation into clinical practice. PMID:24119779

  4. Development of Kinematic 3D Laser Scanning System for Indoor Mapping and As-Built BIM Using Constrained SLAM

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jaehoon; Yoon, Sanghyun; Ju, Sungha; Heo, Joon

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest and use of indoor mapping is driving a demand for improved data-acquisition facility, efficiency and productivity in the era of the Building Information Model (BIM). The conventional static laser scanning method suffers from some limitations on its operability in complex indoor environments, due to the presence of occlusions. Full scanning of indoor spaces without loss of information requires that surveyors change the scanner position many times, which incurs extra work for registration of each scanned point cloud. Alternatively, a kinematic 3D laser scanning system, proposed herein, uses line-feature-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technique for continuous mapping. Moreover, to reduce the uncertainty of line-feature extraction, we incorporated constrained adjustment based on an assumption made with respect to typical indoor environments: that the main structures are formed of parallel or orthogonal line features. The superiority of the proposed constrained adjustment is its reduction for uncertainties of the adjusted lines, leading to successful data association process. In the present study, kinematic scanning with and without constrained adjustment were comparatively evaluated in two test sites, and the results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed system. The accuracy of the 3D mapping result was additionally evaluated by comparison with the reference points acquired by a total station: the Euclidean average distance error was 0.034 m for the seminar room and 0.043 m for the corridor, which satisfied the error tolerance for point cloud acquisition (0.051 m) according to the guidelines of the General Services Administration for BIM accuracy. PMID:26501292

  5. Development of kinematic 3D laser scanning system for indoor mapping and as-built BIM using constrained SLAM.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaehoon; Yoon, Sanghyun; Ju, Sungha; Heo, Joon

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest and use of indoor mapping is driving a demand for improved data-acquisition facility, efficiency and productivity in the era of the Building Information Model (BIM). The conventional static laser scanning method suffers from some limitations on its operability in complex indoor environments, due to the presence of occlusions. Full scanning of indoor spaces without loss of information requires that surveyors change the scanner position many times, which incurs extra work for registration of each scanned point cloud. Alternatively, a kinematic 3D laser scanning system, proposed herein, uses line-feature-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technique for continuous mapping. Moreover, to reduce the uncertainty of line-feature extraction, we incorporated constrained adjustment based on an assumption made with respect to typical indoor environments: that the main structures are formed of parallel or orthogonal line features. The superiority of the proposed constrained adjustment is its reduction for uncertainties of the adjusted lines, leading to successful data association process. In the present study, kinematic scanning with and without constrained adjustment were comparatively evaluated in two test sites, and the results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed system. The accuracy of the 3D mapping result was additionally evaluated by comparison with the reference points acquired by a total station: the Euclidean average distance error was 0.034 m for the seminar room and 0.043 m for the corridor, which satisfied the error tolerance for point cloud acquisition (0.051 m) according to the guidelines of the General Services Administration for BIM accuracy. PMID:26501292

  6. Telediagnosis system for orthopedic deformity analysis based on 3D medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Myoung-Hee; Hong, Helen; Kim, Min-A.

    2000-04-01

    Due to the structural complexity of the bone, it is difficult to diagnose and make a treatment plan for injuries and diseases in bones. In this paper, we designed and implemented a telediagnosis system for orthopedic deformity analysis based on 3D medical imaging. In order to define the intersseous relationships in each bone and to evaluate a deformity without invasions, the system produces volumetric images by reconstructing the planar images spatially and provides deformity analysis by measuring distance, area, volume and angle among the bones. The reconstructed volumetric images are freely manipulated to simulate surgical operations such as translation, scaling, rotation and so on. Our system integrates three main components: server, clients and communication subsystem. It is also composed of three main functions including the information control manager for event and message process used between client and server, and surgical simulation manager for object visualization and manipulation in individual bones, and the medical database manager for patient information. The system also supports user-friendly graphical user interface and simultaneous use by multiple users.

