RELAP5-3D Code Includes Athena Features and Models
Richard A. Riemke; Cliff B. Davis; Richard R. Schultz
2006-07-01
Version 2.3 of the RELAP5-3D computer program includes all features and models previously available only in the ATHENA version of the code. These include the addition of new working fluids (i.e., ammonia, blood, carbon dioxide, glycerol, helium, hydrogen, lead-bismuth, lithium, lithium-lead, nitrogen, potassium, sodium, and sodium-potassium) and a magnetohydrodynamic model that expands the capability of the code to model many more thermal-hydraulic systems. In addition to the new working fluids along with the standard working fluid water, one or more noncondensable gases (e.g., air, argon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, helium, hydrogen, krypton, nitrogen, oxygen, sf6, xenon) can be specified as part of the vapor/gas phase of the working fluid. These noncondensable gases were in previous versions of RELAP5- 3D. Recently four molten salts have been added as working fluids to RELAP5-3D Version 2.4, which has had limited release. These molten salts will be in RELAP5-3D Version 2.5, which will have a general release like RELAP5-3D Version 2.3. Applications that use these new features and models are discussed in this paper.
RELAP5-3D Code Includes ATHENA Features and Models
Riemke, Richard A.; Davis, Cliff B.; Schultz, Richard R.
2006-07-01
Version 2.3 of the RELAP5-3D computer program includes all features and models previously available only in the ATHENA version of the code. These include the addition of new working fluids (i.e., ammonia, blood, carbon dioxide, glycerol, helium, hydrogen, lead-bismuth, lithium, lithium-lead, nitrogen, potassium, sodium, and sodium-potassium) and a magnetohydrodynamic model that expands the capability of the code to model many more thermal-hydraulic systems. In addition to the new working fluids along with the standard working fluid water, one or more noncondensable gases (e.g., air, argon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, helium, hydrogen, krypton, nitrogen, oxygen, SF{sub 6}, xenon) can be specified as part of the vapor/gas phase of the working fluid. These noncondensable gases were in previous versions of RELAP5-3D. Recently four molten salts have been added as working fluids to RELAP5-3D Version 2.4, which has had limited release. These molten salts will be in RELAP5-3D Version 2.5, which will have a general release like RELAP5-3D Version 2.3. Applications that use these new features and models are discussed in this paper. (authors)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Manos, Harry
2016-01-01
Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…
Radiosity diffusion model in 3D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riley, Jason D.; Arridge, Simon R.; Chrysanthou, Yiorgos; Dehghani, Hamid; Hillman, Elizabeth M. C.; Schweiger, Martin
2001-11-01
We present the Radiosity-Diffusion model in three dimensions(3D), as an extension to previous work in 2D. It is a method for handling non-scattering spaces in optically participating media. We present the extension of the model to 3D including an extension to the model to cope with increased complexity of the 3D domain. We show that in 3D more careful consideration must be given to the issues of meshing and visibility to model the transport of light within reasonable computational bounds. We demonstrate the model to be comparable to Monte-Carlo simulations for selected geometries, and show preliminary results of comparisons to measured time-resolved data acquired on resin phantoms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manos, Harry
2016-03-01
Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the TPT theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity well tailored to specific class lessons. Most of the supplies are readily available in the home or at school: rubbing alcohol, a rag, two colors of spray paint, art brushes, and masking tape. The cost of these supplies, if you don't have them, is less than 20.
3D model reconstruction of underground goaf
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fang, Yuanmin; Zuo, Xiaoqing; Jin, Baoxuan
2005-10-01
Constructing 3D model of underground goaf, we can control the process of mining better and arrange mining work reasonably. However, the shape of goaf and the laneway among goafs are very irregular, which produce great difficulties in data-acquiring and 3D model reconstruction. In this paper, we research on the method of data-acquiring and 3D model construction of underground goaf, building topological relation among goafs. The main contents are as follows: a) The paper proposed an efficient encoding rule employed to structure the field measurement data. b) A 3D model construction method of goaf is put forward, which by means of combining several TIN (triangulated irregular network) pieces, and an efficient automatic processing algorithm of boundary of TIN is proposed. c) Topological relation of goaf models is established. TIN object is the basic modeling element of goaf 3D model, and the topological relation among goaf is created and maintained by building the topological relation among TIN objects. Based on this, various 3D spatial analysis functions can be performed including transect and volume calculation of goaf. A prototype is developed, which can realized the model and algorithm proposed in this paper.
MT3D was first developed by Chunmiao Zheng in 1990 at S.S. Papadopulos & Associates, Inc. with partial support from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Starting in 1990, MT3D was released as a pubic domain code from the USEPA. Commercial versions with enhanced capab...
Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.
2016-06-01
Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bradley, Joan; Farland-Smith, Donna
2010-01-01
Allowing a student to "see" through touch what other students see through a microscope can be a challenging task. Therefore, author Joan Bradley created three-dimensional (3-D) models with one student's visual impairment in mind. They are meant to benefit all students and can be used to teach common high school biology topics, including the…
Debris Dispersion Model Using Java 3D
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar; Bardina, Jorge
2004-01-01
This paper describes web based simulation of Shuttle launch operations and debris dispersion. Java 3D graphics provides geometric and visual content with suitable mathematical model and behaviors of Shuttle launch. Because the model is so heterogeneous and interrelated with various factors, 3D graphics combined with physical models provides mechanisms to understand the complexity of launch and range operations. The main focus in the modeling and simulation covers orbital dynamics and range safety. Range safety areas include destruct limit lines, telemetry and tracking and population risk near range. If there is an explosion of Shuttle during launch, debris dispersion is explained. The shuttle launch and range operations in this paper are discussed based on the operations from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, USA.
The Esri 3D city information model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reitz, T.; Schubiger-Banz, S.
2014-02-01
With residential and commercial space becoming increasingly scarce, cities are going vertical. Managing the urban environments in 3D is an increasingly important and complex undertaking. To help solving this problem, Esri has released the ArcGIS for 3D Cities solution. The ArcGIS for 3D Cities solution provides the information model, tools and apps for creating, analyzing and maintaining a 3D city using the ArcGIS platform. This paper presents an overview of the 3D City Information Model and some sample use cases.
Illustrative visualization of 3D city models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doellner, Juergen; Buchholz, Henrik; Nienhaus, Marc; Kirsch, Florian
2005-03-01
This paper presents an illustrative visualization technique that provides expressive representations of large-scale 3D city models, inspired by the tradition of artistic and cartographic visualizations typically found in bird"s-eye view and panoramic maps. We define a collection of city model components and a real-time multi-pass rendering algorithm that achieves comprehensible, abstract 3D city model depictions based on edge enhancement, color-based and shadow-based depth cues, and procedural facade texturing. Illustrative visualization provides an effective visual interface to urban spatial information and associated thematic information complementing visual interfaces based on the Virtual Reality paradigm, offering a huge potential for graphics design. Primary application areas include city and landscape planning, cartoon worlds in computer games, and tourist information systems.
Multi-view and 3D deformable part models.
Pepik, Bojan; Stark, Michael; Gehler, Peter; Schiele, Bernt
2015-11-01
As objects are inherently 3D, they have been modeled in 3D in the early days of computer vision. Due to the ambiguities arising from mapping 2D features to 3D models, 3D object representations have been neglected and 2D feature-based models are the predominant paradigm in object detection nowadays. While such models have achieved outstanding bounding box detection performance, they come with limited expressiveness, as they are clearly limited in their capability of reasoning about 3D shape or viewpoints. In this work, we bring the worlds of 3D and 2D object representations closer, by building an object detector which leverages the expressive power of 3D object representations while at the same time can be robustly matched to image evidence. To that end, we gradually extend the successful deformable part model [1] to include viewpoint information and part-level 3D geometry information, resulting in several different models with different level of expressiveness. We end up with a 3D object model, consisting of multiple object parts represented in 3D and a continuous appearance model. We experimentally verify that our models, while providing richer object hypotheses than the 2D object models, provide consistently better joint object localization and viewpoint estimation than the state-of-the-art multi-view and 3D object detectors on various benchmarks (KITTI [2] , 3D object classes [3] , Pascal3D+ [4] , Pascal VOC 2007 [5] , EPFL multi-view cars[6] ). PMID:26440264
Sensing and compressing 3-D models
Krumm, J.
1998-02-01
The goal of this research project was to create a passive and robust computer vision system for producing 3-D computer models of arbitrary scenes. Although the authors were unsuccessful in achieving the overall goal, several components of this research have shown significant potential. Of particular interest is the application of parametric eigenspace methods for planar pose measurement of partially occluded objects in gray-level images. The techniques presented provide a simple, accurate, and robust solution to the planar pose measurement problem. In addition, the representational efficiency of eigenspace methods used with gray-level features were successfully extended to binary features, which are less sensitive to illumination changes. The results of this research are presented in two papers that were written during the course of this project. The papers are included in sections 2 and 3. The first section of this report summarizes the 3-D modeling efforts.
Integrated Biogeomorphological Modeling Using Delft3D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Q.; Jagers, B.
2011-12-01
The skill of numerical morphological models has improved significantly from the early 2D uniform, total load sediment models (with steady state or infrequent wave updates) to recent 3D hydrodynamic models with multiple suspended and bed load sediment fractions and bed stratigraphy (online coupled with waves). Although there remain many open questions within this combined field of hydro- and morphodynamics, we observe an increasing need to include biological processes in the overall dynamics. In riverine and inter-tidal environments, there is often an important influence by riparian vegetation and macrobenthos. Over the past decade more and more researchers have started to extend the simulation environment with wrapper scripts and other quick code hacks to estimate their influence on morphological development in coastal, estuarine and riverine environments. Although one can in this way quickly analyze different approaches, these research tools have generally not been designed with reuse, performance and portability in mind. We have now implemented a reusable, flexible, and efficient two-way link between the Delft3D open source framework for hydrodynamics, waves and morphology, and the water quality and ecology modules. The same link will be used for 1D, 2D and 3D modeling on networks and both structured and unstructured grids. We will describe the concepts of the overall system, and illustrate it with some first results.
3D modeling of optically challenging objects.
Park, Johnny; Kak, Avinash
2008-01-01
We present a system for constructing 3D models of real-world objects with optically challenging surfaces. The system utilizes a new range imaging concept called multi-peak range imaging, which stores multiple candidates of range measurements for each point on the object surface. The multiple measurements include the erroneous range data caused by various surface properties that are not ideal for structured-light range sensing. False measurements generated by spurious reflections are eliminated by applying a series of constraint tests. The constraint tests based on local surface and local sensor visibility are applied first to individual range images. The constraint tests based on global consistency of coordinates and visibility are then applied to all range images acquired from different viewpoints. We show the effectiveness of our method by constructing 3D models of five different optically challenging objects. To evaluate the performance of the constraint tests and to examine the effects of the parameters used in the constraint tests, we acquired the ground truth data by painting those objects to suppress the surface-related properties that cause difficulties in range sensing. Experimental results indicate that our method significantly improves upon the traditional methods for constructing reliable 3D models of optically challenging objects. PMID:18192707
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berchtold, Waldemar; Schäfer, Marcel; Rettig, Michael; Steinebach, Martin
2014-02-01
3D models and applications are of utmost interest in both science and industry. With the increment of their usage, their number and thereby the challenge to correctly identify them increases. Content identification is commonly done by cryptographic hashes. However, they fail as a solution in application scenarios such as computer aided design (CAD), scientific visualization or video games, because even the smallest alteration of the 3D model, e.g. conversion or compression operations, massively changes the cryptographic hash as well. Therefore, this work presents a robust hashing algorithm for 3D mesh data. The algorithm applies several different bit extraction methods. They are built to resist desired alterations of the model as well as malicious attacks intending to prevent correct allocation. The different bit extraction methods are tested against each other and, as far as possible, the hashing algorithm is compared to the state of the art. The parameters tested are robustness, security and runtime performance as well as False Acceptance Rate (FAR) and False Rejection Rate (FRR), also the probability calculation of hash collision is included. The introduced hashing algorithm is kept adaptive e.g. in hash length, to serve as a proper tool for all applications in practice.
BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model
Lazerson, Samuel
2014-04-14
With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pang, Shengyong; Chen, Xin; Zhou, Jianxin; Shao, Xinyu; Wang, Chunming
2015-11-01
The physical process of deep penetration laser welding involves complex, self-consistent multiphase keyhole, metallic vapor plume, and weld pool dynamics. Currently, efforts are still needed to understand these multiphase dynamics. In this paper, a novel 3D transient multiphase model capable of describing a self-consistent keyhole, metallic vapor plume in the keyhole, and weld pool dynamics in deep penetration fiber laser welding is proposed. Major physical factors of the welding process, such as recoil pressure, surface tension, Marangoni shear stress, Fresnel absorptions mechanisms, heat transfer, and fluid flow in weld pool, keyhole free surface evolutions and solid-liquid-vapor three phase transformations are coupling considered. The effect of ambient pressure in laser welding is rigorously treated using an improved recoil pressure model. The predicated weld bead dimensions, transient keyhole instability, weld pool dynamics, and vapor plume dynamics are compared with experimental and literature results, and good agreements are obtained. The predicted results are investigated by not considering the effects of the ambient pressure. It is found that by not considering the effects of ambient pressure, the average keyhole wall temperature is underestimated about 500 K; besides, the average speed of metallic vapor will be significantly overestimated. The ambient pressure is an essential physical factor for a comprehensive understanding the dynamics of deep penetration laser welding.
Modeling Cellular Processes in 3-D
Mogilner, Alex; Odde, David
2011-01-01
Summary Recent advances in photonic imaging and fluorescent protein technology offer unprecedented views of molecular space-time dynamics in living cells. At the same time, advances in computing hardware and software enable modeling of ever more complex systems, from global climate to cell division. As modeling and experiment become more closely integrated, we must address the issue of modeling cellular processes in 3-D. Here, we highlight recent advances related to 3-D modeling in cell biology. While some processes require full 3-D analysis, we suggest that others are more naturally described in 2-D or 1-D. Keeping the dimensionality as low as possible reduces computational time and makes models more intuitively comprehensible; however, the ability to test full 3-D models will build greater confidence in models generally and remains an important emerging area of cell biological modeling. PMID:22036197
3D scene modeling from multiple range views
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sequeira, Vitor; Goncalves, Joao G. M.; Ribeiro, M. Isabel
1995-09-01
This paper presents a new 3D scene analysis system that automatically reconstructs the 3D geometric model of real-world scenes from multiple range images acquired by a laser range finder on board of a mobile robot. The reconstruction is achieved through an integrated procedure including range data acquisition, geometrical feature extraction, registration, and integration of multiple views. Different descriptions of the final 3D scene model are obtained: a polygonal triangular mesh, a surface description in terms of planar and biquadratics surfaces, and a 3D boundary representation. Relevant experimental results from the complete 3D scene modeling are presented. Direct applications of this technique include 3D reconstruction and/or update of architectual or industrial plans into a CAD model, design verification of buildings, navigation of autonomous robots, and input to virtual reality systems.
3D Stratigraphic Modeling of Central Aachen
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, M.; Neukum, C.; Azzam, R.; Hu, H.
2010-05-01
Since 1980s, advanced computer hardware and software technologies, as well as multidisciplinary research have provided possibilities to develop advanced three dimensional (3D) simulation software for geosciences application. Some countries, such as USA1) and Canada2) 3), have built up regional 3D geological models based on archival geological data. Such models have played huge roles in engineering geology2), hydrogeology2) 3), geothermal industry1) and so on. In cooperating with the Municipality of Aachen, the Department of Engineering Geology of RWTH Aachen University have built up a computer-based 3D stratigraphic model of 50 meter' depth for the center of Aachen, which is a 5 km by 7 km geologically complex area. The uncorrelated data from multi-resources, discontinuous nature and unconformable connection of the units are main challenges for geological modeling in this area. The reliability of 3D geological models largely depends on the quality and quantity of data. Existing 1D and 2D geological data were collected, including 1) approximately 6970 borehole data of different depth compiled in Microsoft Access database and MapInfo database; 2) a Digital Elevation Model (DEM); 3) geological cross sections; and 4) stratigraphic maps in 1m, 2m and 5m depth. Since acquired data are of variable origins, they were managed step by step. The main processes are described below: 1) Typing errors of borehole data were identified and the corrected data were exported to Variowin2.2 to distinguish duplicate points; 2) The surface elevation of borehole data was compared to the DEM, and differences larger than 3m were eliminated. Moreover, where elevation data missed, it was read from the DEM; 3) Considerable data were collected from municipal constructions, such as residential buildings, factories, and roads. Therefore, many boreholes are spatially clustered, and only one or two representative points were picked out in such areas; After above procedures, 5839 boreholes with -x
Lagerlöf, Jakob H.; Kindblom, Jon; Bernhardt, Peter
2014-04-15
Purpose: Oxygen distribution models have been used to analyze the influences of oxygen tensions on tissue response after radiotherapy. These distributions are often generated assuming constant oxygen tension in the blood vessels. However, as red blood cells progress through the vessels, oxygen is continuously released into the plasma and the surrounding tissue, resulting in longitudinally varying oxygen levels in the blood vessels. In the present study, the authors investigated whether a tumor oxygenation model that incorporated longitudinally varying oxygen levels would provide different predictions of necrotic fractions and radiosensitivity compared to commonly used models with a constant oxygen pressure. Methods: Our models simulated oxygen diffusion based on a Green's function approach and oxygen consumption according to the Michaelis-Menten equation. The authors constructed tumor models with different vascular fractions (VFs), from which they generated depth oxygenation curves and a look-up table of oxygen pressure gradients. The authors evaluated models of spherical tumors of various sizes, from 1 to 10{sup 4} mg. The authors compared the results from a model with constant vessel oxygen (CVO) pressure to those from models with longitudinal variations in oxygen saturation and either a constant VF (CVF) or variable VF (VVF) within the tumor tissue. The authors monitored the necrotic fractions, defined as tumor regions with an oxygen pressure below 1 mmHg. Tumor radiation sensitivity was expressed as D{sub 99,} the homogeneous radiation dose required for a tumor control probability of 0.99. Results: In the CVO saturation model, no necrosis was observed, and decreasing the VF could only decrease the D{sub 99} by up to 10%. Furthermore, the D{sub 99} vs VF dependence was similar for different tumor masses. Compared to the CVO model, the extended CVF and VVF models provided clearly different results, including pronounced effects of VF and tumor size on the necrotic
Reservoir geology using 3D modelling tools
Dubrule, O.; Samson, P.; Segonds, D.
1996-12-31
The last decade has seen tremendous developments in the area of quantitative geological modelling. These developments have a significant impact on the current practice of constructing reservoir models. A structural model can first be constructed on the basis of depth-converted structural interpretations produced on a seismic interpretation workstation. Surfaces and faults can be represented as geological objects, and interactively modified. Once the tectonic framework has been obtained, intermediate stratigraphic surfaces can be constructed between the main structural surfaces. Within each layer, reservoir attributes can be represented using various techniques. Examples show how the distribution of different facies (i.e. from fine to coarse grain) can be represented, or how various depositional units (for instance channels, crevasses and lobes in a turbidite setting) can be modelled as geological {open_quotes}objects{close_quotes} with complex geometries. Elf Aquitaine, in close co-operation with the GOCAD project in Nancy (France) is investigating how geological models can be made more realistic by developing interactive functionalities. Examples show that, contrary to standard deterministic or geostatistical modelling techniques (which tend to be difficult to control) the use of new 3D tools allows the geologist to interactively modify geological surfaces (including faults) or volumetric properties. Thus, the sensitivity of various economic parameters (oil in place, connected volumes, reserves) to major geological uncertainties can be evaluated. It is argued that future breakthroughs in geological modelling techniques are likely to happen in the development of interactive approaches rather than in the research of new mathematical algorithms.
Reservoir geology using 3D modelling tools
Dubrule, O. ); Samson, P. ); Segonds, D. )
1996-01-01
The last decade has seen tremendous developments in the area of quantitative geological modelling. These developments have a significant impact on the current practice of constructing reservoir models. A structural model can first be constructed on the basis of depth-converted structural interpretations produced on a seismic interpretation workstation. Surfaces and faults can be represented as geological objects, and interactively modified. Once the tectonic framework has been obtained, intermediate stratigraphic surfaces can be constructed between the main structural surfaces. Within each layer, reservoir attributes can be represented using various techniques. Examples show how the distribution of different facies (i.e. from fine to coarse grain) can be represented, or how various depositional units (for instance channels, crevasses and lobes in a turbidite setting) can be modelled as geological [open quotes]objects[close quotes] with complex geometries. Elf Aquitaine, in close co-operation with the GOCAD project in Nancy (France) is investigating how geological models can be made more realistic by developing interactive functionalities. Examples show that, contrary to standard deterministic or geostatistical modelling techniques (which tend to be difficult to control) the use of new 3D tools allows the geologist to interactively modify geological surfaces (including faults) or volumetric properties. Thus, the sensitivity of various economic parameters (oil in place, connected volumes, reserves) to major geological uncertainties can be evaluated. It is argued that future breakthroughs in geological modelling techniques are likely to happen in the development of interactive approaches rather than in the research of new mathematical algorithms.
3D Modeling Engine Representation Summary Report
Steven Prescott; Ramprasad Sampath; Curtis Smith; Timothy Yang
2014-09-01
Computers have been used for 3D modeling and simulation, but only recently have computational resources been able to give realistic results in a reasonable time frame for large complex models. This summary report addressed the methods, techniques, and resources used to develop a 3D modeling engine to represent risk analysis simulation for advanced small modular reactor structures and components. The simulations done for this evaluation were focused on external events, specifically tsunami floods, for a hypothetical nuclear power facility on a coastline.
BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McMillan, Matthew; Lazerson, Samuel A.
2014-09-01
With the advent of applied 3D fields in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous slowing down, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database. Elementary benchmark calculations are presented to verify the collisionless particle orbits, NBI model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields. Notice: this manuscript has been authored by Princeton University under Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466 with the US Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.
An Automatic Registration Algorithm for 3D Maxillofacial Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiu, Luwen; Zhou, Zhongwei; Guo, Jixiang; Lv, Jiancheng
2016-09-01
3D image registration aims at aligning two 3D data sets in a common coordinate system, which has been widely used in computer vision, pattern recognition and computer assisted surgery. One challenging problem in 3D registration is that point-wise correspondences between two point sets are often unknown apriori. In this work, we develop an automatic algorithm for 3D maxillofacial models registration including facial surface model and skull model. Our proposed registration algorithm can achieve a good alignment result between partial and whole maxillofacial model in spite of ambiguous matching, which has a potential application in the oral and maxillofacial reparative and reconstructive surgery. The proposed algorithm includes three steps: (1) 3D-SIFT features extraction and FPFH descriptors construction; (2) feature matching using SAC-IA; (3) coarse rigid alignment and refinement by ICP. Experiments on facial surfaces and mandible skull models demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of our algorithm.
Solar abundances and 3D model atmospheres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ludwig, Hans-Günter; Caffau, Elisabetta; Steffen, Matthias; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Freytag, Bernd; Cayrel, Roger
2010-03-01
We present solar photospheric abundances for 12 elements from optical and near-infrared spectroscopy. The abundance analysis was conducted employing 3D hydrodynamical (CO5BOLD) as well as standard 1D hydrostatic model atmospheres. We compare our results to others with emphasis on discrepancies and still lingering problems, in particular exemplified by the pivotal abundance of oxygen. We argue that the thermal structure of the lower solar photosphere is very well represented by our 3D model. We obtain an excellent match of the observed center-to-limb variation of the line-blanketed continuum intensity, also at wavelengths shortward of the Balmer jump.
Regional geothermal 3D modelling in Denmark
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poulsen, S. E.; Balling, N.; Bording, T. S.; Nielsen, S. B.
2012-04-01
In the pursuit of sustainable and low carbon emission energy sources, increased global attention has been given to the exploration and exploitation of geothermal resources within recent decades. In 2009 a national multi-disciplinary geothermal research project was established. As a significant part of this project, 3D temperature modelling is to be carried out, with special emphasis on temperatures of potential geothermal reservoirs in the Danish area. The Danish subsurface encompasses low enthalpy geothermal reservoirs of mainly Triassic and Jurassic age. Geothermal plants at Amager (Copenhagen) and Thisted (Northern Jutland) have the capacity of supplying the district heating network with up to 14 MW and 7 MW, respectively, by withdrawing warm pore water from the Gassum (Lower Jurassic/Upper Triassic) and Bunter (Lower Triassic) sandstone reservoirs, respectively. Explorative studies of the subsurface temperature regime typically are based on a combination of observations and modelling. In this study, the open-source groundwater modelling code MODFLOW is modified to simulate the subsurface temperature distribution in three dimensions by taking advantage of the mathematical similarity between saturated groundwater flow (Darcy flow) and heat conduction. A numerical model of the subsurface geology in Denmark is built and parameterized from lithological information derived from joint interpretation of seismic surveys and borehole information. Boundary conditions are constructed from knowledge about the heat flow from the Earth's interior and the shallow ground temperature. Matrix thermal conductivities have been estimated from analysis of high-resolution temperature logs measured in deep wells and porosity-depth relations are included using interpreted main lithologies. The model takes into account the dependency of temperature and pressure on thermal conductivity. Moreover, a transient model based correction of the paleoclimatic thermal disturbance caused by the
Fast 3D Surface Extraction 2 pages (including abstract)
Sewell, Christopher Meyer; Patchett, John M.; Ahrens, James P.
2012-06-05
Ocean scientists searching for isosurfaces and/or thresholds of interest in high resolution 3D datasets required a tedious and time-consuming interactive exploration experience. PISTON research and development activities are enabling ocean scientists to rapidly and interactively explore isosurfaces and thresholds in their large data sets using a simple slider with real time calculation and visualization of these features. Ocean Scientists can now visualize more features in less time, helping them gain a better understanding of the high resolution data sets they work with on a daily basis. Isosurface timings (512{sup 3} grid): VTK 7.7 s, Parallel VTK (48-core) 1.3 s, PISTON OpenMP (48-core) 0.2 s, PISTON CUDA (Quadro 6000) 0.1 s.
Life in 3D is never flat: 3D models to optimise drug delivery.
Fitzgerald, Kathleen A; Malhotra, Meenakshi; Curtin, Caroline M; O' Brien, Fergal J; O' Driscoll, Caitriona M
2015-10-10
The development of safe, effective and patient-acceptable drug products is an expensive and lengthy process and the risk of failure at different stages of the development life-cycle is high. Improved biopharmaceutical tools which are robust, easy to use and accurately predict the in vivo response are urgently required to help address these issues. In this review the advantages and challenges of in vitro 3D versus 2D cell culture models will be discussed in terms of evaluating new drug products at the pre-clinical development stage. Examples of models with a 3D architecture including scaffolds, cell-derived matrices, multicellular spheroids and biochips will be described. The ability to simulate the microenvironment of tumours and vital organs including the liver, kidney, heart and intestine which have major impact on drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and toxicity will be evaluated. Examples of the application of 3D models including a role in formulation development, pharmacokinetic profiling and toxicity testing will be critically assessed. Although utilisation of 3D cell culture models in the field of drug delivery is still in its infancy, the area is attracting high levels of interest and is likely to become a significant in vitro tool to assist in drug product development thus reducing the requirement for unnecessary animal studies. PMID:26220617
An Automated 3d Indoor Topological Navigation Network Modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jamali, A.; Rahman, A. A.; Boguslawski, P.; Gold, C. M.
2015-10-01
Indoor navigation is important for various applications such as disaster management and safety analysis. In the last decade, indoor environment has been a focus of wide research; that includes developing techniques for acquiring indoor data (e.g. Terrestrial laser scanning), 3D indoor modelling and 3D indoor navigation models. In this paper, an automated 3D topological indoor network generated from inaccurate 3D building models is proposed. In a normal scenario, 3D indoor navigation network derivation needs accurate 3D models with no errors (e.g. gap, intersect) and two cells (e.g. rooms, corridors) should touch each other to build their connections. The presented 3D modeling of indoor navigation network is based on surveying control points and it is less dependent on the 3D geometrical building model. For reducing time and cost of indoor building data acquisition process, Trimble LaserAce 1000 as surveying instrument is used. The modelling results were validated against an accurate geometry of indoor building environment which was acquired using Trimble M3 total station.
Fallon FORGE 3D Geologic Model
Doug Blankenship
2016-03-01
An x,y,z scattered data file for the 3D geologic model of the Fallon FORGE site. Model created in Earthvision by Dynamic Graphic Inc. The model was constructed with a grid spacing of 100 m. Geologic surfaces were extrapolated from the input data using a minimum tension gridding algorithm. The data file is tabular data in a text file, with lithology data associated with X,Y,Z grid points. All the relevant information is in the file header (the spatial reference, the projection etc.) In addition all the fields in the data file are identified in the header.
3D Models of Symbiotic Binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohamed, S.; Booth, R.; Podsiadlowski, Ph.; Ramstedt, S.; Vlemmings, W.; Maercker, M.
2015-12-01
Symbiotic binaries consist of a cool, mass-losing giant and an accreting, compact companion. We present 3D Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) models of two such interacting binaries, RS Oph and Mira AB. RS Oph is also a recurrent nova system, thus we model multiple quiescent mass transfer-nova outburst cycles. The resulting circumstellar structures of both systems are highly complex with the formation of spirals, arcs, shells, equatorial and bipolar outflows. We compare the models to recent observations and discuss the implications of our results for related systems, e.g., bipolar nebulae and jets, chemically peculiar stars, and the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae.
Inferential modeling of 3D chromatin structure
Wang, Siyu; Xu, Jinbo; Zeng, Jianyang
2015-01-01
For eukaryotic cells, the biological processes involving regulatory DNA elements play an important role in cell cycle. Understanding 3D spatial arrangements of chromosomes and revealing long-range chromatin interactions are critical to decipher these biological processes. In recent years, chromosome conformation capture (3C) related techniques have been developed to measure the interaction frequencies between long-range genome loci, which have provided a great opportunity to decode the 3D organization of the genome. In this paper, we develop a new Bayesian framework to derive the 3D architecture of a chromosome from 3C-based data. By modeling each chromosome as a polymer chain, we define the conformational energy based on our current knowledge on polymer physics and use it as prior information in the Bayesian framework. We also propose an expectation-maximization (EM) based algorithm to estimate the unknown parameters of the Bayesian model and infer an ensemble of chromatin structures based on interaction frequency data. We have validated our Bayesian inference approach through cross-validation and verified the computed chromatin conformations using the geometric constraints derived from fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments. We have further confirmed the inferred chromatin structures using the known genetic interactions derived from other studies in the literature. Our test results have indicated that our Bayesian framework can compute an accurate ensemble of 3D chromatin conformations that best interpret the distance constraints derived from 3C-based data and also agree with other sources of geometric constraints derived from experimental evidence in the previous studies. The source code of our approach can be found in https://github.com/wangsy11/InfMod3DGen. PMID:25690896
Comparing a quasi-3D to a full 3D nearshore circulation model: SHORECIRC and ROMS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haas, Kevin A.; Warner, John C.
Predictions of nearshore and surf zone processes are important for determining coastal circulation, impacts of storms, navigation, and recreational safety. Numerical modeling of these systems facilitates advancements in our understanding of coastal changes and can provide predictive capabilities for resource managers. There exists many nearshore coastal circulation models, however they are mostly limited or typically only applied as depth integrated models. SHORECIRC is an established surf zone circulation model that is quasi-3D to allow the effect of the variability in the vertical structure of the currents while maintaining the computational advantage of a 2DH model. Here we compare SHORECIRC to ROMS, a fully 3D ocean circulation model which now includes a three dimensional formulation for the wave-driven flows. We compare the models with three different test applications for: (i) spectral waves approaching a plane beach with an oblique angle of incidence; (ii) monochromatic waves driving longshore currents in a laboratory basin; and (iii) monochromatic waves on a barred beach with rip channels in a laboratory basin. Results identify that the models are very similar for the depth integrated flows and qualitatively consistent for the vertically varying components. The differences are primarily the result of the vertically varying radiation stress utilized by ROMS and the utilization of long wave theory for the radiation stress formulation in vertical varying momentum balance by SHORECIRC. The quasi-3D model is faster, however the applicability of the fully 3D model allows it to extend over a broader range of processes, temporal, and spatial scales.
Comparing a quasi-3D to a full 3D nearshore circulation model: SHORECIRC and ROMS
Haas, K.A.; Warner, J.C.
2009-01-01
Predictions of nearshore and surf zone processes are important for determining coastal circulation, impacts of storms, navigation, and recreational safety. Numerical modeling of these systems facilitates advancements in our understanding of coastal changes and can provide predictive capabilities for resource managers. There exists many nearshore coastal circulation models, however they are mostly limited or typically only applied as depth integrated models. SHORECIRC is an established surf zone circulation model that is quasi-3D to allow the effect of the variability in the vertical structure of the currents while maintaining the computational advantage of a 2DH model. Here we compare SHORECIRC to ROMS, a fully 3D ocean circulation model which now includes a three dimensional formulation for the wave-driven flows. We compare the models with three different test applications for: (i) spectral waves approaching a plane beach with an oblique angle of incidence; (ii) monochromatic waves driving longshore currents in a laboratory basin; and (iii) monochromatic waves on a barred beach with rip channels in a laboratory basin. Results identify that the models are very similar for the depth integrated flows and qualitatively consistent for the vertically varying components. The differences are primarily the result of the vertically varying radiation stress utilized by ROMS and the utilization of long wave theory for the radiation stress formulation in vertical varying momentum balance by SHORECIRC. The quasi-3D model is faster, however the applicability of the fully 3D model allows it to extend over a broader range of processes, temporal, and spatial scales. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.
