Collision of continental corner from 3-D numerical modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhong-Hai; Xu, Zhiqin; Gerya, Taras; Burg, Jean-Pierre
2013-10-01
Continental collision has been extensively investigated with 2-D numerical models assuming infinitely wide plates or insignificant along-strike deformation in the third dimension. However, the corners of natural collision zones normally have structural characteristics that differ from linear parts of mountain belt. We conducted 3-D high-resolution numerical simulations to study the dynamics of a continental corner (lateral continental/oceanic transition zone) during subduction/collision. The results demonstrate different modes between the oceanic subduction side (continuous subduction and retreating trench) and the continental collision side (slab break-off and topography uplift). Slab break-off occurs at a depth (⩽100 km to ˜300 km) that depends on the convergence velocity. The numerical models produce lateral extrusion of the overriding crust from the collisional side to the subduction side, which is also a phenomenon recognized around natural collision of continental corners, for instance around the western corner of the Arabia-Asia collision zone and around the eastern corner of the India-Asia collision zone. Modeling results also indicate that extrusion tectonics may be driven both from above by the topography and gravitational potentials and from below by the trench retreat and asthenospheric mantle return flow, which supports the link between deep mantle dynamics and shallower crustal deformation.
3-D numerical modeling of plume-induced subduction initiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baes, Marzieh; Gerya, taras; Sobolev, Stephan
2016-04-01
Investigation of mechanisms involved in formation of a new subduction zone can help us to better understand plate tectonics. Despite numerous previous studies, it is still unclear how and where an old oceanic plate starts to subduct beneath the other plate. One of the proposed scenarios for nucleation of subduction is plume-induced subduction initiation, which was investigated in detail, using 2-D models, by Ueda et al. (2008). Recently. Gerya et al. (2015), using 3D numerical models, proposed that plume-lithosphere interaction in the Archean led to the subduction initiation and onset of plate tectonic. In this study, we aim to pursue work of Ueda et al. (2008) by incorporation of 3-D thermo-mechanical models to investigate conditions leading to oceanic subduction initiation as a result of thermal-chemical mantle plume-lithosphere interaction in the modern earth. Results of our experiments show four different deformation regimes in response to plume-lithosphere interaction, that are a) self-sustaining subduction initiation where subduction becomes self-sustained, b) freezing subduction initiation where subduction stops at shallow depths, c) slab break-off where subducting circular slab breaks off soon after formation and d) plume underplating where plume does not pass through the lithosphere but spreads beneath it (failed subduction initiation). These different regimes depend on several parameters such as plume's size, composition and temperature, lithospheric brittle/plastic strength, age of the oceanic lithosphere and presence/absence of lithospheric heterogeneities. Results show that subduction initiates and becomes self-sustained when lithosphere is older than 10 Myr and non-dimensional ratio of the plume buoyancy force and lithospheric strength above the plume is higher than 2.
3D numerical model for NGC 6888 Nebula
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reyes-Iturbide, J.; Velázquez, P. F.; Rosado, M.
We present 3D numerical simulations of the NGC6888 nebula considering the proper motion and the evolution of the star, from the red supergiant (RSG) to the Wolf-Rayet (WR) phase. Our simulations reproduce the limb-brightened morphology observed in [OIII] and X-ray emission maps. The synthetic maps computed by the numerical simulations show filamentary and clumpy structures produced by instabilities triggered in the interaction between the WR wind and the RSG shell.
A 3D numerical model for Kepler's supernova remnant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toledo-Roy, J. C.; Esquivel, A.; Velázquez, P. F.; Reynoso, E. M.
2014-07-01
We present new 3D numerical simulations for Kepler's supernova remnant. In this work we revisit the possibility that the asymmetric shape of the remnant in X-rays is the product of a Type Ia supernova explosion which occurs inside the wind bubble previously created by an AGB companion star. Due to the large peculiar velocity of the system, the interaction of the strong AGB wind with the interstellar medium results in a bow shock structure. In this new model we propose that the AGB wind is anisotropic, with properties such as mass-loss rate and density having a latitude dependence, and that the orientation of the polar axis of the AGB star is not aligned with the direction of motion. The ejecta from the Type Ia supernova explosion is modelled using a power-law density profile, and we let the remnant evolve for 400 yr. We computed synthetic X-ray maps from the numerical results. We find that the estimated size and peculiar X-ray morphology of Kepler's supernova remnant are well reproduced by considering an AGB mass-loss rate of 10-5 M⊙ yr-1, a wind terminal velocity of 10 km s-1, an ambient medium density of 10-3 cm-3 and an explosion energy of 7 × 1050 erg. The obtained total X-ray luminosity of the remnant in this model reaches 6 × 1050 erg, which is within a factor of 2 of the observed value, and the time evolution of the luminosity shows a rate of decrease in recent decades of ˜2.4 per cent yr-1 that is consistent with the observations.