  7. Scanning all-fiber-optic endomicroscopy system for 3D nonlinear optical imaging of biological tissues

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yicong; Leng, Yuxin; Xi, Jiefeng; Li, Xingde

    2009-01-01

    An extremely compact all-fiber-optic scanning endomicroscopy system was developed for two-photon fluorescence (TPF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging of biological samples. A conventional double-clad fiber (DCF) was employed in the endomicroscope for single-mode femtosecond pulse delivery, multimode nonlinear optical signals collection and fast two-dimensional scanning. A single photonic bandgap fiber (PBF) with negative group velocity dispersion at two-photon excitation wavelength (i.e. ~810 nm) was used for pulse prechirping in replacement of a bulky grating/lens-based pulse stretcher. The combined use of DCF and PBF in the endomicroscopy system made the endomicroscope basically a plug-and-play unit. The excellent imaging ability of the extremely compact all-fiber-optic nonlinear optical endomicroscopy system was demonstrated by SHG imaging of rat tail tendon and depth-resolved TPF imaging of epithelial tissues stained with acridine orange. The preliminary results suggested the promising potential of this extremely compact all-fiber-optic endomicroscopy system for real-time assessment of both epithelial and stromal structures in luminal organs. PMID:19434122

  8. Correcting for 3D distortion when using backscattered electron detectors in a scanning electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Jacob M

    2009-01-01

    A variable pressure scanning electron microscope (VPSEM) can produce a topographic surface relief of a physical object under examination, in addition to its two-dimensional (2D) image. This topographic surface relief is especially helpful when dealing with porous rock because it may elucidate the pore-space structure as well as grain shape and size. Whether the image accurately reproduces the physical object depends on the management of the hardware, acquisition, and postprocessing. Two problems become apparent during testing: (a) a topographic surface relief of a precision ball bearing is distorted and does not correspond to the physical dimensions of the actual sphere and (b) an image of a topographic surface relief of a Berea sandstone is geometrically tilted and topographically distorted even after standard corrections are applied. The procedure presented here is to ensure the veracity of the image, and includes: (a) adjusting the brightness and contrast levels originally provided by the manufacturer and (b) tuning the amplifiers of the backscatter detector plates to be equal to each other, and producing zero voltage when VPSEM is idle. This procedure is tested and verified on the said two physical samples. SCANNING 31: 59-64, 2009. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:19204999

  9. 3D-Laser-Scanning Technique Applied to Bulk Density Measurements of Apollo Lunar Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macke, R. J.; Kent, J. J.; Kiefer, W. S.; Britt, D. T.

    2015-01-01

    In order to better interpret gravimetric data from orbiters such as GRAIL and LRO to understand the subsurface composition and structure of the lunar crust, it is import to have a reliable database of the density and porosity of lunar materials. To this end, we have been surveying these physical properties in both lunar meteorites and Apollo lunar samples. To measure porosity, both grain density and bulk density are required. For bulk density, our group has historically utilized sub-mm bead immersion techniques extensively, though several factors have made this technique problematic for our work with Apollo samples. Samples allocated for measurement are often smaller than optimal for the technique, leading to large error bars. Also, for some samples we were required to use pure alumina beads instead of our usual glass beads. The alumina beads were subject to undesirable static effects, producing unreliable results. Other investigators have tested the use of 3d laser scanners on meteorites for measuring bulk volumes. Early work, though promising, was plagued with difficulties including poor response on dark or reflective surfaces, difficulty reproducing sharp edges, and large processing time for producing shape models. Due to progress in technology, however, laser scanners have improved considerably in recent years. We tested this technique on 27 lunar samples in the Apollo collection using a scanner at NASA Johnson Space Center. We found it to be reliable and more precise than beads, with the added benefit that it involves no direct contact with the sample, enabling the study of particularly friable samples for which bead immersion is not possible

  10. Multitemporal 3D data capturing and GIS analysis of fluvial processes and geomorphological changes with terrestrial laser scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hämmerle, Martin; Forbriger, Markus; Höfle, Bernhard

    2013-04-01

    LiDAR is a state of the art method for directly capturing 3D geodata. A laser beam is emitted in a known direction. The time of flight of the laser pulse is recorded and transformed into the distance between sensor and scanned object. The result of the scanning process is a 3D laser point cloud densely covering the surveyed area. LiDAR is used in a vast variety of research fields. In this study, the focus is on the application of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), the static and ground-based LiDAR operation, in a multitemporal analysis of fluvial geomorphology. Within the framework of two study projects in 2011/2012, two TLS surveys were carried out. The surveys covered a gravel bar of about 150 m × 25 m size in a side branch of the Neckar River near Heidelberg (49°28'36''N, 8°34'32''E) located in a nature reserve with natural river characteristics. The first survey was performed in November 2011, the second in June 2012. Due to seasonally changing water levels, the gravel bar was flooded and the morphology changed. For the field campaigns, a Riegl VZ-400 was available. Height control points and tie points for registration and georeferencing were obtained with a total station and GPS equipment. The first survey was done from 6 scan positions (77 million points) and the second from 5 positions (89 million points). The point spacing for each single scan was set to 3 mm at 10 m distance. Co-registration of the individual campaigns was done via an Iterative Closest Point algorithm. Thereafter, co-registration and fine georeferencing of both epochs was performed using manually selected tie points and least-squares adjustment. After filtering of vegetation in the 3D point cloud in the software OPALS, a digital terrain model (DTM) with 0.25 m by 0.25 m cell size was generated for each epoch. A difference raster model of the two DTMs for assessing the changes was derived excluding water surface areas using the signal amplitude recorded for each echo. From the mean