Summary on Several Key Techniques in 3D Geological Modeling
2014-01-01
Several key techniques in 3D geological modeling including planar mesh generation, spatial interpolation, and surface intersection are summarized in this paper. Note that these techniques are generic and widely used in various applications but play a key role in 3D geological modeling. There are two essential procedures in 3D geological modeling: the first is the simulation of geological interfaces using geometric surfaces and the second is the building of geological objects by means of various geometric computations such as the intersection of surfaces. Discrete geometric surfaces that represent geological interfaces can be generated by creating planar meshes first and then spatially interpolating; those surfaces intersect and then form volumes that represent three-dimensional geological objects such as rock bodies. In this paper, the most commonly used algorithms of the key techniques in 3D geological modeling are summarized. PMID:24772029
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertrand, Tanguy; Forget, Francois
2016-04-01
To interpret New Horizons observations and simulate the Pluto climate system, we have developed a Global Climate Model (GCM) of Pluto's atmosphere. In addition to a 3D "dynamical core" which solves the equation of meteorology, the model takes into account the N2 condensation and sublimation and its thermal and dynamical effects, the vertical turbulent mixing, the radiative transfer through methane and carbon monoxide, molecular thermal conduction, and a detailed surface thermal model with different thermal inertia for various timescales (diurnal, seasonal). The GCM also includes a detailed model of the CH4 and CO cycles, taking into account their transport by the atmospheric circulation and turbulence, as well as their condensation and sublimation on the surface and in the atmosphere, possibly forming methane ice clouds. The GCM consistently predicts the 3D methane abundance in the atmosphere, which is used as an input for our radiative transfer calculation. In a second phase, we also developed a volatile transport model, derived from the GCM, which can be run over thousands of years in order to reach consistent initial states for the GCM runs and better explore the seasonal processes on Pluto. Results obtained with the volatile transport model show that the distribution of N2, CH4 and CO ices primarily depends on the seasonal thermal inertia used for the different ices, and is affected by the assumed topography as well. As observed, it is possible to form a large and permanent nitrogen glacier with CO and CH4 ice deposits in an equatorial basin corresponding to Sputnik Planum, while having a surface pressure evolution consistent with stellar occultations and New Horizons data. In addition, most of the methane ice is sequestered with N2 ice in the basin but seasonal polar caps of CH4 frosts also form explaining the bright polar caps observed with Hubble in the 1980s and in line with New Horizons observations. Using such balanced combination of surface and
3D Model of Surfactant Replacement Therapy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grotberg, James; Tai, Cheng-Feng; Filoche, Marcel
2015-11-01
Surfactant Replacement Therapy (SRT) involves instillation of a liquid-surfactant mixture directly into the lung airway tree. Though successful in neonatal applications, its use in adults had early success followed by failure. We present the first mathematical model of 3D SRT where a liquid plug propagates through the tree from forced inspiration. In two separate modeling steps, the plug first deposits a coating film on the airway wall which subtracts from its volume, a ``coating cost''. Then the plug splits unevenly at the airway bifurcation due to gravity. The steps are repeated until a plug ruptures or reaches the tree endpoint alveoli/acinus. The model generates 3D images of the resulting acinar distribution and calculates two global indexes, efficiency and homogeneity. Simulating published literature, the earlier successful adult SRT studies show comparatively good index values, while the later failed studies do not. Those unsuccessful studies used smaller dose volumes with higher concentration mixtures, apparently assuming a well mixed compartment. The model shows that adult lungs are not well mixed in SRT due to the coating cost and gravity effects. Returning to the higher dose volume protocols could save many thousands of lives annually in the US. Supported by NIH Grants HL85156, HL84370 and Agence Nationale de la Recherche, ANR no. 2010-BLAN-1119-05.
MOSSFRAC: An anisotropic 3D fracture model
Moss, W C; Levatin, J L
2006-08-14
Despite the intense effort for nearly half a century to construct detailed numerical models of plastic flow and plastic damage accumulation, models for describing fracture, an equally important damage mechanism still cannot describe basic fracture phenomena. Typical fracture models set the stress tensor to zero for tensile fracture and set the deviatoric stress tensor to zero for compressive fracture. One consequence is that the simple case of the tensile fracture of a cylinder under combined compressive radial and tensile axial loads is not modeled correctly. The experimental result is a cylinder that can support compressive radial loads, but no axial load, whereas, the typical numerical result is a cylinder with all stresses equal to zero. This incorrect modeling of fracture locally also has a global effect, because material that is fracturing produces stress release waves, which propagate from the fracture and influence the surrounding material. Consequently, it would be useful to have a model that can describe the stress relief and the resulting anisotropy due to fracture. MOSSFRAC is a material model that simulates three-dimensional tensile and shear fracture in initially isotropic elastic-plastic materials, although its framework is also amenable to initially anisotropic materials. It differs from other models by accounting for the effects of cracks on the constitutive response of the material, so that the previously described experiment, as well as complicated fracture scenarios are simulated more accurately. The model is implemented currently in the LLNL hydrocodes DYNA3D, PARADYN, and ALE3D. The purpose of this technical note is to present a complete qualitative description of the model and quantitative descriptions of salient features.
3D modeling of metallic grain growth
George, D.; Carlson, N.; Gammel, J.T.; Kuprat, A.
1999-06-01
This paper will describe simulating metallic grain growth using the Gradient Weighted Moving Finite Elements code, GRAIN3D. The authors also describe the set of mesh topology change operations developed to respond to changes in the physical topology such as the collapse of grains and to maintain uniform calculational mesh quality. Validation of the method is demonstrated by comparison to analytic calculations. The authors present results of multigrain simulations where grain boundaries evolve by mean curvature motion and include results which incorporate grain boundary orientation dependence.
The 3D rocket combustor acoustics model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Priem, Richard J.; Breisacher, Kevin J.
1992-01-01
The theory and procedures for determining the characteristics of pressure oscillations in rocket engines with prescribed burning rate oscillations are presented. Analyses including radial and hub baffles and absorbers can be performed in one, two, and three dimensions. Pressure and velocity oscillations calculated using this procedure are presented for the SSME to show the influence of baffles and absorbers on the burning rate oscillations required to achieve neutral stability. Comparisons are made between the results obtained utilizing 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D assumptions with regards to capturing the physical phenomena of interest and computational requirements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uznir, U.; Anton, F.; Suhaibah, A.; Rahman, A. A.; Mioc, D.
2013-09-01
The advantages of three dimensional (3D) city models can be seen in various applications including photogrammetry, urban and regional planning, computer games, etc.. They expand the visualization and analysis capabilities of Geographic Information Systems on cities, and they can be developed using web standards. However, these 3D city models consume much more storage compared to two dimensional (2D) spatial data. They involve extra geometrical and topological information together with semantic data. Without a proper spatial data clustering method and its corresponding spatial data access method, retrieving portions of and especially searching these 3D city models, will not be done optimally. Even though current developments are based on an open data model allotted by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) called CityGML, its XML-based structure makes it challenging to cluster the 3D urban objects. In this research, we propose an opponent data constellation technique of space-filling curves (3D Hilbert curves) for 3D city model data representation. Unlike previous methods, that try to project 3D or n-dimensional data down to 2D or 3D using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) or Hilbert mappings, in this research, we extend the Hilbert space-filling curve to one higher dimension for 3D city model data implementations. The query performance was tested using a CityGML dataset of 1,000 building blocks and the results are presented in this paper. The advantages of implementing space-filling curves in 3D city modeling will improve data retrieval time by means of optimized 3D adjacency, nearest neighbor information and 3D indexing. The Hilbert mapping, which maps a subinterval of the [0, 1] interval to the corresponding portion of the d-dimensional Hilbert's curve, preserves the Lebesgue measure and is Lipschitz continuous. Depending on the applications, several alternatives are possible in order to cluster spatial data together in the third dimension compared to its
3D Modeling of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huba, Joseph; Joyce, Glenn; Krall, Jonathan
2011-10-01
Post-sunset ionospheric irregularities in the equatorial F region were first observed by Booker and Wells (1938) using ionosondes. This phenomenon has become known as equatorial spread F (ESF). During ESF the equatorial ionosphere becomes unstable because of a Rayleigh-Taylor-like instability: large scale (10s km) electron density ``bubbles'' can develop and rise to high altitudes (1000 km or greater at times). Understanding and modeling ESF is important because of its impact on space weather: it causes radio wave scintillation that degrades communication and navigation systems. In fact, it is the focus of of the Air Force Communications/Navigation Outage Forecast Satellite (C/NOFS) mission. We will describe 3D simulation results from the NRL ionosphere models SAMI3 and SAMI3/ESF of this phenomenon. In particular, we will examine the causes of the day-to-day ariability of ESF which is an unresolved problem at this time. Post-sunset ionospheric irregularities in the equatorial F region were first observed by Booker and Wells (1938) using ionosondes. This phenomenon has become known as equatorial spread F (ESF). During ESF the equatorial ionosphere becomes unstable because of a Rayleigh-Taylor-like instability: large scale (10s km) electron density ``bubbles'' can develop and rise to high altitudes (1000 km or greater at times). Understanding and modeling ESF is important because of its impact on space weather: it causes radio wave scintillation that degrades communication and navigation systems. In fact, it is the focus of of the Air Force Communications/Navigation Outage Forecast Satellite (C/NOFS) mission. We will describe 3D simulation results from the NRL ionosphere models SAMI3 and SAMI3/ESF of this phenomenon. In particular, we will examine the causes of the day-to-day ariability of ESF which is an unresolved problem at this time. Research supported by ONR.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Forget, Francois; Bertrand, Tanguy; Vangvichith, Melanie; Leconte, Jeremy
2015-11-01
To interpret New Horizons observations and simulate the Pluto climate system, we have developed a Global Climate Model (GCM) of Pluto's atmosphere. In addition to a 3D "dynamical core" which solves the equations of meteorology, the model takes into account the N2 condensation and sublimation and its thermal and dynamical effects, the vertical turbulent mixing, the radiative transfer through methane and carbon monoxide, molecular thermal conduction, and a detailed surface thermal model with different thermal inertia for various timescales (diurnal, seasonal).The GCM also includes a detailed model of the CH4 and CO cycles, taking into account their transport by the atmospheric circulation and turbulence, as well as their condensation and sublimation on the surface and in the atmosphere, possibly forming methane ice clouds. The GCM consistently predicts the 3D methane abundance in the atmosphere, which is used as an input for our radiative transfer calculation.Because of the radiative timescales, the surface thermal inertia and the slow evolution of the methane cycle, the model takes more than 20 years to become insensitive to the assumed atmospheric initial states. We typically start our simulations in 1975 to simulate 2015, but remain sensitive to the assumed initial ices distribution and seasonal thermal inertia map. The simulated thermal structure and waves can be compared to the New Horizons occultations measurements. As observed, the longitudinal variability is very limited, for fundamental reasons.In addition, we have developed a 3D model of the formation of organic hazes within the GCM. It includes the different steps of aerosols formation as understood on Titan: photolysis of CH4 in the upper atmosphere by the Lyman-alpha radiation, production of various gaseous precursor species, conversion into solid particles through chemistry and aggregation processes, and gravitational sedimentation. Significant amount of haze particles are found to be present at all
3-D electromagnetic modeling of wakefields in accelerator components
Poole, B.R.; Caporaso, G.J.; Ng, Wang C.; Shang, C.C.; Steich, D.
1996-09-18
We discuss the use of 3-D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) electromagnetic codes for modeling accelerator components. Computational modeling of cylindrically symmetric structures such as induction accelerator cells has been very successful in predicting the wake potential and wake impedances of these structures, but full 3-D modeling of complex structures has been limited due to substantial computer resources required for a full 3-D model. New massively parallel 3-D time domain electromagnetic codes now under development using conforming unstructured meshes allow a substantial increase in the geometric fidelity of the structures being modeled. Development of these new codes are discussed in context of applicability to accelerator problems. Various 3-D structures are tested with an existing cubical cell FDTD code and wake impedances compared with simple analytic models for the structures; results will be used as benchmarks for testing the new time time domain codes. Structures under consideration include a stripline beam position monitor as well as circular and elliptical apertures in circular waveguides. Excellent agreement for monopole and dipole impedances with models were found for these structures below the cutoff frequency of the beam line.
3-D electromagnetic modeling of wakefields in accelerator components
Poole, Brian R.; Caporaso, George J.; Ng, Wang C.; Shang, Clifford C.; Steich, David
1997-02-01
We discuss the use of 3-D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) electromagnetic codes for the modeling of accelerator components. Computational modeling of cylindrically symmetric structures such as induction accelerator cells has been extremely successful in predicting the wake potential and wake impedances of these structures, but fully 3-D modeling of complex structures has been limited due to the substantial computer resources required for a fully 3-D model. New massively parallel 3-D time domain electromagnetic codes now under development using conforming unstructured meshes allow a substantial increase in the geometric fidelity of the structures being modeled. Development of these new codes will be discussed in the context of their applicability to accelerator problems. A variety of 3-D structures are tested with an existing cubical cell FDTD code and the wake impedances are compared with simple analytic models for the structures. These results will provide a set of benchmarks for testing the new time domain codes. Structures under consideration include a stripline beam position monitor as well as circular and elliptical apertures in circular waveguides. Excellent agreement for the monopole and dipole impedances with the models are found for these structures below the cutoff frequency of the beam line.
3-D physical models of amitosis (cytokinesis).
Cheng, Kang; Zou, Changhua
2005-01-01
Based on Newton's laws, extended Coulomb's law and published biological data, we develop our 3-D physical models of natural and normal amitosis (cytokinesis), for prokaryotes (bacterial cells) in M phase. We propose following hypotheses: Chromosome rings exclusion: No normally and naturally replicated chromosome rings (RCR) can occupy the same prokaryote, a bacterial cell. The RCR produce spontaneous and strong electromagnetic fields (EMF), that can be alternated environmentally, in protoplasm and cortex. The EMF is approximately a repulsive quasi-static electric (slowly variant and mostly electric) field (EF). The EF forces between the RCR are strong enough, and orderly accumulate contractile proteins that divide the procaryotes in the cell cortex of division plane or directly split the cell compartment envelope longitudinally. The radial component of the EF forces could also make furrows or cleavages of procaryotes. The EF distribution controls the protoplasm partition and completes the amitosis (cytokinesis). After the cytokinesis, the spontaneous and strong EF disappear because the net charge accumulation becomes weak, in the protoplasm. The exclusion is because the two sets of informative objects (RCR) have identical DNA codes information and they are electro magnetically identical, therefore they repulse from each other. We also compare divisions among eukaryotes, prokaryotes, mitochondria and chloroplasts and propose our hypothesis: The principles of our models are applied to divisions of mitochondria and chloroplasts of eucaryotes too because these division mechanisms are closer than others in a view of physics. Though we develop our model using 1 division plane (i.e., 1 cell is divided into 2 cells) as an example, the principle of our model is applied to the cases with multiple division planes (i.e., 1 cell is divided into multiple cells) too. PMID:15533619
3D Models of Stellar Interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohamed, S.; Podsiadlowski, Ph.; Booth, R.; Maercker, M.; Ramstedt, S.; Vlemmings, W.; Harries, T.; Mackey, J.; Langer, N.; Corradi, R.
2014-04-01
Symbiotic binaries consist of a cool, evolved mass-losing giant and an accreting compact companion. As symbiotic nebulae show similar morphologies to those in planetary nebulae (so much so that it is often difficult to distinguish between the two), they are ideal laboratories for understanding the role a binary companion plays in shaping the circumstellar envelopes in these evolved systems. We will present 3D Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) models of interacting binaries, e.g. R Aquarii and Mira, and discuss the formation of spiral outflows, arcs, shells and equatorial density enhancements.We will also discuss the implications of the former for planetary nebulae, e.g. the Egg Nebula and Cat's Eye, and the latter for the formation of bipolar geometries, e.g. M2-9. We also investigate accretion and angular momentum evolution in symbiotic binaries which may be important to understand the formation of jets and more episodic mass-loss features we see in circumstellar envelopes and the orbital characteristics of binary central stars of planetary nebulae.
3D surface digitizing and modeling development at ITRI
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsueh, Wen-Jean
2000-06-01
This paper gives an overview of the research and development activities in 3D surface digitizing and modeling conducted at the Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) of Taiwan in the past decade. As a major technology and consulting service provider of the area, ITRI has developed 3D laser scanning digitizers ranging from low-cost compacts, industrial CAD/CAM digitizing, to large human body scanner, with in-house 3D surface modeling software to provide total solution in reverse engineering that requires processing capabilities of large number of 3D data. Based on both hardware and software technologies in scanning, merging, registration, surface fitting, reconstruction, and compression, ITRI is now exploring innovative methodologies that provide higher performances, including hardware-based correlation algorithms with advanced camera designs, animation surface model reconstruction, and optical tracking for motion capture. It is expected that the need for easy and fast high-quality 3D information in the near future will grow exponentially, at the same amazing rate as the internet and the human desire for realistic and natural images.
3D-GNOME: an integrated web service for structural modeling of the 3D genome
Szalaj, Przemyslaw; Michalski, Paul J.; Wróblewski, Przemysław; Tang, Zhonghui; Kadlof, Michal; Mazzocco, Giovanni; Ruan, Yijun; Plewczynski, Dariusz
2016-01-01
Recent advances in high-throughput chromosome conformation capture (3C) technology, such as Hi-C and ChIA-PET, have demonstrated the importance of 3D genome organization in development, cell differentiation and transcriptional regulation. There is now a widespread need for computational tools to generate and analyze 3D structural models from 3C data. Here we introduce our 3D GeNOme Modeling Engine (3D-GNOME), a web service which generates 3D structures from 3C data and provides tools to visually inspect and annotate the resulting structures, in addition to a variety of statistical plots and heatmaps which characterize the selected genomic region. Users submit a bedpe (paired-end BED format) file containing the locations and strengths of long range contact points, and 3D-GNOME simulates the structure and provides a convenient user interface for further analysis. Alternatively, a user may generate structures using published ChIA-PET data for the GM12878 cell line by simply specifying a genomic region of interest. 3D-GNOME is freely available at http://3dgnome.cent.uw.edu.pl/. PMID:27185892
3D-GNOME: an integrated web service for structural modeling of the 3D genome.
Szalaj, Przemyslaw; Michalski, Paul J; Wróblewski, Przemysław; Tang, Zhonghui; Kadlof, Michal; Mazzocco, Giovanni; Ruan, Yijun; Plewczynski, Dariusz
2016-07-01
Recent advances in high-throughput chromosome conformation capture (3C) technology, such as Hi-C and ChIA-PET, have demonstrated the importance of 3D genome organization in development, cell differentiation and transcriptional regulation. There is now a widespread need for computational tools to generate and analyze 3D structural models from 3C data. Here we introduce our 3D GeNOme Modeling Engine (3D-GNOME), a web service which generates 3D structures from 3C data and provides tools to visually inspect and annotate the resulting structures, in addition to a variety of statistical plots and heatmaps which characterize the selected genomic region. Users submit a bedpe (paired-end BED format) file containing the locations and strengths of long range contact points, and 3D-GNOME simulates the structure and provides a convenient user interface for further analysis. Alternatively, a user may generate structures using published ChIA-PET data for the GM12878 cell line by simply specifying a genomic region of interest. 3D-GNOME is freely available at http://3dgnome.cent.uw.edu.pl/. PMID:27185892
Geospatial Modelling Approach for 3d Urban Densification Developments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koziatek, O.; Dragićević, S.; Li, S.
2016-06-01
With growing populations, economic pressures, and the need for sustainable practices, many urban regions are rapidly densifying developments in the vertical built dimension with mid- and high-rise buildings. The location of these buildings can be projected based on key factors that are attractive to urban planners, developers, and potential buyers. Current research in this area includes various modelling approaches, such as cellular automata and agent-based modelling, but the results are mostly linked to raster grids as the smallest spatial units that operate in two spatial dimensions. Therefore, the objective of this research is to develop a geospatial model that operates on irregular spatial tessellations to model mid- and high-rise buildings in three spatial dimensions (3D). The proposed model is based on the integration of GIS, fuzzy multi-criteria evaluation (MCE), and 3D GIS-based procedural modelling. Part of the City of Surrey, within the Metro Vancouver Region, Canada, has been used to present the simulations of the generated 3D building objects. The proposed 3D modelling approach was developed using ESRI's CityEngine software and the Computer Generated Architecture (CGA) language.
3D fast wavelet network model-assisted 3D face recognition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Said, Salwa; Jemai, Olfa; Zaied, Mourad; Ben Amar, Chokri
2015-12-01
In last years, the emergence of 3D shape in face recognition is due to its robustness to pose and illumination changes. These attractive benefits are not all the challenges to achieve satisfactory recognition rate. Other challenges such as facial expressions and computing time of matching algorithms remain to be explored. In this context, we propose our 3D face recognition approach using 3D wavelet networks. Our approach contains two stages: learning stage and recognition stage. For the training we propose a novel algorithm based on 3D fast wavelet transform. From 3D coordinates of the face (x,y,z), we proceed to voxelization to get a 3D volume which will be decomposed by 3D fast wavelet transform and modeled after that with a wavelet network, then their associated weights are considered as vector features to represent each training face . For the recognition stage, an unknown identity face is projected on all the training WN to obtain a new vector features after every projection. A similarity score is computed between the old and the obtained vector features. To show the efficiency of our approach, experimental results were performed on all the FRGC v.2 benchmark.
A 3-D shape model of Interamnia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sato, Isao
2015-08-01
A 3-D shape model of the sixth largest of the main belt asteroids, (704) Interamnia, is presented. The model is reproduced from its two stellar occultation observations and six lightcurves between 1969 and 2011. The first stellar occultation was the occultation of TYC 234500183 on 1996 December 17 observed from 13 sites in the USA. An elliptical cross section of (344.6±9.6km)×(306.2±9.1km), for position angle P=73.4±12.5 was fitted. The lightcurve around the occultation shows that the peak-to-peak amplitude was 0.04 mag. and the occultation phase was just before the minimum. The second stellar occultation was the occultation of HIP 036189 on 2003 March 23 observed from 39 sites in Japan and Hawaii. An elliptical cross section of (349.8±0.9km)×(303.7±1.7km), for position angle P=86.0±1.1 was fitted. A companion of 8.5 mag. of the occulted star was discovered whose separation is 12±2 mas (milli-arcseconds), P=148±11 . A combined analysis of rotational lightcurves and occultation chords can return more information than can be obtained with either technique alone. From follow-up photometric observations of the asteroid between 2003 and 2011, its rotation period is determined to be 8.728967167±0.00000007 hours, which is accurate enough to fix the rotation phases at other occultation events. The derived north pole is λ2000=259±8, β2000=-50±5 (retrograde rotation); the lengths of the three principal axes are 2a=361.8±2.8km, 2b=324.4±5.0km, 2c=297.3±3.5km, and the mean diameter is D=326.8±3.0km. Supposing the mass of Interamnia as (3.5±0.9)×10-11 solar masses, the density is then ρ=3.8±1.0 g cm-3.
Use Models like Maps in a 3D SDI
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gietzel, Jan; Gabriel, Paul; Schaeben, Helmut; Le, Hai Ha
2013-04-01
Digital geological applications have become 3D up to 4D modelling of the underground. The modellers are working very heterogeneously in terms of its applied software systems. On the other hand the 3D/4D modelling of the subsurface has become part of the geological surveys all around the world. This implies a wide spread group of users working in different institutions aiming to work together on one subsurface model. Established 3D/4D-modelling software systems mainly use a file based approach to store data, which is in a high contrast to the needs of a central administrated and network based data transfer approach. At the department of geophysics and geo information sciences at the Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg, the GST system for managing 3D and 4D geosciences data in a databases system was developed and is now continued by the company GiGa infosystems. The GST-Framework includes a storage engine, a web service for sharing and a number of client software including a browser based client interface for visualising, accessing and manipulating geological CAD data. Including a check out system GST supports multi user editing on huge models, designed to manage seamless high resolution models of the subsurface. While working on complex projects various software is used for the creation of the model, the prediction of properties and final simulation. A problem rising from the use of several software is the interoperability of the models. Due to conversion errors different working groups use mainly different raw data. This results in different models, which have to be corrected with additional effort. One platform sharing the models is strongly demanded. One high potential solution is a centralized and software independent storage, which will be presented.
Teaching the geological subsurface with 3D models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thorpe, Steve; Ward, Emma
2014-05-01
3D geological models have great potential as a resource when teaching geological concepts as it allows the student to visualise and interrogate UK geology. They are especially useful when dealing with the conversion of 2D field, map and GIS outputs into three dimensional geological units, which is a common problem for many students. Today's earth science students use a variety of skills and processes during their learning experience including spatial thinking, image construction, detecting patterns, making predictions and deducing the orientation of themselves. 3D geological models can reinforce spatial thinking strategies and encourage students to think about processes and properties, in turn helping the student to recognise pre-learnt geological principles in the field and to convert what they see at the surface into a picture of what is going on at depth. The British Geological Survey (BGS) has been producing digital 3D geological models for over 10 years. The models produced are revolutionising the working practices, data standards and products of the BGS. Sharing our geoscience information with academia is highlighted throughout the BGS strategy as is instilling practical skills in future geoscience professionals, such as model building and interpretation. In 2009 a project was launched to investigate the potential of the models as a teaching resource. The study included justifying if and how the models help students to learn, how models have been used historically, and how other forms of modelling are being used today. BGS now produce 3D geological models for use by anyone teaching or learning geoscience. They incorporate educational strategies that will develop geospatial skills and alleviate potential problems that some students experience. They are contained within contemporary case studies and show standard geological concepts, structures, sedimentary rocks, cross sections and field techniques. 3D geological models of the Isle of Wight and Ingleborough
A Sketching Interface for Freeform 3D Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Igarashi, Takeo
This chapter introduces Teddy, a sketch-based modeling system to quickly and easily design freeform models such as stuffed animals and other rotund objects. The user draws several 2D freeform strokes interactively on the screen and the system automatically constructs plausible 3D polygonal surfaces. Our system supports several modeling operations, including the operation to construct a 3D polygonal surface from a 2D silhouette drawn by the user: it inflates the region surrounded by the silhouette making a wide area fat, and a narrow area thin. Teddy, our prototype system, is implemented as a Java program, and the mesh construction is done in real-time on a standard PC. Our informal user study showed that a first-time user masters the operations within 10 minutes, and can construct interesting 3D models within minutes. We also report the result of a case study where a high school teacher taught various 3D concepts in geography using the system.
3D Geological Model for "LUSI" - a Deep Geothermal System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sohrabi, Reza; Jansen, Gunnar; Mazzini, Adriano; Galvan, Boris; Miller, Stephen A.
2016-04-01
Geothermal applications require the correct simulation of flow and heat transport processes in porous media, and many of these media, like deep volcanic hydrothermal systems, host a certain degree of fracturing. This work aims to understand the heat and fluid transport within a new-born sedimentary hosted geothermal system, termed Lusi, that began erupting in 2006 in East Java, Indonesia. Our goal is to develop conceptual and numerical models capable of simulating multiphase flow within large-scale fractured reservoirs such as the Lusi region, with fractures of arbitrary size, orientation and shape. Additionally, these models can also address a number of other applications, including Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), CO2 sequestration (Carbon Capture and Storage CCS), and nuclear waste isolation. Fractured systems are ubiquitous, with a wide-range of lengths and scales, making difficult the development of a general model that can easily handle this complexity. We are developing a flexible continuum approach with an efficient, accurate numerical simulator based on an appropriate 3D geological model representing the structure of the deep geothermal reservoir. Using previous studies, borehole information and seismic data obtained in the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n°308126), we present here the first 3D geological model of Lusi. This model is calculated using implicit 3D potential field or multi-potential fields, depending on the geological context and complexity. This method is based on geological pile containing the geological history of the area and relationship between geological bodies allowing automatic computation of intersections and volume reconstruction. Based on the 3D geological model, we developed a new mesh algorithm to create hexahedral octree meshes to transfer the structural geological information for 3D numerical simulations to quantify Thermal-Hydraulic-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) physical processes.
3D Modeling Techniques for Print and Digital Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stephens, Megan Ashley
In developing my thesis, I looked to gain skills using ZBrush to create 3D models, 3D scanning, and 3D printing. The models created compared the hearts of several vertebrates and were intended for students attending Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy. I used several resources to create a model of the human heart and was able to work from life while creating heart models from other vertebrates. I successfully learned ZBrush and 3D scanning, and successfully printed 3D heart models. ZBrush allowed me to create several intricate models for use in both animation and print media. The 3D scanning technique did not fit my needs for the project, but may be of use for later projects. I was able to 3D print using two different techniques as well.
3D Geological modelling - towards a European level infrastructure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Kathryn A.; van der Krogt, Rob; Busschers, Freek S.
2013-04-01
The joint European Geological Surveys are preparing the ground for a "European Geological Data Infrastructure" (EGDI), under the framework of the FP7-project EGDI-Scope. This scoping study, started in June 2012, for a pan-European e-Infrastructure is based on the successes of earlier joint projects including 'OneGeology-Europe' and aims to provide the backbone for serving interoperable, geological data currently held by European Geological Surveys. Also data from past, ongoing and future European projects will be incorporated. The scope will include an investigation of the functional and technical requirements for serving 3D geological models and will look to research the potential for providing a framework to integrate models at different scales, and form a structure for enabling the development of new and innovative model delivery mechanisms. The EGDI-scope project encourages pan-European inter-disciplinary collaboration between all European Geological Surveys. It aims to enhance emerging web based technologies that will facilitate the delivery of geological data to user communities involved in European policy making and international industry, but also to geoscientific research communities and the general public. Therefore, stakeholder input and communication is imperative to the success, as is the collaboration with all the Geological Surveys of Europe. The most important functional and technical requirements for delivery of such information at pan-European level will be derived from exchanges with relevant European stakeholder representatives and providers of geological data. For handling and delivering 3D geological model data the project will need to address a number of strategic issues: • Which are the most important issues and queries for the relevant stakeholders, requiring 3D geological models? How can this be translated to functional requirements for development and design of an integrated European application? • How to handle the very large
3d model for site effect assessment at Nice (France)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertrand, E.; Courrioux, G.; Bourgine, B.; Bour, M.; Guillen, A.; Mouroux, P.; Devaux, E.; Duval, A. M.
2003-04-01
including the outcroping bedrock cover 90% of total area. Given some seismic loading and assigning proper geotechnical properties to columns, numerical simulations of seismic response are performed using CyberQuake software. It is then possible to identify and map homogeneous zones. The model will also be used to simulate the 3D propagation of seismic waves. It constitutes the basis for assessment of seismic risk scenarios in the district of Nice.
3D Multispectral Light Propagation Model For Subcutaneous Veins Imaging
Paquit, Vincent C; Price, Jeffery R; Meriaudeau, Fabrice; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William
2008-01-01
In this paper, we describe a new 3D light propagation model aimed at understanding the effects of various physiological properties on subcutaneous vein imaging. In particular, we build upon the well known MCML (Monte Carlo Multi Layer) code and present a tissue model that improves upon the current state-of-the-art by: incorporating physiological variation, such as melanin concentration, fat content, and layer thickness; including veins of varying depth and diameter; using curved surfaces from real arm shapes; and modeling the vessel wall interface. We describe our model, present results from the Monte Carlo modeling, and compare these results with those obtained with other Monte Carlo methods.
3D Babcock-Leighton Solar Dynamo Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miesch, Mark S.; Hazra, Gopal; Karak, Bidya Binay; Teweldebirhan, Kinfe; Upton, Lisa
2016-05-01
We present results from the new STABLE (Surface flux Transport and Babcock Leighton) Dynamo Model. STABLE is a 3D Babcock-Leighton/Flux Transport dynamo model in which the source of poloidal field is the explicit emergence, distortion, and dispersal of bipolar magnetic regions (BMRs). In this talk I will discuss initial results with axisymmetric flow fields, focusing on the operation of the model, the general features of the cyclic solutions, and the challenge of achieving supercritical dynamo solutions using only the Babcock-Leighton source term. Then I will present dynamo simulations that include 3D convective flow fields based on the observed velocity power spectrum inferred from photospheric Dopplergrams. I'll use these simulations to assess how the explicit transport and amplification of fields by surface convection influences the operation of the dynamo. I will also discuss the role of surface magnetic fields in regulating the subsurface toroidal flux budget.
3D Face Modeling Using the Multi-Deformable Method
Hwang, Jinkyu; Yu, Sunjin; Kim, Joongrock; Lee, Sangyoun
2012-01-01
In this paper, we focus on the problem of the accuracy performance of 3D face modeling techniques using corresponding features in multiple views, which is quite sensitive to feature extraction errors. To solve the problem, we adopt a statistical model-based 3D face modeling approach in a mirror system consisting of two mirrors and a camera. The overall procedure of our 3D facial modeling method has two primary steps: 3D facial shape estimation using a multiple 3D face deformable model and texture mapping using seamless cloning that is a type of gradient-domain blending. To evaluate our method's performance, we generate 3D faces of 30 individuals and then carry out two tests: accuracy test and robustness test. Our method shows not only highly accurate 3D face shape results when compared with the ground truth, but also robustness to feature extraction errors. Moreover, 3D face rendering results intuitively show that our method is more robust to feature extraction errors than other 3D face modeling methods. An additional contribution of our method is that a wide range of face textures can be acquired by the mirror system. By using this texture map, we generate realistic 3D face for individuals at the end of the paper. PMID:23201976
Quasi-3D Multi-scale Modeling Framework Development
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arakawa, A.; Jung, J.
2008-12-01
When models are truncated in or near an energetically active range of the spectrum, model physics must be changed as the resolution changes. The model physics of GCMs and that of CRMs are, however, quite different from each other and at present there is no unified formulation of model physics that automatically provides transition between these model physics. The Quasi-3D (Q3D) Multi-scale Modeling Framework (MMF) is an attempt to bridge this gap. Like the recently proposed Heterogeneous Multiscale Method (HMM) (E and Engquist 2003), MMF combines a macroscopic model, GCM, and a microscopic model, CRM. Unlike the traditional multiscale methods such as the multi-grid and adapted mesh refinement techniques, HMM and MMF are for solving multi-physics problems. They share the common objective "to design combined macroscopic-microscopic computational methods that are much more efficient than solving the full microscopic model and at the same time give the information we need" (E et al. 2008). The question is then how to meet this objective in practice, which can be highly problem dependent. In HHM, the efficiency is gained typically by localization of the microscale problem. Following the pioneering work by Grabowski and Smolarkiewicz (1999) and Grabowski (2001), MMF takes advantage of the fact that 2D CRMs are reasonably successful in simulating deep clouds. In this approach, the efficiency is gained by sacrificing the three-dimensionality of cloud-scale motion. It also "localizes" the algorithm through embedding a CRM in each GCM grid box using cyclic boundary condition. The Q3D MMF is an attempt to reduce the expense due to these constraints by partially including the cloud-scale 3D effects and extending the CRM beyond individual GCM grid boxes. As currently formulated, the Q3D MMF is a 4D estimation/prediction framework that combines a GCM with a 3D anelastic cloud-resolving vector vorticity equation model (VVM) applied to a network of horizontal grids. The network
Two-equation turbulence modeling for 3-D hypersonic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bardina, J. E.; Coakley, T. J.; Marvin, J. G.
1992-01-01
An investigation to verify, incorporate and develop two-equation turbulence models for three-dimensional high speed flows is presented. The current design effort of hypersonic vehicles has led to an intensive study of turbulence models for compressible hypersonic flows. This research complements an extensive review of experimental data and the current development of 2D turbulence models. The review of experimental data on 2D and 3D flows includes complex hypersonic flows with pressure profiles, skin friction, wall heat transfer, and turbulence statistics data. In a parallel effort, turbulence models for high speed flows have been tested against flat plate boundary layers, and are being tested against the 2D database. In the present paper, we present the results of 3D Navier-Stokes numerical simulations with an improved k-omega two-equation turbulence model against experimental data and empirical correlations of an adiabatic flat plate boundary layer, a cold wall flat plate boundary layer, and a 3D database flow, the interaction of an oblique shock wave and a thick turbulent boundary layer with a free stream Mach number = 8.18 and Reynolds number = 5 x 10 to the 6th.