3D numerical modeling of India-Asia-like collision
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
-Erika Püsök, Adina; Kaus, Boris; Popov, Anton
2013-04-01
above a strong mantle lithosphere - the jelly sandwich model (Burov and Watts, 2006). 3D models are thus needed to investigate these hypotheses. However, fully 3D models of the dynamics of continent collision zones have only been developed very recently, and presently most research groups have relied on certain explicit assumptions for their codes. Here, we employ the parallel 3D code LaMEM (Lithosphere and Mantle Evolution Model), with a finite difference staggered grid solver, which is capable of simulating lithospheric deformation while simultaneously taking mantle flow and a free surface into account. We here report on first lithospheric and upper-mantle scale simulations in which the Indian lithosphere is indented into Asia. Acknowledgements. Funding was provided by the European Research Council under the European Community's Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007-2013) / ERC Grant agreement #258830. Numerical computations have been performed on JUQUEEN of the Jülich high-performance computing center. • Beaumont, C., Jamieson, R.A., Nguyen, M.H., Medvedev, S.E., 2004. Crustal channel flows: 1. Numerical models with applications to the tectonics of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogeny. J. Geophys. Res. 109, B06406. • Burov, E. & Watts, W.S., 2006. The long-term strength of continental lithosphere: "jelly sandwich" or "crème brûlée"?. GSA Today, 16, doi: 10.1130/1052-5173(2006)1016<1134:TLTSOC>1132.1130.CO;1132. • England P., Houseman, G., 1986. Finite strain calculations of continental deformation. 2. Comparison with the India-Asia collision zone. J. Geophys. Res.- Solid Earth and Planets 91 (B3), 3664-3676. • Jackson, J., 2002. Strength of the continental lithosphere: time to abandon the jelly sandwich?. GSA Today, September, 4-10. • Lechmann, S.M., May, D.A., Kaus, B.J.P., Schmalholz, S.M., 2011. Comparing thin-sheet models with 3D multilayer models for continental collision. Geophy. Int. J. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2011.05164.x • Royden, L.H., Burchfiel, B
Numerical model of sonic boom in 3D kinematic turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coulouvrat, François; Luquet, David; Marchiano, Régis
2015-10-01
Sonic boom is one of the key issues to be considered in the development of future supersonic or hypersonic civil aircraft concepts. The classical sonic boom, typical for Concorde with an N-wave shape and a ground amplitude of the order of 100 Pa, prevents overland flight. Future concepts target carefully shaped sonic booms with low amplitude weak shocks. However, sonic boom when perceived at the ground level is influenced not only by the aircraft characteristics, but also by atmospheric propagation. In particular, the effect of atmospheric turbulence on sonic boom propagation near the ground is not well characterized. Flight tests performed as early as the 1960s demonstrated that classical sonic booms are sensitive to atmospheric turbulence. However, this sensitivity remains only partially understood. This is related to the fact that i) turbulence is a random process that requires a statistical approach, ii) standard methods used to predict sonic booms, mainly geometrical acoustics based on ray tracing, are inadequate within the turbulent planetary boundary layer. Moreover, the ray theory fails to predict the acoustical field in many areas of interest, such as caustics or shadow zones. These zones are of major interest for sonic boom acceptability (highest levels, lateral extent of zone of impact). These limitations outline the need for a numerical approach that is sufficiently efficient to perform a large number of realizations for a statistical approach, but that goes beyond the limitations of ray theory. With this in view, a 3D one-way numerical method solving a nonlinear scalar wave equation established for heterogeneous, moving and absorbing atmosphere, is used to assess the effects of a 3D kinematic turbulence on sonic boom in various configurations. First, a plane N-wave is propagated in the free field through random realizations of kinematic fluctuations. Then the case of a more realistic Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) is investigated, with a mean
Numerical Results of 3-D Modeling of Moon Accumulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khachay, Yurie; Anfilogov, Vsevolod; Antipin, Alexandr
2014-05-01
For the last time for the model of the Moon usually had been used the model of mega impact in which the forming of the Earth and its sputnik had been the consequence of the Earth's collision with the body of Mercurial mass. But all dynamical models of the Earth's accumulation and the estimations after the Pb-Pb system, lead to the conclusion that the duration of the planet accumulation was about 1 milliard years. But isotopic results after the W-Hf system testify about a very early (5-10) million years, dividing of the geochemical reservoirs of the core and mantle. In [1,2] it is shown, that the account of energy dissipating by the decay of short living radioactive elements and first of all Al26,it is sufficient for heating even small bodies with dimensions about (50-100) km up to the iron melting temperature and can be realized a principal new differentiation mechanism. The inner parts of the melted preplanets can join and they are mainly of iron content, but the cold silicate fragments return to the supply zone and additionally change the content of Moon forming to silicates. Only after the increasing of the gravitational radius of the Earth, the growing area of the future Earth's core can save also the silicate envelope fragments [3]. For understanding the further system Earth-Moon evolution it is significant to trace the origin and evolution of heterogeneities, which occur on its accumulation stage.In that paper we are modeling the changing of temperature,pressure,velocity of matter flowing in a block of 3d spherical body with a growing radius. The boundary problem is solved by the finite-difference method for the system of equations, which include equations which describe the process of accumulation, the Safronov equation, the equation of impulse balance, equation Navier-Stocks, equation for above litho static pressure and heat conductivity in velocity-pressure variables using the Businesque approach.The numerical algorithm of the problem solution in velocity
Numerical Results of Earth's Core Accumulation 3-D Modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khachay, Yurie; Anfilogov, Vsevolod
2013-04-01
For a long time as a most convenient had been the model of mega impact in which the early forming of the Earth's core and mantle had been the consequence of formed protoplanet collision with the body of Mercurial mass. But all dynamical models of the Earth's accumulation and the estimations after the Pb-Pb system, lead to the conclusion that the duration of the planet accumulation was about 1 milliard years. But isotopic results after the W-Hf system testify about a very early (5-10) million years, dividing of the geochemical reservoirs of the core and mantle. In [1,3] it is shown, that the account of energy dissipating by the decay of short living radioactive elements and first of all Al,it is sufficient for heating even small bodies with dimensions about (50-100) km up to the iron melting temperature and can be realized a principal new differentiation mechanism. The inner parts of the melted preplanets can join and they are mainly of iron content, but the cold silicate fragments return to the supply zone. Only after the increasing of the gravitational radius, the growing area of the future core can save also the silicate envelope fragments. All existing dynamical accumulation models are constructed by using a spherical-symmetrical model. Hence for understanding the further planet evolution it is significant to trace the origin and evolution of heterogeneities, which occur on the planet accumulation stage. In that paper we are modeling distributions of temperature, pressure, velocity of matter flowing in a block of 3D- spherical body with a growing radius. The boundary problem is solved by the finite-difference method for the system of equations, which include equations which describe the process of accumulation, the Safronov equation, the equation of impulse balance, equation Navier-Stocks, equation for above litho static pressure and heat conductivity in velocity-pressure variables using the Businesque approach. The numerical algorithm of the problem solution in
Numerical modeling of Tibetan Plateau formation: Thin-sheet versus fully 3D models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lechmann, S. M.; Schmalholz, S. M.; Kaus, B. J. P.
2009-04-01
Knowledge about the tectonic evolution of the Tibetan Plateau is still incomplete and many open questions remain concerning the deformation style of the crustal thickening, causing the abnormally high elevation of the Tibetan Plateau. Different models have been suggested explaining the crustal thickening by (1) homogeneous, continuous deformation using thin-sheet models, (2) discrete movement along thrusts developing crustal wedges and (3) lateral crustal flow due to pressure gradients resulting from topography. Most existing models are not fully three-dimensional (3D) models (e.g. thin-sheet models) and assume a certain deformation style a priori, which makes it difficult to judge the applicability of such constrained models to the formation of the Tibetan Plateau. We present a comparison of deformation styles during continent indentation resulting from a fully 3D numerical model and a thin-sheet model. The rheology for both models is power-law. The 3D model consists of four layers representing a simplified lithosphere: strong upper crust, weak lower crust, strong upper mantle and weak lower mantle. From the effective viscosity distribution of the 3D model a vertically averaged effective viscosity is calculated and used for the thin-sheet model to make direct comparisons between the two models. Simulating indentation is achieved by assigning free slip at one lateral side of the model, and fixing two other sides. The boundary at which indentation is taking place, exhibits a tripartite velocity profile: Next to the free slip side a section with constant horizontal velocity is applied. The velocity then gradually decreases towards zero, applying a cosine-function. The last section of the indenting boundary next to the fixed side is also fixed. The 3D model additionally exhibits a free surface and a bottom boundary allowing free slip. The 3D code employs the finite element method with a mixed velocity-pressure formulation to simulate incompressible flow. A Lagrangian
Numerical modelling of gravel unconstrained flow experiments with the DAN3D and RASH3D codes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sauthier, Claire; Pirulli, Marina; Pisani, Gabriele; Scavia, Claudio; Labiouse, Vincent
2015-12-01
Landslide continuum dynamic models have improved considerably in the last years, but a consensus on the best method of calibrating the input resistance parameter values for predictive analyses has not yet emerged. In the present paper, numerical simulations of a series of laboratory experiments performed at the Laboratory for Rock Mechanics of the EPF Lausanne were undertaken with the RASH3D and DAN3D numerical codes. They aimed at analysing the possibility to use calibrated ranges of parameters (1) in a code different from that they were obtained from and (2) to simulate potential-events made of a material with the same characteristics as back-analysed past-events, but involving a different volume and propagation path. For this purpose, one of the four benchmark laboratory tests was used as past-event to calibrate the dynamic basal friction angle assuming a Coulomb-type behaviour of the sliding mass, and this back-analysed value was then used to simulate the three other experiments, assumed as potential-events. The computational findings show good correspondence with experimental results in terms of characteristics of the final deposits (i.e., runout, length and width). Furthermore, the obtained best fit values of the dynamic basal friction angle for the two codes turn out to be close to each other and within the range of values measured with pseudo-dynamic tilting tests.