  11. Parallel deconvolution of large 3D images obtained by confocal laser scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Pawliczek, Piotr; Romanowska-Pawliczek, Anna; Soltys, Zbigniew

    2010-03-01

    Various deconvolution algorithms are often used for restoration of digital images. Image deconvolution is especially needed for the correction of three-dimensional images obtained by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Such images suffer from distortions, particularly in the Z dimension. As a result, reliable automatic segmentation of these images may be difficult or even impossible. Effective deconvolution algorithms are memory-intensive and time-consuming. In this work, we propose a parallel version of the well-known Richardson-Lucy deconvolution algorithm developed for a system with distributed memory and implemented with the use of Message Passing Interface (MPI). It enables significantly more rapid deconvolution of two-dimensional and three-dimensional images by efficiently splitting the computation across multiple computers. The implementation of this algorithm can be used on professional clusters provided by computing centers as well as on simple networks of ordinary PC machines. PMID:19725070

  12. See-Through Imaging of Laser-Scanned 3d Cultural Heritage Objects Based on Stochastic Rendering of Large-Scale Point Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, S.; Hasegawa, K.; Okamoto, N.; Umegaki, R.; Wang, S.; Uemura, M.; Okamoto, A.; Koyamada, K.

    2016-06-01

    We propose a method for the precise 3D see-through imaging, or transparent visualization, of the large-scale and complex point clouds acquired via the laser scanning of 3D cultural heritage objects. Our method is based on a stochastic algorithm and directly uses the 3D points, which are acquired using a laser scanner, as the rendering primitives. This method achieves the correct depth feel without requiring depth sorting of the rendering primitives along the line of sight. Eliminating this need allows us to avoid long computation times when creating natural and precise 3D see-through views of laser-scanned cultural heritage objects. The opacity of each laser-scanned object is also flexibly controllable. For a laser-scanned point cloud consisting of more than 107 or 108 3D points, the pre-processing requires only a few minutes, and the rendering can be executed at interactive frame rates. Our method enables the creation of cumulative 3D see-through images of time-series laser-scanned data. It also offers the possibility of fused visualization for observing a laser-scanned object behind a transparent high-quality photographic image placed in the 3D scene. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method by applying it to festival floats of high cultural value. These festival floats have complex outer and inner 3D structures and are suitable for see-through imaging.

  13. Body mass estimations for Plateosaurus engelhardti using laser scanning and 3D reconstruction methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunga, Hanns-Christian; Suthau, Tim; Bellmann, Anke; Friedrich, Andreas; Schwanebeck, Thomas; Stoinski, Stefan; Trippel, Tobias; Kirsch, Karl; Hellwich, Olaf

    2007-08-01

    Both body mass and surface area are factors determining the essence of any living organism. This should also hold true for an extinct organism such as a dinosaur. The present report discusses the use of a new 3D laser scanner method to establish body masses and surface areas of an Asian elephant (Zoological Museum of Copenhagen, Denmark) and of Plateosaurus engelhardti, a prosauropod from the Upper Triassic, exhibited at the Paleontological Museum in Tübingen (Germany). This method was used to study the effect that slight changes in body shape had on body mass for P. engelhardti. It was established that body volumes varied between 0.79 m3 (slim version) and 1.14 m3 (robust version), resulting in a presumable body mass of 630 and 912 kg, respectively. The total body surface areas ranged between 8.8 and 10.2 m2, of which, in both reconstructions of P. engelhardti, ˜33% account for the thorax area alone. The main difference between the two models is in the tail and hind limb reconstruction. The tail of the slim version has a surface area of 1.98 m2, whereas that of the robust version has a surface area of 2.73 m2. The body volumes calculated for the slim version were as follows: head 0.006 m3, neck 0.016 m3, fore limbs 0.020 m3, hind limbs 0.08 m3, thoracic cavity 0.533 m3, and tail 0.136 m3. For the robust model, the following volumes were established: 0.01 m3 head, neck 0.026 m3, fore limbs 0.025 m3, hind limbs 0.18 m3, thoracic cavity 0.616 m3, and finally, tail 0.28 m3. Based on these body volumes, scaling equations were used to assess the size that the organs of this extinct dinosaur have.