Generation and use of human 3D-CAD models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grotepass, Juergen; Speyer, Hartmut; Kaiser, Ralf
2002-05-01
Individualized Products are one of the ten mega trends of the 21st Century with human modeling as the key issue for tomorrow's design and product development. The use of human modeling software for computer based ergonomic simulations within the production process increases quality while reducing costs by 30- 50 percent and shortening production time. This presentation focuses on the use of human 3D-CAD models for both, the ergonomic design of working environments and made to measure garment production. Today, the entire production chain can be designed, individualized models generated and analyzed in 3D computer environments. Anthropometric design for ergonomics is matched to human needs, thus preserving health. Ergonomic simulation includes topics as human vision, reachability, kinematics, force and comfort analysis and international design capabilities. In German more than 17 billions of Mark are moved to other industries, because clothes do not fit. Individual clothing tailored to the customer's preference means surplus value, pleasure and perfect fit. The body scanning technology is the key to generation and use of human 3D-CAD models for both, the ergonomic design of working environments and made to measure garment production.
Assessing the RELAPS-3D Heat Conduction Enclosure Model
McCann, Larry D.
2008-09-30
Three heat conduction problems that have exact solutions are modeled with RELAP5-3D using the conduction enclosure model. These comparisons are designed to be used in the RELAP5-3D development assessment scheduled to be completed in 2009. It is shown that with proper input choices and adequate model detail the exact solutions can be matched. In addition, this analysis identified an error and the required correction in the cylindrical and spherical heat conductor models in RELAP5-3D which will be corrected in a future version of RELAP5-3D.
3D root canal modeling for advanced endodontic treatment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hong, Shane Y.; Dong, Janet
2002-06-01
More than 14 million teeth receive endodontic (root canal) treatment annually. Before a clinician's inspection and diagnosis, destructive access preparation by removing teeth crown and dentin is usually needed. This paper presents a non-invasive method for accessing internal tooth geometry by building 3-D tooth model from 2-D radiographic and endoscopic images to be used for an automatic prescription system of computer-aided treatment procedure planning, and for the root canal preparation by an intelligent micro drilling machine with on-line monitoring. It covers the techniques specific for dental application in the radiographic images acquirement, image enhancement, image segmentation and feature recognition, distance measurement and calibration, merging 2D image into 3D mathematical model representation and display. Included also are the methods to form references for irregular teeth geometry and to do accurately measurement with self-calibration.
3D PIC Modeling of Microcavity Discharge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hopkins, Matthew; Manginell, Ronald; Moore, Christopher; Yee, Benjamin; Moorman, Matthew
2015-09-01
We present a number of techniques and challenges in simulating the transient behavior of a microcavity discharge. Our microcavities are typically cylindrical with diameters approximately 50 - 100 μm, heights of 50 - 200 μm, pressure near atmospheric, and operate at a few hundred volts. We employ a fully kinetic simulation methodology, the Particle-in-Cell (PIC) method, with interparticle collisions handled via methods based on direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC). In particular, we explicitly include kinetic electrons. Some of the challenges we encounter include variations in number densities, external circuit coupling, and time step resolution constraints. By employing dynamic particle weighting (particle weights vary over time by species and location) we can mitigate some of the challenges modeling systems with 107 variations in number densities. Smoothing mechanisms have been used to attempt to mitigate external circuit response. We perform our simulations on hundreds or thousands of processing cores to accommodate the computational work inherent in using relatively small time step sizes (e.g., 50 fs for a 100 ns calculation). In addition, particle weighting issues inherent to three-dimensional low temperature plasma systems will be mentioned. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's NNSA under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Visualization of 3D Geological Models on Google Earth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Y.; Um, J.; Park, M.
2013-05-01
Google Earth combines satellite imagery, aerial photography, thematic maps and various data sets to make a three-dimensional (3D) interactive image of the world. Currently, Google Earth is a popular visualization tool in a variety of fields and plays an increasingly important role not only for private users in daily life, but also for scientists, practitioners, policymakers and stakeholders in research and application. In this study, a method to visualize 3D geological models on Google Earth is presented. COLLAborative Design Activity (COLLADA, an open standard XML schema for establishing interactive 3D applications) was used to represent different 3D geological models such as borehole, fence section, surface-based 3D volume and 3D grid by triangle meshes (a set of triangles connected by their common edges or corners). In addition, we designed Keyhole Markup Language (KML, the XML-based scripting language of Google Earth) codes to import the COLLADA files into the 3D render window of Google Earth. The method was applied to the Grosmont formation in Alberta, Canada. The application showed that the combination of COLLADA and KML enables Google Earth to effectively visualize 3D geological structures and properties.; Visualization of the (a) boreholes, (b) fence sections, (c) 3D volume model and (d) 3D grid model of Grossmont formation on Google Earth
A hybrid-3D hillslope hydrological model for use in Earth system models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hazenberg, P.; Fang, Y.; Broxton, P.; Gochis, D.; Niu, G.-Y.; Pelletier, J. D.; Troch, P. A.; Zeng, X.
2015-10-01
Hillslope-scale rainfall-runoff processes leading to a fast catchment response are not explicitly included in land surface models (LSMs) for use in earth system models (ESMs) due to computational constraints. This study presents a hybrid-3D hillslope hydrological model (h3D) that couples a 1-D vertical soil column model with a lateral pseudo-2D saturated zone and overland flow model for use in ESMs. By representing vertical and lateral responses separately at different spatial resolutions, h3D is computationally efficient. The h3D model was first tested for three different hillslope planforms (uniform, convergent and divergent). We then compared h3D (with single and multiple soil columns) with a complex physically based 3-D model and a simple 1-D soil moisture model coupled with an unconfined aquifer (as typically used in LSMs). It is found that simulations obtained by the simple 1-D model vary considerably from the complex 3-D model and are not able to represent hillslope-scale variations in the lateral flow response. In contrast, the single soil column h3D model shows a much better performance and saves computational time by 2-3 orders of magnitude compared with the complex 3-D model. When multiple vertical soil columns are implemented, the resulting hydrological responses (soil moisture, water table depth, and base flow along the hillslope) from h3D are nearly identical to those predicted by the complex 3-D model, but still saves computational time. As such, the computational efficiency of the h3D model provides a valuable and promising approach to incorporating hillslope-scale hydrological processes into continental and global-scale ESMs.
a Fast Method for Measuring the Similarity Between 3d Model and 3d Point Cloud
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Zongliang; Li, Jonathan; Li, Xin; Lin, Yangbin; Zhang, Shanxin; Wang, Cheng
2016-06-01
This paper proposes a fast method for measuring the partial Similarity between 3D Model and 3D point Cloud (SimMC). It is crucial to measure SimMC for many point cloud-related applications such as 3D object retrieval and inverse procedural modelling. In our proposed method, the surface area of model and the Distance from Model to point Cloud (DistMC) are exploited as measurements to calculate SimMC. Here, DistMC is defined as the weighted distance of the distances between points sampled from model and point cloud. Similarly, Distance from point Cloud to Model (DistCM) is defined as the average distance of the distances between points in point cloud and model. In order to reduce huge computational burdens brought by calculation of DistCM in some traditional methods, we define SimMC as the ratio of weighted surface area of model to DistMC. Compared to those traditional SimMC measuring methods that are only able to measure global similarity, our method is capable of measuring partial similarity by employing distance-weighted strategy. Moreover, our method is able to be faster than other partial similarity assessment methods. We demonstrate the superiority of our method both on synthetic data and laser scanning data.
A 3D Geometry Model Search Engine to Support Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tam, Gary K. L.; Lau, Rynson W. H.; Zhao, Jianmin
2009-01-01
Due to the popularity of 3D graphics in animation and games, usage of 3D geometry deformable models increases dramatically. Despite their growing importance, these models are difficult and time consuming to build. A distance learning system for the construction of these models could greatly facilitate students to learn and practice at different…
Evaluation of 3D-Jury on CASP7 models
Kaján, László; Rychlewski, Leszek
2007-01-01
Background 3D-Jury, the structure prediction consensus method publicly available in the Meta Server , was evaluated using models gathered in the 7th round of the Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction (CASP7). 3D-Jury is an automated expert process that generates protein structure meta-predictions from sets of models obtained from partner servers. Results The performance of 3D-Jury was analysed for three aspects. First, we examined the correlation between the 3D-Jury score and a model quality measure: the number of correctly predicted residues. The 3D-Jury score was shown to correlate significantly with the number of correctly predicted residues, the correlation is good enough to be used for prediction. 3D-Jury was also found to improve upon the competing servers' choice of the best structure model in most cases. The value of the 3D-Jury score as a generic reliability measure was also examined. We found that the 3D-Jury score separates bad models from good models better than the reliability score of the original server in 27 cases and falls short of it in only 5 cases out of a total of 38. We report the release of a new Meta Server feature: instant 3D-Jury scoring of uploaded user models. Conclusion The 3D-Jury score continues to be a good indicator of structural model quality. It also provides a generic reliability score, especially important for models that were not assigned such by the original server. Individual structure modellers can also benefit from the 3D-Jury scoring system by testing their models in the new instant scoring feature available in the Meta Server. PMID:17711571
Computational modeling of RNA 3D structures and interactions.
Dawson, Wayne K; Bujnicki, Janusz M
2016-04-01
RNA molecules have key functions in cellular processes beyond being carriers of protein-coding information. These functions are often dependent on the ability to form complex three-dimensional (3D) structures. However, experimental determination of RNA 3D structures is difficult, which has prompted the development of computational methods for structure prediction from sequence. Recent progress in 3D structure modeling of RNA and emerging approaches for predicting RNA interactions with ions, ligands and proteins have been stimulated by successes in protein 3D structure modeling. PMID:26689764
The Engelbourg's ruins: from 3D TLS point cloud acquisition to 3D virtual and historic models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koehl, Mathieu; Berger, Solveig; Nobile, Sylvain
2014-05-01
. The 3D model integrated into a GIS is now a precious means of communication for the valuation of the site. Accessible to all, including to the distant people, he allows discover the castle and his history in an educational and relevant way. From an archaeological point of view, the 3D model brings an overall view and a backward movement on the constitution of the site, which a 2D document cannot easily offer. The 3D navigation and the integration of 2D data in the model allow analyze vestiges in another way, contributing to the faster establishment of new hypotheses. Complementary to other methods already exploited in archaeology, the analysis by the 3D vision is, for the scientists, a significant saving of time which they can so dedicate to the more thorough study of certain put aside hypotheses. In parallel, we created several panoramas, and set up a virtual and interactive visit of the site. In the optics to perpetuate this project, and to offer to the future users the ways to continue and to update this study, we tested and set up the methodologies of processing. We were so able to release procedures clear, orderly and applicable as well to the case of Engelbourg as to other similar studies. At least, some hypotheses permits to reconstruct virtually first versions of the original state of the castle.
Highway 3D model from image and lidar data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Jinfeng; Chu, Henry; Sun, Xiaoduan
2014-05-01
We present a new method of highway 3-D model construction developed based on feature extraction in highway images and LIDAR data. We describe the processing road coordinate data that connect the image frames to the coordinates of the elevation data. Image processing methods are used to extract sky, road, and ground regions as well as significant objects (such as signs and building fronts) in the roadside for the 3D model. LIDAR data are interpolated and processed to extract the road lanes as well as other features such as trees, ditches, and elevated objects to form the 3D model. 3D geometry reasoning is used to match the image features to the 3D model. Results from successive frames are integrated to improve the final model.
Simulation of 3D infrared scenes using random fields model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shao, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Jianqi
2001-09-01
Analysis and simulation of smart munitions requires imagery for the munition's sensor to view. The traditional infrared background simulations are always limited in the plane scene studies. A new method is described to synthesize the images in 3D view and with various terrains texture. We develop the random fields model and temperature fields to simulate 3D infrared scenes. Generalized long-correlation (GLC) model, one of random field models, will generate both the 3D terrains skeleton data and the terrains texture in this work. To build the terrain mesh with the random fields, digital elevation models (DEM) are introduced in the paper. And texture mapping technology will perform the task of pasting the texture in the concavo-convex surfaces of the 3D scene. The simulation using random fields model is a very available method to produce 3D infrared scene with great randomicity and reality.
Northern California Seismic Attenuation: 3-D Qp and Qs models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eberhart-Phillips, D. M.
2015-12-01
The northern California crust exhibits a wide range of rock types and deformation processes which produce pronounced heterogeneity in regional attenuation. Using local earthquakes, 3-D Qp and Qs crustal models have been obtained for this region which includes the San Andreas fault system, the Central Valley, the Sierra Nevada batholith, and the Mendocino subduction volcanic system. Path attenuation t* values were determined from P and S spectra of 959 spatially distributed earthquakes, magnitude 2.5-6.0 from 2005-2014, using 1254 stations from NCEDC networks and IRIS Mendocino and Sierra Nevada temporary arrays. The t* data were used in Q inversions, using existing hypocenters and 3-D velocity models, with basic 10-km node spacing. The uneven data coverage was accounted for with linking of nodes into larger areas in order to provide useful Q images across the 3-D volume. The results at shallow depth (< 2 km) show very low Q in the Sacramento Delta, the Eureka area, and parts of the Bay Area. In the brittle crust, fault zones that have high seismicity exhibit low Q. In the lower crust, low Q is observed along fault zones that have large cumulative displacement and have experienced grain size reduction. Underlying active volcanic areas, low Q features are apparent below 20-km depth. Moderately high Q is associated with igneous rocks of the Sierra Nevada and Salinian block, while the Franciscan subduction complex shows moderately low Q. The most prominent high Q feature is related to the Great Valley Ophiolite.
Extending 3D city models with legal information
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frank, A. U.; Fuhrmann, T.; Navratil, G.
2012-10-01
3D city models represent existing physical objects and their topological and functional relations. In everyday life the rights and responsibilities connected to these objects, primarily legally defined rights and obligations but also other socially and culturally established rights, are of importance. The rights and obligations are defined in various laws and it is often difficult to identify the rules applicable for a certain case. The existing 2D cadastres show civil law rights and obligations and plans to extend them to provide information about public law restrictions for land use are in several countries under way. It is tempting to design extensions to the 3D city models to provide information about legal rights in 3D. The paper analyses the different types of information that are needed to reduce conflicts and to facilitate decisions about land use. We identify the role 3D city models augmented with planning information in 3D can play, but do not advocate a general conversion from 2D to 3D for the legal cadastre. Space is not anisotropic and the up/down dimension is practically very different from the two dimensional plane - this difference must be respected when designing spatial information systems. The conclusions are: (1) continue the current regime for ownership of apartments, which is not ownership of a 3D volume, but co-ownership of a building with exclusive use of some rooms; such exclusive use rights could be shown in a 3D city model; (2) ownership of 3D volumes for complex and unusual building situations can be reported in a 3D city model, but are not required everywhere; (3) indicate restrictions for land use and building in 3D city models, with links to the legal sources.
Canada in 3D - Toward a Sustainable 3D Model for Canadian Geology from Diverse Data Sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brodaric, B.; Pilkington, M.; Snyder, D. B.; St-Onge, M. R.; Russell, H.
2015-12-01
Many big science issues span large areas and require data from multiple heterogeneous sources, for example climate change, resource management, and hazard mitigation. Solutions to these issues can significantly benefit from access to a consistent and integrated geological model that would serve as a framework. However, such a model is absent for most large countries including Canada, due to the size of the landmass and the fragmentation of the source data into institutional and disciplinary silos. To overcome these barriers, the "Canada in 3D" (C3D) pilot project was recently launched by the Geological Survey of Canada. C3D is designed to be evergreen, multi-resolution, and inter-disciplinary: (a) it is to be updated regularly upon acquisition of new data; (b) portions vary in resolution and will initially consist of four layers (surficial, sedimentary, crystalline, and mantle) with intermediary patches of higher-resolution fill; and (c) a variety of independently managed data sources are providing inputs, such as geophysical, 3D and 2D geological models, drill logs, and others. Notably, scalability concerns dictate a decentralized and interoperable approach, such that only key control objects, denoting anchors for the modeling process, are imported into the C3D database while retaining provenance links to original sources. The resultant model is managed in the database, contains full modeling provenance as well as links to detailed information on rock units, and is to be visualized in desktop and online environments. It is anticipated that C3D will become the authoritative state of knowledge for the geology of Canada at a national scale.
3D scanning modeling method application in ancient city reconstruction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Pu; Zhou, Mingquan; Du, Guoguang; Shui, Wuyang; Zhou, Pengbo
2015-07-01
With the development of optical engineering technology, the precision of 3D scanning equipment becomes higher, and its role in 3D modeling is getting more distinctive. This paper proposed a 3D scanning modeling method that has been successfully applied in Chinese ancient city reconstruction. On one hand, for the existing architectures, an improved algorithm based on multiple scanning is adopted. Firstly, two pieces of scanning data were rough rigid registered using spherical displacers and vertex clustering method. Secondly, a global weighted ICP (iterative closest points) method is used to achieve a fine rigid registration. On the other hand, for the buildings which have already disappeared, an exemplar-driven algorithm for rapid modeling was proposed. Based on the 3D scanning technology and the historical data, a system approach was proposed for 3D modeling and virtual display of ancient city.
3-D model-based Bayesian classification
Soenneland, L.; Tenneboe, P.; Gehrmann, T.; Yrke, O.
1994-12-31
The challenging task of the interpreter is to integrate different pieces of information and combine them into an earth model. The sophistication level of this earth model might vary from the simplest geometrical description to the most complex set of reservoir parameters related to the geometrical description. Obviously the sophistication level also depend on the completeness of the available information. The authors describe the interpreter`s task as a mapping between the observation space and the model space. The information available to the interpreter exists in observation space and the task is to infer a model in model-space. It is well-known that this inversion problem is non-unique. Therefore any attempt to find a solution depend son constraints being added in some manner. The solution will obviously depend on which constraints are introduced and it would be desirable to allow the interpreter to modify the constraints in a problem-dependent manner. They will present a probabilistic framework that gives the interpreter the tools to integrate the different types of information and produce constrained solutions. The constraints can be adapted to the problem at hand.
Opportunity Landing Spot Panorama (3-D Model)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2004-01-01
The rocky outcrop traversed by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity is visible in this three-dimensional model of the rover's landing site. Opportunity has acquired close-up images along the way, and scientists are using the rover's instruments to closely examine portions of interest. The white fragments that look crumpled near the center of the image are portions of the airbags. Distant scenery is displayed on a spherical backdrop or 'billboard' for context. Artifacts near the top rim of the crater are a result of the transition between the three-dimensional model and the billboard. Portions of the terrain model lacking sufficient data appear as blank spaces or gaps, colored reddish-brown for better viewing. This image was generated using special software from NASA's Ames Research Center and a mosaic of images taken by the rover's panoramic camera.
[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger view
The rocky outcrop traversed by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity is visible in this zoomed-in portion of a three-dimensional model of the rover's landing site. Opportunity has acquired close-up images along the way, and scientists are using the rover's instruments to closely examine portions of interest. The white fragments that look crumpled near the center of the image are portions of the airbags. Distant scenery is displayed on a spherical backdrop or 'billboard' for context. Artifacts near the top rim of the crater are a result of the transition between the three-dimensional model and the billboard. Portions of the terrain model lacking sufficient data appear as blank spaces or gaps, colored reddish-brown for better viewing. This image was generated using special software from NASA's Ames Research Center and a mosaic of images taken by the rover's panoramic camera.
Virtual 3d City Modeling: Techniques and Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.
2013-08-01
3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as Building, Tree, Vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. There are various terms used for 3D city models such as "Cybertown", "Cybercity", "Virtual City", or "Digital City". 3D city models are basically a computerized or digital model of a city contains the graphic representation of buildings and other objects in 2.5 or 3D. Generally three main Geomatics approach are using for Virtual 3-D City models generation, in first approach, researcher are using Conventional techniques such as Vector Map data, DEM, Aerial images, second approach are based on High resolution satellite images with LASER scanning, In third method, many researcher are using Terrestrial images by using Close Range Photogrammetry with DSM & Texture mapping. We start this paper from the introduction of various Geomatics techniques for 3D City modeling. These techniques divided in to two main categories: one is based on Automation (Automatic, Semi-automatic and Manual methods), and another is Based on Data input techniques (one is Photogrammetry, another is Laser Techniques). After details study of this, finally in short, we are trying to give the conclusions of this study. In the last, we are trying to give the conclusions of this research paper and also giving a short view for justification and analysis, and present trend for 3D City modeling. This paper gives an overview about the Techniques related with "Generation of Virtual 3-D City models using Geomatics Techniques" and the Applications of Virtual 3D City models. Photogrammetry, (Close range, Aerial, Satellite), Lasergrammetry, GPS, or combination of these modern Geomatics techniques play a major role to create a virtual 3-D City model. Each and every techniques and method has some advantages and some drawbacks. Point cloud model is a modern trend for virtual 3-D city model. Photo-realistic, Scalable, Geo-referenced virtual 3
3D Geologic Model of the San Diego Area
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Danskin, W. R.; Cromwell, G.; Glockhoff, C.; Martin, D.
2015-12-01
Prior geologic studies of the San Diego area, including northern Baja California, Mexico, focused on site investigations, characterization of rock formations, or earthquake hazards. No comprehensive, quantitative model characterizing the three-dimensional (3D) geology of the entire area has been developed. The lack of such a model limits understanding of large-scale processes, such as development of ancient landforms, and groundwater movement and availability. To evaluate these regional processes, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a study to better understand the geologic structure of the San Diego area. A cornerstone of this study is the installation and analysis of 77 wells at 12 multiple-depth monitoring-well sites. Geologic information from these wells was combined with lithologic data from 81 oil exploration wells and municipal and private water wells, gravity and seismic interpretations, and paleontological interpretations. These data were analyzed in conjunction with geologic maps and digital elevation models to develop a 3D geologic model of the San Diego area, in particular of the San Diego embayment. Existing interpretations of regional surficial geology, faulting, and tectonic history provided the framework for this model, which was refined by independent evaluation of subsurface geology. Geologic formations were simplified into five sedimentary units (Quaternary, Plio-Pleistocene, Oligocene, Eocene and Cretaceous ages), and one basal crystalline unit (primarily Cretaceous and Jurassic). Complex fault systems are represented in the model by ten fault strands that maintain overall displacement. The 3D geologic model corroborates existing geologic concepts of the San Diego area, refines the extent of subsurface geology, and allows users to holistically evaluate subsurface structures and regional hydrogeology.
Modeling and Processing of Continuous 3D Elastic Wavefield Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Milkereit, B.; Bohlen, T.
2001-12-01
Continuous seismic wavefields are excited by earthquake clustering, induced seismicity in reservoirs, and mining. In hydrocarbon reservoirs, for example, pore pressure changes and fluid flow (mass transfer) will cause incremental deviatoric stresses sufficient to trigger and sustain seismic activity. Here we address three aspects of seismic wavefields in three-dimensional heterogeneous media triggered by distributed sources in space and time: forward modeling, multichannel data processing, and source location imaging. A power law distribution of seismic sources (such as the Gutenberg-Richter law) is used for the modeling of viscoelastic/elastic wave propagation through a realistic earth model. 3D modeling provides new insight in the interaction of multi-source wavefields and the role of scale-dependend elastic model parameters on transmitted and reflected/back-scattered wavefields. There exists a strong correlation between the spatial properties of the compressional, shear wave and density perturbations and the lateral correlation length of the resulting reflected or transmitted seismic wavefields. Modeling is based on the implementation of 3D elastic/viscoelastic FD codes on massive parallel and/or distributed computing resources using MPI (message passing interface). For parallelization, large grid 3D earth models are decomposed into subvolume processing elements whereby each processing element is updating the wavefield within its portion of the grid. Processing of continuous seismic wavefields excited by multiple distributed sources is based on a combination of crosscorrelated or slowness-transformed array data and Kirchhoff or reverse time migration for source location or source volume imaging. The appearance of slowness in both migration and array data processing suggests the possibility of combining them into a single process. In order to place further constraints on the migration, the directivity properties of 3-component receiver arrays can be included in
Underwater 3d Modeling: Image Enhancement and Point Cloud Filtering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarakinou, I.; Papadimitriou, K.; Georgoula, O.; Patias, P.
2016-06-01
This paper examines the results of image enhancement and point cloud filtering on the visual and geometric quality of 3D models for the representation of underwater features. Specifically it evaluates the combination of effects from the manual editing of images' radiometry (captured at shallow depths) and the selection of parameters for point cloud definition and mesh building (processed in 3D modeling software). Such datasets, are usually collected by divers, handled by scientists and used for geovisualization purposes. In the presented study, have been created 3D models from three sets of images (seafloor, part of a wreck and a small boat's wreck) captured at three different depths (3.5m, 10m and 14m respectively). Four models have been created from the first dataset (seafloor) in order to evaluate the results from the application of image enhancement techniques and point cloud filtering. The main process for this preliminary study included a) the definition of parameters for the point cloud filtering and the creation of a reference model, b) the radiometric editing of images, followed by the creation of three improved models and c) the assessment of results by comparing the visual and the geometric quality of improved models versus the reference one. Finally, the selected technique is tested on two other data sets in order to examine its appropriateness for different depths (at 10m and 14m) and different objects (part of a wreck and a small boat's wreck) in the context of an ongoing research in the Laboratory of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.
Venusian Applications of 3D Convection Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bonaccorso, Timary Annie
2011-01-01
This study models mantle convection on Venus using the 'cubed sphere' code OEDIPUS, which models one-sixth of the planet in spherical geometry. We are attempting to balance internal heating, bottom mantle viscosity, and temperature difference across Venus' mantle, in order to create a realistic model that matches with current planetary observations. We also have begun to run both lower and upper mantle simulations to determine whether layered (as opposed to whole-mantle) convection might produce more efficient heat transfer, as well as to model coronae formation in the upper mantle. Upper mantle simulations are completed using OEDIPUS' Cartesian counterpart, JOCASTA. This summer's central question has been how to define a mantle plume. Traditionally, we have defined a hot plume the region with temperature at or above 40% of the difference between the maximum and horizontally averaged temperature, and a cold plume as the region with 40% of the difference between the minimum and average temperature. For less viscous cases (1020 Pa?s), the plumes generated by that definition lacked vigor, displaying buoyancies 1/100th of those found in previous, higher viscosity simulations (1021 Pa?s). As the mantle plumes with large buoyancy flux are most likely to produce topographic uplift and volcanism, the low viscosity cases' plumes may not produce observable deformation. In an effort to eliminate the smallest plumes, we experimented with different lower bound parameters and temperature percentages.
James E. Fisher; Cliff B. Davis; Walter L. Weaver
2005-06-01
A compressor model has been implemented in the RELAP5-3D© code. The model is similar to that of the existing pump model, and performs the same function on a gas as the pump performs on a single-phase or two-phase fluid. The compressor component consists of an inlet junction and a control volume, and optionally, an outlet junction. This feature permits cascading compressor components in series. The equations describing the physics of the compressor are derived from first principles. These equations are used to obtain the head, the torque, and the energy dissipation. Compressor performance is specified using a map, specific to the design of the machine, in terms of the ratio of outlet-to-inlet total (or stagnation) pressure and adiabatic efficiency as functions of rotational velocity and flow rate. The input quantities are specified in terms of dimensionless variables, which are corrected to stagnation density and stagnation sound speed. A small correction was formulated for the input of efficiency to account for the error introduced by assumption of constant density when integrating the momentum equation. Comparison of the results of steady-state operation of the compressor model to those of the MIT design calculation showed excellent agreement for both pressure ratio and power.
Image based 3D city modeling : Comparative study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.
2014-06-01
3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as building, tree, vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. The demand of 3D city modeling is increasing rapidly for various engineering and non-engineering applications. Generally four main image based approaches were used for virtual 3D city models generation. In first approach, researchers were used Sketch based modeling, second method is Procedural grammar based modeling, third approach is Close range photogrammetry based modeling and fourth approach is mainly based on Computer Vision techniques. SketchUp, CityEngine, Photomodeler and Agisoft Photoscan are the main softwares to represent these approaches respectively. These softwares have different approaches & methods suitable for image based 3D city modeling. Literature study shows that till date, there is no complete such type of comparative study available to create complete 3D city model by using images. This paper gives a comparative assessment of these four image based 3D modeling approaches. This comparative study is mainly based on data acquisition methods, data processing techniques and output 3D model products. For this research work, study area is the campus of civil engineering department, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India). This 3D campus acts as a prototype for city. This study also explains various governing parameters, factors and work experiences. This research work also gives a brief introduction, strengths and weakness of these four image based techniques. Some personal comment is also given as what can do or what can't do from these softwares. At the last, this study shows; it concluded that, each and every software has some advantages and limitations. Choice of software depends on user requirements of 3D project. For normal visualization project, SketchUp software is a good option. For 3D documentation record, Photomodeler gives good result. For Large city
NoSQL Based 3D City Model Management System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mao, B.; Harrie, L.; Cao, J.; Wu, Z.; Shen, J.
2014-04-01
To manage increasingly complicated 3D city models, a framework based on NoSQL database is proposed in this paper. The framework supports import and export of 3D city model according to international standards such as CityGML, KML/COLLADA and X3D. We also suggest and implement 3D model analysis and visualization in the framework. For city model analysis, 3D geometry data and semantic information (such as name, height, area, price and so on) are stored and processed separately. We use a Map-Reduce method to deal with the 3D geometry data since it is more complex, while the semantic analysis is mainly based on database query operation. For visualization, a multiple 3D city representation structure CityTree is implemented within the framework to support dynamic LODs based on user viewpoint. Also, the proposed framework is easily extensible and supports geoindexes to speed up the querying. Our experimental results show that the proposed 3D city management system can efficiently fulfil the analysis and visualization requirements.
Modelling Polymer Deformation during 3D Printing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McIlroy, Claire; Olmsted, Peter
Three-dimensional printing has the potential to transform manufacturing processes, yet improving the strength of printed parts, to equal that of traditionally-manufactured parts, remains an underlying issue. The fused deposition modelling technique involves melting a thermoplastic, followed by layer-by-layer extrusion to fabricate an object. The key to ensuring strength at the weld between layers is successful inter-diffusion. However, prior to welding, both the extrusion process and the cooling temperature profile can significantly deform the polymer micro-structure and, consequently, how well the polymers are able to ``re-entangle'' across the weld. In particular, polymer alignment in the flow can cause de-bonding of the layers and create defects. We have developed a simple model of the non-isothermal extrusion process to explore the effects that typical printing conditions and material rheology have on the conformation of a polymer melt. In particular, we incorporate both stretch and orientation using the Rolie-Poly constitutive equation to examine the melt structure as it flows through the nozzle, the subsequent alignment with the build plate and the resulting deformation due to the fixed nozzle height, which is typically less than the nozzle radius.
A generic 3D kinetic model of gene expression
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhdanov, Vladimir P.
2012-04-01
Recent experiments show that mRNAs and proteins can be localized both in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. To describe such situations, I present a 3D mean-field kinetic model aimed primarily at gene expression in prokaryotic cells, including the formation of mRNA, its translation into protein, and slow diffusion of these species. Under steady-state conditions, the mRNA and protein spatial distribution is described by simple exponential functions. The protein concentration near the gene transcribed into mRNA is shown to depend on the protein and mRNA diffusion coefficients and degradation rate constants.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Przyborska, Anna; Kosecki, Szymon; Jakacki, Jaromir
2014-05-01
Kongsfjorden is a West Svalbard fjord with a surface area of about 210 km2. It is obvious that the depths of the outer and central basins are influenced by the open sea, under influence of West Spitsbergen Current (WSC), which curry out warm Atlantic water and cold East Spitsbergen Current, while the shallower, inner basin has a large glacial outflow and its maximum depths do not exceed 100 m. Freshwater stored in Spitsbergen glaciers have strong influence on local hydrology and physical fjord conditions. Both, local and shelf conditions have impact on state of the fjord. External forces like tides, velocities at the boundary and atmospheric forces together with sources of cold and dens fresh water in the fjords will give reliable representation of physical conditions in Kongsfjorden. Modeling could help to solve this problem and we have hope that we find answer which one is the most important for local conditions in fjord. Calculations of balances between cold fresh water and warm and salt will provide additional information that could help to answer the main question of the GAME (Growing of the Arctic Marine Ecosystem) project - what is the reaction of physically controlled Arctic marine ecosystem to temperature rise.
Subduction zone guided waves: 3D modelling and attenuation effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garth, T.; Rietbrock, A.
2013-12-01
Waveform modelling is an important tool for understanding complex seismic structures such as subduction zone waveguides. These structures are often simplified to 2D structures for modelling purposes to reduce computational costs. In the case of subduction zone waveguide affects, 2D models have shown that dispersed arrivals are caused by a low velocity waveguide, inferred to be subducted oceanic crust and/or hydrated outer rise normal faults. However, due to the 2D modelling limitations the inferred seismic properties such as velocity contrast and waveguide thickness are still debated. Here we test these limitations with full 3D waveform modelling. For waveguide effects to be observable the waveform must be accurately modelled to relatively high frequencies (> 2 Hz). This requires a small grid spacing due to the high seismic velocities present in subduction zones. A large area must be modelled as well due to the long propagation distances (400 - 600 km) of waves interacting with subduction zone waveguides. The combination of the large model area and small grid spacing required means that these simulations require a large amount of computational resources, only available at high performance computational centres like the UK National super computer HECTOR (used in this study). To minimize the cost of modelling for such a large area, the width of the model area perpendicular to the subduction trench (the y-direction) is made as small as possible. This reduces the overall volume of the 3D model domain. Therefore the wave field is simulated in a model ';corridor' of the subduction zone velocity structure. This introduces new potential sources of error particularly from grazing wave side reflections in the y-direction. Various dampening methods are explored to reduce these grazing side reflections, including perfectly matched layers (PML) and more traditional exponential dampening layers. Defining a corridor model allows waveguide affects to be modelled up to at least 2
Towards Forward Modeling of 3D Heterogeneity in D" region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
To, A.; Capdeville, Y.; Romanowicz, B.