Mechanical Modelling of Pultrusion Process: 2D and 3D Numerical Approaches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baran, Ismet; Hattel, Jesper H.; Akkerman, Remko; Tutum, Cem C.
2015-02-01
The process induced variations such as residual stresses and distortions are a critical issue in pultrusion, since they affect the structural behavior as well as the mechanical properties and geometrical precision of the final product. In order to capture and investigate these variations, a mechanical analysis should be performed. In the present work, the two dimensional (2D) quasi-static plane strain mechanical model for the pultrusion of a thick square profile developed by the authors is further improved using generalized plane strain elements. In addition to that, a more advanced 3D thermo-chemical-mechanical analysis is carried out using 3D quadratic elements which is a novel application for the numerical modelling of the pultrusion process. It is found that the 2D mechanical models give relatively reasonable and accurate stress and displacement evolutions in the transverse direction as compared to the 3D model. Moreover, the generalized plane strain model predicts the longitudinal process induced stresses more similar to the ones calculated in the 3D model as compared with the plane strain model.
Numerical and measured data from the 3D salt canopy physical modeling project
Bradley, C.; House, L.; Fehler, M.; Pearson, J.; TenCate, J.; Wiley, R.
1997-11-01
The evolution of salt structures in the Gulf of Mexico have been shown to provide a mechanism for the trapping of significant hydrocarbon reserves. Most of these structures have complex geometries relative to the surrounding sedimentary layers. This aspect in addition to high velocities within the salt tend to scatter and defocus seismic energy and make imaging of subsalt lithology extremely difficult. An ongoing program the SEG/EAEG modeling project (Aminzadeh et al. 1994a: Aminzadeh et al. 1994b: Aminzadeh et al. 1995), and a follow-up project funded as part of the Advanced Computational Technology Initiative (ACTI) (House et al. 1996) have sought to investigate problems with imaging beneath complex salt structures using numerical modeling and more recently, construction of a physical model patterned after the numerical subsalt model (Wiley and McKnight. 1996). To date, no direct comparison of the numerical and physical aspects of these models has been attempted. We present the results of forward modeling a numerical realization of the 3D salt canopy physical model with the French Petroleum Institute (IFP) acoustic finite difference algorithm used in the numerical subsalt tests. We compare the results from the physical salt canopy model, the acoustic modeling of the physical/numerical model and the original numerical SEG/EAEG Salt Model. We will be testing the sensitivity of migration to the presence of converted shear waves and acquisition geometry.
Optimising GPR modelling: A practical, multi-threaded approach to 3D FDTD numerical modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Millington, T. M.; Cassidy, N. J.
2010-09-01
The demand for advanced interpretational tools has lead to the development of highly sophisticated, computationally demanding, 3D GPR processing and modelling techniques. Many of these methods solve very large problems with stepwise methods that utilise numerically similar functions within iterative computational loops. Problems of this nature are readily parallelised by splitting the computational domain into smaller, independent chunks for direct use on cluster-style, multi-processor supercomputers. Unfortunately, the implications of running such facilities, as well as time investment needed to develop the parallel codes, means that for most researchers, the use of these advanced methods is too impractical. In this paper, we propose an alternative method of parallelisation which exploits the capabilities of the modern multi-core processors (upon which today's desktop PCs are built) by multi-threading the calculation of a problem's individual sub-solutions. To illustrate the approach, we have applied it to an advanced, 3D, finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) GPR modelling tool in which the calculation of the individual vector field components is multi-threaded. To be of practical use, the FDTD scheme must be able to deliver accurate results with short execution times and we, therefore, show that the performance benefits of our approach can deliver runtimes less than half those of the more conventional, serial programming techniques. We evaluate implementations of the technique using different programming languages (e.g., Matlab, Java, C++), which will facilitate the construction of a flexible modelling tool for use in future GPR research. The implementations are compared on a variety of typical hardware platforms, having between one and eight processing cores available, and also a modern Graphical Processing Unit (GPU)-based computer. Our results show that a multi-threaded xyz modelling approach is easy to implement and delivers excellent results when implemented
The 3D modeling of high numerical aperture imaging in thin films
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Flagello, D. G.; Milster, Tom
1992-01-01
A modelling technique is described which is used to explore three dimensional (3D) image irradiance distributions formed by high numerical aperture (NA is greater than 0.5) lenses in homogeneous, linear films. This work uses a 3D modelling approach that is based on a plane-wave decomposition in the exit pupil. Each plane wave component is weighted by factors due to polarization, aberration, and input amplitude and phase terms. This is combined with a modified thin-film matrix technique to derive the total field amplitude at each point in a film by a coherent vector sum over all plane waves. Then the total irradiance is calculated. The model is used to show how asymmetries present in the polarized image change with the influence of a thin film through varying degrees of focus.
2D and 3D numerical models on compositionally buoyant diapirs in the mantle wedge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hasenclever, Jörg; Morgan, Jason Phipps; Hort, Matthias; Rüpke, Lars H.