  14. Incorporation of 3-D Scanning Lidar Data into Google Earth for Real-time Air Pollution Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, C.; Nee, J.; Das, S.; Sun, S.; Hsu, Y.; Chiang, H.; Chen, S.; Lin, P.; Chu, J.; Su, C.; Lee, W.; Su, L.; Chen, C.

    2011-12-01

    3-D Differential Absorption Scanning Lidar (DIASL) system has been designed with small size, light weight, and suitable for installation in various vehicles and places for monitoring of air pollutants and displays a detailed real-time temporal and spatial variability of trace gases via the Google Earth. The fast scanning techniques and visual information can rapidly identify the locations and sources of the polluted gases and assess the most affected areas. It is helpful for Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to protect the people's health and abate the air pollution as quickly as possible. The distributions of the atmospheric pollutants and their relationship with local metrological parameters measured with ground based instruments will also be discussed. Details will be presented in the upcoming symposium.

  15. Characterizing microscale aluminum composite layer properties on silicon solar cells with hybrid 3D scanning force measurements.

    PubMed

    Bae, Sung-Kuk; Choi, Beomjoon; Chung, Haseung; Shin, Seungwon; Song, Hee-Eun; Seo, Jung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a novel technique to estimate the mechanical properties of the aluminum composite layer on silicon solar cells by using a hybrid 3-dimensional laser scanning force measurement (3-D LSFM) system. The 3-D LSFM system measures the material properties of sub-layers constituting a solar cell. This measurement is critical for realizing high-efficient ultra-thin solar cells. The screen-printed aluminum layer, which significantly affects the bowing phenomenon, is separated from the complete solar cell by removing the silicon (Si) layer with deep reactive ion etching. An elastic modulus of ~15.1 GPa and a yield strength of ~35.0 MPa for the aluminum (Al) composite layer were obtained by the 3-D LSFM system. In experiments performed for 6-inch Si solar cells, the bowing distances decreased from 12.02 to 1.18 mm while the Si layer thicknesses increased from 90 to 190 μm. These results are in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions for ultra-thin Si thickness (90 μm) based on the obtained Al composite layer properties. PMID:26948248

  16. Characterizing microscale aluminum composite layer properties on silicon solar cells with hybrid 3D scanning force measurements

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Sung-Kuk; Choi, Beomjoon; Chung, Haseung; Shin, Seungwon; Song, Hee-eun; Seo, Jung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a novel technique to estimate the mechanical properties of the aluminum composite layer on silicon solar cells by using a hybrid 3-dimensional laser scanning force measurement (3-D LSFM) system. The 3-D LSFM system measures the material properties of sub-layers constituting a solar cell. This measurement is critical for realizing high-efficient ultra-thin solar cells. The screen-printed aluminum layer, which significantly affects the bowing phenomenon, is separated from the complete solar cell by removing the silicon (Si) layer with deep reactive ion etching. An elastic modulus of ~15.1 GPa and a yield strength of ~35.0 MPa for the aluminum (Al) composite layer were obtained by the 3-D LSFM system. In experiments performed for 6-inch Si solar cells, the bowing distances decreased from 12.02 to 1.18 mm while the Si layer thicknesses increased from 90 to 190 μm. These results are in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions for ultra-thin Si thickness (90 μm) based on the obtained Al composite layer properties. PMID:26948248

  17. Characterizing microscale aluminum composite layer properties on silicon solar cells with hybrid 3D scanning force measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Sung-Kuk; Choi, Beomjoon; Chung, Haseung; Shin, Seungwon; Song, Hee-Eun; Seo, Jung Hwan

    2016-03-01

    This article presents a novel technique to estimate the mechanical properties of the aluminum composite layer on silicon solar cells by using a hybrid 3-dimensional laser scanning force measurement (3-D LSFM) system. The 3-D LSFM system measures the material properties of sub-layers constituting a solar cell. This measurement is critical for realizing high-efficient ultra-thin solar cells. The screen-printed aluminum layer, which significantly affects the bowing phenomenon, is separated from the complete solar cell by removing the silicon (Si) layer with deep reactive ion etching. An elastic modulus of ~15.1 GPa and a yield strength of ~35.0 MPa for the aluminum (Al) composite layer were obtained by the 3-D LSFM system. In experiments performed for 6-inch Si solar cells, the bowing distances decreased from 12.02 to 1.18 mm while the Si layer thicknesses increased from 90 to 190 μm. These results are in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions for ultra-thin Si thickness (90 μm) based on the obtained Al composite layer properties.