2002-12-01
The presence of strong lateral heterogeneity in D" is now well documented. While tomographic modeling provides constraints on the large scale patterns, strong variations on shorter scales are best addressed by forward modeling. Appropriate tools are needed for forward modeling that will handle strong 3D heterogeneity, at relatively short periods and including diffracted waves. We use a coupled mode/SEM (Spectral Element Method) to compute synthetic seismograms in 3D models of the D" layer down to 1/12s. This coupled method (Capdeville, 2001) affords faster computations than SEM in cases where heterogeneity can be restricted to a specific layer. We compare them with observed waveforms for several events in the Western Pacific. Observed and synthetic travel time trends are very consistent, although in most cases the observed residuals are significantly larger. Waveform amplitudes are less consistent. In order to understand the origin of the amplitude difference, we test the effect of 3D heterogeneity on Sdiff phase. In particular, the results show opposite trends in the amplitude of Sdiff due to heterogeneity located near the CMB or well above it. This provides constraints on the location of the causative velocity heterogeneity. Because the forward modeling approach requires many iterations, the coupled mode/SEM approach is still computationally intensive. It is more efficient to use a less accurate traditional approach to first get closer to a final model, and only then use coupled mode/SEM to refine the model. Ray theory is the most expedient way to calculate travel times. However, it is an infinite frequency approximation and not appropriate to handle diffracting waves. We show that ray theory predicts larger travel time anomaly for Sdiff phase than the one obtained by coupled mode/SEM. Although it is based on a weak heterogeneity assumption, Non-linear Asymptotic Coupling Theory(NACT) (Li and Romanowicz, 1995) helps to overcome this difficulty. It can handle
The 3D model: explaining densification and deformation mechanisms by using 3D parameter plots.
Picker, Katharina M
2004-04-01
The aim of the study was to analyze very differently deforming materials using 3D parameter plots and consequently to gain deeper insights into the densification and deformation process described with the 3D model in order to define an ideal tableting excipient. The excipients used were dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), sodium chloride (NaCl), microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), xylitol, mannitol, alpha-lactose monohydrate, maltose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC), cellulose acetate (CAC), maize starch, potato starch, pregelatinized starch, and maltodextrine. All of the materials were tableted to graded maximum relative densities (rhorel, max) using an eccentric tableting machine. The data which resulted, namely force, displacement, and time, were analyzed by the application of 3D modeling. Different particle size fractions of DCPD, CAC, and MCC were analyzed in addition. Brittle deforming materials such as DCPD exhibited a completely different 3D parameter plot, with low time plasticity, d, and low pressure plasticity, e, and a strong decrease in omega values when densification increased, in contrast to the plastically deforming MCC, which had much higher d, e, and omega values. e and omega values changed only slightly when densification increased for MCC. NaCl showed less of a decrease in omega values than DCPD did, and the d and e values were between those of MCC and DCPD. The sugar alcohols, xylitol and mannitol, behaved in a similar fashion to sodium chloride. This is also valid for the crystalline sugars, alpha-lactose monohydrate, and maltose. However, the sugars are more brittle than the sugar alcohols. The cellulose derivatives, HPMC, NaCMC, and CAC, are as plastic as MCC, however, their elasticity depends on substitution indicated by lower (more elastic) or higher (less elastic) omega values. The native starches, maize starch and potato starch, are very elastic, and pregelatinized starch and maltodextrine are
3-D Modeling of a Nearshore Dye Release
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maxwell, A. R.; Hibler, L. F.; Miller, L. M.
2006-12-01
The usage of computer modeling software in predicting the behavior of a plume discharged into deep water is well established. Nearfield plume spreading in coastal areas with complex bathymetry is less commonly studied; in addition to geometry, some of the difficulties of this environment include: tidal exchange, temperature, and salinity gradients. Although some researchers have applied complex hydrodynamic models to this problem, nearfield regions are typically modeled by calibration of an empirical or expert system model. In the present study, the 3D hydrodynamic model Delft3D-FLOW was used to predict the advective transport from a point release in Sequim Bay, Washington. A nested model approach was used, wherein a coarse model using a mesh extending to nearby tide gages (cell sizes up to 1 km) was run over several tidal cycles in order to provide boundary conditions to a smaller area. The nested mesh (cell sizes up to 30 m) was forced on two open boundaries using the water surface elevation derived from the coarse model. Initial experiments with the uncalibrated model were conducted in order to predict plume propagation based on the best available field data. Field experiments were subsequently carried out by releasing rhodamine dye into the bay at near-peak flood tidal current and near high slack tidal conditions. Surface and submerged releases were carried out from an anchored vessel. Concurrently collected data from the experiment include temperature, salinity, dye concentration, and hyperspectral imagery, collected from boats and aircraft. A REMUS autonomous underwater vehicle was used to measure current velocity and dye concentration at varying depths, as well as to acquire additional bathymetric information. Preliminary results indicate that the 3D hydrodynamic model offers a reasonable prediction of plume propagation speed and shape. A sensitivity analysis is underway to determine the significant factors in effectively using the model as a predictive tool
3D Geological Model of Nihe ore deposit Constrained by Gravity and Magnetic Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qi, Guang; Yan, Jiayong; Lv, Qingtan; Zhao, Jinhua
2016-04-01
We present a case study on using integrated geologic model in mineral exploration at depth. Nihe ore deposit in Anhui Province, is deep hidden ore deposit which was discovered in recent years, this finding is the major driving force of deep mineral exploration work in Luzong. Building 3D elaborate geological model has the important significance for prospecting to deep or surround in this area, and can help us better understand the metallogenic law and ore-controlling regularity. A 3D geological model, extending a depth from +200m to -1500m in Nihe ore deposit, has been compiled from surface geological map, cross-section, borehole logs and amounts of geological inference. And then the 3D geological models have been given physical property parameter for calculating the potential field. Modelling the potential response is proposed as means of evaluating the viability of the 3D geological models, and the evidence of making small changes to the uncertain parts of the original 3D geological models. It is expected that the final models not only reproduce supplied prior geological knowledge, but also explain the observed geophysical data. The workflow used to develop the 3D geologic model in this study includes the three major steps, as follows: (1) Determine the basic information of Model: Defining the 3D limits of the model area, the basic geological and structural unit, and the tectonic contact relations and the sedimentary sequences between these units. (2) 3D model construction: Firstly, a series of 2D geological cross sections over the model area are built by using all kinds of prior information, including surface geology, borehole data, seismic sections, and local geologists' knowledge and intuition. Lastly, we put these sections into a 3D environment according to their profile locations to build a 3D model by using geostatistics method. (3) 3D gravity and magnetic modeling: we calculate the potential field responses of the 3D model, and compare the predicted and
3D model tools for architecture and archaeology reconstruction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vlad, Ioan; Herban, Ioan Sorin; Stoian, Mircea; Vilceanu, Clara-Beatrice
2016-06-01
The main objective of architectural and patrimonial survey is to provide a precise documentation of the status quo of the surveyed objects (monuments, buildings, archaeological object and sites) for preservation and protection, for scientific studies and restoration purposes, for the presentation to the general public. Cultural heritage documentation includes an interdisciplinary approach having as purpose an overall understanding of the object itself and an integration of the information which characterize it. The accuracy and the precision of the model are directly influenced by the quality of the measurements realized on field and by the quality of the software. The software is in the process of continuous development, which brings many improvements. On the other side, compared to aerial photogrammetry, close range photogrammetry and particularly architectural photogrammetry is not limited to vertical photographs with special cameras. The methodology of terrestrial photogrammetry has changed significantly and various photographic acquisitions are widely in use. In this context, the present paper brings forward a comparative study of TLS (Terrestrial Laser Scanner) and digital photogrammetry for 3D modeling. The authors take into account the accuracy of the 3D models obtained, the overall costs involved for each technology and method and the 4th dimension - time. The paper proves its applicability as photogrammetric technologies are nowadays used at a large scale for obtaining the 3D model of cultural heritage objects, efficacious in their assessment and monitoring, thus contributing to historic conservation. Its importance also lies in highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of each method used - very important issue for both the industrial and scientific segment when facing decisions such as in which technology to invest more research and funds.
Exploiting Textured 3D Models for Developing Serious Games
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kontogianni, G.; Georgopoulos, A.
2015-08-01
Digital technologies have affected significantly many fields of computer graphics such as Games and especially the field of the Serious Games. These games are usually used for educational proposes in many fields such as Health Care, Military applications, Education, Government etc. Especially Digital Cultural Heritage is a scientific area that Serious Games are applied and lately many applications appear in the related literature. Realistic 3D textured models which have been produced using different photogrammetric methods could be a useful tool for the creation of Serious Game applications in order to make the final result more realistic and close to the reality. The basic goal of this paper is how 3D textured models which are produced by photogrammetric methods can be useful for developing a more realistic environment of a Serious Game. The application of this project aims at the creation of an educational game for the Ancient Agora of Athens. The 3D models used vary not only as far as their production methods (i.e. Time of Flight laser scanner, Structure from Motion, Virtual historical reconstruction etc.) is concerned, but also as far as their era as some of them illustrated according to their existing situation and some others according to how these monuments looked like in the past. The Unity 3D® game developing environment was used for creating this application, in which all these models were inserted in the same file format. For the application two diachronic virtual tours of the Athenian Agora were produced. The first one illustrates the Agora as it is today and the second one at the 2nd century A.D. Finally the future perspective for the evolution of this game is presented which includes the addition of some questions that the user will be able to answer. Finally an evaluation is scheduled to be performed at the end of the project.
3D-model building of the jaw impression
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmed, Moumen T.; Yamany, Sameh M.; Hemayed, Elsayed E.; Farag, Aly A.
1997-03-01
A novel approach is proposed to obtain a record of the patient's occlusion using computer vision. Data acquisition is obtained using intra-oral video cameras. The technique utilizes shape from shading to extract 3D information from 2D views of the jaw, and a novel technique for 3D data registration using genetic algorithms. The resulting 3D model can be used for diagnosis, treatment planning, and implant purposes. The overall purpose of this research is to develop a model-based vision system for orthodontics to replace traditional approaches. This system will be flexible, accurate, and will reduce the cost of orthodontic treatments.
3D model-based still image object categorization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petre, Raluca-Diana; Zaharia, Titus
2011-09-01
This paper proposes a novel recognition scheme algorithm for semantic labeling of 2D object present in still images. The principle consists of matching unknown 2D objects with categorized 3D models in order to infer the semantics of the 3D object to the image. We tested our new recognition framework by using the MPEG-7 and Princeton 3D model databases in order to label unknown images randomly selected from the web. Results obtained show promising performances, with recognition rate up to 84%, which opens interesting perspectives in terms of semantic metadata extraction from still images/videos.
Reassessing Geophysical Models of the Bushveld Complex in 3D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cole, J.; Webb, S. J.; Finn, C.
2012-12-01
Conceptual geophysical models of the Bushveld Igneous Complex show three possible geometries for its mafic component: 1) Separate intrusions with vertical feeders for the eastern and western lobes (Cousins, 1959) 2) Separate dipping sheets for the two lobes (Du Plessis and Kleywegt, 1987) 3) A single saucer-shaped unit connected at depth in the central part between the two lobes (Cawthorn et al, 1998) Model three incorporates isostatic adjustment of the crust in response to the weight of the dense mafic material. The model was corroborated by results of a broadband seismic array over southern Africa, known as the Southern African Seismic Experiment (SASE) (Nguuri, et al, 2001; Webb et al, 2004). This new information about the crustal thickness only became available in the last decade and could not be considered in the earlier models. Nevertheless, there is still on-going debate as to which model is correct. All of the models published up to now have been done in 2 or 2.5 dimensions. This is not well suited to modelling the complex geometry of the Bushveld intrusion. 3D modelling takes into account effects of variations in geometry and geophysical properties of lithologies in a full three dimensional sense and therefore affects the shape and amplitude of calculated fields. The main question is how the new knowledge of the increased crustal thickness, as well as the complexity of the Bushveld Complex, will impact on the gravity fields calculated for the existing conceptual models, when modelling in 3D. The three published geophysical models were remodelled using full 3Dl potential field modelling software, and including crustal thickness obtained from the SASE. The aim was not to construct very detailed models, but to test the existing conceptual models in an equally conceptual way. Firstly a specific 2D model was recreated in 3D, without crustal thickening, to establish the difference between 2D and 3D results. Then the thicker crust was added. Including the less
Recent progress in modelling 3D lithospheric deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaus, B. J. P.; Popov, A.; May, D. A.
2012-04-01
Modelling 3D lithospheric deformation remains a challenging task, predominantly because the variations in rock types, as well as nonlinearities due to for example plastic deformation result in sharp and very large jumps in effective viscosity contrast. As a result, there are only a limited number of 3D codes available, most of which are using direct solvers which are computationally and memory-wise very demanding. As a result, the resolutions for typical model runs are quite modest, despite the use of hundreds of processors (and using much larger computers is unlikely to bring much improvement in this situation). For this reason we recently developed a new 3D deformation code,called LaMEM: Lithosphere and Mantle Evolution Model. LaMEM is written on top of PETSc, and as a result it runs on massive parallel machines and we have a large number of iterative solvers available (including geometric and algebraic multigrid methods). As it remains unclear which solver combinations work best under which conditions, we have implemented most currently suggested methods (such as schur complement reduction or Fully coupled iterations). In addition, we can use either a finite element discretization (with Q1P0, stabilized Q1Q1 or Q2P-1 elements) or a staggered finite difference discretization for the same input geometry, which is based on a marker and cell technique). This gives us he flexibility to test various solver methodologies on the same model setup, in terms of accuracy, speed, memory usage etc. Here, we will report on some features of LaMEM, on recent code additions, as well as on some lessons we learned which are important for modelling 3D lithospheric deformation. Specifically we will discuss: 1) How we combine a particle-and-cell method to make it work with both a finite difference and a (lagrangian, eulerian or ALE) finite element formulation, with only minor code modifications code 2) How finite difference and finite element discretizations compare in terms of
Formal representation of 3D structural geological models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhangang; Qu, Honggang; Wu, Zixing; Yang, Hongjun; Du, Qunle
2016-05-01
The development and widespread application of geological modeling methods has increased demands for the integration and sharing services of three dimensional (3D) geological data. However, theoretical research in the field of geological information sciences is limited despite the widespread use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in geology. In particular, fundamental research on the formal representations and standardized spatial descriptions of 3D structural models is required. This is necessary for accurate understanding and further applications of geological data in 3D space. In this paper, we propose a formal representation method for 3D structural models using the theory of point set topology, which produces a mathematical definition for the major types of geological objects. The spatial relationships between geologic boundaries, structures, and units are explained in detail using the 9-intersection model. Reasonable conditions for describing the topological space of 3D structural models are also provided. The results from this study can be used as potential support for the standardized representation and spatial quality evaluation of 3D structural models, as well as for specific needs related to model-based management, query, and analysis.
Metrological validation for 3D modeling of dental plaster casts.
Brusco, Nicola; Andreetto, Marco; Lucchese, Luca; Carmignato, Simone; Cortelazzo, Guido M
2007-11-01
The contribution of this paper is twofold: (1) it presents an automatic 3D modeling technique and (2) it advances a procedure for its metrological evaluation in the context of a medical application, the 3D modeling of dental plaster casts. The motivation for this work is the creation of a "virtual gypsotheque" where cumbersome dental plaster casts can be replaced by numerical 3D models, thereby alleviating storage and access problems and allowing dentists and orthodontists the use of novel and unprecedented software tools for their medical evaluations. Modeling free-form surfaces of anatomical interest is an intriguing mixture of open issues concerning 3D modeling, geometrical metrology, and medicine. Of general interest is both the fact that a widespread use of 3D modeling in non-engineering applications requires automatic procedures of the kind presented in this work and the adopted validation paradigm for free-form surfaces, rather useful for practical purposes. In this latter respect, the metrological analysis we advance is the first seminal attempt in the field of 3D modeling and can be readily extended to contexts other than the medical one discussed in this paper. PMID:17126062
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kerschke, Dorit; Schilling, Maik; Simon, Andreas; Wächter, Joachim
2014-05-01
application enables an intuitive navigation through all available information and allows the visualization of geological maps (2D), seismic transects (2D/3D), wells (2D/3D), and the 3D-model. These achievements will alleviate spatial and geological data management within the German State Geological Offices and foster the interoperability of heterogeneous systems. It will provide guidance to a systematic subsurface management across system, domain and administrative boundaries on the basis of a federated spatial data infrastructure, and include the public in the decision processes (e-Governance). Yet, the interoperability of the systems has to be strongly propelled forward through agreements on standards that need to be decided upon in responsible committees. The project B3D is funded with resources from the European Fund for Regional Development (EFRE).
3D Modeling from Photos Given Topological Information.
Kim, Young Min; Cho, Junghyun; Ahn, Sang Chul
2016-09-01
Reconstructing 3D models given a single-view 2D information is inherently an ill-posed problem and requires additional information such as shape prior or user input.We introduce a method to generate multiple 3D models of a particular category given corresponding photographs when the topological information is known. While there is a wide range of shapes for an object of a particular category, the basic topology usually remains constant.In consequence, the topological prior needs to be provided only once for each category and can be easily acquired by consulting an existing database of 3D models or by user input. The input of topological description is only connectivity information between parts; this is in contrast to previous approaches that have required users to interactively mark individual parts. Given the silhouette of an object and the topology, our system automatically finds a skeleton and generates a textured 3D model by jointly fitting multiple parts. The proposed method, therefore, opens the possibility of generating a large number of 3D models by consulting a massive number of photographs. We demonstrate examples of the topological prior and reconstructed 3D models using photos. PMID:26661474
Performance Evaluation of 3d Modeling Software for Uav Photogrammetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yanagi, H.; Chikatsu, H.
2016-06-01
UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) photogrammetry, which combines UAV and freely available internet-based 3D modeling software, is widely used as a low-cost and user-friendly photogrammetry technique in the fields such as remote sensing and geosciences. In UAV photogrammetry, only the platform used in conventional aerial photogrammetry is changed. Consequently, 3D modeling software contributes significantly to its expansion. However, the algorithms of the 3D modelling software are black box algorithms. As a result, only a few studies have been able to evaluate their accuracy using 3D coordinate check points. With this motive, Smart3DCapture and Pix4Dmapper were downloaded from the Internet and commercial software PhotoScan was also employed; investigations were performed in this paper using check points and images obtained from UAV.
Automatic Texture Mapping of Architectural and Archaeological 3d Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kersten, T. P.; Stallmann, D.
2012-07-01
Today, detailed, complete and exact 3D models with photo-realistic textures are increasingly demanded for numerous applications in architecture and archaeology. Manual texture mapping of 3D models by digital photographs with software packages, such as Maxon Cinema 4D, Autodesk 3Ds Max or Maya, still requires a complex and time-consuming workflow. So, procedures for automatic texture mapping of 3D models are in demand. In this paper two automatic procedures are presented. The first procedure generates 3D surface models with textures by web services, while the second procedure textures already existing 3D models with the software tmapper. The program tmapper is based on the Multi Layer 3D image (ML3DImage) algorithm and developed in the programming language C++. The studies showing that the visibility analysis using the ML3DImage algorithm is not sufficient to obtain acceptable results of automatic texture mapping. To overcome the visibility problem the Point Cloud Painter algorithm in combination with the Z-buffer-procedure will be applied in the future.
Gis-Based Smart Cartography Using 3d Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malinverni, E. S.; Tassetti, A. N.
2013-08-01
3D City Models have evolved to be important tools for urban decision processes and information systems, especially in planning, simulation, analysis, documentation and heritage management. On the other hand existing and in use numerical cartography is often not suitable to be used in GIS because not geometrically and topologically correctly structured. The research aim is to 3D structure and organize a numeric cartography for GIS and turn it into CityGML standardized features. The work is framed around a first phase of methodological analysis aimed to underline which existing standard (like ISO and OGC rules) can be used to improve the quality requirement of a cartographic structure. Subsequently, from this technical specifics, it has been investigated the translation in formal contents, using an owner interchange software (SketchUp), to support some guide lines implementations to generate a GIS3D structured in GML3. It has been therefore predisposed a test three-dimensional numerical cartography (scale 1:500, generated from range data captured by 3D laser scanner), tested on its quality according to the previous standard and edited when and where necessary. Cad files and shapefiles are converted into a final 3D model (Google SketchUp model) and then exported into a 3D city model (CityGML LoD1/LoD2). The GIS3D structure has been managed in a GIS environment to run further spatial analysis and energy performance estimate, not achievable in a 2D environment. In particular geometrical building parameters (footprint, volume etc.) are computed and building envelop thermal characteristics are derived from. Lastly, a simulation is carried out to deal with asbestos and home renovating charges and show how the built 3D city model can support municipal managers with risk diagnosis of the present situation and development of strategies for a sustainable redevelop.
Combined registration of 3D tibia and femur implant models in 3D magnetic resonance images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Englmeier, Karl-Hans; Siebert, Markus; von Eisenhart-Rothe, Ruediger; Graichen, Heiko
2008-03-01
The most frequent reasons for revision of total knee arthroplasty are loosening and abnormal axial alignment leading to an unphysiological kinematic of the knee implant. To get an idea about the postoperative kinematic of the implant, it is essential to determine the position and orientation of the tibial and femoral prosthesis. Therefore we developed a registration method for fitting 3D CAD-models of knee joint prostheses into an 3D MR image. This rigid registration is the basis for a quantitative analysis of the kinematics of knee implants. Firstly the surface data of the prostheses models are converted into a voxel representation; a recursive algorithm determines all boundary voxels of the original triangular surface data. Secondly an initial preconfiguration of the implants by the user is still necessary for the following step: The user has to perform a rough preconfiguration of both remaining prostheses models, so that the fine matching process gets a reasonable starting point. After that an automated gradient-based fine matching process determines the best absolute position and orientation: This iterative process changes all 6 parameters (3 rotational- and 3 translational parameters) of a model by a minimal amount until a maximum value of the matching function is reached. To examine the spread of the final solutions of the registration, the interobserver variability was measured in a group of testers. This variability, calculated by the relative standard deviation, improved from about 50% (pure manual registration) to 0.5% (rough manual preconfiguration and subsequent fine registration with the automatic fine matching process).
Modeling tree crown dynamics with 3D partial differential equations.
Beyer, Robert; Letort, Véronique; Cournède, Paul-Henry
2014-01-01
We characterize a tree's spatial foliage distribution by the local leaf area density. Considering this spatially continuous variable allows to describe the spatiotemporal evolution of the tree crown by means of 3D partial differential equations. These offer a framework to rigorously take locally and adaptively acting effects into account, notably the growth toward light. Biomass production through photosynthesis and the allocation to foliage and wood are readily included in this model framework. The system of equations stands out due to its inherent dynamic property of self-organization and spontaneous adaptation, generating complex behavior from even only a few parameters. The density-based approach yields spatially structured tree crowns without relying on detailed geometry. We present the methodological fundamentals of such a modeling approach and discuss further prospects and applications. PMID:25101095
3D Bioprinting of Tissue/Organ Models.
Pati, Falguni; Gantelius, Jesper; Svahn, Helene Andersson
2016-04-01
In vitro tissue/organ models are useful platforms that can facilitate systematic, repetitive, and quantitative investigations of drugs/chemicals. The primary objective when developing tissue/organ models is to reproduce physiologically relevant functions that typically require complex culture systems. Bioprinting offers exciting prospects for constructing 3D tissue/organ models, as it enables the reproducible, automated production of complex living tissues. Bioprinted tissues/organs may prove useful for screening novel compounds or predicting toxicity, as the spatial and chemical complexity inherent to native tissues/organs can be recreated. In this Review, we highlight the importance of developing 3D in vitro tissue/organ models by 3D bioprinting techniques, characterization of these models for evaluating their resemblance to native tissue, and their application in the prioritization of lead candidates, toxicity testing, and as disease/tumor models. PMID:26895542
3D web visualization of huge CityGML models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prandi, F.; Devigili, F.; Soave, M.; Di Staso, U.; De Amicis, R.
2015-08-01
Nowadays, rapid technological development into acquiring geo-spatial information; joined to the capabilities to process these data in a relative short period of time, allows the generation of detailed 3D textured city models that will become an essential part of the modern city information infrastructure (Spatial Data Infrastructure) and, can be used to integrate various data from different sources for public accessible visualisation and many other applications. One of the main bottlenecks, which at the moment limit the use of these datasets to few experts, is a lack on efficient visualization systems through the web and interoperable frameworks that allow standardising the access to the city models. The work presented in this paper tries to satisfy these two requirements developing a 3D web-based visualization system based on OGC standards and effective visualization concepts. The architectural framework, based on Services Oriented Architecture (SOA) concepts, provides the 3D city data to a web client designed to support the view process in a very effective way. The first part of the work is to design a framework compliant to the 3D Portrayal Service drafted by the of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) 3D standardization working group. The latter is related to the development of an effective web client able to render in an efficient way the 3D city models.
2-D and 3-D oscillating wing aerodynamics for a range of angles of attack including stall
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Piziali, R. A.
1994-01-01
A comprehensive experimental investigation of the pressure distribution over a semispan wing undergoing pitching motions representative of a helicopter rotor blade was conducted. Testing the wing in the nonrotating condition isolates the three-dimensional (3-D) blade aerodynamic and dynamic stall characteristics from the complications of the rotor blade environment. The test has generated a very complete, detailed, and accurate body of data. These data include static and dynamic pressure distributions, surface flow visualizations, two-dimensional (2-D) airfoil data from the same model and installation, and important supporting blockage and wall pressure distributions. This body of data is sufficiently comprehensive and accurate that it can be used for the validation of rotor blade aerodynamic models over a broad range of the important parameters including 3-D dynamic stall. This data report presents all the cycle-averaged lift, drag, and pitching moment coefficient data versus angle of attack obtained from the instantaneous pressure data for the 3-D wing and the 2-D airfoil. Also presented are examples of the following: cycle-to-cycle variations occurring for incipient or lightly stalled conditions; 3-D surface flow visualizations; supporting blockage and wall pressure distributions; and underlying detailed pressure results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tegtmeier, W.; Zlatanova, S.; van Oosterom, P. J. M.; Hack, H. R. G. K.
2014-03-01
In infrastructural projects, communication as well as information exchange and (re-)use in and between involved parties is difficult. Mainly this is caused by a lack of information harmonisation. Various specialists are working together on the development of an infrastructural project and all use their own specific software and definitions for various information types. In addition, the lack of and/or differences in the use and definition of thematic semantic information regarding the various information types adds to the problem. Realistic 3D models describing and integrating parts of the earth already exist, but are generally neglecting the subsurface, and especially the aspects of geology and geo-technology. This paper summarises the research towards the extension of an existing integrated semantic information model to include surface as well as subsurface objects and in particular, subsurface geological and geotechnical objects. The major contributions of this research are the definition of geotechnical objects and the mechanism to link them with CityGML, GeoSciML and O&M standard models. The model is called 3D-GEM, short for 3D Geotechnical Extension Model.
Multivariate 3D modelling of Scottish soil properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poggio, Laura; Gimona, Alessandro
2015-04-01
Information regarding soil properties across landscapes at national or continental scales is critical for better soil and environmental management and for climate regulation and adaptation policy. The prediction of soil properties variation in space and time and their uncertainty is an important part of environmental modelling. Soil properties, and in particular the 3 fractions of soil texture, exhibit strong co-variation among themselves and therefore taking into account this correlation leads to spatially more accurate results. In this study the continuous vertical and lateral distributions of relevant soil properties in Scottish soils were modelled with a multivariate 3D-GAM+GS approach. The approach used involves 1) modelling the multivariate trend with full 3D spatial correlation, i.e., exploiting the values of the neighbouring pixels in 3D-space, and 2) 3D kriging to interpolate the residuals. The values at each cell for each of the considered depth layers were defined using a hybrid GAM-geostatistical 3D model, combining the fitting of a GAM (generalised Additive Models) to estimate multivariate trend of the variables, using a 3D smoother with related covariates. Gaussian simulations of the model residuals were used as spatial component to account for local details. A dataset of about 26,000 horizons (7,800 profiles) was used for this study. A validation set was randomly selected as 25% of the full dataset. Numerous covariates derived from globally available data, such as MODIS and SRTM, are considered. The results of the 3D-GAM+kriging showed low RMSE values, good R squared and an accurate reproduction of the spatial structure of the data for a range of soil properties. The results have an out-of-sample RMSE between 10 to 15% of the observed range when taking into account the whole profile. The approach followed allows the assessment of the uncertainty of both the trend and the residuals.
3D in vitro modeling of the central nervous system
Hopkins, Amy M.; DeSimone, Elise; Chwalek, Karolina; Kaplan, David L.
2015-01-01
There are currently more than 600 diseases characterized as affecting the central nervous system (CNS) which inflict neural damage. Unfortunately, few of these conditions have effective treatments available. Although significant efforts have been put into developing new therapeutics, drugs which were promising in the developmental phase have high attrition rates in late stage clinical trials. These failures could be circumvented if current 2D in vitro and in vivo models were improved. 3D, tissue-engineered in vitro systems can address this need and enhance clinical translation through two approaches: (1) bottom-up, and (2) top-down (developmental/regenerative) strategies to reproduce the structure and function of human tissues. Critical challenges remain including biomaterials capable of matching the mechanical properties and extracellular matrix (ECM) composition of neural tissues, compartmentalized scaffolds that support heterogeneous tissue architectures reflective of brain organization and structure, and robust functional assays for in vitro tissue validation. The unique design parameters defined by the complex physiology of the CNS for construction and validation of 3D in vitro neural systems are reviewed here. PMID:25461688
Perception-based shape retrieval for 3D building models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Man; Zhang, Liqiang; Takis Mathiopoulos, P.; Ding, Yusi; Wang, Hao
2013-01-01
With the help of 3D search engines, a large number of 3D building models can be retrieved freely online. A serious disadvantage of most rotation-insensitive shape descriptors is their inability to distinguish between two 3D building models which are different at their main axes, but appear similar when one of them is rotated. To resolve this problem, we present a novel upright-based normalization method which not only correctly rotates such building models, but also greatly simplifies and accelerates the abstraction and the matching of building models' shape descriptors. Moreover, the abundance of architectural styles significantly hinders the effective shape retrieval of building models. Our research has shown that buildings with different designs are not well distinguished by the widely recognized shape descriptors for general 3D models. Motivated by this observation and to further improve the shape retrieval quality, a new building matching method is introduced and analyzed based on concepts found in the field of perception theory and the well-known Light Field descriptor. The resulting normalized building models are first classified using the qualitative shape descriptors of Shell and Unevenness which outline integral geometrical and topological information. These models are then put in on orderly fashion with the help of an improved quantitative shape descriptor which we will term as Horizontal Light Field Descriptor, since it assembles detailed shape characteristics. To accurately evaluate the proposed methodology, an enlarged building shape database which extends previous well-known shape benchmarks was implemented as well as a model retrieval system supporting inputs from 2D sketches and 3D models. Various experimental performance evaluation results have shown that, as compared to previous methods, retrievals employing the proposed matching methodology are faster and more consistent with human recognition of spatial objects. In addition these performance
Microfluidic 3D cell culture: from tools to tissue models.
van Duinen, Vincent; Trietsch, Sebastiaan J; Joore, Jos; Vulto, Paul; Hankemeier, Thomas
2015-12-01
The transition from 2D to 3D cell culture techniques is an important step in a trend towards better biomimetic tissue models. Microfluidics allows spatial control over fluids in micrometer-sized channels has become a valuable tool to further increase the physiological relevance of 3D cell culture by enabling spatially controlled co-cultures, perfusion flow and spatial control over of signaling gradients. This paper reviews most important developments in microfluidic 3D culture since 2012. Most efforts were exerted in the field of vasculature, both as a tissue on its own and as part of cancer models. We observe that the focus is shifting from tool building to implementation of specific tissue models. The next big challenge for the field is the full validation of these models and subsequently the implementation of these models in drug development pipelines of the pharmaceutical industry and ultimately in personalized medicine applications. PMID:26094109
Evaluating Biomaterial- and Microfluidic-Based 3D Tumor Models.
Carvalho, Mariana R; Lima, Daniela; Reis, Rui L; Correlo, Vitor M; Oliveira, Joaquim M
2015-11-01
Cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with a disease burden estimated to increase over the coming decades. Disease heterogeneity and limited information on cancer biology and disease mechanisms are aspects that 2D cell cultures fail to address. Here, we review the current ‘state-of-the-art’ in 3D tissue-engineering (TE) models developed for, and used in, cancer research. We assess the potential for scaffold-based TE models and microfluidics to fill the gap between 2D models and clinical application. We also discuss recent advances in combining the principles of 3D TE models and microfluidics, with a special focus on biomaterials and the most promising chip-based 3D models. PMID:26603572
Eck, Simon; Wörz, Stefan; Müller-Ott, Katharina; Hahn, Matthias; Biesdorf, Andreas; Schotta, Gunnar; Rippe, Karsten; Rohr, Karl
2016-08-01
The genome is partitioned into regions of euchromatin and heterochromatin. The organization of heterochromatin is important for the regulation of cellular processes such as chromosome segregation and gene silencing, and their misregulation is linked to cancer and other diseases. We present a model-based approach for automatic 3D segmentation and 3D shape analysis of heterochromatin foci from 3D confocal light microscopy images. Our approach employs a novel 3D intensity model based on spherical harmonics, which analytically describes the shape and intensities of the foci. The model parameters are determined by fitting the model to the image intensities using least-squares minimization. To characterize the 3D shape of the foci, we exploit the computed spherical harmonics coefficients and determine a shape descriptor. We applied our approach to 3D synthetic image data as well as real 3D static and real 3D time-lapse microscopy images, and compared the performance with that of previous approaches. It turned out that our approach yields accurate 3D segmentation results and performs better than previous approaches. We also show that our approach can be used for quantifying 3D shape differences of heterochromatin foci. PMID:27037463
The USGS 3D Seismic Velocity Model for Northern California
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brocher, T. M.; Aagaard, B.; Simpson, R. W.; Jachens, R. C.