2011-11-01
We present 2D and 3D numerical model calculations that focus on the physics of compositionally buoyant diapirs rising within a mantle wedge corner flow. Compositional buoyancy is assumed to arise from slab dehydration during which water-rich volatiles enter the mantle wedge and form a wet, less dense boundary layer on top of the slab. Slab dehydration is prescribed to occur in the 80-180 km deep slab interval, and the water transport is treated as a diffusion-like process. In this study, the mantle's rheology is modeled as being isoviscous for the benefit of easier-to-interpret feedbacks between water migration and buoyant viscous flow of the mantle. We use a simple subduction geometry that does not change during the numerical calculation. In a large set of 2D calculations we have identified that five different flow regimes can form, in which the position, number, and formation time of the diapirs vary as a function of four parameters: subduction angle, subduction rate, water diffusivity (mobility), and mantle viscosity. Using the same numerical method and numerical resolution we also conducted a suite of 3D calculations for 16 selected parameter combinations. Comparing the 2D and 3D results for the same model parameters reveals that the 2D models can only give limited insights into the inherently 3D problem of mantle wedge diapirism. While often correctly predicting the position and onset time of the first diapir(s), the 2D models fail to capture the dynamics of diapir ascent as well as the formation of secondary diapirs that result from boundary layer perturbations caused by previous diapirs. Of greatest importance for physically correct results is the numerical resolution in the region where diapirs nucleate, which must be high enough to accurately capture the growth of the thin wet boundary layer on top of the slab and, subsequently, the formation, morphology, and ascent of diapirs. Here 2D models can be very useful to quantify the required resolution, which we
Comparison of 3-D finite element model of ashlar masonry with 2-D numerical models of ashlar masonry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beran, Pavel
2016-06-01
3-D state of stress in heterogeneous ashlar masonry can be also computed by several suitable chosen 2-D numerical models of ashlar masonry. The results obtained from 2-D numerical models well correspond to the results obtained from 3-D numerical model. The character of thermal stress is the same. While using 2-D models the computational time is reduced more than hundredfold and therefore this method could be used for computation of thermal stresses during long time periods with 10 000 of steps.
Parareal in time 3D numerical solver for the LWR Benchmark neutron diffusion transient model
Baudron, Anne-Marie; Riahi, Mohamed Kamel; Salomon, Julien
2014-12-15
In this paper we present a time-parallel algorithm for the 3D neutrons calculation of a transient model in a nuclear reactor core. The neutrons calculation consists in numerically solving the time dependent diffusion approximation equation, which is a simplified transport equation. The numerical resolution is done with finite elements method based on a tetrahedral meshing of the computational domain, representing the reactor core, and time discretization is achieved using a θ-scheme. The transient model presents moving control rods during the time of the reaction. Therefore, cross-sections (piecewise constants) are taken into account by interpolations with respect to the velocity of the control rods. The parallelism across the time is achieved by an adequate use of the parareal in time algorithm to the handled problem. This parallel method is a predictor corrector scheme that iteratively combines the use of two kinds of numerical propagators, one coarse and one fine. Our method is made efficient by means of a coarse solver defined with large time step and fixed position control rods model, while the fine propagator is assumed to be a high order numerical approximation of the full model. The parallel implementation of our method provides a good scalability of the algorithm. Numerical results show the efficiency of the parareal method on large light water reactor transient model corresponding to the Langenbuch–Maurer–Werner benchmark.
Parareal in time 3D numerical solver for the LWR Benchmark neutron diffusion transient model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baudron, Anne-Marie; Lautard, Jean-Jacques; Maday, Yvon; Riahi, Mohamed Kamel; Salomon, Julien
2014-12-01
In this paper we present a time-parallel algorithm for the 3D neutrons calculation of a transient model in a nuclear reactor core. The neutrons calculation consists in numerically solving the time dependent diffusion approximation equation, which is a simplified transport equation. The numerical resolution is done with finite elements method based on a tetrahedral meshing of the computational domain, representing the reactor core, and time discretization is achieved using a θ-scheme. The transient model presents moving control rods during the time of the reaction. Therefore, cross-sections (piecewise constants) are taken into account by interpolations with respect to the velocity of the control rods. The parallelism across the time is achieved by an adequate use of the parareal in time algorithm to the handled problem. This parallel method is a predictor corrector scheme that iteratively combines the use of two kinds of numerical propagators, one coarse and one fine. Our method is made efficient by means of a coarse solver defined with large time step and fixed position control rods model, while the fine propagator is assumed to be a high order numerical approximation of the full model. The parallel implementation of our method provides a good scalability of the algorithm. Numerical results show the efficiency of the parareal method on large light water reactor transient model corresponding to the Langenbuch-Maurer-Werner benchmark.
Implementation of a 3d numerical model of a folded multilayer carbonate aquifer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Salvo, Cristina; Guyennon, Nicolas; Romano, Emanuele; Bruna Petrangeli, Anna; Preziosi, Elisabetta
2016-04-01
The main objective of this research is to present a case study of the numerical model implementation of a complex carbonate, structurally folded aquifer, with a finite difference, porous equivalent model. The case study aquifer (which extends over 235 km2 in the Apennine chain, Central Italy) provides a long term average of 3.5 m3/s of good quality groundwater to the surface river network, sustaining the minimum vital flow, and it is planned to be exploited in the next years for public water supply. In the downstream part of the river in the study area, a "Site of Community Importance" include the Nera River for its valuable aquatic fauna. However, the possible negative effects of the foreseen exploitation on groundwater dependent ecosystems are a great concern and model grounded scenarios are needed. This multilayer aquifer was conceptualized as five hydrostratigraphic units: three main aquifers (the uppermost unconfined, the central and the deepest partly confined), are separated by two locally discontinuous aquitards. The Nera river cuts through the two upper aquifers and acts as the main natural sink for groundwater. An equivalent porous medium approach was chosen. The complex tectonic structure of the aquifer requires several steps in defining the conceptual model; the presence of strongly dipping layers with very heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity, results in different thicknesses of saturated portions. Aquifers can have both unconfined or confined zones; drying and rewetting must be allowed when considering recharge/discharge cycles. All these characteristics can be included in the conceptual and numerical model; however, being the number of flow and head target scarce, the over-parametrization of the model must be avoided. Following the principle of parsimony, three steady state numerical models were developed, starting from a simple model, and then adding complexity: 2D (single layer), QUASI -3D (with leackage term simulating flow through aquitards) and
Slab detachment in laterally varying subduction zones: 3-D numerical modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duretz, T.; Gerya, T. V.; Spakman, W.
2014-03-01
Understanding the three-dimensional (3-D) dynamics of subduction-collision systems is a longstanding challenge in geodynamics. We investigate the impact of slab detachment in collision systems that are subjected to along-trench variations. High-resolution thermomechanical numerical models, encompassing experimentally derived flow laws and a pseudo free surface, are employed to unravel lithospheric and topographic evolutions. First, we consider coeval subduction of adjacent continental and oceanic lithospheres (SCO). This configuration yields to two-stage slab detachment during collision, topographic buildup and extrusion, variable along-trench convergence rates, and associated trench deformation. The second setting considers a convergent margin, which is laterally limited by a transform boundary (STB). Such collisional system is affected by a single slab detachment, little trench deformation, and moderately confined upper plate topography. The effect of initial thermal slab age on SCO and STB models are explored. Similarities with natural analogs along the Arabia-Eurasia collision are discussed.
Temperature distributions in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell from 3-D numerical modeling
Rainey, E. S. G.; Kavner, A.; Hernlund, J. W.