  18. Voxel-based 2-D/3-D registration of fluoroscopy images and CT scans for image-guided surgery.

    PubMed

    Weese, J; Penney, G P; Desmedt, P; Buzug, T M; Hill, D L; Hawkes, D J

    1997-12-01

    Registration of intraoperative fluoroscopy images with preoperative three-dimensional (3-D) CT images can be used for several purposes in image-guided surgery. On the one hand, it can be used to display the position of surgical instruments, which are being tracked by a localizer, in the preoperative CT scan. On the other hand, the registration result can be used to project preoperative planning information or important anatomical structures visible in the CT image onto the fluoroscopy image. For this registration task, a novel voxel-based method in combination with a new similarity measure (pattern intensity) has been developed. The basic concept of the method is explained at the example of two-dimensional (2-D)/3-D registration of a vertebra in an X-ray fluoroscopy image with a 3-D CT image. The registration method is described, and the results for a spine phantom are presented and discussed. Registration has been carried out repeatedly with different starting estimates to study the capture range. Information about registration accuracy has been obtained by comparing the registration results with a highly accurate "ground-truth" registration, which has been derived from fiducial markers attached to the phantom prior to imaging. In addition, registration results for different vertebrae have been compared. The results show that the rotation parameters and the shifts parallel to the projection plane can accurately be determined from a single projection. Because of the projection geometry, the accuracy of the height above the projection plane is significantly lower. PMID:11020832

  19. Measuring surface topography with scanning electron microscopy. I. EZEImage: a program to obtain 3D surface data.

    PubMed

    Ponz, Ezequiel; Ladaga, Juan Luis; Bonetto, Rita Dominga

    2006-04-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is widely used in the science of materials and different parameters were developed to characterize the surface roughness. In a previous work, we studied the surface topography with fractal dimension at low scale and two parameters at high scale by using the variogram, that is, variance vs. step log-log graph, of a SEM image. Those studies were carried out with the FERImage program, previously developed by us. To verify the previously accepted hypothesis by working with only an image, it is indispensable to have reliable three-dimensional (3D) surface data. In this work, a new program (EZEImage) to characterize 3D surface topography in SEM has been developed. It uses fast cross correlation and dynamic programming to obtain reliable dense height maps in a few seconds which can be displayed as an image where each gray level represents a height value. This image can be used for the FERImage program or any other software to obtain surface topography characteristics. EZEImage also generates anaglyph images as well as characterizes 3D surface topography by means of a parameter set to describe amplitude properties and three functional indices for characterizing bearing and fluid properties. PMID:17481354

  20. 3D chemical mapping: application of scanning transmission (soft) X-ray microscopy (STXM) in combination with angle-scan tomography in bio-, geo-, and environmental sciences.

    PubMed

    Obst, Martin; Schmid, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    The identification of environmental processes and mechanisms often requires information on the organochemical and inorganic composition of specimens at high spatial resolution. X-ray spectroscopy (XAS) performed in the soft X-ray range (100-2,200 eV) provides chemical speciation information for elements that are of high biogeochemical relevance such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen but also includes transition metals such as iron, manganese, or nickel. Synchrotron-based scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) combines XAS with high resolution mapping on the 20-nm scale. This provides two-dimensional (2D) quantitative information about the distribution of chemical species such as organic macromolecules, metals, or mineral phases within environmental samples. Furthermore, the combination of STXM with angle-scan tomography allows for three-dimensional (3D) spectromicroscopic analysis of bio-, geo-, or environmental samples. For the acquisition of STXM tomography data, the sample is rotated around an axis perpendicular to the X-ray beam. Various sample preparation approaches such as stripes cut from TEM grids or the preparation of wet cells allow for preparing environmentally relevant specimens in a dry or in a fully hydrated state for 2D and 3D STXM measurements. In this chapter we give a short overview about the principles of STXM, its application to environmental sciences, different preparation techniques, and the analysis and 3D reconstruction of STXM tomography data. PMID:24357389