2006-12-01
We present a new regional 3D seismic velocity model for Northern California for use in strong motion simulations of the 1906 San Francisco and other earthquakes. The model includes compressional-wave velocity (Vp), shear-wave velocity (Vs), density, and intrinsic attenuation (Qp, Qs). These properties were assigned for each rock type in a 3D geologic model derived from surface outcrops, boreholes, gravity and magnetic data, and seismic reflection, refraction, and tomography studies. A detailed description of the model, USGS Bay Area Velocity Model 05.1.0, is available online [http://www.sf06simulation.org/geology/velocitymodel]. For ground motion simulations Vs and Qs are more important parameters than Vp and Qp because the strongest ground motions are generated chiefly by shear and surface wave arrivals. Because Vp data are more common than Vs data, however, we first developed Vp versus depth relations for each rock type and then converted these to Vs versus depth relations. For the most important rock types in Northern California we compiled measurements of Vp versus depth using borehole logs, laboratory measurements on hand samples, seismic refraction profiles, and tomography models. These rock types include Salinian and Sierran granitic rocks, metagraywackes and greenstones of the Franciscan Complex, Tertiary and Mesozoic sedimentary and volcanic rocks, and Quaternary and Holocene deposits (Brocher, USGS OFR 05-1317, 2005). Vp versus depth curves were converted to Vs versus depth curves using new empirical nonlinear relations between Vs and Vp (Brocher, BSSA, 2005). These relations, showing that Poisson's ratio is a nonlinear function of Vp, were similarly based on compilations of diverse Vs and Vp measurements on a large suite of rock types, mainly from California and the Pacific Northwest. The model is distributed in a discretized form with routines to query the model using C++, C, and Fortran 77 programming languages. The geologic model was discretized at
STELLOPT Modeling of the 3D Diagnostic Response in ITER
Lazerson, Samuel A
2013-05-07
The ITER three dimensional diagnostic response to an n=3 resonant magnetic perturbation is modeled using the STELLOPT code. The in-vessel coils apply a resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) fi eld which generates a 4 cm edge displacement from axisymmetry as modeled by the VMEC 3D equilibrium code. Forward modeling of flux loop and magnetic probe response with the DIAGNO code indicates up to 20 % changes in measured plasma signals. Simulated LIDAR measurements of electron temperature indicate 2 cm shifts on the low field side of the plasma. This suggests that the ITER diagnostic will be able to diagnose the 3D structure of the equilibria.
MR image denoising method for brain surface 3D modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, De-xin; Liu, Peng-jie; Zhang, De-gan
2014-11-01
Three-dimensional (3D) modeling of medical images is a critical part of surgical simulation. In this paper, we focus on the magnetic resonance (MR) images denoising for brain modeling reconstruction, and exploit a practical solution. We attempt to remove the noise existing in the MR imaging signal and preserve the image characteristics. A wavelet-based adaptive curve shrinkage function is presented in spherical coordinates system. The comparative experiments show that the denoising method can preserve better image details and enhance the coefficients of contours. Using these denoised images, the brain 3D visualization is given through surface triangle mesh model, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Potential of 3D City Models to assess flood vulnerability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schröter, Kai; Bochow, Mathias; Schüttig, Martin; Nagel, Claus; Ross, Lutz; Kreibich, Heidi
2016-04-01
Vulnerability, as the product of exposure and susceptibility, is a key factor of the flood risk equation. Furthermore, the estimation of flood loss is very sensitive to the choice of the vulnerability model. Still, in contrast to elaborate hazard simulations, vulnerability is often considered in a simplified manner concerning the spatial resolution and geo-location of exposed objects as well as the susceptibility of these objects at risk. Usually, area specific potential flood loss is quantified on the level of aggregated land-use classes, and both hazard intensity and resistance characteristics of affected objects are represented in highly simplified terms. We investigate the potential of 3D City Models and spatial features derived from remote sensing data to improve the differentiation of vulnerability in flood risk assessment. 3D City Models are based on CityGML, an application scheme of the Geography Markup Language (GML), which represents the 3D geometry, 3D topology, semantics and appearance of objects on different levels of detail. As such, 3D City Models offer detailed spatial information which is useful to describe the exposure and to characterize the susceptibility of residential buildings at risk. This information is further consolidated with spatial features of the building stock derived from remote sensing data. Using this database a spatially detailed flood vulnerability model is developed by means of data-mining. Empirical flood damage data are used to derive and to validate flood susceptibility models for individual objects. We present first results from a prototype application in the city of Dresden, Germany. The vulnerability modeling based on 3D City Models and remote sensing data is compared i) to the generally accepted good engineering practice based on area specific loss potential and ii) to a highly detailed representation of flood vulnerability based on a building typology using urban structure types. Comparisons are drawn in terms of
3D MHD Models of Active Region Loops
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ofman, Leon
2004-01-01
Present imaging and spectroscopic observations of active region loops allow to determine many physical parameters of the coronal loops, such as the density, temperature, velocity of flows in loops, and the magnetic field. However, due to projection effects many of these parameters remain ambiguous. Three dimensional imaging in EUV by the STEREO spacecraft will help to resolve the projection ambiguities, and the observations could be used to setup 3D MHD models of active region loops to study the dynamics and stability of active regions. Here the results of 3D MHD models of active region loops are presented, and the progress towards more realistic 3D MHD models of active regions. In particular the effects of impulsive events on the excitation of active region loop oscillations, and the generation, propagations and reflection of EIT waves are shown. It is shown how 3D MHD models together with 3D EUV observations can be used as a diagnostic tool for active region loop physical parameters, and to advance the science of the sources of solar coronal activity.
3D head model classification using optimized EGI
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tong, Xin; Wong, Hau-san; Ma, Bo
2006-02-01
With the general availability of 3D digitizers and scanners, 3D graphical models have been used widely in a variety of applications. This has led to the development of search engines for 3D models. Especially, 3D head model classification and retrieval have received more and more attention in view of their many potential applications in criminal identifications, computer animation, movie industry and medical industry. This paper addresses the 3D head model classification problem using 2D subspace analysis methods such as 2D principal component analysis (2D PCA[3]) and 2D fisher discriminant analysis (2DLDA[5]). It takes advantage of the fact that the histogram is a 2D image, and we can extract the most useful information from these 2D images to get a good result accordingingly. As a result, there are two main advantages: First, we can perform less calculation to obtain the same rate of classification; second, we can reduce the dimensionality more than PCA to obtain a higher efficiency.
Vhrs Stereo Images for 3d Modelling of Buildings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bujakiewicz, A.; Holc, M.
2012-07-01
The paper presents the project which was carried out in the Photogrammetric Laboratory of Warsaw University of Technology. The experiment is concerned with the extraction of 3D vector data for buildings creation from 3D photogrammetric model based on the Ikonos stereo images. The model was reconstructed with photogrammetric workstation - Summit Evolution combined with ArcGIS 3D platform. Accuracy of 3D model was significantly improved by use for orientation of pair of satellite images the stereo measured tie points distributed uniformly around the model area in addition to 5 control points. The RMS for model reconstructed on base of the RPC coefficients only were 16,6 m, 2,7 m and 47,4 m, for X, Y and Z coordinates, respectively. By addition of 5 control points the RMS were improved to 0,7 m, 0,7 m 1,0 m, where the best results were achieved when RMS were estimated from deviations in 17 check points (with 5 control points)and amounted to 0,4 m, 0,5 m and 0,6 m, for X, Y, and Z respectively. The extracted 3D vector data for buildings were integrated with 2D data of the ground footprints and afterwards they were used for 3D modelling of buildings in Google SketchUp software. The final results were compared with the reference data obtained from other sources. It was found that the shape of buildings (in concern to the number of details) had been reconstructed on level of LoD1, when the accuracy of these models corresponded to the level of LoD2.
3D density model of the Central Andes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prezzi, Claudia B.; Götze, Hans-Jürgen; Schmidt, Sabine
2009-12-01
We developed a 3D density model of the continental crust, the subducted plate and the upper mantle of the Central Andes between 20-29°S and 74-61°W through the forward modelling of Bouguer anomaly. The goal of this contribution is to gain insight on the lithospheric structure integrating the available information (geophysical, geologic, petrologic, and geochemical) in a single model. The geometry of our model is defined and constrained by hypocentre location, reflection and refraction on and offshore seismic lines, travel time and attenuation tomography, receiver function analysis, magnetotelluric studies, thermal models and balanced structural cross-sections. The densities allocated to the different bodies are calculated considering petrologic and geochemical data and pressure and temperature conditions. The model consists of 31 parallel E-W vertical planes, where the continental crust comprises distinct bodies, which represent the different morphotectonic units of the Central Andes. We include a partial melting zone at midcrustal depths under the Altiplano-Puna (low-velocity zone) and consider the presence of a rheologically strong block beneath the Salar de Atacama basin, according to recent seismic studies. Contour maps of the depth of the continental Moho, the thickness of the lower crust and the depth to the bottom of the lithosphere below South America are produced. The possible percentage of partial melt in the Central Andes low-velocity zone is estimated. The residual anomaly is calculated by subtracting from the Bouguer anomaly the gravimetric effect of the modelled subducted slab and of the modelled Moho. Isostatic anomalies are calculated from regional and local isostatic Mohos calculated with and without internal loads, derived from our gravity model, which are then compared to the modelled continental Moho. This study contributes to a more detailed knowledge of the lithospheric structure of this region of the Andes and provides an integrated 3D
3D model of amphioxus steroid receptor complexed with estradiol
Baker, Michael E.; Chang, David J.
2009-08-28
The origins of signaling by vertebrate steroids are not fully understood. An important advance was the report that an estrogen-binding steroid receptor [SR] is present in amphioxus, a basal chordate with a similar body plan as vertebrates. To investigate the evolution of estrogen-binding to steroid receptors, we constructed a 3D model of amphioxus SR complexed with estradiol. This 3D model indicates that although the SR is activated by estradiol, some interactions between estradiol and human ER{alpha} are not conserved in the SR, which can explain the low affinity of estradiol for the SR. These differences between the SR and ER{alpha} in the steroid-binding domain are sufficient to suggest that another steroid is the physiological regulator of the SR. The 3D model predicts that mutation of Glu-346 to Gln will increase the affinity of testosterone for amphioxus SR and elucidate the evolution of steroid-binding to nuclear receptors.
Quality of 3D Models Generated by SFM Technology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marčiš, Marián
2013-12-01
Using various types of automation in digital photogrammetry is associated with questions such as the accuracy of a 3D model generated on various types of surfaces and textures, the financial costs of the equipment needed, and also the time costs of the processing. This topic deals with the actual technology of computer vision, which allows the automated exterior orientation of images, camera calibration, and the generation of 3D models directly from images of the object itself, based on the automatic detection of significant points. Detailed testing is done using the Agisoft PhotoScan system, and the camera configuration is solved with respect to the accuracy of the 3D model generated and the time consumption of the calculations for the different types of textures and the different settings for the processing.
Diffusion approximation for modeling of 3-D radiation distributions
Zardecki, A.; Gerstl, S.A.W.; De Kinder, R.E. Jr.
1985-01-01
A three-dimensional transport code DIF3D, based on the diffusion approximation, is used to model the spatial distribution of radiation energy arising from volumetric isotropic sources. Future work will be concerned with the determination of irradiances and modeling of realistic scenarios, relevant to the battlefield conditions. 8 refs., 4 figs.
Efficient sensitivity computations in 3D air quality models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kioutsioukis, Ioannis; Melas, Dimitrios; Zerefos, Christos; Ziomas, Ioannis
2005-04-01
The prediction of ground level ozone for air quality monitoring and assessment is simulated through an integrated system of gridded models (meteorological, photochemical), where the atmosphere is represented with a three-dimensional grid that may include thousands of grid cells. The continuity equation solved by the Photochemical Air Quality Model (PAQM) reproduces the atmospheric processes (dynamical, physical, chemical and radiative), such as moving and mixing air parcels from one grid cell to another, calculating chemical reactions, injecting new emissions. The whole modeling procedure includes several sources of uncertainty, especially in the large data sets that describe the status of the domain (boundary conditions, emissions, chemical reaction rates and several others). The robustness of the photochemical simulation is addressed in this work through the deterministic approach of sensitivity analysis. The automatic differentiation tool ADIFOR is applied on the 3D PAQM CAMx and augments its Fortran 77 code by introducing new lines of code that additionally calculate, in only one run, the gradient of the solution vector with respect to its input parameters. The applicability of the approach is evaluated through a sensitivity study of the modeled concentrations to perturbations at the boundary conditions and the emissions, for three essentially dissimilar European Metropolises of the Auto-Oil II programme (Athens, Milan, and London).
Why 3D? The Need for Solution Based Modeling in a National Geoscience Organization.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Terrington, Ricky; Napier, Bruce; Howard, Andy; Ford, Jon; Hatton, William
2008-05-01
In recent years national geoscience organizations have increasingly utilized 3D model data as an output to the stakeholder community. Advances in both software and hardware have led to an increasing use of 3D depictions of geoscience data alongside the standard 2D data formats such as maps and GIS data. By characterizing geoscience data in 3D, knowledge transfer between geoscientists and stakeholders is improved as the mindset and thought processes are communicated more effectively in a 3D model than in a 2D flat file format. 3D models allow the user to understand the conceptual basis of the 2D data and aids the decision making process at local, regional and national scales. Some of these issues include foundation and engineering conditions, ground water vulnerability, aquifer recharge and flow, and resource extraction and storage. The British Geological Survey has established a mechanism and infrastructure through the Digital Geoscience Spatial Model Programme (DGSM) to produce these types of 3D geoscience outputs. This cyber-infrastructure not only allows good data and information management, it enables geoscientists to capture their know-how and implicit and tacit knowledge for their 3D interpretations. A user of this data will then have access to value-added information for the 3D dataset including the knowledge, approach, inferences, uncertainty, wider context and best practice acquired during the 3D interpretation. To complement this cyber-infrastructure, an immersive 3D Visualization Facility was constructed at the British Geological Survey offices in Keyworth, Nottingham and Edinburgh. These custom built facilities allow stereo projection of geoscience data, immersing the users and stakeholders in a wealth of 3D geological data. Successful uses of these facilities include collaborative 3D modeling, demonstrations to public stakeholders and Virtual Field Mapping Reconnaissance.
Modelling Gaia CCD pixels with Silvaco 3D engineering software
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seabroke, G. M.; Prod'Homme, T.; Hopkinson, G.; Burt, D.; Robbins, M.; Holland, A.
2011-02-01
Gaia will only achieve its unprecedented measurement accuracy requirements with detailed calibration and correction for radiation damage. We present our Silvaco 3D engineering software model of the Gaia CCD pixel and two of its applications for Gaia: (1) physically interpreting supplementary buried channel (SBC) capacity measurements (pocket-pumping and first pixel response) in terms of e2v manufacturing doping alignment tolerances; and (2) deriving electron densities within a charge packet as a function of the number of constituent electrons and 3D position within the charge packet as input to microscopic models being developed to simulate radiation damage.
Parallel Optimization of 3D Cardiac Electrophysiological Model Using GPU
Xia, Yong; Wang, Kuanquan; Zhang, Henggui
2015-01-01
Large-scale 3D virtual heart model simulations are highly demanding in computational resources. This imposes a big challenge to the traditional computation resources based on CPU environment, which already cannot meet the requirement of the whole computation demands or are not easily available due to expensive costs. GPU as a parallel computing environment therefore provides an alternative to solve the large-scale computational problems of whole heart modeling. In this study, using a 3D sheep atrial model as a test bed, we developed a GPU-based simulation algorithm to simulate the conduction of electrical excitation waves in the 3D atria. In the GPU algorithm, a multicellular tissue model was split into two components: one is the single cell model (ordinary differential equation) and the other is the diffusion term of the monodomain model (partial differential equation). Such a decoupling enabled realization of the GPU parallel algorithm. Furthermore, several optimization strategies were proposed based on the features of the virtual heart model, which enabled a 200-fold speedup as compared to a CPU implementation. In conclusion, an optimized GPU algorithm has been developed that provides an economic and powerful platform for 3D whole heart simulations. PMID:26581957
A 3D parallel model of Ganymede's exosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leclercq, Ludivine; Turc, Lucile; François, Leblanc; Ronan, Modolo
2013-04-01
Ganymede is a unique object : it is the biggest moon of our solar system, and the only satellite which has its own intrinsic magnetic field. Its surface is covered by water ice and by regolith. Some previous observations suggest that below its surface may exist an ocean of liquid water. The atmosphere of the planet is poorly known but should be composed essentially of water, hydrogen and oxygen (Marconi et al., Icarus, 2007). These atmospheric particles mainly originate from the surface thanks to sublimation of water-ice and sputtering, a process driven by the magnetospheric Jovian particles impacting Ganymede surface and leading to ejection of atoms and molecules into Ganymede atmosphere. We developed a model of Ganymede's atmosphere based on a 3D Monte Carlo description of the fate of the ejected particles from the surface. This model has been parallelized allowing a much better statistical, spatial and temporal description of Ganymede's environment. This model includes the main sources of the neutral atmosphere and is able to calculate all its characteristics. It was successfully compared to the few known observations as well as to previous modeling. In this presentation, we will present the main characteristics of this model and what it tells us on Ganymede's atmosphere, in terms of spatial structure, composition, temporal variability and relations with both magnetosphere and surface.
Robust model-based 3d/3D fusion using sparse matching for minimally invasive surgery.
Neumann, Dominik; Grbic, Sasa; John, Matthias; Navab, Nassir; Hornegger, Joachim; Ionasec, Razvan
2013-01-01
Classical surgery is being disrupted by minimally invasive and transcatheter procedures. As there is no direct view or access to the affected anatomy, advanced imaging techniques such as 3D C-arm CT and C-arm fluoroscopy are routinely used for intra-operative guidance. However, intra-operative modalities have limited image quality of the soft tissue and a reliable assessment of the cardiac anatomy can only be made by injecting contrast agent, which is harmful to the patient and requires complex acquisition protocols. We propose a novel sparse matching approach for fusing high quality pre-operative CT and non-contrasted, non-gated intra-operative C-arm CT by utilizing robust machine learning and numerical optimization techniques. Thus, high-quality patient-specific models can be extracted from the pre-operative CT and mapped to the intra-operative imaging environment to guide minimally invasive procedures. Extensive quantitative experiments demonstrate that our model-based fusion approach has an average execution time of 2.9 s, while the accuracy lies within expert user confidence intervals. PMID:24505663
3D Model Generation From the Engineering Drawing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vaský, Jozef; Eliáš, Michal; Bezák, Pavol; Červeňanská, Zuzana; Izakovič, Ladislav
2010-01-01
The contribution deals with the transformation of engineering drawings in a paper form into a 3D computer representation. A 3D computer model can be further processed in CAD/CAM system, it can be modified, archived, and a technical drawing can be then generated from it as well. The transformation process from paper form to the data one is a complex and difficult one, particularly owing to the different types of drawings, forms of displayed objects and encountered errors and deviations from technical standards. The algorithm for 3D model generating from an orthogonal vector input representing a simplified technical drawing of the rotational part is described in this contribution. The algorithm was experimentally implemented as ObjectARX application in the AutoCAD system and the test sample as the representation of the rotational part was used for verificaton.
3D shape decomposition and comparison for gallbladder modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Weimin; Zhou, Jiayin; Liu, Jiang; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Tao; Su, Yi; Law, Gim Han; Chui, Chee Kong; Chang, Stephen
2011-03-01
This paper presents an approach to gallbladder shape comparison by using 3D shape modeling and decomposition. The gallbladder models can be used for shape anomaly analysis and model comparison and selection in image guided robotic surgical training, especially for laparoscopic cholecystectomy simulation. The 3D shape of a gallbladder is first represented as a surface model, reconstructed from the contours segmented in CT data by a scheme of propagation based voxel learning and classification. To better extract the shape feature, the surface mesh is further down-sampled by a decimation filter and smoothed by a Taubin algorithm, followed by applying an advancing front algorithm to further enhance the regularity of the mesh. Multi-scale curvatures are then computed on the regularized mesh for the robust saliency landmark localization on the surface. The shape decomposition is proposed based on the saliency landmarks and the concavity, measured by the distance from the surface point to the convex hull. With a given tolerance the 3D shape can be decomposed and represented as 3D ellipsoids, which reveal the shape topology and anomaly of a gallbladder. The features based on the decomposed shape model are proposed for gallbladder shape comparison, which can be used for new model selection. We have collected 19 sets of abdominal CT scan data with gallbladders, some shown in normal shape and some in abnormal shapes. The experiments have shown that the decomposed shapes reveal important topology features.
Geodiversity: Exploration of 3D geological model space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lindsay, M. D.; Jessell, M. W.; Ailleres, L.; Perrouty, S.; de Kemp, E.; Betts, P. G.
2013-05-01
The process of building a 3D model necessitates the reconciliation of field observations, geophysical interpretation, geological data uncertainty and the prevailing tectonic evolution hypotheses and interpretations. Uncertainty is compounded when clustered data points collected at local scales are statistically upscaled to one or two points for use in regional models. Interpretation is required to interpolate between sparse field data points using ambiguous geophysical data in covered terranes. It becomes clear that multiple interpretations are possible during model construction. The various interpretations are considered as potential natural representatives, but pragmatism typically dictates that just a single interpretation is offered by the modelling process. Uncertainties are introduced into the 3D model during construction from a variety of sources and through data set optimisation that produces a single model. Practices such as these are likely to result in a model that does not adequately represent the target geology. A set of geometrical ‘geodiversity’ metrics are used to analyse a 3D model of the Gippsland Basin, southeastern Australia after perturbing geological input data via uncertainty simulation. The resulting sets of perturbed geological observations are used to calculate a suite of geological 3D models that display a range of geological architectures. The concept of biodiversity has been adapted for the geosciences to quantify geometric variability, or geodiversity, between models in order to understand the effect uncertainty has models geometry. Various geometrical relationships (depth, volume, contact surface area, curvature and geological complexity) are used to describe the range of possibilities exhibited throughout the model suite. End-member models geodiversity metrics are classified in a similar manner to taxonomic descriptions. Further analysis of the model suite is performed using principal component analysis (PCA) to determine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharkawi, K.-H.; Abdul-Rahman, A.
2013-09-01
Cities and urban areas entities such as building structures are becoming more complex as the modern human civilizations continue to evolve. The ability to plan and manage every territory especially the urban areas is very important to every government in the world. Planning and managing cities and urban areas based on printed maps and 2D data are getting insufficient and inefficient to cope with the complexity of the new developments in big cities. The emergence of 3D city models have boosted the efficiency in analysing and managing urban areas as the 3D data are proven to represent the real world object more accurately. It has since been adopted as the new trend in buildings and urban management and planning applications. Nowadays, many countries around the world have been generating virtual 3D representation of their major cities. The growing interest in improving the usability of 3D city models has resulted in the development of various tools for analysis based on the 3D city models. Today, 3D city models are generated for various purposes such as for tourism, location-based services, disaster management and urban planning. Meanwhile, modelling 3D objects are getting easier with the emergence of the user-friendly tools for 3D modelling available in the market. Generating 3D buildings with high accuracy also has become easier with the availability of airborne Lidar and terrestrial laser scanning equipments. The availability and accessibility to this technology makes it more sensible to analyse buildings in urban areas using 3D data as it accurately represent the real world objects. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) has accepted CityGML specifications as one of the international standards for representing and exchanging spatial data, making it easier to visualize, store and manage 3D city models data efficiently. CityGML able to represents the semantics, geometry, topology and appearance of 3D city models in five well-defined Level-of-Details (LoD), namely LoD0
Creating Physical 3D Stereolithograph Models of Brain and Skull
Kelley, Daniel J.; Farhoud, Mohammed; Meyerand, M. Elizabeth; Nelson, David L.; Ramirez, Lincoln F.; Dempsey, Robert J.; Wolf, Alan J.; Alexander, Andrew L.; Davidson, Richard J.
2007-01-01
The human brain and skull are three dimensional (3D) anatomical structures with complex surfaces. However, medical images are often two dimensional (2D) and provide incomplete visualization of structural morphology. To overcome this loss in dimension, we developed and validated a freely available, semi-automated pathway to build 3D virtual reality (VR) and hand-held, stereolithograph models. To evaluate whether surface visualization in 3D was more informative than in 2D, undergraduate students (n = 50) used the Gillespie scale to rate 3D VR and physical models of both a living patient-volunteer's brain and the skull of Phineas Gage, a historically famous railroad worker whose misfortune with a projectile tamping iron provided the first evidence of a structure-function relationship in brain. Using our processing pathway, we successfully fabricated human brain and skull replicas and validated that the stereolithograph model preserved the scale of the VR model. Based on the Gillespie ratings, students indicated that the biological utility and quality of visual information at the surface of VR and stereolithograph models were greater than the 2D images from which they were derived. The method we developed is useful to create VR and stereolithograph 3D models from medical images and can be used to model hard or soft tissue in living or preserved specimens. Compared to 2D images, VR and stereolithograph models provide an extra dimension that enhances both the quality of visual information and utility of surface visualization in neuroscience and medicine. PMID:17971879
3D Model of the Tuscarora Geothermal Area
Faulds, James E.
2013-12-31
The Tuscarora geothermal system sits within a ~15 km wide left-step in a major west-dipping range-bounding normal fault system. The step over is defined by the Independence Mountains fault zone and the Bull Runs Mountains fault zone which overlap along strike. Strain is transferred between these major fault segments via and array of northerly striking normal faults with offsets of 10s to 100s of meters and strike lengths of less than 5 km. These faults within the step over are one to two orders of magnitude smaller than the range-bounding fault zones between which they reside. Faults within the broad step define an anticlinal accommodation zone wherein east-dipping faults mainly occupy western half of the accommodation zone and west-dipping faults lie in the eastern half of the accommodation zone. The 3D model of Tuscarora encompasses 70 small-offset normal faults that define the accommodation zone and a portion of the Independence Mountains fault zone, which dips beneath the geothermal field. The geothermal system resides in the axial part of the accommodation, straddling the two fault dip domains. The Tuscarora 3D geologic model consists of 10 stratigraphic units. Unconsolidated Quaternary alluvium has eroded down into bedrock units, the youngest and stratigraphically highest bedrock units are middle Miocene rhyolite and dacite flows regionally correlated with the Jarbidge Rhyolite and modeled with uniform cumulative thickness of ~350 m. Underlying these lava flows are Eocene volcanic rocks of the Big Cottonwood Canyon caldera. These units are modeled as intracaldera deposits, including domes, flows, and thick ash deposits that change in thickness and locally pinch out. The Paleozoic basement of consists metasedimenary and metavolcanic rocks, dominated by argillite, siltstone, limestone, quartzite, and metabasalt of the Schoonover and Snow Canyon Formations. Paleozoic formations are lumped in a single basement unit in the model. Fault blocks in the eastern
3-D Eutrophication Modeling for Lake Simcoe, Canada
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Q.; Duckett, F.; Nairn, R.; Brunton, A.
2006-12-01
The Lake Simcoe Region Conservation Authority (LSRCA) and the Province of Ontario are undertaking a series of studies to facilitate management of the pressures of population growth in the Lake Simcoe watershed. With rapid population growth and urban development comes additional land clearing, storm water runoff and the discharge of treated sewage, all of which are sources of increased phosphorus loading to Lake Simcoe. Depressed oxygen levels were linked to phosphorous enrichment of the lake, with the resultant stimulation of algal growth in the sunlit upper waters of the lake, and its subsequent senescence and settling into the hypolimnion where bacterial decomposition consumes oxygen from the stratified waters. This poster describes a 3-D hydrodynamic, thermal and water quality model of Lake Simcoe developed using the Danish Hydraulics Institute (DHI) MIKE3 model. The hydrodynamic module includes wind-driven circulation, temperature variation, development of the thermocline and thermal stratification, and hydraulic forcing from inflowing tributaries. This is linked to the water quality module which simulates the eutrophication processes in the response of the lake to loadings of phosphorus, such as algal growth, the growth of aquatic plants and subsequent oxygen consumption. The model has been calibrated against Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler velocity data, plus measured temperature and water quality data at MOE stations in the lake and water intakes. The model is an important assessment tool for the management of the lake and its watersheds, allowing assessment of the impacts of the urban growth and land use change on the water quality in Lake Simcoe.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Lixin
2004-05-01
3D geoscience modeling system (3D GMS) embodied with topological relations is of extreme importance for Geosciences. This paper presents a universal 3D model, generalized tri-prism (GTP) for 3D GMS and real-3D GIS, which is a modification and improvement of former presented analogous tri-prism (ATP) model and is the common model of pyramid model, tetrahedron model and tri-prism (TP) model. The GTP model takes the divergent drill holes, rather than triangulation network after interpolation or vertical parallel drill holes after projection transformation, as its direct data source. Hence, the reliability and quality of the 3D model is maximatily ensured. The GTP component is comprised of six primitives as node, TIN-edge, side-edge, TIN-face, side-face and GTP. Besides, three intermediary diagonal lines in each GTP component are temporary applied for spatial operations. Six groups of topological relations between the six primitives are carefully designed for geo-spatial inquiry and geo-spatial analysis. The mechanisms of chipping, dynamic updating and local refining operations of so constructed 3D geological model are introduced. A real-3D software platform, GeoMo 3D@, developed with VC ++, OPGL and SQL server, demonstrates most of the 3D geo-spatial operations including clipping, separating, uncovering and geo-fence diagram generating based on an actual 3D geological model of a coal mine, Tangshan, P.R. China.
Performance and Cognitive Assessment in 3-D Modeling
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fahrer, Nolan E.; Ernst, Jeremy V.; Branoff, Theodore J.; Clark, Aaron C.
2011-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate identifiable differences between performance and cognitive assessment scores in a 3-D modeling unit of an engineering drafting course curriculum. The study aimed to provide further investigation of the need of skill-based assessments in engineering/technical graphics courses to potentially increase…
Tracking people and cars using 3D modeling and CCTV.
Edelman, Gerda; Bijhold, Jurrien
2010-10-10
The aim of this study was to find a method for the reconstruction of movements of people and cars using CCTV footage and a 3D model of the environment. A procedure is proposed, in which video streams are synchronized and displayed in a 3D model, by using virtual cameras. People and cars are represented by cylinders and boxes, which are moved in the 3D model, according to their movements as shown in the video streams. The procedure was developed and tested in an experimental setup with test persons who logged their GPS coordinates as a recording of the ground truth. Results showed that it is possible to implement this procedure and to reconstruct movements of people and cars from video recordings. The procedure was also applied to a forensic case. In this work we experienced that more situational awareness was created by the 3D model, which made it easier to track people on multiple video streams. Based on all experiences from the experimental set up and the case, recommendations are formulated for use in practice. PMID:20439141
Assessment of 3D Models Used in Contours Studies
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Alvarez, F. J. Ayala; Parra, E. B. Blazquez; Tubio, F. Montes
2015-01-01
This paper presents an experimental research focusing on the view of first year students. The aim is to check the quality of implementing 3D models integrated in the curriculum. We search to determine students' preference between the various means facilitated in order to understand the given subject. Students have been respondents to prove the…
Thermal 3D Modeling of Geothermal Area Using Terrestrial Photogrammetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akcay, Ozgun; Cuneyt Erenoglu, Ramazan; Erenoglu, Oya; Yılmazturk, Ferruh; Karaca, Zeki
2015-04-01
Photogrammetry and computer vision, sciences producing high accuracy 3D models from digital images based on projective geometry. 3D models can also be produced using thermal camera images using photogrammetry and computer vision techniques. Thermal images are capable of displaying hotspots on geothermal areas as a heat source in details. In the research, Tuzla geothermal area in Çanakkale province of Turkey is inspected using imaging techniques of terrestrial photogrammetry. Both a digital camera Canon EOS 650D and an infrared camera Optris PI 450 are used to obtain images of the thermal site. Calibration parameters (focal length, principle point, distortion coefficients) of thermal and digital cameras are determined using the calibration test field at the laboratory before the field work. In order to provide the georeferencing and the robustness of the 3D model, aluminum discs having diameter of 30 centimeters as ground control points (GCPs) are set to the geothermal area appropriately before imaging. Aluminum targets are chosen as the GCP because they are determined on the image depending on the contrast reflectance rate of the aluminum. Using GNSS RTK receivers supplying ±1 cm accuracy positioning, GCPs are measured so as to implement photogrammetric process successfully with thermal images. Numerous corresponding points are detected on the overlapped images with image matching techniques. Later on, bundle block adjustment is applied to calculate the revised interior orientation parameters of camera and exterior orientation parameters of camera positions. The 3D model showing details of the surface temperatures of the geothermal area are produced with multi view stereo (MVS) technique. The technique is able to produce 3D representation (point cloud, mesh and textured surface) of the field from both the thermal and digital images. The research presents that photogrammetric evaluation of thermal images is a noteworthy method to obtain a quick- accurate 3D
3D geometric modelling of hand-woven textile
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shidanshidi, H.; Naghdy, F.; Naghdy, G.; Conroy, D. Wood
2008-02-01
Geometric modeling and haptic rendering of textile has attracted significant interest over the last decade. A haptic representation is created by adding the physical properties of an object to its geometric configuration. While research has been conducted into geometric modeling of fabric, current systems require time-consuming manual recognition of textile specifications and data entry. The development of a generic approach for construction of the 3D geometric model of a woven textile is pursued in this work. The geometric model would be superimposed by a haptic model in the future work. The focus at this stage is on hand-woven textile artifacts for display in museums. A fuzzy rule based algorithm is applied to the still images of the artifacts to generate the 3D model. The derived model is exported as a 3D VRML model of the textile for visual representation and haptic rendering. An overview of the approach is provided and the developed algorithm is described. The approach is validated by applying the algorithm to different textile samples and comparing the produced models with the actual structure and pattern of the samples.
A biochemical/biophysical 3D FE intervertebral disc model.
Schroeder, Y; Huyghe, J M; van Donkelaar, C C; Ito, K
2010-10-01
Present research focuses on different strategies to preserve the degenerated disc. To assure long-term success of novel approaches, favorable mechanical conditions in the disc tissue are essential. To evaluate these, a model is required that can determine internal mechanical conditions which cannot be directly measured as a function of assessable biophysical characteristics. Therefore, the objective is to evaluate if constitutive and material laws acquired on isolated samples of nucleus and annulus tissue can be used directly in a whole-organ 3D FE model to describe intervertebral disc behavior. The 3D osmo-poro-visco-hyper-elastic disc (OVED) model describes disc behavior as a function of annulus and nucleus tissue biochemical composition, organization and specific constituent properties. The description of the 3D collagen network was enhanced to account for smaller fibril structures. Tissue mechanical behavior tests on isolated nucleus and annulus samples were simulated with models incorporating tissue composition to calculate the constituent parameter values. The obtained constitutive laws were incorporated into the whole-organ model. The overall behavior and disc properties of the model were corroborated against in vitro creep experiments of human L4/L5 discs. The OVED model simulated isolated tissue experiments on confined compression and uniaxial tensile test and whole-organ disc behavior. This was possible, provided that secondary fiber structures were accounted for. The fair agreement (radial bulge, axial creep deformation and intradiscal pressure) between model and experiment was obtained using constitutive properties that are the same for annulus and nucleus. Both tissue models differed in the 3D OVED model only by composition. The composition-based modeling presents the advantage of reducing the numbers of material parameters to a minimum and to use tissue composition directly as input. Hence, this approach provides the possibility to describe internal
Robust 3D reconstruction system for human jaw modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamany, Sameh M.; Farag, Aly A.; Tazman, David; Farman, Allan G.