2013-11-28
We present TempDAC, a 3-D numerical model for calculating the steady-state temperature distribution for continuous wave laser-heated experiments in the diamond anvil cell. TempDAC solves the steady heat conduction equation in three dimensions over the sample chamber, gasket, and diamond anvils and includes material-, temperature-, and direction-dependent thermal conductivity, while allowing for flexible sample geometries, laser beam intensity profile, and laser absorption properties. The model has been validated against an axisymmetric analytic solution for the temperature distribution within a laser-heated sample. Example calculations illustrate the importance of considering heat flow in three dimensions for the laser-heated diamond anvil cell. In particular, we show that a “flat top” input laser beam profile does not lead to a more uniform temperature distribution or flatter temperature gradients than a wide Gaussian laser beam.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reiter, Karsten; Heidbach, Oliver; Moeck, Inga
2013-04-01
For the assessment and exploration of a potential geothermal reservoir, the contemporary in-situ stress is of key importance in terms of well stability and orientation of possible fluid pathways. However, available data, e.g. Heidbach et al. (2009) or Zang et al. (2012), deliver only point wise information of parts of the six independent components of the stress tensor. Moreover most measurements of the stress orientation and magnitude are done for hydrocarbon industry obvious in shallow depth. Interpolation across long distances or extrapolation into depth is unfavourable, because this would ignore structural features, inhomogeneity's in the crust or other local effects like topography. For this reasons geomechanical numerical modelling is the favourable method to quantify orientations and magnitudes of the 3D stress field for a geothermal reservoir. A geomechanical-numerical modelling, estimating the 3D absolute stress state, requires the initial stress state as model constraints. But in-situ stress measurements within or close by a potential reservoir are rare. For that reason a larger regional geomechanical-numerical model is necessary, which derive boundary conditions for the wanted local reservoir model. Such a large scale model has to be tested against in-situ stress measurements, orientations and magnitudes. Other suitable and available data, like GPS measurements or fault slip rates are useful to constrain kinematic boundary conditions. This stepwise approach from regional to local scale takes all stress field factors into account, from first over second up to third order. As an example we present a large scale crustal and upper mantle 3D-geomechanical-numerical model of the Alberta Basin and the surroundings, which is constructed to describe continuously the full stress tensor. In-situ stress measurements are the most likely data, because they deliver the most direct information's of the stress field and they provide insights into different depths, a
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crosta, G.; Imposimato, S.; Roddeman, D.; Frattini, P.
2012-04-01
Fast moving landslides can be originated along slopes in mountainous terrains with natural and artificial lakes, or fjords at the slope foot. This landslides can reach extremely high speed and the impact with the immobile reservoir water can be influenced by the local topography and the landslide mass profile. The impact can generate large impulse waves and landslide tsunami. Initiation, propagation and runup are the three phases that need to be considered. The landslide evolution and the consequent wave can be controlled by the initial mass position (subaerial, partially or completely submerged), the landslide speed, the type of material, the subaerial and subaqueous slope geometry, the landslide depth and length at the impact, and the water depth. Extreme events have been caused by subaerial landslides: the 1963 Vajont rockslide (Italy), the 1958 Lituya Bay event (Alaska), the Tafjord and the Loen multiple events event (Norway), also from volcanic collapses (Hawaii and Canary islands). Various researchers completed a systematic experimental work on 2D and 3D wave generation and propagation (Kamphuis and Bowering, 1970; Huber, 1980; Müller, 1995; Huber and Hager, 1997; Fritz, 2002; Zweifel, 2004; Panizzo et al., 2005; Heller, 2007; Heller and Kinnear, 2010; Sælevik et al., 2009), using both rigid blocks and deformable granular" masses. Model data and results have been used to calibrate and validate numerical modelling tools (Harbitz, 1992; Jiang and LeBlond, 1993; Grilli et al., 2002; Grilli and Watts, 2005; Lynett and Liu, 2005; Tinti et al., 2006; Abadie et al., 2010) generally considering simplified rheologies (e.g. viscous rheologies) for subaerial subaqueous spreading. We use a FEM code (Roddeman, 2011; Crosta et al., 2006, 2009, 2010, 2011) adopting an Eulerian-Lagrangian approach to give accurate results for large deformations. We model both 2D and fully 3D events considering different settings. The material is considered as a fully deformable elasto
A new 3D numerical model of cosmogenic nuclide 10Be production in the atmosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kovaltsov, Gennady A.; Usoskin, Ilya G.
2010-03-01
A new quantitative model of production of the cosmogenic isotope 10Be by cosmic rays in the Earth's atmosphere is presented. The CRAC:10Be (Cosmic Ray induced Atmospheric Cascade for 10Be) model is based on a full numerical Monte-Carlo simulation of the nucleonic-electromagnetic-muon cascade induced by cosmic rays in the atmosphere and is able to compute the isotope's production rate at any given 3D location (geographical and altitude) and time, for all possible parameters including solar energetic particle events. The model was tested against the results of direct measurements of the 10Be production in a number of dedicated experiments to confirm its quantitative correctness. A set of tabulated values for the yield function is provided along with a detailed numerical recipe forming a "do-it-yourself" kit, which allows anyone interested to apply the model for any given conditions. This provides a useful tool for applying the cosmogenic isotope method in direct integration with other models, e.g., dynamical atmospheric transport.
Tidal dynamics of the Terminos Lagoon, Mexico: observations and 3D numerical modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Contreras Ruiz Esparza, Adolfo; Douillet, Pascal; Zavala-Hidalgo, Jorge
2014-09-01
The tidal circulation patterns in the Terminos Lagoon were studied based on the analysis of 1 year of measurements and numerical simulations using a baroclinic 3D hydrodynamic model, the MARS3D. A gauging network was installed consisting of six self-recording pressure-temperature sensors, a tide gauge station and two current profilers, with pressure and temperature sensors moored in the main lagoon inlets. Model simulations were validated against current and sea level observations and were used to analyse the circulation patterns caused by the tidal forcing. The numerical model was forced with eight harmonic components, four diurnal ( K 1, O 1, P 1, Q 1) and four semi-diurnal ( M 2, S 2, N 2, K 2), extracted from the TPX0.7 database. The tidal patterns in the study area vary from mixed, mainly diurnal in the two main inlets of the lagoon, to diurnal in its interior. The tidal residual circulation inside the lagoon is dominated by a cyclonic gyre. The results indicate a net flux from the southwest Ciudad del Carmen inlet (CdC) towards the northeast Puerto Real inlet (PtR) along the southern side of the lagoon and the opposite in the northern side. The results indicate two areas of strong currents in the vicinity of the inlets and weak currents inside the lagoon. The area of strong currents in the vicinity of the CdC inlet is larger than that observed in the PtR inlet. Nevertheless, the current analysis indicates that the highest current speeds, which can reach a magnitude of 1.9 m s-1, occurred in PtR. A further analysis of the tide distortion in the inlets revealed that both passages are ebb dominated.