  1. Compact 3D lidar based on optically coupled horizontal and vertical scanning mechanism for the autonomous navigation of robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Min-Gu; Baeg, Seung-Ho; Lee, Ki-Min; Lee, Hae-Seok; Baeg, Moon-Hong; Park, Jong-Ok; Kim, Hong-Ki

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a new 3D LIDAR sensor, named KIDAR-B25, for measuring 3D image information with high range accuracy, high speed and compact size. To measure a distance to the target object, we developed a range measurement unit, which is implemented by the direct Time-Of-Flight (TOF) method using TDC chip, a pulsed laser transmitter as an illumination source (pulse width: 10 ns, wavelength: 905 nm, repetition rate: 30kHz, peak power: 20W), and an Si APD receiver, which has high sensitivity and wide bandwidth. Also, we devised a horizontal and vertical scanning mechanism, climbing in a spiral and coupled with the laser optical path. Besides, control electronics such as the motor controller, the signal processing unit, the power distributor and so on, are developed and integrated in a compact assembly. The key point of the 3D LIDAR design proposed in this paper is to use the compact scanning mechanism, which is coupled with optical module horizontally and vertically. This KIDAR-B25 has the same beam propagation axis for emitting pulse laser and receiving reflected one with no optical interference each other. The scanning performance of the KIDAR-B25 has proven with the stable operation up to 20Hz (vertical), 40Hz (horizontal) and the time is about 1.7s to reach the maximum speed. The range of vertical plane can be available up to +/-10 degree FOV (Field Of View) with a 0.25 degree angular resolution. The whole horizontal plane (360 degree) can be also available with 0.125 degree angular resolution. Since the KIDAR-B25 sensor has been planned and developed to be used in mobile robots for navigation, we conducted an outdoor test for evaluating its performance. The experimental results show that the captured 3D imaging data can be usefully applicable to the navigation of the robot for detecting and avoiding the moving objects with real time.

  2. An open medical imaging workstation architecture for platform-independent 3-D medical image processing and visualization.

    PubMed

    Cosić, D

    1997-12-01

    A need for an entirely new medical workstation design was identified to increase the deployment of 3-D medical imaging and multimedia communication. Recent wide acceptance of the Word Wide Web (WWW) as a general communication service within the global network has shown how big the impact of standards and open systems can be. Information is shared among heterogeneous systems and diverse applications on various hardware platforms only by agreeing on a common format for information distribution. For medical image communications, the Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) standard is possibly anticipating such a role. Logically, the next step is open software: platform-independent tools, which can as easily be transferred and used on multiple platforms. Application of the platform-independent programming language Java enables creation of plug-in tools, which can easily extend the basic system. Performance problems inherent to all interpreter systems can be circumvented by using a hybrid approach. Computationally intensive functions like image processing functions can be integrated into a natively implemented optimized image processing kernel. Plug-in tools implemented in Java can utilize the kernel functions via a Java-wrapper library. This approach is comparable to the implementation of computationally intensive operations in hardware. PMID:11020831

  3. 3D imaging of biofilms on implants by detection of scattered light with a scanning laser optical tomograph

    PubMed Central

    Heidrich, Marko; Kühnel, Mark P.; Kellner, Manuela; Lorbeer, Raoul-Amadeus; Lange, Tineke; Winkel, Andreas; Stiesch, Meike; Meyer, Heiko; Heisterkamp, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Biofilms – communities of microorganisms attached to surfaces – are a constant threat for long-term success in modern implantology. The application of laser scanning microscopy (LSM) has increased the knowledge about microscopic properties of biofilms, whereas a 3D imaging technique for the large scale visualization of bacterial growth and migration on curved and non-transparent surfaces is not realized so far. Towards this goal, we built a scanning laser optical tomography (SLOT) setup detecting scattered laser light to image biofilm on dental implant surfaces. SLOT enables the visualization of living biofilms in 3D by detecting the wavelength-dependent absorption of non-fluorescent stains like e.g. reduced triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) accumulated within metabolically active bacterial cells. Thus, the presented system allows the large scale investigation of vital biofilm structure and in vitro development on cylindrical and non-transparent objects without the need for fluorescent vital staining. We suggest SLOT to be a valuable tool for the structural and volumetric investigation of biofilm formation on implants with sizes up to several millimeters. PMID:22076261