1999-03-01
This paper presents a model-based vision system for dentistry that will replace traditional approaches used in diagnosis, treatment planning and surgical simulation. Dentistry requires accurate 3D representation of the teeth and jaws for many diagnostic and treatment purposes. For example orthodontic treatment involves the application of force systems to teeth over time to correct malocclusion. In order to evaluate tooth movement progress, the orthodontists monitors this movement by means of visual inspection, intraoral measurements, fabrication of plastic models, photographs and radiographs, a process which is both costly and time consuming. In this paper an integrate system has been developed to record the patient's occlusion using computer vision. Data is acquired with an intraoral video camera. A modified shape from shading (SFS) technique, using perspective projection and camera calibration, is used to extract accurate 3D information from a sequence of 2D images of the jaw. A new technique for 3D data registration, using a Grid Closest Point transform and genetic algorithms, is used to register the SFS output. Triangulization is then performed, and a solid 3D model is obtained via a rapid prototype machine.
Brien, Dianne L.; Reid, Mark E.
2007-01-01
base of Qva, thereby increasing the potential for landslides. Our analysis simulates the ground-water flow using the results of a 3-D ground-water flow model, MODFLOW-2000 (Harbaugh and others, 2000), to generate a 3-D pore-pressure field. Areas of elevated pore pressure reflect the influence of a perched ground-water table in Qva, as well as ground-water convergence in the coastal re-entrants. We obtain a realistic model of deep-seated landsliding by combining 3-D pore pressures with heterogeneous strength properties. The results show the least-stable areas where pore pressures are locally elevated in Qva. We compare our results with records of past landslides. The predicted leaststable areas include two historically active deep-seated landslides and areas adjacent to these landslides.
Modeling of Localized Neutral Particle Sources in 3D Edge Plasmas
Umansky, M V; Rognlien, T D; Fenstermacher, M E; Borchardt, M; Mutzke, A; Riemann, J; Schneider, R; Owen, L W
2002-05-23
A new edge plasma code BoRiS [1] has a fully 3D fluid plasma model. We supplement BoRiS with a 3D fluid neutral model including equations for parallel momentum and collisional perpendicular diffusion. This makes BoRiS an integrated plasma-neutral model suitable for a variety of applications. We present modeling results for a localized gas source in the geometry of the NCSX stellarator.
3-D HYDRODYNAMIC MODELING IN A GEOSPATIAL FRAMEWORK
Bollinger, J; Alfred Garrett, A; Larry Koffman, L; David Hayes, D
2006-08-24
3-D hydrodynamic models are used by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to simulate the transport of thermal and radionuclide discharges in coastal estuary systems. Development of such models requires accurate bathymetry, coastline, and boundary condition data in conjunction with the ability to rapidly discretize model domains and interpolate the required geospatial data onto the domain. To facilitate rapid and accurate hydrodynamic model development, SRNL has developed a pre- and post-processor application in a geospatial framework to automate the creation of models using existing data. This automated capability allows development of very detailed models to maximize exploitation of available surface water radionuclide sample data and thermal imagery.
3D numerical modeling of India-Asia-like collision
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
-Erika Püsök, Adina; Kaus, Boris; Popov, Anton
2013-04-01
above a strong mantle lithosphere - the jelly sandwich model (Burov and Watts, 2006). 3D models are thus needed to investigate these hypotheses. However, fully 3D models of the dynamics of continent collision zones have only been developed very recently, and presently most research groups have relied on certain explicit assumptions for their codes. Here, we employ the parallel 3D code LaMEM (Lithosphere and Mantle Evolution Model), with a finite difference staggered grid solver, which is capable of simulating lithospheric deformation while simultaneously taking mantle flow and a free surface into account. We here report on first lithospheric and upper-mantle scale simulations in which the Indian lithosphere is indented into Asia. Acknowledgements. Funding was provided by the European Research Council under the European Community's Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007-2013) / ERC Grant agreement #258830. Numerical computations have been performed on JUQUEEN of the Jülich high-performance computing center. • Beaumont, C., Jamieson, R.A., Nguyen, M.H., Medvedev, S.E., 2004. Crustal channel flows: 1. Numerical models with applications to the tectonics of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogeny. J. Geophys. Res. 109, B06406. • Burov, E. & Watts, W.S., 2006. The long-term strength of continental lithosphere: "jelly sandwich" or "crème brûlée"?. GSA Today, 16, doi: 10.1130/1052-5173(2006)1016<1134:TLTSOC>1132.1130.CO;1132. • England P., Houseman, G., 1986. Finite strain calculations of continental deformation. 2. Comparison with the India-Asia collision zone. J. Geophys. Res.- Solid Earth and Planets 91 (B3), 3664-3676. • Jackson, J., 2002. Strength of the continental lithosphere: time to abandon the jelly sandwich?. GSA Today, September, 4-10. • Lechmann, S.M., May, D.A., Kaus, B.J.P., Schmalholz, S.M., 2011. Comparing thin-sheet models with 3D multilayer models for continental collision. Geophy. Int. J. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2011.05164.x • Royden, L.H., Burchfiel, B
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mock, Samuel; Allenbach, Robin; Reynolds, Lance; Wehrens, Philip; Kurmann-Matzenauer, Eva; Kuhn, Pascal; Michael, Salomè; Di Tommaso, Gennaro; Herwegh, Marco
2016-04-01
The Swiss Molasse Basin comprises the western and central part of the North Alpine Foreland Basin. In recent years it has come under closer scrutiny due to its promising geopotentials such as geothermal energy and CO2 sequestration. In order to adress these topics good knowledge of the subsurface is a key prerequisite. For that matter, geological 3D models serve as valuable tools. In collaboration with the Swiss Geological Survey (swisstopo) and as part of the project GeoMol CH, a geological 3D model of the Swiss Molasse Basin in the Canton of Bern has been built. The model covers an area of 1810 km2and reaches depth of up to 6.7 km. It comprises 10 major Cenozoic and Mesozoic units and numerous faults. The 3D model is mainly based on 2D seismic data complemented by information from few deep wells. Additionally, data from geological maps and profiles were used for refinement at shallow depths. In total, 1163 km of reflection seismic data, along 77 seismic lines, have been interpreted by different authors with respect to stratigraphy and structures. Both, horizons and faults, have been interpreted in 2D and modelled in 3D using IHS's Kingdom Suite and Midland Valley's MOVE software packages, respectively. Given the variable degree of subsurface information available, each 3D model is subject of uncertainty. With the primary input data coming from interpretation of reflection seismic data, a variety of uncertainties comes into play. Some of them are difficult to address (e.g. author's style of interpretation) while others can be quantified (e.g. mis-tie correction, well-tie). An important source of uncertainties is the quality of seismic data; this affects the traceability and lateral continuation of seismic reflectors. By defining quality classes we can semi-quantify this source of uncertainty. In order to visualize the quality and density of the input data in a meaningful way, we introduce quality-weighted data density maps. In combination with the geological 3D
Pros and Cons of ID vs. 3D Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klimchuk, James A.
2012-01-01
Advances in computing capability have led to tremendous improvements in 3D modeling. Entire active regions are being simulated in what might be described as a first principles way, in which plasma heating is treated self consistently rather than through the specification of heating functions. There are limitations to this approach, however, as actual heating mechanisms on the Sun involve spatial scales orders of magnitude smaller than what these simulations can resolve. Other simulations begin to resolve these scales, but they only treat a tiny volume and do not include the all important coupling with larger scales or with other parts of the atmosphere, and so cannot be readily compared with observations. Finally, ID hydrodynamic models capture the field-aligned evolution of the plasma extremely well and are ideally suited for data comparison, but they treat the heating in a totally ad hoc manner. All of these approaches have important contributions to make, but we must be aware of their limitations. I will highlight some of the strengths. and weaknesses of each.
A 3-D Model of Hot-Spot Formation in Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gong, X.; Goncharov, V. N.; Igumenshchev, I. V.
2015-11-01
A 3-D model describing the formation of a hot-spot in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions is presented. The model includes thermal conduction and mass ablation effects in a 3-D distorted hot spot using an approach developed by Sanz. Evolution of the nonuniformity growth is calculated based on a sharp boundary model. The results of the model will be compared against 2-D DRACO and 3-D hydrodynamic code calculations. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.
3D-Digital soil property mapping by geoadditive models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papritz, Andreas
2016-04-01
account for nonlinear effects of covariates by fitting componentwise smooth, nonlinear functions to the covariates (additive terms). REML estimation of model parameters and computing best linear unbiased predictions (BLUP) builds in the geoAM framework on the fact that both geostatistical and additive models can be parametrized as linear mixed models Wand, 2003. For 3D-DSM analysis of soil data, it is natural to model depth profiles of soil properties by additive terms of soil depth. Including interactions between these additive terms and covariates of the spatial mean function allows to model spatially varying depth profiles. Furthermore, with suitable choice of the basis functions of the additive term (e.g. polynomial regression splines), non-constant support of the soil data can be taken into account. Finally, boosting (Bühlmann and Hothorn, 2007) can be used for selecting covariates for the spatial mean function. The presentation will detail the geoAM approach and present an example of geoAM for 3D-analysis of legacy soil data. Arrouays, D., McBratney, A. B., Minasny, B., Hempel, J. W., Heuvelink, G. B. M., MacMillan, R. A., Hartemink, A. E., Lagacherie, P., and McKenzie, N. J. (2014). The GlobalSoilMap project specifications. In GlobalSoilMap Basis of the global spatial soil information system, pages 9-12. CRC Press. Bishop, T., McBratney, A., and Laslett, G. (1999). Modelling soil attribute depth functions with equal-area quadratic smoothing splines. Geoderma, 91(1-2), 27-45. Bühlmann, P. and Hothorn, T. (2007). Boosting algorithms: Regularization, prediction and model fitting. Statistical Science, 22(4), 477-505. Kammann, E. E. and Wand, M. P. (2003). Geoadditive models. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series C: Applied Statistics, 52(1), 1-18. Kyriakidis, P. (2004). A geostatistical framework for area-to-point spatial interpolation. Geographical Analysis, 36(3), 259-289. Orton, T., Pringle, M., and Bishop, T. (2016). A one-step approach for modelling
A method for building 3D models of barchan dunes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nai, Yang; Li-lan, Su; Lin, Wan; Jie, Yang; Shi-yi, Chen; Wei-lu, Hu
2016-01-01
The distributions of barchan dunes are usually represented by digital terrain models (DTMs) overlaid with digital orthophoto maps. Given that most regions with barchan dues have low relief, a 3D map obtained from a DTM may ineffectively show the stereoscopic shape of each dune. The method of building 3D models of barchan dunes using existing modeling software seldom considers the geographical environment. As a result, barchan dune models are often inconsistent with actual DTMs and incompletely express the morphological characteristics of dunes. Manual construction of barchan dune models is also costly and time consuming. Considering these problems, the morphological characteristics of barchan dunes and the mathematical relationships between the morphological parameters of the dunes, such as length, height, and width, are analyzed in this study. The methods of extracting the morphological feature points of barchan dunes, calculating their morphological parameters and building dune outlines and skeleton lines based on the medial axes, are also presented. The dune outlines, skeleton lines, and part of the medial axes of dunes are used to construct a constrained triangulated irregular network. C# and ArcEngine are employed to build 3D models of barchan dunes automatically. Experimental results of a study conducted in Tengger Desert show that the method can be used to approximate the morphological characteristics of barchan dunes and is less time consuming than manual methods.
Geometric and colour data fusion for outdoor 3D models.
Merchán, Pilar; Adán, Antonio; Salamanca, Santiago; Domínguez, Vicente; Chacón, Ricardo
2012-01-01
This paper deals with the generation of accurate, dense and coloured 3D models of outdoor scenarios from scanners. This is a challenging research field in which several problems still remain unsolved. In particular, the process of 3D model creation in outdoor scenes may be inefficient if the scene is digitalized under unsuitable technical (specific scanner on-board camera) and environmental (rain, dampness, changing illumination) conditions. We address our research towards the integration of images and range data to produce photorealistic models. Our proposal is based on decoupling the colour integration and geometry reconstruction stages, making them independent and controlled processes. This issue is approached from two different viewpoints. On the one hand, given a complete model (geometry plus texture), we propose a method to modify the original texture provided by the scanner on-board camera with the colour information extracted from external images taken at given moments and under specific environmental conditions. On the other hand, we propose an algorithm to directly assign external images onto the complete geometric model, thus avoiding tedious on-line calibration processes. We present the work conducted on two large Roman archaeological sites dating from the first century A.D., namely, the Theatre of Segobriga and the Fori Porticus of Emerita Augusta, both in Spain. The results obtained demonstrate that our approach could be useful in the digitalization and 3D modelling fields. PMID:22969327
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frankel, A. D.; Stephenson, W. J.; Carver, D.; Odum, J.; Williams, R. A.; Rhea, S.
2010-12-01
We have produced probabilistic seismic hazard maps of Seattle for 1 Hz spectral acceleration, using over five hundred 3D finite-difference simulations of earthquakes on the Seattle fault, Southern Whidbey Island fault, and Cascadia subduction zone, as well as for random deep and shallow earthquakes at various locations. The 3D velocity model was validated by modeling the observed waveforms for the 2001 M6.8 Nisqually earthquake and several smaller events in the region. At these longer periods (≥ 1 sec) that are especially important to the response of buildings of ten stories or higher, seismic waves are strongly influenced by sedimentary basins and rupture directivity. We are investigating how random spatial variations in the 3D velocity model affect the simulated ground motions for M6.7 earthquakes on the Seattle fault. A fractal random variation of shear-wave velocity with a Von Karman correlation function produces spatial variations of peak ground velocity with multiple scale lengths. We find that a 3D velocity model with a 10% standard deviation in shear-wave velocity in the top 1.5 km and 5% standard deviation from 1.5-10 km depth produces variations in peak ground velocities of as much as a factor of two, relative to the case with no random variations. The model with random variations generally reduces the peak ground velocity of the forward rupture directivity pulse for sites near the fault where basin-edge focusing of S-waves occurs. It also tends to reduce the peak velocity of localized areas where basin surface waves are focused. However, the medium with random variations also causes small-scale amplification of ground motions over distances of a few kilometers. We are also evaluating alternative methods of characterizing the aleatory uncertainty in the probabilistic hazard calculations.
An object-oriented 3D integral data model for digital city and digital mine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Lixin; Wang, Yanbing; Che, Defu; Xu, Lei; Chen, Xuexi; Jiang, Yun; Shi, Wenzhong
2005-10-01
With the rapid development of urban, city space extended from surface to subsurface. As the important data source for the representation of city spatial information, 3D city spatial data have the characteristics of multi-object, heterogeneity and multi-structure. It could be classified referring to the geo-surface into three kinds: above-surface data, surface data and subsurface data. The current research on 3D city spatial information system is divided naturally into two different branch, 3D City GIS (3D CGIS) and 3D Geological Modeling (3DGM). The former emphasizes on the 3D visualization of buildings and the terrain of city, while the latter emphasizes on the visualization of geological bodies and structures. Although, it is extremely important for city planning and construction to integrate all the city spatial information including above-surface, surface and subsurface objects to conduct integral analysis and spatial manipulation. However, either 3D CGIS or 3DGM is currently difficult to realize the information integration, integral analysis and spatial manipulation. Considering 3D spatial modeling theory and methodologies, an object-oriented 3D integral spatial data model (OO3D-ISDM) is presented and software realized. The model integrates geographical objects, surface buildings and geological objects together seamlessly with TIN being its coupling interface. This paper introduced the conceptual model of OO3D-ISDM, which is comprised of 4 spatial elements, i.e. point, line, face and body, and 4 geometric primitives, i.e. vertex, segment, triangle and generalized tri-prism (GTP). The spatial model represents the geometry of surface buildings and geographical objects with triangles, and geological objects with GTP. Any of the represented objects, no mater surface buildings, terrain or subsurface objects, could be described with the basic geometry element, i.e. triangle. So the 3D spatial objects, surface buildings, terrain and geological objects can be
3D-Digital soil property mapping by geoadditive models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papritz, Andreas
2016-04-01
account for nonlinear effects of covariates by fitting componentwise smooth, nonlinear functions to the covariates (additive terms). REML estimation of model parameters and computing best linear unbiased predictions (BLUP) builds in the geoAM framework on the fact that both geostatistical and additive models can be parametrized as linear mixed models Wand, 2003. For 3D-DSM analysis of soil data, it is natural to model depth profiles of soil properties by additive terms of soil depth. Including interactions between these additive terms and covariates of the spatial mean function allows to model spatially varying depth profiles. Furthermore, with suitable choice of the basis functions of the additive term (e.g. polynomial regression splines), non-constant support of the soil data can be taken into account. Finally, boosting (Bühlmann and Hothorn, 2007) can be used for selecting covariates for the spatial mean function. The presentation will detail the geoAM approach and present an example of geoAM for 3D-analysis of legacy soil data. Arrouays, D., McBratney, A. B., Minasny, B., Hempel, J. W., Heuvelink, G. B. M., MacMillan, R. A., Hartemink, A. E., Lagacherie, P., and McKenzie, N. J. (2014). The GlobalSoilMap project specifications. In GlobalSoilMap Basis of the global spatial soil information system, pages 9-12. CRC Press. Bishop, T., McBratney, A., and Laslett, G. (1999). Modelling soil attribute depth functions with equal-area quadratic smoothing splines. Geoderma, 91(1-2), 27-45. Bühlmann, P. and Hothorn, T. (2007). Boosting algorithms: Regularization, prediction and model fitting. Statistical Science, 22(4), 477-505. Kammann, E. E. and Wand, M. P. (2003). Geoadditive models. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series C: Applied Statistics, 52(1), 1-18. Kyriakidis, P. (2004). A geostatistical framework for area-to-point spatial interpolation. Geographical Analysis, 36(3), 259-289. Orton, T., Pringle, M., and Bishop, T. (2016). A one-step approach for modelling
Towards a 3d Spatial Urban Energy Modelling Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bahu, J.-M.; Koch, A.; Kremers, E.; Murshed, S. M.
2013-09-01
Today's needs to reduce the environmental impact of energy use impose dramatic changes for energy infrastructure and existing demand patterns (e.g. buildings) corresponding to their specific context. In addition, future energy systems are expected to integrate a considerable share of fluctuating power sources and equally a high share of distributed generation of electricity. Energy system models capable of describing such future systems and allowing the simulation of the impact of these developments thus require a spatial representation in order to reflect the local context and the boundary conditions. This paper describes two recent research approaches developed at EIFER in the fields of (a) geo-localised simulation of heat energy demand in cities based on 3D morphological data and (b) spatially explicit Agent-Based Models (ABM) for the simulation of smart grids. 3D city models were used to assess solar potential and heat energy demand of residential buildings which enable cities to target the building refurbishment potentials. Distributed energy systems require innovative modelling techniques where individual components are represented and can interact. With this approach, several smart grid demonstrators were simulated, where heterogeneous models are spatially represented. Coupling 3D geodata with energy system ABMs holds different advantages for both approaches. On one hand, energy system models can be enhanced with high resolution data from 3D city models and their semantic relations. Furthermore, they allow for spatial analysis and visualisation of the results, with emphasis on spatially and structurally correlations among the different layers (e.g. infrastructure, buildings, administrative zones) to provide an integrated approach. On the other hand, 3D models can benefit from more detailed system description of energy infrastructure, representing dynamic phenomena and high resolution models for energy use at component level. The proposed modelling strategies
3-D model-based tracking for UAV indoor localization.
Teulière, Céline; Marchand, Eric; Eck, Laurent
2015-05-01
This paper proposes a novel model-based tracking approach for 3-D localization. One main difficulty of standard model-based approach lies in the presence of low-level ambiguities between different edges. In this paper, given a 3-D model of the edges of the environment, we derive a multiple hypotheses tracker which retrieves the potential poses of the camera from the observations in the image. We also show how these candidate poses can be integrated into a particle filtering framework to guide the particle set toward the peaks of the distribution. Motivated by the UAV indoor localization problem where GPS signal is not available, we validate the algorithm on real image sequences from UAV flights. PMID:25099967
Texture blending on 3D models using casual images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xingming; Liu, Xiaoli; Li, Ameng; Liu, Junyao; Wang, Huijing
2013-12-01
In this paper, a method for constructing photorealistic textured model using 3D structured light digitizer is presented. Our method acquisition of range images and texture images around object, and range images are registered and integrated to construct geometric model of object. System is calibrated and poses of texture-camera are determined so that the relationship between texture and geometric model is established. After that, a global optimization is applied to assign compatible texture to adjacent surface and followed with a level procedure to remove artifacts due to vary lighting, approximate geometric model and so on. Lastly, we demonstrate the effect of our method on constructing a real model of world.
Approximate analytic solutions to 3D unconfined groundwater flow within regional 2D models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luther, K.; Haitjema, H. M.
2000-04-01
We present methods for finding approximate analytic solutions to three-dimensional (3D) unconfined steady state groundwater flow near partially penetrating and horizontal wells, and for combining those solutions with regional two-dimensional (2D) models. The 3D solutions use distributed singularities (analytic elements) to enforce boundary conditions on the phreatic surface and seepage faces at vertical wells, and to maintain fixed-head boundary conditions, obtained from the 2D model, at the perimeter of the 3D model. The approximate 3D solutions are analytic (continuous and differentiable) everywhere, including on the phreatic surface itself. While continuity of flow is satisfied exactly in the infinite 3D flow domain, water balance errors can occur across the phreatic surface.
A 3D alcoholic liver disease model on a chip.
Lee, JaeSeo; Choi, BongHwan; No, Da Yoon; Lee, GeonHui; Lee, Seung-Ri; Oh, HyunJik; Lee, Sang-Hoon
2016-03-14
Alcohol is one of the main causes of liver diseases, and the development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) treatment methods has been one of the hottest issues. For this purpose, development of in vitro models mimicking the in vivo physiology is one of the critical requirements, and they help to determine the disease mechanisms and to discover the treatment method. Herein, a three-dimensional (3D) ALD model was developed and its superior features in mimicking the in vivo condition were demonstrated. A spheroid-based microfluidic chip was employed for the development of the 3D in vitro model of ALD progression. We co-cultured rat primary hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in a fluidic chip to investigate the role of HSCs in the recovery of liver with ALD. An interstitial level of flow derived by an osmotic pump was applied to the chip to provide in vivo mimicking of fluid activity. Using this in vitro tool, we were able to observe structural changes and decreased hepatic functions with the increase in ethanol concentration. The recovery process of liver injured by alcohol was observed by providing fresh culture medium to the damaged 3D liver tissue for few days. A reversibly- and irreversibly-injured ALD model was established. The proposed model can not only be used for the research of alcoholic disease mechanism, but also has the potential for use in studies of hepatotoxicity and drug screening applications. PMID:26857817
3D cartographic modeling of the Alpine arc
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vouillamoz, Naomi; Sue, Christian; Champagnac, Jean-Daniel; Calcagno, Philippe
2012-12-01
We built a 3D cartography of the Alpine arc, a highly non-cylindrical mountain belt, using the 3D GeoModeller of the BRGM (French geological survey). The model allows to handle the large-scale 3D structure of seventeen major crustal units of the belt (from the lower crust to the sedimentary cover nappes), and two main discontinuities (the Insubric Line and the Crustal Penninic Front). It provides a unique document to better understand their structural relationships and to produce new sections. The study area comprises the western Alpine arc, from the Jura to the Northwest, up to the Bergell granite intrusion and the Lepontine Dome to the East, and is limited to the South by the Ligurian basin. The model is limited vertically 10 km above sea level at the top, and the moho interface at the bottom. We discarded the structural relationships between the Alps sensus stricto and the surrounding geodynamic systems such as the Rhine graben or the connection with the Apennines. The 3D-model is based on the global integration of various data such as the DEM of the Alps, the moho isobaths, the simplified geological and tectonic maps of the belt, the crustal cross-sections ECORS-CROP and NFP-20, and complementary cross-sections specifically built to precise local complexities. The database has first been integrated in a GIS-project to prepare their implementation in the GeoModeller, by homogenizing the different spatial referencing systems. The global model is finally interpolated from all these data, using the potential field method. The final document is a new tri-dimensional cartography that would be used as input for further alpine studies.
3D modeling of dual-gate FinFET.
Mil'shtein, Samson; Devarakonda, Lalitha; Zanchi, Brian; Palma, John
2012-01-01
The tendency to have better control of the flow of electrons in a channel of field-effect transistors (FETs) did lead to the design of two gates in junction field-effect transistors, field plates in a variety of metal semiconductor field-effect transistors and high electron mobility transistors, and finally a gate wrapping around three sides of a narrow fin-shaped channel in a FinFET. With the enhanced control, performance trends of all FETs are still challenged by carrier mobility dependence on the strengths of the electrical field along the channel. However, in cases when the ratio of FinFET volume to its surface dramatically decreases, one should carefully consider the surface boundary conditions of the device. Moreover, the inherent non-planar nature of a FinFET demands 3D modeling for accurate analysis of the device performance. Using the Silvaco modeling tool with quantization effects, we modeled a physical FinFET described in the work of Hisamoto et al. (IEEE Tran. Elec. Devices 47:12, 2000) in 3D. We compared it with a 2D model of the same device. We demonstrated that 3D modeling produces more accurate results. As 3D modeling results came close to experimental measurements, we made the next step of the study by designing a dual-gate FinFET biased at Vg1 >Vg2. It is shown that the dual-gate FinFET carries higher transconductance than the single-gate device. PMID:23148493
Methods for Geometric Data Validation of 3d City Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wagner, D.; Alam, N.; Wewetzer, M.; Pries, M.; Coors, V.
2015-12-01
Geometric quality of 3D city models is crucial for data analysis and simulation tasks, which are part of modern applications of the data (e.g. potential heating energy consumption of city quarters, solar potential, etc.). Geometric quality in these contexts is however a different concept as it is for 2D maps. In the latter case, aspects such as positional or temporal accuracy and correctness represent typical quality metrics of the data. They are defined in ISO 19157 and should be mentioned as part of the metadata. 3D data has a far wider range of aspects which influence their quality, plus the idea of quality itself is application dependent. Thus, concepts for definition of quality are needed, including methods to validate these definitions. Quality on this sense means internal validation and detection of inconsistent or wrong geometry according to a predefined set of rules. A useful starting point would be to have correct geometry in accordance with ISO 19107. A valid solid should consist of planar faces which touch their neighbours exclusively in defined corner points and edges. No gaps between them are allowed, and the whole feature must be 2-manifold. In this paper, we present methods to validate common geometric requirements for building geometry. Different checks based on several algorithms have been implemented to validate a set of rules derived from the solid definition mentioned above (e.g. water tightness of the solid or planarity of its polygons), as they were developed for the software tool CityDoctor. The method of each check is specified, with a special focus on the discussion of tolerance values where they are necessary. The checks include polygon level checks to validate the correctness of each polygon, i.e. closeness of the bounding linear ring and planarity. On the solid level, which is only validated if the polygons have passed validation, correct polygon orientation is checked, after self-intersections outside of defined corner points and edges
Effects of using a 3D model on the performance of vision algorithms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benjamin, D. Paul; Lyons, Damian; Lynch, Robert
2015-05-01
In previous work, we have shown how a 3D model can be built in real time and synchronized with the environment. This world model permits a robot to predict dynamics in its environment and classify behaviors. In this paper we evaluate the effect of such a 3D model on the accuracy and speed of various computer vision algorithms, including tracking, optical flow and stereo disparity. We report results based on the KITTI database and on our own videos.
Meier, Jason D; Glasgold, Robert A; Glasgold, Mark J
2011-11-01
The authors present quantitative and objective 3D data from their studies showing long-term results with facial volume augmentation. The first study analyzes fat grafting of the midface and the second study presents augmentation of the tear trough with hyaluronic filler. Surgeons using 3D quantitative analysis can learn the duration of results and the optimal amount to inject, as well as showing patients results that are not demonstrable with standard, 2D photography. PMID:22004863
Interchain coupling and 3D modeling of trans-polyacetylene
Bronold, F.; Saxena, A.; Bishop, A.R.
1992-01-01
In spite of the success of the SSH model for trans-polyacetylene in interpreting many experimental results (e.g. optical and magnetic properties) there remain some aspects of the real material which are outside the scope of the simple 1D model. Especially ordering phenomena of doped and undoped trans-polyacetylene as well as transport properties (e.g. electronic and thermal conductivity) are beyond a 1D description. There are many attempts to construct a transport theory for this novel class of materials using solitons or polaxons as the basic ingredients. But so far it is not yet clear whether these typical 1D excitations still exist in crystalline transpolyacetylene. Therefore, to clarify the role which intrinsic self-localized nonlinear excitations characteristic of 1D models play in the bulk (3D) material, we study the stability of a polaronic excitation against interchain coupling. As a preliminary step we consider first two coupled t-(CH){sub x}-chains where the {pi}-electrons are allowed to hop from one chain to the other. Then we introduce a 3D generalization of the SSH model and study a polaron in a 3D crystalline environment.
Interchain coupling and 3D modeling of trans-polyacetylene
Bronold, F.; Saxena, A.; Bishop, A.R.
1992-09-01
In spite of the success of the SSH model for trans-polyacetylene in interpreting many experimental results (e.g. optical and magnetic properties) there remain some aspects of the real material which are outside the scope of the simple 1D model. Especially ordering phenomena of doped and undoped trans-polyacetylene as well as transport properties (e.g. electronic and thermal conductivity) are beyond a 1D description. There are many attempts to construct a transport theory for this novel class of materials using solitons or polaxons as the basic ingredients. But so far it is not yet clear whether these typical 1D excitations still exist in crystalline transpolyacetylene. Therefore, to clarify the role which intrinsic self-localized nonlinear excitations characteristic of 1D models play in the bulk (3D) material, we study the stability of a polaronic excitation against interchain coupling. As a preliminary step we consider first two coupled t-(CH){sub x}-chains where the {pi}-electrons are allowed to hop from one chain to the other. Then we introduce a 3D generalization of the SSH model and study a polaron in a 3D crystalline environment.
CityGML - Interoperable semantic 3D city models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gröger, Gerhard; Plümer, Lutz
2012-07-01
CityGML is the international standard of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) for the representation and exchange of 3D city models. It defines the three-dimensional geometry, topology, semantics and appearance of the most relevant topographic objects in urban or regional contexts. These definitions are provided in different, well-defined Levels-of-Detail (multiresolution model). The focus of CityGML is on the semantical aspects of 3D city models, its structures, taxonomies and aggregations, allowing users to employ virtual 3D city models for advanced analysis and visualization tasks in a variety of application domains such as urban planning, indoor/outdoor pedestrian navigation, environmental simulations, cultural heritage, or facility management. This is in contrast to purely geometrical/graphical models such as KML, VRML, or X3D, which do not provide sufficient semantics. CityGML is based on the Geography Markup Language (GML), which provides a standardized geometry model. Due to this model and its well-defined semantics and structures, CityGML facilitates interoperable data exchange in the context of geo web services and spatial data infrastructures. Since its standardization in 2008, CityGML has become used on a worldwide scale: tools from notable companies in the geospatial field provide CityGML interfaces. Many applications and projects use this standard. CityGML is also having a strong impact on science: numerous approaches use CityGML, particularly its semantics, for disaster management, emergency responses, or energy-related applications as well as for visualizations, or they contribute to CityGML, improving its consistency and validity, or use CityGML, particularly its different Levels-of-Detail, as a source or target for generalizations. This paper gives an overview of CityGML, its underlying concepts, its Levels-of-Detail, how to extend it, its applications, its likely future development, and the role it plays in scientific research. Furthermore, its
The 3D model control of image processing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nguyen, An H.; Stark, Lawrence
1989-01-01
Telerobotics studies remote control of distant robots by a human operator using supervisory or direct control. Even if the robot manipulators has vision or other senses, problems arise involving control, communications, and delay. The communication delays that may be expected with telerobots working in space stations while being controlled from an Earth lab have led to a number of experiments attempting to circumvent the problem. This delay in communication is a main motivating factor in moving from well understood instantaneous hands-on manual control to less well understood supervisory control; the ultimate step would be the realization of a fully autonomous robot. The 3-D model control plays a crucial role in resolving many conflicting image processing problems that are inherent in resolving in the bottom-up approach of most current machine vision processes. The 3-D model control approach is also capable of providing the necessary visual feedback information for both the control algorithms and for the human operator.
Temporal-spatial modeling of fast-moving and deforming 3D objects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Xiaoliang; Wei, Youzhi
1998-09-01
This paper gives a brief description of the method and techniques developed for the modeling and reconstruction of fast moving and deforming 3D objects. A new approach using close-range digital terrestrial photogrammetry in conjunction with high speed photography and videography is proposed. A sequential image matching method (SIM) has been developed to automatically process pairs of images taken continuously of any fast moving and deforming 3D objects. Using the SIM technique a temporal-spatial model (TSM) of any fast moving and deforming 3D objects can be developed. The TSM would include a series of reconstructed surface models of the fast moving and deforming 3D object in the form of 3D images. The TSM allows the 3D objects to be visualized and analyzed in sequence. The SIM method, specifically the left-right matching and forward-back matching techniques are presented in the paper. An example is given which deals with the monitoring of a typical blast rock bench in a major open pit mine in Australia. With the SIM approach and the TSM model it is possible to automatically and efficiently reconstruct the 3D images of the blasting process. This reconstruction would otherwise be impossible to achieve using a labor intensive manual processing approach based on 2D images taken from conventional high speed cameras. The case study demonstrates the potential of the SIM approach and the TSM for the automatic identification, tracking and reconstruction of any fast moving and deforming 3D targets.
Impact of the 3-D model strategy on science learning of the solar system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alharbi, Mohammed
The purpose of this mixed method study, quantitative and descriptive, was to determine whether the first-middle grade (seventh grade) students at Saudi schools are able to learn and use the Autodesk Maya software to interact and create their own 3-D models and animations and whether their use of the software influences their study habits and their understanding of the school subject matter. The study revealed that there is value to the science students regarding the use of 3-D software to create 3-D models to complete science assignments. Also, this study aimed to address the middle-school students' ability to learn 3-D software in art class, and then ultimately use it in their science class. The success of this study may open the way to consider the impact of 3-D modeling on other school subjects, such as mathematics, art, and geography. When the students start using graphic design, including 3-D software, at a young age, they tend to develop personal creativity and skills. The success of this study, if applied in schools, will provide the community with skillful young designers and increase awareness of graphic design and the new 3-D technology. Experimental method was used to answer the quantitative research question, are there significant differences applying the learning method using 3-D models (no 3-D, premade 3-D, and create 3-D) in a science class being taught about the solar system and its impact on the students' science achievement scores? Descriptive method was used to answer the qualitative research questions that are about the difficulty of learning and using Autodesk Maya software, time that students take to use the basic levels of Polygon and Animation parts of the Autodesk Maya software, and level of students' work quality.