Nature of stress accommodation in sheared granular material: Insights from 3D numerical modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mair, Karen; Hazzard, James F.
2007-07-01
Active faults often contain distinct accumulations of granular wear material. During shear, this granular material accommodates stress and strain in a heterogeneous manner that may influence fault stability. We present new work to visualize the nature of contact force distributions during 3D granular shear. Our 3D discrete numerical models consist of granular layers subjected to normal loading and direct shear, where gouge particles are simulated by individual spheres interacting at points of contact according to simple laws. During shear, we observe the transient microscopic processes and resulting macroscopic mechanical behavior that emerge from interactions of thousands of particles. We track particle translations and contact forces to determine the nature of internal stress accommodation with accumulated slip for different initial configurations. We view model outputs using novel 3D visualization techniques. Our results highlight the prevalence of transient directed contact force networks that preferentially transmit enhanced stresses across our granular layers. We demonstrate that particle size distribution (psd) controls the nature of the force networks. Models having a narrow (i.e. relatively uniform) psd exhibit discrete pipe-like force clusters with a dominant and focussed orientation oblique to but in the plane of shear. Wider psd models (e.g. power law size distributions D = 2.6) also show a directed contact force network oblique to shear but enjoy a wider range of orientations and show more out-of-plane linkages perpendicular to shear. Macroscopic friction level, is insensitive to these distinct force network morphologies, however, force network evolution appears to be linked to fluctuations in macroscopic friction. Our results are consistent with predictions, based on recent laboratory observations, that force network morphologies are sensitive to grain characteristics such as particle size distribution of a sheared granular layer. Our numerical
Wind forcing of upland lake hydrodynamics: implementation and validation of a 3D numerical model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morales, L.; French, J.; Burningham, H.; Evans, C.; Battarbee, R.
2010-12-01
Upland lakes act as important archives of environmental change, yet inferences based on the analysis of sediment cores are frequently compromised by an incomplete understanding of the hydrodynamic processes controlling the distribution and completeness of lake sediment sequences and their linkages to wider environmental factors. Many upland lakes are characterized by complex vertical and horizontal circulation patterns induced by the action of wind on the water surface. Wind forcing is important not only for the resuspension of bottom sediments in shallow marginal areas, but may also control the broader distribution of sediment accumulation. The work presented here represents the first stage of a project aimed at elucidating the linkages between wind forcing and the distribution of bottom sediments in upland lakes and the extent to which simple 'sediment focusing' models provide an adequate basis for predicting optimal locations for the acquisition of core samples for palaeolimnological analysis. As a first step, a 3D numerical hydrodynamic model is implemented for Llyn Conwy, a small oligotrophic upland lake in North Wales, UK. This utilises the community ocean model, FVCOM, that solves the Navier-Stokes equations in 3D on an unstructured triangular mesh using the finite volume method. A new graphical user interface has been developed for FVCOM to facilitate pre- and post-processing of lake modelling problems. At Llyn Conwy, the model is forced using local meteorological data and validated against vertical temperature profiles recorded by a long-term buoy deployment and short-term observations of vertical current structure measured using an upward-looking acoustic doppler profiler and surface circulation obtained from GPS drifters. Challenges in the application of FVCOM to a small lake include the design of a mesh that ensures numerical stability whilst resolving a complex bathymetry, and the need for careful treatment of model 'spin-up'. Once calibrated, the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McFall, B. C.; Fritz, H. M.; Horrillo, J. J.; Mohammed, F.
2014-12-01
Landslide generated tsunamis such as Lituya Bay, Alaska 1958 account for some of highest recorded tsunami runup heights. Source and runup scenarios based on real world events are physically modeled using generalized Froude similarity in the three dimensional NEES tsunami wave basin at Oregon State University. A novel pneumatic landslide tsunami generator (LTG) was deployed to simulate landslides with varying geometry and kinematics. The bathymetric and topographic scenarios tested with the LTG are the basin-wide propagation and runup, fjord, curved headland fjord and a conical island setting representing a landslide off an island or a volcano flank collapse. The LTG consists of a sliding box filled with 1,350 kg of landslide material which is accelerated by pneumatic pistons down slope. Two different landslide materials are used to study the granulometry effects: naturally rounded river gravel and cobble mixtures. Water surface elevations are recorded by an array of resistance wave gauges. The landslide deformation is measured from above and underwater camera recordings. The landslide deposit is measured on the basin floor with a multiple transducer acoustic array (MTA). Landslide surface reconstruction and kinematics are determined with a stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. Wave runup is recorded with resistance wave gauges along the slope and verified with video image processing. The measured landslide and wave parameters are compared between the planar hill slope used in various scenarios and the convex hill slope of the conical island. The energy conversion rates from the landslide motion to the wave train is quantified for the planar and convex hill slopes. The wave runup data on the opposing headland is analyzed and evaluated with wave theories. The measured landslide and tsunami data serve to validate and advance three-dimensional numerical landslide tsunami prediction models. Two 3D Navier-Stokes models were tested, the commercial code FLOW-3D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernandez, N.; Kaus, B. J. P.
2012-04-01
Many fold-and-thrust belts are dominated by crustal scale folding that exhibits fairly regular fold spacing. For example, the Fars region in the Zagros Mountains shows a fold spacing with a normal distribution around a dominant wavelength of 14 Km ± 3 Km, yet having a wide variability of aspect ratios (length to wavelength ratios; Yamato et al., 2011). To which extend this is consistent with a crustal-scale folding instability or how the regional spacing of folding can be used to constrain regional rheological parameters are not fully resolved questions. To get insights into these problems we have investigated the dominant wavelength selection and evolution in a true multilayer system (Schmid and Podlachikov, 2006) with three different viscosities: lower salt layer (ηs), and overlying weak layers (ηw) and competent layers (ηc). This has been done by means of two tools: a semi-analytical solution and numerical models. The 2D semi-analytical approach was applied to derive mechanical phase diagrams that can be used to distinguish different folding modes using two viscosity ratios (R1= ηc/ ηs and R2= ηc/ ηw). To test the validity of the phase diagrams beyond the initial stages of folding for which the analytical approach is valid, we performed several 3D high-resolution forward numerical runs using a finite element code (LaMEM). Additionally, irregular bottom topography was implemented in the numerical runs in order to account for variable salt thickness distribution and consequently study its effect on the wavelength selection. A straight but gradual salt thickness variation, sudden thickness variations due to a basement step or an arc shaped salt basin among other cases could be investigated. It was observed that the bottom topography exerts an impact on the velocity field of the different folding modes and as a result, its influence can be observed on the resulting topography. However, not all the folding modes exhibit an initial wavelength that is dependent
Numerical investigation of wave attenuation by vegetation using a 3D RANS model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marsooli, Reza; Wu, Weiming
2014-12-01
Vegetation has been recognized as an important natural shoreline protection against storm surges and waves. Understanding of wave-vegetation interaction is essential for assessing the ability of vegetation patches, such as wetlands, to mitigate storm damages. In this study the wave attenuation by vegetation is investigated numerically using a 3-D model which solves the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS) by means of a finite-volume method based on collocated hexahedron mesh. A mixing length model is used for turbulence closure of the RANS equations. The water surface boundary is tracked using the Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) method with the Compressive Interface Capturing Scheme for Arbitrary Meshes (CICSAM) to solve the VOF advection equation. The presence of vegetation is taken into account by adding the vegetation drag and inertia forces to the momentum equations. The model is validated by several laboratory experiments of short wave propagation through vegetation over flat and sloping beds. The comparisons show good agreement between the measured data and calculated results, but the swaying motion of flexible vegetation which is neglected in this study can influence the accuracy of the wave height predictions. The model is then applied to one of the validation tests with different vegetation properties, revealing that the wave height attenuation by vegetation depends not only on the wave conditions, but also the vegetation characteristics such as vegetation height and density.