  4. The Use Of Computerized Tomographic (CT) Scans For 3-D Display And Prosthesis Construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankovich, Nicholas J.; Woodruff, Tracey J.; Beumer, John

    1985-06-01

    The construction of preformed cranial prostheses for large cranial bony defects is both error prone and time consuming. We discuss a method used for the creation of cranial prostheses from automatically extracted bone contours taken from Computerized Tomographic (CT) scans. Previous methods of prosthesis construction have relied on the making of a mold directly from the region of cranial defect. The use of image processing, bone contour extraction, and three-dimensional display allowed us to create a better fitting prosthesis while reducing patient surgery time. This procedure involves direct bone margin extraction from the digital CT images followed by head model construction from serial plots of the bone margin. Three-dimensional data display is used to verify the integrity of the skull data set prior to model construction. Once created, the model is used to fabricate a custom fitting prosthesis which is then surgically implanted. This procedure is being used with patients in the Maxillofacial Prosthetic Clinic at UCLA and this paper details the technique.

  5. Automatic thermographic scanning with the creation of 3D panoramic views of buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrarini, G.; Cadelano, G.; Bortolin, A.

    2016-05-01

    Infrared thermography is widely applied to the inspection of building, enabling the identification of thermal anomalies due to the presence of hidden structures, air leakages, and moisture. One of the main advantages of this technique is the possibility to acquire rapidly a temperature map of a surface. However, due to the actual low-resolution of thermal camera and the necessity of scanning surfaces with different orientation, during a building survey it is necessary to take multiple images. In this work a device based on quantitative infrared thermography, called aIRview, has been applied during building surveys to automatically acquire thermograms with a camera mounted on a robotized pan tilt unit. The goal is to perform a first rapid survey of the building that could give useful information for the successive quantitative thermal investigations. For each data acquisition, the instrument covers a rotational field of view of 360° around the vertical axis and up to 180° around the horizontal one. The obtained images have been processed in order to create a full equirectangular projection of the ambient. For this reason the images have been integrated into a web visualization tool, working with web panorama viewers such as Google Street View, creating a webpage where it is possible to have a three dimensional virtual visit of the building. The thermographic data are embedded with the visual imaging and with other sensor data, facilitating the understanding of the physical phenomena underlying the temperature distribution.

  6. Final Report – Study of Shortwave Spectra in Fully 3D Environment. Synergy Between Scanning Radars and Spectral Radiation Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, Jui-Yuan

    2015-09-14

    ARM set out 20 years ago to “close” the radiation problem, that is, to improve radiation models to the point where they could routinely predict the observed spectral radiation fluxes knowing the optical properties of the surface and of gases, clouds and aerosols in the atmosphere. Only then could such radiation models form a proper springboard for global climate model (GCM) parameterizations of spectral radiation. Sustained efforts have more or less achieved that goal with regard to longwave radiation; ASR models now routinely predict ARM spectral longwave radiances to 1–2%. Similar efforts in the shortwave have achieved far less; the successes are mainly for carefully selected 1D stratiform cloud cases. Such cases amount, even with the most optimistic interpretation, to no more than 30% of all cases at SGP. The problem has not been lack of effort but lack of appropriate instruments.The new ARM stimulus-funded instruments, with their new capabilities, will dramatically improve this situation and once again make progress possible on the shortwave problem. The new shortwave spectrometers will provide a reliable, calibrated record including the near infrared – and for other climatic regimes than SGP. The new scanning radars will provide the 3D cloud view, making it possible to tackle fully 3D situations. Thus, our main theme for the project is the understanding and closure of the surface spectral shortwave radiation problem in fully 3D cloud situations by combining the new ARM scanning radars and shortwave spectrometers with the arsenal of radiative transfer tools.

  7. GBM Volumetry using the 3D Slicer Medical Image Computing Platform

    PubMed Central

    Egger, Jan; Kapur, Tina; Fedorov, Andriy; Pieper, Steve; Miller, James V.; Veeraraghavan, Harini; Freisleben, Bernd; Golby, Alexandra J.; Nimsky, Christopher; Kikinis, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Volumetric change in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) over time is a critical factor in treatment decisions. Typically, the tumor volume is computed on a slice-by-slice basis using MRI scans obtained at regular intervals. (3D)Slicer – a free platform for biomedical research – provides an alternative to this manual slice-by-slice segmentation process, which is significantly faster and requires less user interaction. In this study, 4 physicians segmented GBMs in 10 patients, once using the competitive region-growing based GrowCut segmentation module of Slicer, and once purely by drawing boundaries completely manually on a slice-by-slice basis. Furthermore, we provide a variability analysis for three physicians for 12 GBMs. The time required for GrowCut segmentation was on an average 61% of the time required for a pure manual segmentation. A comparison of Slicer-based segmentation with manual slice-by-slice segmentation resulted in a Dice Similarity Coefficient of 88.43 ± 5.23% and a Hausdorff Distance of 2.32 ± 5.23 mm. PMID:23455483