Modeling 3D faces from samplings via compressive sensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Qi; Tang, Yanlong; Hu, Ping
2013-07-01
3D data is easier to acquire for family entertainment purpose today because of the mass-production, cheapness and portability of domestic RGBD sensors, e.g., Microsoft Kinect. However, the accuracy of facial modeling is affected by the roughness and instability of the raw input data from such sensors. To overcome this problem, we introduce compressive sensing (CS) method to build a novel 3D super-resolution scheme to reconstruct high-resolution facial models from rough samples captured by Kinect. Unlike the simple frame fusion super-resolution method, this approach aims to acquire compressed samples for storage before a high-resolution image is produced. In this scheme, depth frames are firstly captured and then each of them is measured into compressed samples using sparse coding. Next, the samples are fused to produce an optimal one and finally a high-resolution image is recovered from the fused sample. This framework is able to recover 3D facial model of a given user from compressed simples and this can reducing storage space as well as measurement cost in future devices e.g., single-pixel depth cameras. Hence, this work can potentially be applied into future applications, such as access control system using face recognition, and smart phones with depth cameras, which need high resolution and little measure time.
West Flank Coso, CA FORGE 3D temperature model
Doug Blankenship
2016-03-01
x,y,z data of the 3D temperature model for the West Flank Coso FORGE site. Model grid spacing is 250m. The temperature model for the Coso geothermal field used over 100 geothermal production sized wells and intermediate-depth temperature holes. At the near surface of this model, two boundary temperatures were assumed: (1) areas with surface manifestations, including fumaroles along the northeast striking normal faults and northwest striking dextral faults with the hydrothermal field, a temperature of ~104ËšC was applied to datum at +1066 meters above sea level elevation, and (2) a near-surface temperature at about 10 meters depth, of 20ËšC was applied below the diurnal and annual conductive temperature perturbations. These assumptions were based on heat flow studies conducted at the CVF and for the Mojave Desert. On the edges of the hydrothermal system, a 73ËšC/km (4ËšF/100â€™) temperature gradient contour was established using conductive gradient data from shallow and intermediate-depth temperature holes. This contour was continued to all elevation datums between the 20ËšC surface and -1520 meters below mean sea level. Because the West Flank is outside of the geothermal field footprint, during Phase 1, the three wells inside the FORGE site were incorporated into the preexisting temperature model. To ensure a complete model was built based on all the available data sets, measured bottom-hole temperature gradients in certain wells were downward extrapolated to the next deepest elevation datum (or a maximum of about 25% of the well depth where conductive gradients are evident in the lower portions of the wells). After assuring that the margins of the geothermal field were going to be adequately modelled, the data was contoured using the Kriging method algorithm. Although the extrapolated temperatures and boundary conditions are not rigorous, the calculated temperatures are anticipated to be within ~6ËšC (20ËšF), or one contour interval, of the
3D Geologic Model of the Southern Great Basin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wagoner, J. L.; Myers, S. C.
2006-12-01
We have constructed a regional 3D geologic model of the southern Great Basin, in support of a seismic wave propagation investigation of the 1993 Nonproliferation Experiment (NPE) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The model is centered on the NPE and spans longitude -119.5° to -112.6°, latitude 34.5° to 39.8°, and a depth from the surface to 150 km below sea level. Hence, the model includes the southern half of Nevada, as well as parts of eastern California, western Utah, and a portion of northwestern Arizona. The upper crust is constrained by geologic and geophysical studies, and the lower crust and upper mantle are constrained by geophysical studies. The upper crustal geologic units are Quaternary basin fill, Tertiary deposits, pre-Tertiary deposits, intrusive rocks, and calderas. The lower crust and upper mantle are parameterized with 8 layers, including the Moho. Detailed geologic data, including surface maps, borehole data, and geophysical surveys, were used to define the geology at the NTS. Digital geologic outcrop data were available for both Nevada and Arizona, whereas we scanned and hand digitized geologic maps for California and Utah. Published gravity data (2km spacing) were used to determine the thickness of the Cenozoic deposits and constrain the depth of the basins. The free surface is based on a 10m lateral resolution DEM at the NTS and a 90m resolution DEM elsewhere. The gross geophysical structure of the crust and upper mantle is taken from regional surface-wave studies. Variations in crustal thickness are based on receiver function analysis and a compilation of reflection/refraction studies. We used the Earthvision (Dynamic Graphics, Inc.) software to integrate the geologic and geophysical information into a model of x,y,z,p nodes, where p is an integer index representing the geologic unit. For regional seismic simulations we convert this realistic geologic model into elastic parameters. Upper crustal units are treated as seismically homogeneous
3D modelling of the Black Sea ecosystem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Capet, A.; Gregoire, M.; Beckers, J.-M.; Joassin, P.; Naithani, J.; Soetart, K.
2009-04-01
A coupled physical-biogeochemical model has been developed to simulate the ecosystem of the Black Sea at the end of the 80's when eutrophication and invasion by gelatinous organisms seriously affected the stability and dynamics of the system. The biogeochemical model describes the cycle of carbon, nitrogen, silicate, oxygen and phosphorus through the foodweb from bacteria to gelatinous carnivores and explicitly represents processes in the anoxic layer down to the bottom. For calibration and analyses purposes, the coupled model has first been run in 1D at several places in the Black Sea. The biogeochemical model involves some hundred parameters which have been first calibrated by hand using published values. Then, an identifiability analysis has been performed in order to determine a subset of 15 identifiable parameters. An automatic calibration subroutine has been used to fine tune these parameters. In 1D, the model solution exhibits a complex dynamics with several years of transient adjustment. This complexity is imparted by the explicit modelling of top predators. The model has been calibrated and validated using a large set of data available in the Black Sea TU Ocean Base. The calibrated biogeochemical model is implemented in a 3D hydrodynamical model of the Black Sea. Results of these 3D simulations will be presented and compared with maps of in-situ data reconstructed from available data base using the software DIVA (Data Interpolation and Variational analysis).
2D quantum double models from a 3D perspective
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernabé Ferreira, Miguel Jorge; Padmanabhan, Pramod; Teotonio-Sobrinho, Paulo
2014-09-01
In this paper we look at three dimensional (3D) lattice models that are generalizations of the state sum model used to define the Kuperberg invariant of 3-manifolds. The partition function is a scalar constructed as a tensor network where the building blocks are tensors given by the structure constants of an involutory Hopf algebra A. These models are very general and are hard to solve in its entire parameter space. One can obtain familiar models, such as ordinary gauge theories, by letting A be the group algebra {C}(G) of a discrete group G and staying on a certain region of the parameter space. We consider the transfer matrix of the model and show that quantum double Hamiltonians are derived from a particular choice of the parameters. Such a construction naturally leads to the star and plaquette operators of the quantum double Hamiltonians, of which the toric code is a special case when A={C}({{{Z}}_{2}}). This formulation is convenient to study ground states of these generalized quantum double models where they can naturally be interpreted as tensor network states. For a surface Σ, the ground state degeneracy is determined by the Kuperberg 3-manifold invariant of \\Sigma \\times {{S}^{1}}. It is also possible to obtain extra models by simply enlarging the allowed parameter space but keeping the solubility of the model. While some of these extra models have appeared before in the literature, our 3D perspective allows for an uniform description of them.
West Flank Coso, CA FORGE 3D geologic model
Doug Blankenship
2016-03-01
This is an x,y,z file of the West Flank FORGE 3D geologic model. Model created in Earthvision by Dynamic Graphic Inc. The model was constructed with a grid spacing of 100 m. Geologic surfaces were extrapolated from the input data using a minimum tension gridding algorithm. The data file is tabular data in a text file, with lithology data associated with X,Y,Z grid points. All the relevant information is in the file header (the spatial reference, the projection etc.) In addition all the fields in the data file are identified in the header.
3D Model Atmospheres for Extremely Low-mass White Dwarfs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tremblay, P.-E.; Gianninas, A.; Kilic, M.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Steffen, M.; Freytag, B.; Hermes, J. J.
2015-08-01
We present an extended grid of mean three-dimensional (3D) spectra for low-mass, pure-hydrogen atmosphere DA white dwarfs (WDs). We use CO5BOLD radiation-hydrodynamics 3D simulations covering Teff = 6000–11,500 K and log g = 5–6.5 (g in cm s‑2) to derive analytical functions to convert spectroscopically determined 1D temperatures and surface gravities to 3D atmospheric parameters. Along with the previously published 3D models, the 1D to 3D corrections are now available for essentially all known convective DA WDs (i.e., log g = 5–9). For low-mass WDs, the correction in temperature is relatively small (a few percent at the most), but the surface gravities measured from the 3D models are lower by as much as 0.35 dex. We revisit the spectroscopic analysis of the extremely low-mass (ELM) WDs, and demonstrate that the 3D models largely resolve the discrepancies seen in the radius and mass measurements for relatively cool ELM WDs in eclipsing double WD and WD + millisecond pulsar binary systems. We also use the 3D corrections to revise the boundaries of the ZZ Ceti instability strip, including the recently found ELM pulsators.
3D Modeling of the ALICE Photoinjector Upgrade
McKenzie, J. W.; Militsyn, B. L.; Saveliev, Y. M.
2009-08-04
The injector for the ALICE machine (Accelerators and Lasers In Combined Experiments) at Daresbury Laboratory is based around a 350 kV DC photocathode electron gun. An upgrade is proposed to introduce a load-lock GaAs photocathode preparation facility to allow rapid transfer of photocathodes to the gun without breaking the vacuum system. In the current design this requires side-loading of the photocathodes into the cathode ball. An alternative is to relocate the ceramic insulator vertically which will allow back-loading and also backillumination of the photocathodes. 3D electrostatic simulations of the gun chamber are presented for both options along with 3D beam dynamic simulations for an off-axis photocathode, introduced to increase photocathode lifetime by reducing damage by ion backbombardment. Beam dynamic simulations are also presented for the entire injector beamline as well as for a proposed extension to the injector beamline to include a diagnostic section.
Right approach to 3D modeling using CAD tools
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baddam, Mounica Reddy
The thesis provides a step-by-step methodology to enable an instructor dealing with CAD tools to optimally guide his/her students through an understandable 3D modeling approach which will not only enhance their knowledge about the tool's usage but also enable them to achieve their desired result in comparatively lesser time. In the known practical field, there is particularly very little information available to apply CAD skills to formal beginners' training sessions. Additionally, advent of new software in 3D domain cumulates updating into a more difficult task. Keeping up to the industry's advanced requirements emphasizes the importance of more skilled hands in the field of CAD development, rather than just prioritizing manufacturing in terms of complex software features. The thesis analyses different 3D modeling approaches specified to the varieties of CAD tools currently available in the market. Utilizing performance-time databases, learning curves have been generated to measure their performance time, feature count etc. Based on the results, improvement parameters have also been provided for (Asperl, 2005).
Effective 3-D surface modeling for geographic information systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yüksek, K.; Alparslan, M.; Mendi, E.
2013-11-01
In this work, we propose a dynamic, flexible and interactive urban digital terrain platform (DTP) with spatial data and query processing capabilities of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), multimedia database functionality and graphical modeling infrastructure. A new data element, called Geo-Node, which stores image, spatial data and 3-D CAD objects is developed using an efficient data structure. The system effectively handles data transfer of Geo-Nodes between main memory and secondary storage with an optimized Directional Replacement Policy (DRP) based buffer management scheme. Polyhedron structures are used in Digital Surface Modeling (DSM) and smoothing process is performed by interpolation. The experimental results show that our framework achieves high performance and works effectively with urban scenes independent from the amount of spatial data and image size. The proposed platform may contribute to the development of various applications such as Web GIS systems based on 3-D graphics standards (e.g. X3-D and VRML) and services which integrate multi-dimensional spatial information and satellite/aerial imagery.
Effective 3-D surface modeling for geographic information systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yüksek, K.; Alparslan, M.; Mendi, E.
2016-01-01
In this work, we propose a dynamic, flexible and interactive urban digital terrain platform with spatial data and query processing capabilities of geographic information systems, multimedia database functionality and graphical modeling infrastructure. A new data element, called Geo-Node, which stores image, spatial data and 3-D CAD objects is developed using an efficient data structure. The system effectively handles data transfer of Geo-Nodes between main memory and secondary storage with an optimized directional replacement policy (DRP) based buffer management scheme. Polyhedron structures are used in digital surface modeling and smoothing process is performed by interpolation. The experimental results show that our framework achieves high performance and works effectively with urban scenes independent from the amount of spatial data and image size. The proposed platform may contribute to the development of various applications such as Web GIS systems based on 3-D graphics standards (e.g., X3-D and VRML) and services which integrate multi-dimensional spatial information and satellite/aerial imagery.
3D flare particle model for ShipIR/NTCS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramaswamy, Srinivasan; Vaitekunas, David A.
2016-05-01
A key component in any soft-kill response to an incoming guided missile is the flare /chaff decoy used to distract or seduce the seeker homing system away from the naval platform. This paper describes a new 3D flare particle model in the naval threat countermeasure simulator (NTCS) of the NATO-standard ship signature model (ShipIR), which provides independent control over the size and radial distribution of its signature. The 3D particles of each flare sub-munition are modelled stochastically and rendered using OpenGL z-buffering, 2D projection, and alpha-blending to produce a unique and time varying signature. A sensitivity analysis on each input parameter provides the data and methods needed to synthesize a model from an IR measurement of a decoy. The new model also eliminated artifacts and deficiencies in our previous model which prevented reliable tracks from the adaptive track gate algorithm already presented by Ramaswamy and Vaitekunas (2015). A sequence of scenarios are used to test and demonstrate the new flare model during a missile engagement.
3D finite element model for treatment of cleft lip
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiao, Chun; Hong, Dongming; Lu, Hongbing; Wang, Jianqi; Lin, Qin; Liang, Zhengrong
2009-02-01
Cleft lip is a congenital facial deformity with high occurrence rate in China. Surgical procedure involving Millard or Tennison methods is usually employed for treatment of cleft lip. However, due to the elasticity of the soft tissues and the mechanical interaction between skin and maxillary, the occurrence rate of facial abnormality or dehisce is still high after the surgery, leading to multiple operations of the patient. In this study, a framework of constructing a realistic 3D finite element model (FEM) for the treatment of cleft lip has been established. It consists of two major steps. The first one is the reconstruction of a 3D geometrical model of the cleft lip from scanning CT data. The second step is the build-up of a FEM for cleft lip using the geometric model, where the material property of all the tetrahedrons was calculated from the CT densities directly using an empirical curve. The simulation results demonstrated (1) the deformation procedure of the model step-by-step when forces were applied, (2) the stress distribution inside the model, and (3) the displacement of all elements in the model. With the computer simulation, the minimal force of having the cleft be repaired is predicted, as well as whether a given force sufficient for the treatment of a specific individual. It indicates that the proposed framework could integrate the treatment planning with stress analysis based on a realistic patient model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Norajitra, Tobias; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Maier-Hein, Klaus H.
2015-03-01
During image segmentation, 3D Statistical Shape Models (SSM) usually conduct a limited search for target landmarks within one-dimensional search profiles perpendicular to the model surface. In addition, landmark appearance is modeled only locally based on linear profiles and weak learners, altogether leading to segmentation errors from landmark ambiguities and limited search coverage. We present a new method for 3D SSM segmentation based on 3D Random Forest Regression Voting. For each surface landmark, a Random Regression Forest is trained that learns a 3D spatial displacement function between the according reference landmark and a set of surrounding sample points, based on an infinite set of non-local randomized 3D Haar-like features. Landmark search is then conducted omni-directionally within 3D search spaces, where voxelwise forest predictions on landmark position contribute to a common voting map which reflects the overall position estimate. Segmentation experiments were conducted on a set of 45 CT volumes of the human liver, of which 40 images were randomly chosen for training and 5 for testing. Without parameter optimization, using a simple candidate selection and a single resolution approach, excellent results were achieved, while faster convergence and better concavity segmentation were observed, altogether underlining the potential of our approach in terms of increased robustness from distinct landmark detection and from better search coverage.
Bazhenov fm unconventional reservoir 3D geological modeling methodology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Telnova, A.; Baranov, V.; Bukhanov, N.
2016-03-01
The Bazhenov Formation has been studied for more than 50 years, but its petroleum potential, optimal STOIIP or resource estimation approaches, the methodology used to select a reservoir, determine its properties are still unclear. The distinctive features of bituminous shale are specific geochemical properties chosen as basic parameters to perform the geological modeling of the Bazhenov deposits and determine the key areas. The main objective of this paper is to choose an optimal 3D geological modeling algorithm and test conventional (petrophysical) and specific (geochemical) properties.
Digital 3D Borobudur - Integration of 3D surveying and modeling techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suwardhi, D.; Menna, F.; Remondino, F.; Hanke, K.; Akmalia, R.
2015-08-01
The Borobudur temple (Indonesia) is one of the greatest Buddhist monuments in the world, now listed as an UNESCO World Heritage Site. The present state of the temple is the result of restorations after being exposed to natural disasters several times. Today there is still a growing rate of deterioration of the building stones whose causes need further researches. Monitoring programs, supported at institutional level, have been effectively executed to observe the problem. The paper presents the latest efforts to digitally document the Borobudur Temple and its surrounding area in 3D with photogrammetric techniques. UAV and terrestrial images were acquired to completely digitize the temple, produce DEM, orthoimages and maps at 1:100 and 1:1000 scale. The results of the project are now employed by the local government organizations to manage the heritage area and plan new policies for the conservation and preservation of the UNESCO site. In order to help data management and policy makers, a web-based information system of the heritage area was also built to visualize and easily access all the data and achieved 3D results.
Discrete Method of Images for 3D Radio Propagation Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Novak, Roman
2016-09-01
Discretization by rasterization is introduced into the method of images (MI) in the context of 3D deterministic radio propagation modeling as a way to exploit spatial coherence of electromagnetic propagation for fine-grained parallelism. Traditional algebraic treatment of bounding regions and surfaces is replaced by computer graphics rendering of 3D reflections and double refractions while building the image tree. The visibility of reception points and surfaces is also resolved by shader programs. The proposed rasterization is shown to be of comparable run time to that of the fundamentally parallel shooting and bouncing rays. The rasterization does not affect the signal evaluation backtracking step, thus preserving its advantage over the brute force ray-tracing methods in terms of accuracy. Moreover, the rendering resolution may be scaled back for a given level of scenario detail with only marginal impact on the image tree size. This allows selection of scene optimized execution parameters for faster execution, giving the method a competitive edge. The proposed variant of MI can be run on any GPU that supports real-time 3D graphics.
3D Building Evacuation Route Modelling and Visualization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chan, W.; Armenakis, C.
2014-11-01
The most common building evacuation approach currently applied is to have evacuation routes planned prior to these emergency events. These routes are usually the shortest and most practical path from each building room to the closest exit. The problem with this approach is that it is not adaptive. It is not responsively configurable relative to the type, intensity, or location of the emergency risk. Moreover, it does not provide any information to the affected persons or to the emergency responders while not allowing for the review of simulated hazard scenarios and alternative evacuation routes. In this paper we address two main tasks. The first is the modelling of the spatial risk caused by a hazardous event leading to choosing the optimal evacuation route for a set of options. The second is to generate a 3D visual representation of the model output. A multicriteria decision making (MCDM) approach is used to model the risk aiming at finding the optimal evacuation route. This is achieved by using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) on the criteria describing the different alternative evacuation routes. The best route is then chosen to be the alternative with the least cost. The 3D visual representation of the model displays the building, the surrounding environment, the evacuee's location, the hazard location, the risk areas and the optimal evacuation pathway to the target safety location. The work has been performed using ESRI's ArcGIS. Using the developed models, the user can input the location of the hazard and the location of the evacuee. The system then determines the optimum evacuation route and displays it in 3D.
Modeling the GFR with RELAP5-3D
Cliff B. Davis; Theron D. Marshall; K. D. Weaver
2005-09-01
Significant improvements have been made to the RELAP5-3D computer code for analysis of the Gas Fast Reactor (GFR). These improvements consisted of adding carbon dioxide as a working fluid, improving the turbine component, developing a compressor model, and adding the Gnielinski heat transfer correlation. The code improvements were validated, generally through comparisons with independent design calculations. A model of the power conversion unit of the GFR was developed. The model of the power conversion unit was coupled to a reactor model to develop a complete model of the GFR system. The RELAP5 model of the GFR was used to simulate two transients, one initiated by a reactor trip and the other initiated by a loss of load.
Testing Mercury Porosimetry with 3D Printed Porosity Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hasiuk, F.; Ewing, R. P.; Hu, Q.
2014-12-01
Mercury intrusion porosimetry is one of the most widely used techniques to study the porous nature of a geological and man-made materials. In the geosciences, it is commonly used to describe petroleum reservoir and seal rocks as well as to grade aggregates for the design of asphalt and portland cement concretes. It's wide utility stems from its ability to characterize a wide range of pore throat sizes (from nanometers to around a millimeter). The fundamental physical model underlying mercury intrusion porosimetry, the Washburn Equation, is based on the assumption that rock porosity can be described as a bundle of cylindrical tubes. 3D printing technology, also known as rapid prototyping, allows the construction of intricate and accurate models, exactly what is required to build models of rock porosity. We evaluate the applicability of the Washburn Equation by comparing properties (like porosity, pore and pore throat size distribution, and surface area) computed on digital porosity models (built from CT data, CAD designs, or periodic geometries) to properties measured via mercury intrusion porosimetry on 3D printed versions of the same digital porosity models.
Integration of 3D photogrammetric outcrop models in the reservoir modelling workflow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deschamps, Remy; Joseph, Philippe; Lerat, Olivier; Schmitz, Julien; Doligez, Brigitte; Jardin, Anne
2014-05-01
3D outcrop data, including geostatistical modelling and fluid flow simulations The case study is a turbidite reservoir analog in Northern Spain (Ainsa). In this case study, we can compare reservoir models that have been built with conventional data set (1D pseudowells), and reservoir model built from 3D outcrop data directly used to constrain the reservoir architecture. This approach allows us to assess the benefits of integrating geotagged 3D outcrop data into reservoir models. References: HODGETTS, D., (2013): Laser scanning and digital outcrop geology in the petroleum industry : a review. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 46, 335-354. McCAFFREY, K.J.W., JONES, R.R., HOLDSWORTH, R.E., WILSON, R.W., CLEGG, P., IMBER, J., HOLLIMAN, N., TRINKS, I., (2005): Unlocking the spatial dimension: digital technologies and the future of geoscience fieldwork. Journal of the Geological Society 162, 927-938 PRINGLE, J.K., HOWELL, J.A., HODGETTS, D., WESTERMAN, A.R., HODGSON, D.M., 2006. Virtual outcrop models of petroleum reservoir analogues: a review of the current state-of-the-art. First Break 24, 33-42.
3D deformable organ model based liver motion tracking in ultrasound videos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Jung-Bae; Hwang, Youngkyoo; Oh, Young-Taek; Bang, Won-Chul; Lee, Heesae; Kim, James D. K.; Kim, Chang Yeong
2013-03-01
This paper presents a novel method of using 2D ultrasound (US) cine images during image-guided therapy to accurately track the 3D position of a tumor even when the organ of interest is in motion due to patient respiration. Tracking is possible thanks to a 3D deformable organ model we have developed. The method consists of three processes in succession. The first process is organ modeling where we generate a personalized 3D organ model from high quality 3D CT or MR data sets captured during three different respiratory phases. The model includes the organ surface, vessel and tumor, which can all deform and move in accord with patient respiration. The second process is registration of the organ model to 3D US images. From 133 respiratory phase candidates generated from the deformable organ model, we resolve the candidate that best matches the 3D US images according to vessel centerline and surface. As a result, we can determine the position of the US probe. The final process is real-time tracking using 2D US cine images captured by the US probe. We determine the respiratory phase by tracking the diaphragm on the image. The 3D model is then deformed according to respiration phase and is fitted to the image by considering the positions of the vessels. The tumor's 3D positions are then inferred based on respiration phase. Testing our method on real patient data, we have found the accuracy of 3D position is within 3.79mm and processing time is 5.4ms during tracking.
Orbiter/External Tank Mate 3-D Solid Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Godfrey, G. S.; Brandt, B.; Rorden, D.; Kapr, F.
2004-01-01
This research and development project presents an overview of the work completed while attending a summer 2004 American Society of Engineering Education/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (ASEE/NASA) Faculty Fellowship. This fellowship was completed at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The scope of the project was to complete parts, assemblies, and drawings that could be used by Ground Support Equipment (GSE) personnel to simulate situations and scenarios commonplace to the space shuttle Orbiter/External Tank (ET) Mate (50004). This mate takes place in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). These simulations could then be used by NASA engineers as decision-making tools. During the summer of 2004, parts were created that defined the Orbiter/ET structural interfaces. Emphasis was placed upon assemblies that included the Orbiter/ET forward attachment (EO-1), aft left thrust strut (EO-2), aft right tripod support structure (EO-3), and crossbeam and aft feedline/umbilical supports. These assemblies are used to attach the Orbiter to the ET. The Orbiter/ET Mate assembly was then used to compare and analyze clearance distances using different Orbiter hang angles. It was found that a 30-minute arc angle change in Orbiter hang angle affected distance at the bipod strut to Orbiter yoke fitting 8.11 inches. A 3-D solid model library was established as a result of this project. This library contains parts, assemblies, and drawings translated into several formats. This library contains a collection of the following files: sti for sterolithography, stp for neutral file work, shrinkwrap for compression. tiff for photoshop work, jpeg for Internet use, and prt and asm for Pro/Engineer use. This library was made available to NASA engineers so that they could access its contents to make angle, load, and clearance analysis studies. These decision-making tools may be used by Pro/Engineer users and non-users.
Numerical Results of 3-D Modeling of Moon Accumulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khachay, Yurie; Anfilogov, Vsevolod; Antipin, Alexandr
2014-05-01
For the last time for the model of the Moon usually had been used the model of mega impact in which the forming of the Earth and its sputnik had been the consequence of the Earth's collision with the body of Mercurial mass. But all dynamical models of the Earth's accumulation and the estimations after the Pb-Pb system, lead to the conclusion that the duration of the planet accumulation was about 1 milliard years. But isotopic results after the W-Hf system testify about a very early (5-10) million years, dividing of the geochemical reservoirs of the core and mantle. In [1,2] it is shown, that the account of energy dissipating by the decay of short living radioactive elements and first of all Al26,it is sufficient for heating even small bodies with dimensions about (50-100) km up to the iron melting temperature and can be realized a principal new differentiation mechanism. The inner parts of the melted preplanets can join and they are mainly of iron content, but the cold silicate fragments return to the supply zone and additionally change the content of Moon forming to silicates. Only after the increasing of the gravitational radius of the Earth, the growing area of the future Earth's core can save also the silicate envelope fragments [3]. For understanding the further system Earth-Moon evolution it is significant to trace the origin and evolution of heterogeneities, which occur on its accumulation stage.In that paper we are modeling the changing of temperature,pressure,velocity of matter flowing in a block of 3d spherical body with a growing radius. The boundary problem is solved by the finite-difference method for the system of equations, which include equations which describe the process of accumulation, the Safronov equation, the equation of impulse balance, equation Navier-Stocks, equation for above litho static pressure and heat conductivity in velocity-pressure variables using the Businesque approach.The numerical algorithm of the problem solution in velocity
Towards an Anisotropic Whole Mantle 3D Elastic Velocity Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panning, M. P.; Romanowicz, B.; Gung, Y.
2001-12-01
Many studies have documented the existence of anisotropy in the earth's upper mantle, concentrated in the top 200 km. This evidence comes from the study of surface waves as well as shear wave splitting. There is also evidence for shear wave splitting in D", at least in well sampled regions. There are some hints of anisotropy at the base of the transition zone. Tomographic models of the upper mantle have been developed with simplifying assumptions about the nature of the anisotropy, in order to minimize the number of free parameters in the inversions. Some assume transverse isotropy (e.g Ekström and Dziewonski, 1997), others include additional degrees of freedom with some realistic constraints on mineralogy (e.g. Montagner and Tanimoto, 1991). Our goal is to investigate anisotropy in the whole mantle, using the framework of waveform inversion, and the nonlinear asymptotic mode coupling theory (NACT), previously developed and applied to the construction of whole-mantle SH velocity models (Li and Romanowicz, 1996; Mégnin and Romanowicz, 2000). For this we require a 3 component dataset, and we have extended our automatic transverse (T) component wavepicking procedures to the vertical (Z) and longitudinal (L) component - a non-trivial task given the large number of phases present in the coupled P-SV system. A useful initial assumption, for which the theory has been readily adapted, is that of transverse isotropy. As a first step towards this, we have been investigating inversions using T component and Z,L component data separately. In particular, this allows us to explore the sampling that can be achieved with Z,L component data alone in the deepest part of the mantle. Indeed, D" is in general much better sampled in SH than in SV, owing to the availability of SHdiff at large distances, while SVdiff decays more rapidly due to mantle-core coupling. We present the results of our resolution experiments and discuss the differences between the 3D SV model obtained in well
Discussion of Source Reconstruction Models Using 3D MCG Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Melis, Massimo De; Uchikawa, Yoshinori
In this study we performed the source reconstruction of magnetocardiographic signals generated by the human heart activity to localize the site of origin of the heart activation. The localizations were performed in a four compartment model of the human volume conductor. The analyses were conducted on normal subjects and on a subject affected by the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Different models of the source activation were used to evaluate whether a general model of the current source can be applied in the study of the cardiac inverse problem. The data analyses were repeated using normal and vector component data of the MCG. The results show that a distributed source model has the better accuracy in performing the source reconstructions, and that 3D MCG data allow finding smaller differences between the different source models.
Modeling moving systems with RELAP5-3D
Mesina, G. L.; Aumiller, David L.; Buschman, Francis X.; Kyle, Matt R.
2015-12-04
RELAP5-3D is typically used to model stationary, land-based reactors. However, it can also model reactors in other inertial and accelerating frames of reference. By changing the magnitude of the gravitational vector through user input, RELAP5-3D can model reactors on a space station or the moon. The field equations have also been modified to model reactors in a non-inertial frame, such as occur in land-based reactors during earthquakes or onboard spacecraft. Transient body forces affect fluid flow in thermal-fluid machinery aboard accelerating crafts during rotational and translational accelerations. It is useful to express the equations of fluid motion in the acceleratingmore » frame of reference attached to the moving craft. However, careful treatment of the rotational and translational kinematics is required to accurately capture the physics of the fluid motion. Correlations for flow at angles between horizontal and vertical are generated via interpolation where no experimental studies or data exist. The equations for three-dimensional fluid motion in a non-inertial frame of reference are developed. As a result, two different systems for describing rotational motion are presented, user input is discussed, and an example is given.« less
Modeling moving systems with RELAP5-3D
Mesina, G. L.; Aumiller, David L.; Buschman, Francis X.; Kyle, Matt R.
2015-12-04
RELAP5-3D is typically used to model stationary, land-based reactors. However, it can also model reactors in other inertial and accelerating frames of reference. By changing the magnitude of the gravitational vector through user input, RELAP5-3D can model reactors on a space station or the moon. The field equations have also been modified to model reactors in a non-inertial frame, such as occur in land-based reactors during earthquakes or onboard spacecraft. Transient body forces affect fluid flow in thermal-fluid machinery aboard accelerating crafts during rotational and translational accelerations. It is useful to express the equations of fluid motion in the accelerating frame of reference attached to the moving craft. However, careful treatment of the rotational and translational kinematics is required to accurately capture the physics of the fluid motion. Correlations for flow at angles between horizontal and vertical are generated via interpolation where no experimental studies or data exist. The equations for three-dimensional fluid motion in a non-inertial frame of reference are developed. As a result, two different systems for describing rotational motion are presented, user input is discussed, and an example is given.
3D simulation of the Cluster-Cluster Aggregation model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Chao; Xiong, Hailing
2014-12-01
We write a program to implement the Cluster-Cluster Aggregation (CCA) model with java programming language. By using the simulation program, the fractal aggregation growth process can be displayed dynamically in the form of a three-dimensional (3D) figure. Meanwhile, the related kinetics data of aggregation simulation can be also recorded dynamically. Compared to the traditional programs, the program has better real-time performance and is more helpful to observe the fractal growth process, which contributes to the scientific study in fractal aggregation. Besides, because of adopting java programming language, the program has very good cross-platform performance.
Unstructured 3D grid toolbox for modeling and simulation
George, D.
1997-11-01
Computable 3D grids that accurately represent complex multimaterial geometries are essential for both static and time-dependent modeling and simulation. LaGriT, the grid toolbox developed at Los Alamos provides a sophisticated set of initial grid generation, grid maintenance and grid optimization tools. We present example grids that demonstrate the flexibility of the grid generator. Additionally, we present the results of an electrostatic calculation and a grain growth problem that illustrate the grid optimization features and the utility of the grid server architecture.
Simulation of 3D Global Wave Propagation Through Geodynamic Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schuberth, B.; Piazzoni, A.; Bunge, H.; Igel, H.; Steinle-Neumann, G.
2005-12-01
This project aims at a better understanding of the forward problem of global 3D wave propagation. We use the spectral element program "SPECFEM3D" (Komatitsch and Tromp, 2002a,b) with varying input models of seismic velocities derived from mantle convection simulations (Bunge et al., 2002). The purpose of this approach is to obtain seismic velocity models independently from seismological studies. In this way one can test the effects of varying parameters of the mantle convection models on the seismic wave field. In order to obtain the seismic velocities from the temperature field of the geodynamical simulations we follow a mineral physics approach. Assuming a certain mantle composition (e.g. pyrolite with CMASF composition) we compute the stable phases for each depth (i.e. pressure) and temperature by system Gibbs free energy minimization. Elastic moduli and density are calculated from the equations of state of the stable mineral phases. For this we use a mineral physics database derived from calorimetric experiments (enthalphy and entropy of formation, heat capacity) and EOS parameters.
3D Model of Melt Distribution in Partially Molten Dunite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garapic, G.; Faul, U.; Brisson, E.