The numerical integration and 3-D finite element formulation of a viscoelastic model of glass
Chambers, R.S.
1994-08-01
The use of glasses is widespread in making hermetic, insulating seals for many electronic components. Flat panel displays and fiber optic connectors are other products utilizing glass as a structural element. When glass is cooled from sealing temperatures, residual stresses are generated due to mismatches in thermal shrinkage created by the dissimilar material properties of the adjoining materials. Because glass is such a brittle material at room temperature, tensile residual stresses must be kept small to ensure durability and avoid cracking. Although production designs and the required manufacturing process development can be deduced empirically, this is an expensive and time consuming process that does not necessarily lead to an optimal design. Agile manufacturing demands that analyses be used to reduce development costs and schedules by providing insight and guiding the design process through the development cycle. To make these gains, however, viscoelastic models of glass must be available along with the right tool to use them. A viscoelastic model of glass can be used to simulate the stress and volume relaxation that occurs at elevated temperatures as the molecular structure of the glass seeks to equilibrate to the state of the supercooled liquid. The substance of the numerical treatment needed to support the implementation of the model in a 3-D finite element program is presented herein. An accurate second-order, central difference integrator is proposed for the constitutive equations, and numerical solutions are compared to those obtained with other integrators. Inherent convergence problems are reviewed and fixes are described. The resulting algorithms are generally applicable to the broad class of viscoelastic material models. First-order error estimates are used as a basis for developing a scheme for automatic time step controls, and several demonstration problems are presented to illustrate the performance of the methodology.
Inheritance of pre-existing weakness in continental breakup: 3D numerical modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liao, Jie; Gerya, Taras
2013-04-01
breakup order of crust and mantle (Huismans and Beaumont, 2011). However, the inheritance of pre-existing lithospheric weakness in the evolution of continental rifts and oceanic ridge is not well studied. We use 3D numerical modeling to study this problem, by changing the weak zone position and geometry, and the rheological structure of the model. In our study, we find that: 1).3D continental breakup and seafloor spreading patterns are controlled by (a) crust-mantle rheological coupling and (b) geometry and position of the pre-existing weak zones. 2).Three spreading patterns are obtained: (a) straight ridges, (b) curved ridges and (c) overlapping ridges. 3).When crust and mantle are decoupled, abandoned rift structures often form.
Numerical 3D models support two distinct hydrothermal circulation systems at fast spreading ridges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hasenclever, Jörg; Theissen-Krah, Sonja; Rüpke, Lars
2013-04-01
We present 3D numerical calculations of hydrothermal fluid flow at fast spreading ridges. The setup of the 3D models is based our previous 2D studies, in which we have coupled numerical models for crustal accretion and hydrothermal fluid flow. One result of these calculations is a crustal permeability field that leads to a thermal structure in the crust that matches seismic tomography data of the East Pacific Rise (EPR). The 1000°C isotherm obtained from the 2D results is now used as the lower boundary of the 3D model domain, while the upper boundary is a smoothed bathymetry of the EPR. The same permeability field as in the 2D models is used, with the highest permeability at the ridge axis and a decrease with both depth and distance to the ridge. Permeability is also reduced linearly between 600 and 1000°C. Using a newly developed parallel finite element code written in Matlab that solves for thermal evolution, fluid pressure and Darcy flow, we simulate the flow patterns of hydrothermal circulation in a segment of 5000m along-axis, 10000m across-axis and up to 5000m depth. We observe two distinct hydrothermal circulation systems: An on-axis system forming a series of vents with a spacing ranging from 100 to 500m that is recharged by nearby (100-200m) downflows on both sides of the ridge axis. Simultaneously a second system with much broader extensions both laterally and vertically exists off-axis. It is recharged by fluids intruding between 1500m to 5000m off-axis and sampling both upper and lower crust. These fluids are channeled in the deepest and hottest regions with high permeability and migrate up-slope following the 600°C isotherm until reaching the edge of the melt lens. Depending on the width of the melt lens these off-axis fluids either merge with the on-axis hydrothermal system or form separate vents. We observe separate off-axis vent fields if the magma lens half-width exceeds 1000m and confluence of both systems for half-widths smaller than 500m. For
Water cycling beneath subduction zones in 2D and 3D numerical models (Invited)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rupke, L.; Iyer, K. H.; Hasenclever, J.; Morgan, J.
2013-12-01
. Slab fluids that do flux the mantle wedge are commonly believed to trigger arc melting. Finally, the fate of these fluids and the likely mantle flow field within the mantle wedge are resolved in 3D. We find that the classical 2D corner-flow solution is only a small subset of all possible mantle wedge flow fields. In fact, a more 'natural' flow field involves 3D diapirs fuelled by low-density slab fluids rising from the slab surface. These diapirs provide a potential mechanism for decompression melting in the mantle wedge, break the classic corner flow solution, and illustrate the need for high-resolution three-dimensional subduction zones models. In summary we find that numerical models are capable to resolve the key geological processes that control the subduction zone water cycle and help us to better relate subduction input to arc output.
3-D Numerical Modeling of MHD Flows in Variable Magnetic Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdullina, K. I.; Bogovalov, S. V.
3-D numerical simulation of the liquid metal flow affected by the electromagnetic field in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) devices is performed. Software package ANSYS has been used for the numerical calculations. The non-stationary problem has been solved taking into account the influence of the metal flow on the electromagnetic field and nonlinear magnetic permeability of the ferromagnetic cores. Simplified calculations with constant magnetic permeability of the ferromagnetic cores have been performed as well. Comparison of these calculations shows that the simulation of the MHD pump can be performed in the linear approximation. The pump performance curve has been derived in this approximation.