  8. Method for visualization and presentation of priceless old prints based on precise 3D scan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunsch, Eryk; Sitnik, Robert

    2014-02-01

    Graphic prints and manuscripts constitute main part of the cultural heritage objects created by the most of the known civilizations. Their presentation was always a problem due to their high sensitivity to light and changes of external conditions (temperature, humidity). Today it is possible to use an advanced digitalization techniques for documentation and visualization of mentioned objects. In the situation when presentation of the original heritage object is impossible, there is a need to develop a method allowing documentation and then presentation to the audience of all the aesthetical features of the object. During the course of the project scans of several pages of one of the most valuable books in collection of Museum of Warsaw Archdiocese were performed. The book known as "Great Dürer Trilogy" consists of three series of woodcuts by the Albrecht Dürer. The measurement system used consists of a custom designed, structured light-based, high-resolution measurement head with automated digitization system mounted on the industrial robot. This device was custom built to meet conservators' requirements, especially the lack of ultraviolet or infrared radiation emission in the direction of measured object. Documentation of one page from the book requires about 380 directional measurements which constitute about 3 billion sample points. The distance between the points in the cloud is 20 μm. Provided that the measurement with MSD (measurement sampling density) of 2500 points makes it possible to show to the publicity the spatial structure of this graphics print. An important aspect is the complexity of the software environment created for data processing, in which massive data sets can be automatically processed and visualized. Very important advantage of the software which is using directly clouds of points is the possibility to manipulate freely virtual light source.

  9. Terrestrial and Aerial Laser Scanning Data Integration Using Wavelet Analysis for the Purpose of 3D Building Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Kedzierski, Michal; Fryskowska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Visualization techniques have been greatly developed in the past few years. Three-dimensional models based on satellite and aerial imagery are now being enhanced by models generated using Aerial Laser Scanning (ALS) data. The most modern of such scanning systems have the ability to acquire over 50 points per square meter and to register a multiple echo, which allows the reconstruction of the terrain together with the terrain cover. However, ALS data accuracy is less than 10 cm and the data is often incomplete: there is no information about ground level (in most scanning systems), and often around the facade or structures which have been covered by other structures. However, Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) not only acquires higher accuracy data (1–5 cm) but is also capable of registering those elements which are incomplete or not visible using ALS methods (facades, complicated structures, interiors, etc.). Therefore, to generate a complete 3D model of a building in high Level of Details, integration of TLS and ALS data is necessary. This paper presents the wavelet-based method of processing and integrating data from ALS and TLS. Methods of choosing tie points to combine point clouds in different datum will be analyzed. PMID:25004157

  10. Guided-wave-based damage detection in a composite T-joint using 3D scanning laser Doppler vibrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolappan Geetha, Ganesh; Roy Mahapatra, D.; Srinivasan, Gopalakrishnan

    2012-04-01

    Composite T-joints are commonly used in modern composite airframe, pressure vessels and piping structures, mainly to increase the bending strength of the joint and prevents buckling of plates and shells, and in multi-cell thin-walled structures. Here we report a detailed study on the propagation of guided ultrasonic wave modes in a composite T-joint and their interactions with delamination in the co-cured co-bonded flange. A well designed guiding path is employed wherein the waves undergo a two step mode conversion process, one is due to the web and joint filler on the back face of the flange and the other is due to the delamination edges close to underneath the accessible surface of the flange. A 3D Laser Doppler Vibrometer is used to obtain the three components of surface displacements/velocities of the accessible face of the flange of the T-joint. The waves are launched by a piezo ceramic wafer bonded on to the back surface of the flange. What is novel in the proposed method is that the location of any change in material/geometric properties can be traced by computing a frequency domain power flow along a scan line. The scan line can be chosen over a grid either during scan or during post-processing of the scan data off-line. The proposed technique eliminates the necessity of baseline data and disassembly of structure for structural interrogation.