2010-12-01
The currently existing model of grain-scale melt geometry in the Earth’s upper mantle is derived from theoretical considerations that stem from material science research, combined with relatively low-resolution observations of polished two-dimensional surfaces. This model predicts a simple, interconnected network of melt along three-grain edges in static surface energy equilibrium. However, due to a continuous rearrangements of neighboring grains caused by grain growth, melt forms complex shapes among the grains. As a result, it is impossible to construct a 3D image of the pore space from 2D surfaces, which makes it particularly challenging to resolve the current controversy on whether all two-grain boundaries are wetted or melt-free. We present a new method for reconstruction of the 3D pore space in partially molten rocks. The method consists of serial sectioning and high resolution imaging (Field Emission SEM) of polished surfaces, followed by image alignment and rendering. The ablation rate during serial sectioning is determined by measuring the depth of a laser hole by interferometry. We removed a total of 25 layers with a spacing of of 1.3.microns between layers. Each layer consists of a mosaic of images approximately 300 x 320 microns in size. Melt regions are identified within each layer by hand-digitizing SEM images. We obtain a 3D model by stacking the slices, registering each slice, and using alpha shapes as a surface reconstruction technique. The sample we investigated is a partially molten dunite consisting of Fo90 olivine with a mean grain size of 33 microns and 4% melt. It was run in a piston cylinder at 1350°C and 1 GPa for 432 hours to achieve steady state grain growth. Rendering of the 3D pore space shows that the larger melt pockets at multi-grain junctions change within only a few microns in depth, whereas thin inclusions along two-grain boundaries persist over the entire depth of the imaged volume, which is similar to the mean grain size
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rowe, Jeremy; Razdan, Anshuman
The Partnership for Research in Spatial Modeling (PRISM) project at Arizona State University (ASU) developed modeling and analytic tools to respond to the limitations of two-dimensional (2D) data representations perceived by affiliated discipline scientists, and to take advantage of the enhanced capabilities of three-dimensional (3D) data that…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gravel, Paul; Verhaeghe, Jeroen; Reader, Andrew J.
2013-01-01
This work explores the feasibility and impact of including both the motion correction and the image registration transformation parameters from positron emission tomography (PET) image space to magnetic resonance (MR), or stereotaxic, image space within the system matrix of PET image reconstruction. This approach is motivated by the fields of neuroscience and psychiatry, where PET is used to investigate differences in activation patterns between different groups of participants, requiring all images to be registered to a common spatial atlas. Currently, image registration is performed after image reconstruction which introduces interpolation effects into the final image. Furthermore, motion correction (also requiring registration) introduces a further level of interpolation, and the overall result of these operations can lead to resolution degradation and possibly artifacts. It is important to note that performing such operations on a post-reconstruction basis means, strictly speaking, that the final images are not ones which maximize the desired objective function (e.g. maximum likelihood (ML), or maximum a posteriori reconstruction (MAP)). To correctly seek parameter estimates in the desired spatial atlas which are in accordance with the chosen reconstruction objective function, it is necessary to include the transformation parameters for both motion correction and registration within the system modeling stage of image reconstruction. Such an approach not only respects the statistically chosen objective function (e.g. ML or MAP), but furthermore should serve to reduce the interpolation effects. To evaluate the proposed method, this work investigates registration (including motion correction) using 2D and 3D simulations based on the high resolution research tomograph (HRRT) PET scanner geometry, with and without resolution modeling, using the ML expectation maximization (MLEM) reconstruction algorithm. The quality of reconstruction was assessed using bias
Comparative 3-D Modeling of tmRNA
Burks, Jody; Zwieb, Christian; Müller, Florian; Wower, Iwona; Wower, Jacek
2005-01-01
Background Trans-translation releases stalled ribosomes from truncated mRNAs and tags defective proteins for proteolytic degradation using transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA). This small stable RNA represents a hybrid of tRNA- and mRNA-like domains connected by a variable number of pseudoknots. Comparative sequence analysis of tmRNAs found in bacteria, plastids, and mitochondria provides considerable insights into their secondary structures. Progress toward understanding the molecular mechanism of template switching, which constitutes an essential step in trans-translation, is hampered by our limited knowledge about the three-dimensional folding of tmRNA. Results To facilitate experimental testing of the molecular intricacies of trans-translation, which often require appropriately modified tmRNA derivatives, we developed a procedure for building three-dimensional models of tmRNA. Using comparative sequence analysis, phylogenetically-supported 2-D structures were obtained to serve as input for the program ERNA-3D. Motifs containing loops and turns were extracted from the known structures of other RNAs and used to improve the tmRNA models. Biologically feasible 3-D models for the entire tmRNA molecule could be obtained. The models were characterized by a functionally significant close proximity between the tRNA-like domain and the resume codon. Potential conformational changes which might lead to a more open structure of tmRNA upon binding to the ribosome are discussed. The method, described in detail for the tmRNAs of Escherichia coli, Bacillus anthracis, and Caulobacter crescentus, is applicable to every tmRNA. Conclusion Improved molecular models of biological significance were obtained. These models will guide in the design of experiments and provide a better understanding of trans-translation. The comparative procedure described here for tmRNA is easily adopted for the modeling the members of other RNA families. PMID:15958166
EM modeling for GPIR using 3D FDTD modeling codes
Nelson, S.D.
1994-10-01
An analysis of the one-, two-, and three-dimensional electrical characteristics of structural cement and concrete is presented. This work connects experimental efforts in characterizing cement and concrete in the frequency and time domains with the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) modeling efforts of these substances. These efforts include Electromagnetic (EM) modeling of simple lossless homogeneous materials with aggregate and targets and the modeling dispersive and lossy materials with aggregate and complex target geometries for Ground Penetrating Imaging Radar (GPIR). Two- and three-dimensional FDTD codes (developed at LLNL) where used for the modeling efforts. Purpose of the experimental and modeling efforts is to gain knowledge about the electrical properties of concrete typically used in the construction industry for bridges and other load bearing structures. The goal is to optimize the performance of a high-sample-rate impulse radar and data acquisition system and to design an antenna system to match the characteristics of this material. Results show agreement to within 2 dB of the amplitudes of the experimental and modeled data while the frequency peaks correlate to within 10% the differences being due to the unknown exact nature of the aggregate placement.
SEARCHBreast Workshop Proceedings: 3D Modelling of Breast Cancer.
Morrissey, Bethny; Blyth, Karen; Carter, Phil; Chelala, Claude; Holen, Ingunn; Jones, Louise; Speirs, Valerie
2015-12-01
SEARCHBreast, a UK initiative supported by the NC3Rs, organised a workshop entitled 3D Modelling of Breast Cancer. The workshop focused on providing researchers with solutions to overcome some of the perceived barriers to working with human-derived tumour cells, cell lines and tissues, namely: a) the limited access to human-derived material; and b) the difficulty in working with these samples. The workshop presentations provided constructive advice and information on how to best prepare human cells or tissues for further downstream applications. Techniques in developing primary cultures from patient samples, and considerations when preserving tissue slices, were discussed. A common theme throughout the workshop was the importance of ensuring that the cells are grown in conditions as similar to the in vivo microenvironment as possible. Comparisons of the advantages of several in vitro options, such as primary cell cultures, cell line cultures, explants or tissue slices, suggest that all offer great potential applications for breast cancer research, and highlight that it need not be a case of choosing one over the other. The workshop also offered cutting-edge examples of on-chip technologies and 3-D tumour modelling by using virtual pathology, which can contribute to clinically relevant studies and provide insights into breast cancer metastatic mechanisms. PMID:26753939
Dynamic deformable models for 3D MRI heart segmentation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhukov, Leonid; Bao, Zhaosheng; Gusikov, Igor; Wood, John; Breen, David E.
2002-05-01
Automated or semiautomated segmentation of medical images decreases interstudy variation, observer bias, and postprocessing time as well as providing clincally-relevant quantitative data. In this paper we present a new dynamic deformable modeling approach to 3D segmentation. It utilizes recently developed dynamic remeshing techniques and curvature estimation methods to produce high-quality meshes. The approach has been implemented in an interactive environment that allows a user to specify an initial model and identify key features in the data. These features act as hard constraints that the model must not pass through as it deforms. We have employed the method to perform semi-automatic segmentation of heart structures from cine MRI data.
Stochastic Modeling of Calcium in 3D Geometry
Mazel, Tomáš; Raymond, Rebecca; Raymond-Stintz, Mary; Jett, Stephen; Wilson, Bridget S.
2009-01-01
Release of inflammatory mediators by mast cells in type 1 immediate-hypersensitivity allergic reactions relies on antigen-dependent increases in cytosolic calcium. Here, we used a series of electron microscopy images to build a 3D reconstruction representing a slice through a rat tumor mast cell, which then served as a basis for stochastic modeling of inositol-trisphosphate-mediated calcium responses. The stochastic approach was verified by reaction-diffusion modeling within the same geometry. Local proximity of the endoplasmic reticulum to either the plasma membrane or mitochondria is predicted to differentially impact local inositol trisphosphate receptor transport. The explicit consideration of organelle spatial relationships represents an important step toward building a comprehensive, realistic model of cellular calcium dynamics. PMID:19254531
Topological order in an exactly solvable 3D spin model
Bravyi, Sergey; Leemhuis, Bernhard; Terhal, Barbara M.
2011-04-15
Research highlights: RHtriangle We study exactly solvable spin model with six-qubit nearest neighbor interactions on a 3D face centered cubic lattice. RHtriangle The ground space of the model exhibits topological quantum order. RHtriangle Elementary excitations can be geometrically described as the corners of rectangular-shaped membranes. RHtriangle The ground space can encode 4g qubits where g is the greatest common divisor of the lattice dimensions. RHtriangle Logical operators acting on the encoded qubits are described in terms of closed strings and closed membranes. - Abstract: We study a 3D generalization of the toric code model introduced recently by Chamon. This is an exactly solvable spin model with six-qubit nearest-neighbor interactions on an FCC lattice whose ground space exhibits topological quantum order. The elementary excitations of this model which we call monopoles can be geometrically described as the corners of rectangular-shaped membranes. We prove that the creation of an isolated monopole separated from other monopoles by a distance R requires an operator acting on {Omega}(R{sup 2}) qubits. Composite particles that consist of two monopoles (dipoles) and four monopoles (quadrupoles) can be described as end-points of strings. The peculiar feature of the model is that dipole-type strings are rigid, that is, such strings must be aligned with face-diagonals of the lattice. For periodic boundary conditions the ground space can encode 4g qubits where g is the greatest common divisor of the lattice dimensions. We describe a complete set of logical operators acting on the encoded qubits in terms of closed strings and closed membranes.
Development of an aquifer management model AQMAN3D
Puig, Juan Carlos; Rolon-Collazo, L. I.; Pagan-Trinidad, Ishmael
1990-01-01
A computer code that enables the use of the USGS Modular groundwater flow model for aquifermanagement modeling has been developed. Aquifermanagement techniques integrate groundwater flow modeling with linear quadratic optimization methods for the solution of various aquifer management problems. The model AQMAN3D, is a modified version of a previously developed two-dimensional AQMAN model. The idea of coupling the AQMAN model with the MODULAR model arose because actual groundwater flow systems behave in a three dimensional manner, therefore requiring treatment as such, and due to the widespread use of MODULAR. The use of the AQMAN3D model permits the implementation of the technique known as aquifer managementmodeling. A generalized approach to obtain an optimal solution to an aquifer management problem is proposed, and a sample test problem is presented to illustrate the use of the model. Even though the model provides the hydrologist with a new and powerful investigative tool, its applicability is limited to confined or quasiconfined systems.
Active Exploration of Large 3D Model Repositories.
Gao, Lin; Cao, Yan-Pei; Lai, Yu-Kun; Huang, Hao-Zhi; Kobbelt, Leif; Hu, Shi-Min
2015-12-01
With broader availability of large-scale 3D model repositories, the need for efficient and effective exploration becomes more and more urgent. Existing model retrieval techniques do not scale well with the size of the database since often a large number of very similar objects are returned for a query, and the possibilities to refine the search are quite limited. We propose an interactive approach where the user feeds an active learning procedure by labeling either entire models or parts of them as "like" or "dislike" such that the system can automatically update an active set of recommended models. To provide an intuitive user interface, candidate models are presented based on their estimated relevance for the current query. From the methodological point of view, our main contribution is to exploit not only the similarity between a query and the database models but also the similarities among the database models themselves. We achieve this by an offline pre-processing stage, where global and local shape descriptors are computed for each model and a sparse distance metric is derived that can be evaluated efficiently even for very large databases. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method by interactively exploring a repository containing over 100 K models. PMID:26529460
3D modeling of high-Tc superconductors by finite element software
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Min; Coombs, T. A.
2012-01-01
A three-dimensional (3D) numerical model is proposed to solve the electromagnetic problems involving transport current and background field of a high-Tc superconducting (HTS) system. The model is characterized by the E-J power law and H-formulation, and is successfully implemented using finite element software. We first discuss the model in detail, including the mesh methods, boundary conditions and computing time. To validate the 3D model, we calculate the ac loss and trapped field solution for a bulk material and compare the results with the previously verified 2D solutions and an analytical solution. We then apply our model to test some typical problems such as superconducting bulk array and twisted conductors, which cannot be tackled by the 2D models. The new 3D model could be a powerful tool for researchers and engineers to investigate problems with a greater level of complicity.
Automatic Texture Reconstruction of 3d City Model from Oblique Images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Junhua; Deng, Fei; Li, Xinwei; Wan, Fang
2016-06-01
In recent years, the photorealistic 3D city models are increasingly important in various geospatial applications related to virtual city tourism, 3D GIS, urban planning, real-estate management. Besides the acquisition of high-precision 3D geometric data, texture reconstruction is also a crucial step for generating high-quality and visually realistic 3D models. However, most of the texture reconstruction approaches are probably leading to texture fragmentation and memory inefficiency. In this paper, we introduce an automatic framework of texture reconstruction to generate textures from oblique images for photorealistic visualization. Our approach include three major steps as follows: mesh parameterization, texture atlas generation and texture blending. Firstly, mesh parameterization procedure referring to mesh segmentation and mesh unfolding is performed to reduce geometric distortion in the process of mapping 2D texture to 3D model. Secondly, in the texture atlas generation step, the texture of each segmented region in texture domain is reconstructed from all visible images with exterior orientation and interior orientation parameters. Thirdly, to avoid color discontinuities at boundaries between texture regions, the final texture map is generated by blending texture maps from several corresponding images. We evaluated our texture reconstruction framework on a dataset of a city. The resulting mesh model can get textured by created texture without resampling. Experiment results show that our method can effectively mitigate the occurrence of texture fragmentation. It is demonstrated that the proposed framework is effective and useful for automatic texture reconstruction of 3D city model.
Computational approaches to 3D modeling of RNA.
Laing, Christian; Schlick, Tamar
2010-07-21
Many exciting discoveries have recently revealed the versatility of RNA and its importance in a variety of functions within the cell. Since the structural features of RNA are of major importance to their biological function, there is much interest in predicting RNA structure, either in free form or in interaction with various ligands, including proteins, metabolites and other molecules. In recent years, an increasing number of researchers have developed novel RNA algorithms for predicting RNA secondary and tertiary structures. In this review, we describe current experimental and computational advances and discuss recent ideas that are transforming the traditional view of RNA folding. To evaluate the performance of the most recent RNA 3D folding algorithms, we provide a comparative study in order to test the performance of available 3D structure prediction algorithms for an RNA data set of 43 structures of various lengths and motifs. We find that the algorithms vary widely in terms of prediction quality across different RNA lengths and topologies; most predictions have very large root mean square deviations from the experimental structure. We conclude by outlining some suggestions for future RNA folding research. PMID:21399271
3D Tissue-Engineered Model of Ewing Sarcoma
Lamhamedi-Cherradi, Salah-Eddine; Santoro, Marco; Ramammoorthy, Vandhana; Menegaz, Brian A.; Bartholomeusz, Geoffrey; Iles, Lakesla R.; Amin, Hesham M.; Livingston, Andrew J.; Mikos, Antonios G.; Ludwig, Joseph A.
2015-01-01
Despite longstanding reliance upon monolayer culture for studying cancer cells, and numerous advantages from both a practical and experimental standpoint, a growing body of evidence suggests more complex three-dimensional (3D) models are necessary to properly mimic many of the critical hallmarks associated with the oncogenesis, maintenance and spread of Ewing sarcoma (ES), the second most common pediatric bone tumor. And as clinicians increasingly turn to biologically-targeted therapies that exert their effects not only on the tumor cells themselves, but also on the surrounding extracellular matrix, it is especially important that preclinical models evolve in parallel to reliably measure antineoplastic effects and possible mechanisms of de novo and acquired drug resistance. Herein, we highlight a number of innovative methods used to fabricate biomimetic ES tumors, encompassing both the surrounding cellular milieu and extracellular matrix (ECM), and suggest potential applications to advance our understanding of ES biology, preclinical drug testing, and personalized medicine. PMID:25109853
3D Model of the Eta Carinae Little Homunculus Nebula
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steffen, Wolfgang; Teodoro, Mairan; Madura, Thomas; Groh, Jose H.; Gull, Theodore R.; Corcoran, Michael F.; Damineli, Augusto; Hamaguchi, Kenji
2015-01-01
We extend our morpho-kinematic 3D modeling of the Homunculus nebula (Steffen et al., 2014) to the interior nested Little Homunculus. The model is based on spectroscopic observations from HST/STIS. We find that the structure of the interior Little Homunculus is rather flat in the polar regions and interacts with the main Homunculus nebula only on one side, towards the periastron direction of the binary orbit. Furthermore, the two lobes of the LH are misaligned, also towards the periastron direction. As an explanation for the misalignment we propose that, in both cases, shortly after the eruptions that created the bipolar nebulae from the primary star, the off-center wind of the secondary has pushed the ejecta towards the periastron directions, since the secondary is most of the time near the apastron. Future hydrodynamic simulations are warranted to confirm this scenario.
3D Building Modeling and Reconstruction using Photometric Satellite and Aerial Imageries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Izadi, Mohammad
In this thesis, the problem of three dimensional (3D) reconstruction of building models using photometric satellite and aerial images is investigated. Here, two systems are pre-sented: 1) 3D building reconstruction using a nadir single-view image, and 2) 3D building reconstruction using slant multiple-view aerial images. The first system detects building rooftops in orthogonal aerial/satellite images using a hierarchical segmentation algorithm and a shadow verification approach. The heights of detected buildings are then estimated using a fuzzy rule-based method, which measures the height of a building by comparing its predicted shadow region with the actual shadow evidence in the image. This system finally generated a KML (Keyhole Markup Language) file as the output, that contains 3D models of detected buildings. The second system uses the geolocation information of a scene containing a building of interest and uploads all slant-view images that contain this scene from an input image dataset. These images are then searched automatically to choose image pairs with different views of the scene (north, east, south and west) based on the geolocation and auxiliary data accompanying the input data (metadata that describes the acquisition parameters at the capture time). The camera parameters corresponding to these images are refined using a novel point matching algorithm. Next, the system independently reconstructs 3D flat surfaces that are visible in each view using an iterative algorithm. 3D surfaces generated for all views are combined, and redundant surfaces are removed to create a complete set of 3D surfaces. Finally, the combined 3D surfaces are connected together to generate a more complete 3D model. For the experimental results, both presented systems are evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively and different aspects of the two systems including accuracy, stability, and execution time are discussed.
Polygonal Shapes Detection in 3d Models of Complex Architectures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benciolini, G. B.; Vitti, A.
2015-02-01
A sequential application of two global models defined on a variational framework is proposed for the detection of polygonal shapes in 3D models of complex architectures. As a first step, the procedure involves the use of the Mumford and Shah (1989) 1st-order variational model in dimension two (gridded height data are processed). In the Mumford-Shah model an auxiliary function detects the sharp changes, i.e., the discontinuities, of a piecewise smooth approximation of the data. The Mumford-Shah model requires the global minimization of a specific functional to simultaneously produce both the smooth approximation and its discontinuities. In the proposed procedure, the edges of the smooth approximation derived by a specific processing of the auxiliary function are then processed using the Blake and Zisserman (1987) 2nd-order variational model in dimension one (edges are processed in the plane). This second step permits to describe the edges of an object by means of piecewise almost-linear approximation of the input edges themselves and to detects sharp changes of the first-derivative of the edges so to detect corners. The Mumford-Shah variational model is used in two dimensions accepting the original data as primary input. The Blake-Zisserman variational model is used in one dimension for the refinement of the description of the edges. The selection among all the boundaries detected by the Mumford-Shah model of those that present a shape close to a polygon is performed by considering only those boundaries for which the Blake-Zisserman model identified discontinuities in their first derivative. The output of the procedure are hence shapes, coming from 3D geometric data, that can be considered as polygons. The application of the procedure is suitable for, but not limited to, the detection of objects such as foot-print of polygonal buildings, building facade boundaries or windows contours. v The procedure is applied to a height model of the building of the Engineering
Automated 3D Damaged Cavity Model Builder for Lower Surface Acreage Tile on Orbiter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Belknap, Shannon; Zhang, Michael
2013-01-01
The 3D Automated Thermal Tool for Damaged Acreage Tile Math Model builder was developed to perform quickly and accurately 3D thermal analyses on damaged lower surface acreage tiles and structures beneath the damaged locations on a Space Shuttle Orbiter. The 3D model builder created both TRASYS geometric math models (GMMs) and SINDA thermal math models (TMMs) to simulate an idealized damaged cavity in the damaged tile(s). The GMMs are processed in TRASYS to generate radiation conductors between the surfaces in the cavity. The radiation conductors are inserted into the TMMs, which are processed in SINDA to generate temperature histories for all of the nodes on each layer of the TMM. The invention allows a thermal analyst to create quickly and accurately a 3D model of a damaged lower surface tile on the orbiter. The 3D model builder can generate a GMM and the correspond ing TMM in one or two minutes, with the damaged cavity included in the tile material. A separate program creates a configuration file, which would take a couple of minutes to edit. This configuration file is read by the model builder program to determine the location of the damage, the correct tile type, tile thickness, structure thickness, and SIP thickness of the damage, so that the model builder program can build an accurate model at the specified location. Once the models are built, they are processed by the TRASYS and SINDA.
Advanced prior modeling for 3D bright field electron tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sreehari, Suhas; Venkatakrishnan, S. V.; Drummy, Lawrence F.; Simmons, Jeffrey P.; Bouman, Charles A.
2015-03-01
Many important imaging problems in material science involve reconstruction of images containing repetitive non-local structures. Model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) could in principle exploit such redundancies through the selection of a log prior probability term. However, in practice, determining such a log prior term that accounts for the similarity between distant structures in the image is quite challenging. Much progress has been made in the development of denoising algorithms like non-local means and BM3D, and these are known to successfully capture non-local redundancies in images. But the fact that these denoising operations are not explicitly formulated as cost functions makes it unclear as to how to incorporate them in the MBIR framework. In this paper, we formulate a solution to bright field electron tomography by augmenting the existing bright field MBIR method to incorporate any non-local denoising operator as a prior model. We accomplish this using a framework we call plug-and-play priors that decouples the log likelihood and the log prior probability terms in the MBIR cost function. We specifically use 3D non-local means (NLM) as the prior model in the plug-and-play framework, and showcase high quality tomographic reconstructions of a simulated aluminum spheres dataset, and two real datasets of aluminum spheres and ferritin structures. We observe that streak and smear artifacts are visibly suppressed, and that edges are preserved. Also, we report lower RMSE values compared to the conventional MBIR reconstruction using qGGMRF as the prior model.
Ma, Nina K L; Lim, Jia Kai; Leong, Meng Fatt; Sandanaraj, Edwin; Ang, Beng Ti; Tang, Carol; Wan, Andrew C A
2016-02-01
A hierarchy of cellular stemness exists in certain cancers, and any successful strategy to treat such cancers would have to eliminate the self-renewing tumor-initiating cells at the apex of the hierarchy. The cellular microenvironment, in particular the extracellular matrix (ECM), is believed to have a role in regulating stemness. In this work, U251 glioblastoma cells are cultured on electrospun polystyrene (ESPS) scaffolds coated with an array of 7 laminin isoforms to provide a 3D model for stem cell-related genes and proteins expression studies. We observed collaboration between 3D context and laminins in promoting glioma stemness. Depending on the laminin isoform presented, U251 cells cultured on ESPS scaffolds (3D) exhibited increased expression of stemness markers compared to those cultured on tissue culture polystyrene (2D). Our results indicate the influence of 3D (versus 2D) context on integrin expression, specifically, the upregulation of the laminin-binding integrins alpha 6 and beta 4. By a colony forming assay, we showed enhanced clonogenicity of cells grown on ESPS scaffolds in collaboration with laminins 411, 421, 511 and 521. Evaluation of patient glioma databases demonstrated significant enrichment of integrin and ECM pathway networks in tumors of worse prognosis, consistent with our observations. The present results demonstrate how 3D versus 2D context profoundly affects ECM signaling, leading to stemness. PMID:26684838
Numerical Results of Earth's Core Accumulation 3-D Modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khachay, Yurie; Anfilogov, Vsevolod
2013-04-01
For a long time as a most convenient had been the model of mega impact in which the early forming of the Earth's core and mantle had been the consequence of formed protoplanet collision with the body of Mercurial mass. But all dynamical models of the Earth's accumulation and the estimations after the Pb-Pb system, lead to the conclusion that the duration of the planet accumulation was about 1 milliard years. But isotopic results after the W-Hf system testify about a very early (5-10) million years, dividing of the geochemical reservoirs of the core and mantle. In [1,3] it is shown, that the account of energy dissipating by the decay of short living radioactive elements and first of all Al,it is sufficient for heating even small bodies with dimensions about (50-100) km up to the iron melting temperature and can be realized a principal new differentiation mechanism. The inner parts of the melted preplanets can join and they are mainly of iron content, but the cold silicate fragments return to the supply zone. Only after the increasing of the gravitational radius, the growing area of the future core can save also the silicate envelope fragments. All existing dynamical accumulation models are constructed by using a spherical-symmetrical model. Hence for understanding the further planet evolution it is significant to trace the origin and evolution of heterogeneities, which occur on the planet accumulation stage. In that paper we are modeling distributions of temperature, pressure, velocity of matter flowing in a block of 3D- spherical body with a growing radius. The boundary problem is solved by the finite-difference method for the system of equations, which include equations which describe the process of accumulation, the Safronov equation, the equation of impulse balance, equation Navier-Stocks, equation for above litho static pressure and heat conductivity in velocity-pressure variables using the Businesque approach. The numerical algorithm of the problem solution in
Faceless identification: a model for person identification using the 3D shape and 3D motion as cues
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klasen, Lena M.; Li, Haibo
1999-02-01
Person identification by using biometric methods based on image sequences, or still images, often requires a controllable and cooperative environment during the image capturing stage. In the forensic case the situation is more likely to be the opposite. In this work we propose a method that makes use of the anthropometry of the human body and human actions as cues for identification. Image sequences from surveillance systems are used, which can be seen as monocular image sequences. A 3D deformable wireframe body model is used as a platform to handle the non-rigid information of the 3D shape and 3D motion of the human body from the image sequence. A recursive method for estimating global motion and local shape variations is presented, using two recursive feedback systems.
A 3D Bubble Merger Model for RTI Mixing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Baolian
2015-11-01
In this work we present a model for the merger processes of bubbles at the edge of an unstable acceleration driven mixing layer. Steady acceleration defines a self-similar mixing process, with a time-dependent inverse cascade of structures of increasing size. The time evolution is itself a renormalization group evolution. The model predicts the growth rate of a Rayleigh-Taylor chaotic fluid-mixing layer. The 3-D model differs from the 2-D merger model in several important ways. Beyond the extension of the model to three dimensions, the model contains one phenomenological parameter, the variance of the bubble radii at fixed time. The model also predicts several experimental numbers: the bubble mixing rate, the mean bubble radius, and the bubble height separation at the time of merger. From these we also obtain the bubble height to the radius aspect ratio, which is in good agreement with experiments. Applications to recent NIF and Omega experiments will be discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36.
3-D numerical modeling of plume-induced subduction initiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baes, Marzieh; Gerya, taras; Sobolev, Stephan
2016-04-01
Investigation of mechanisms involved in formation of a new subduction zone can help us to better understand plate tectonics. Despite numerous previous studies, it is still unclear how and where an old oceanic plate starts to subduct beneath the other plate. One of the proposed scenarios for nucleation of subduction is plume-induced subduction initiation, which was investigated in detail, using 2-D models, by Ueda et al. (2008). Recently. Gerya et al. (2015), using 3D numerical models, proposed that plume-lithosphere interaction in the Archean led to the subduction initiation and onset of plate tectonic. In this study, we aim to pursue work of Ueda et al. (2008) by incorporation of 3-D thermo-mechanical models to investigate conditions leading to oceanic subduction initiation as a result of thermal-chemical mantle plume-lithosphere interaction in the modern earth. Results of our experiments show four different deformation regimes in response to plume-lithosphere interaction, that are a) self-sustaining subduction initiation where subduction becomes self-sustained, b) freezing subduction initiation where subduction stops at shallow depths, c) slab break-off where subducting circular slab breaks off soon after formation and d) plume underplating where plume does not pass through the lithosphere but spreads beneath it (failed subduction initiation). These different regimes depend on several parameters such as plume's size, composition and temperature, lithospheric brittle/plastic strength, age of the oceanic lithosphere and presence/absence of lithospheric heterogeneities. Results show that subduction initiates and becomes self-sustained when lithosphere is older than 10 Myr and non-dimensional ratio of the plume buoyancy force and lithospheric strength above the plume is higher than 2.
3D model generation using an airborne swarm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clark, R. A.; Punzo, G.; Dobie, G.; MacLeod, C. N.; Summan, R.; Pierce, G.; Macdonald, M.; Bolton, G.
2015-03-01
Using an artificial kinematic field to provide co-ordination between multiple inspection UAVs, the authors herein demonstrate full 3D modelling capability based on a photogrammetric system. The operation of the system is demonstrated by generating a full 3D surface model of an intermediate level nuclear waste storage drum. Such drums require periodic inspection to ensure that drum distortion or corrosion is carefully monitored. Performing this inspection with multiple airborne platforms enables rapid inspection of structures that are inaccessible to on-surface remote vehicles and are in human-hazardous environments. A three-dimensional surface-meshed model of the target can then be constructed in post-processing through photogrammetry analysis of the visual inspection data. The inspection environment uses a tracking system to precisely monitor the position of each aerial vehicle within the enclosure. The vehicles used are commercially available Parrot AR. Drone quadcopters, controlled through a computer interface connected over an IEEE 802.11n (WiFi) network, implementing a distributed controller for each vehicle. This enables the autonomous and distributed elements of the control scheme to be retained, while alleviating the vehicles of the control algorithm's computational load. The control scheme relies on a kinematic field defined with the target at its centre. This field defines the trajectory for all the drones in the volume relative to the central target, enabling the drones to circle the target at a set radius while avoiding drone collisions. This function enables complete coverage along the height of the object, which is assured by transitioning to another inspection band only after completing circumferential coverage. Using a swarm of vehicles, the time until complete coverage can be significantly reduced.
3D model generation using an airborne swarm
Clark, R. A.; Punzo, G.; Macdonald, M.; Dobie, G.; MacLeod, C. N.; Summan, R.; Pierce, G.; Bolton, G.
2015-03-31
Using an artificial kinematic field to provide co-ordination between multiple inspection UAVs, the authors herein demonstrate full 3D modelling capability based on a photogrammetric system. The operation of the system is demonstrated by generating a full 3D surface model of an intermediate level nuclear waste storage drum. Such drums require periodic inspection to ensure that drum distortion or corrosion is carefully monitored. Performing this inspection with multiple airborne platforms enables rapid inspection of structures that are inaccessible to on-surface remote vehicles and are in human-hazardous environments. A three-dimensional surface-meshed model of the target can then be constructed in post-processing through photogrammetry analysis of the visual inspection data. The inspection environment uses a tracking system to precisely monitor the position of each aerial vehicle within the enclosure. The vehicles used are commercially available Parrot AR. Drone quadcopters, controlled through a computer interface connected over an IEEE 802.11n (WiFi) network, implementing a distributed controller for each vehicle. This enables the autonomous and distributed elements of the control scheme to be retained, while alleviating the vehicles of the control algorithm’s computational load. The control scheme relies on a kinematic field defined with the target at its centre. This field defines the trajectory for all the drones in the volume relative to the central target, enabling the drones to circle the target at a set radius while avoiding drone collisions. This function enables complete coverage along the height of the object, which is assured by transitioning to another inspection band only after completing circumferential coverage. Using a swarm of vehicles, the time until complete coverage can be significantly reduced.
Improved time-space method for 3-D heat transfer problems including global warming
Saitoh, T.S.; Wakashima, Shinichiro
1999-07-01
In this paper, the Time-Space Method (TSM) which has been proposed for solving general heat transfer and fluid flow problems was improved in order to cover global and urban warming. The TSM is effective in almost all-transient heat transfer and fluid flow problems, and has been already applied to the 2-D melting problems (or moving boundary problems). The computer running time will be reduced to only 1/100th--1/1000th of the existing schemes for 2-D and 3-D problems. However, in order to apply to much larger-scale problems, for example, global warming, urban warming and general ocean circulation, the SOR method (or other iterative methods) in four dimensions is somewhat tedious and provokingly slow. Motivated by the above situation, the authors improved the speed of iteration of the previous TSM by introducing the following ideas: (1) Timewise chopping: Time domain is chopped into small peaches to save memory requirement; (2) Adaptive iteration: Converged region is eliminated for further iteration; (3) Internal selective iteration: Equation with slow iteration speed in iterative procedure is selectively iterated to accelerate entire convergence; and (4) False transient integration: False transient term is added to the Poisson-type equation and the relevant solution is regarded as a parabolic equation. By adopting the above improvements, the higher-order finite different schemes and the hybrid mesh, the computer running time for the TSM is reduced to some 1/4600th of the conventional explicit method for a typical 3-D natural convection problem in a closed cavity. The proposed TSM will be more efficacious for large-scale environmental problems, such as global warming, urban warming and general ocean circulation, in which a tremendous computing time would be required.
Bailey, Ryan T.; Morway, Eric D.; Niswonger, Richard G.; Gates, Timothy K.
2013-01-01
A numerical model was developed that is capable of simulating multispecies reactive solute transport in variably saturated porous media. This model consists of a modified version of the reactive transport model RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3 Dimensions) that is linked to the Unsaturated-Zone Flow (UZF1) package and MODFLOW. Referred to as UZF-RT3D, the model is tested against published analytical benchmarks as well as other published contaminant transport models, including HYDRUS-1D, VS2DT, and SUTRA, and the coupled flow and transport modeling system of CATHY and TRAN3D. Comparisons in one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and three-dimensional variably saturated systems are explored. While several test cases are included to verify the correct implementation of variably saturated transport in UZF-RT3D, other cases are included to demonstrate the usefulness of the code in terms of model run-time and handling the reaction kinetics of multiple interacting species in variably saturated subsurface systems. As UZF1 relies on a kinematic-wave approximation for unsaturated flow that neglects the diffusive terms in Richards equation, UZF-RT3D can be used for large-scale aquifer systems for which the UZF1 formulation is reasonable, that is, capillary-pressure gradients can be neglected and soil parameters can be treated as homogeneous. Decreased model run-time and the ability to include site-specific chemical species and chemical reactions make UZF-RT3D an attractive model for efficient simulation of multispecies reactive transport in variably saturated large-scale subsurface systems.