3D numerical modeling of an anthropogenic sinkhole in the Marsala area of western Sicily
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonamini, Marco; Di Maggio, Cipriano; Lollino, Piernicola; Madonia, Giuliana; Parise, Mario; Vattano, Marco
2013-04-01
processes, based on rock laboratory testing data and a detailed reconstruction of the underground cave geometry. At this goal, we took advantage of detailed topographic surveys of the underground quarry, carried out before (year 2000) and after occurrence of one the sinkholes, that opened in July 2011 at the eastern sector of the town of Marsala, causing significant damage to a school. In the implementation of the 3D-model, the geomechanical survey of the calcarenite rock mass was also taken into account, as a required input layer depicting the main discontinuity systems, and their main features (pervasiveness, joint opening and spacing, etc.). Relevant differences between the results from 2-D and 3-D analyses are pointed out in the paper, highlighting the need to perform 3D-modeling in order to define the real instability conditions of the rock mass, and to evaluate the possibility of sinkhole occurrence at the surface.
Early Earth tectonics: A high-resolution 3D numerical modelling approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fischer, R.; Gerya, T.
2014-12-01
Early Earth had a higher amount of remaining radiogenic elements as well as a higher amount of leftover primordial heat. Both contributed to the increased temperature in the Earth's interior and it is mainly this increased mantle potential temperature ΔTp that controls the dynamics of the crust and upper mantle and the style of Early Earth tectonics. For a minor increase in temperature ΔTp < 175 K a subduction-collision style ensues which is largely similar to present day plate tectonics. For a moderate increase in ΔTp = 175-250 K subduction can still occur, however plates are strongly weakened and buckling, delamination and Rayleigh-Taylor style dripping of the plate is observed in addition. For higher temperatures ΔTp > 250 K no subduction can be observed anymore and tectonics is dominated by delamination and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. We conduct 3D petrological-thermomechanical numerical modelling experiments of the crust and upper mantle under Early Earth conditions and a plume tectonics model setup. For varying crustal structures and an increased mantle potential temperature ΔTp, a thermal anomaly in the bottom temperature boundary introduces a plume. The model is able to self-sufficiently form depleted mantle lithosphere after repeated melt removal. New crust can be produced in the form of volcanics or plutonics. To simulate differentiation the newly formed crust can have a range in composition from basaltic over dacitic to granitic depending on its source rock. Models show large amounts of subcrustal decompression melting and consequently large amounts of new formed crust which in turn influences the dynamics. Mantle and crust are convecting separately. Dome-shaped plutons of mafic or felsic composition can be observed in the crust. Between these domes elongated belts of upper crust, volcanics and sediments are formed. These structures look similar to, for example, the Kaapvaal craton in South Africa where the elongated shape of the Barberton
Dynamic coupling between fluid flow and vein growth in fractures: a 3D numerical model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwarz, J.-O.; Enzmann, F.
2012-04-01
Fluid flow is one of the main mass transport mechanisms in the Earth's crust and abundant mineral vein networks are important indicators for fluid flow and fluid rock interaction. These systems are dynamic and part of the so called RTM processes (reaction-transport-mechanics). Understanding of mineral vein systems requires coupling of these processes. Here we present a conceptional model for dynamic vein growth of syntaxial, posttectonic veins generated by advective fluid flow and show first results of a numerical model for this scenario. Vein generation requires three processes to occur: (i) fracture generation by mechanical stress e.g. hydro-fracturing, (ii) flow of a supersaturated fluid on that fracture and (iii) crystallization of phase(s) on or in the fracture. 3D synthetic fractures are generated with the SynFrac code (Ogilvie, et al. 2006). Subsequently solutions of the Navier-Stokes equation for this fracture are computed by a computational fluid dynamics code called GeoDict (Wiegmann 2007). Transport (advective and diffusive) of chemical species to growth sites in the fracture and vein growth are computed by a self-written MATLAB script. The numerical model discretizes the wall rock and fracture geometry by volumetric pixels (voxels). Based on this representation, the model computes the three basic functions for vein generation: (a) nucleation, (b) fluid flow with transport of chemical species and (c) growth. The following conditions were chosen for these three modules. Nucleation is heterogeneous and occurs instantaneously at the wall rock/fracture interface. Advective and diffusive flow of a supersaturated fluid and related transport of chemical species occurs according to the computed fluid flow field by GeoDict. Concentration of chemical species at the inflow is constant, representing external fluid buffering. Changes/decrease in the concentration of chemical species occurs only due to vein growth. Growth of nuclei is limited either by transport of
Early Earth plume-lid tectonics: A high-resolution 3D numerical modelling approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fischer, Ria; Gerya, Taras
2016-04-01
Early Earth had a higher amount of radiogenic elements as well as a higher amount of leftover primordial heat. Both contribute to the increased temperature in the Earth's interior and it is mainly this increased mantle potential temperature Tp that controls the dynamics of the crust and upper mantle and the predominant style of tectonics in the Archean Earth. We conduct 3D petrological-magmatic-thermomechanical numerical modelling experiments of the crust and upper mantle under Archean conditions using a plume-lid tectonics model setup. For varying crustal compositions and a mantle potential temperature increase ΔTp = 250K (compared to present day conditions), a hot lower thermal boundary layer introduces spontaneously developing mantle plumes and after repeated melt removal, depleted mantle lithosphere is formed self-consistently. New crust is produced in the form of both volcanic and plutonic magmatism. Models show large amounts of subcrustal decompression melting and production of new crust which in turn influences the dynamics. On short-term (10 ‑ 20Myr) rising diapirs and sinking basaltic crust lead to crustal overturn and to the formation of the typical Archean dome-and-keel pattern. On long-term a long (˜ 80Myr) passive 'growth phase' with strong growth of crust and lithosphere is observed. Both crust and lithosphere thickness are regulated by thermochemical instabilities assisted by lower crustal eclogitisation and a subcrustal small-scale convection area. Delamination of lower crust and lithosphere is initiated by linear or cylindrical eclogite drips and occurs as one 'catastrophic' event within a 20Myr 'removal phase'.
Early Earth tectonics: A high-resolution 3D numerical modelling approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fischer, R.; Gerya, T.
2015-12-01
Early Earth had a higher amount of radiogenic elements as well as a higher amount of leftover primordial heat. Both contribute to the increased temperature in the Earth's interior and it is mainly this increased mantle potential temperature Tp that controls the dynamics of the crust and upper mantle and the predominant style of tectonics in the Early Earth. We conduct 3D petrological-magmatic-thermomechanical numerical modelling experiments of the crust and upper mantle under Early Earth conditions using a plume tectonics model setup. For varying crustal structures and a mantle potential temperature increase (ΔTp, compared to present day conditions), a hot lower thermal boundary layer introduces spontaneously developing mantle plumes and after repeated melt removal, depleted mantle lithosphere is formed self-consistently. New crust is produced in the form of both volcanics and plutonics. For an increase in mantle potential temperature ΔTp= 250 K, presumably corresponding to an Archean mantle, models show large amounts of subcrustal decompression melting and consequently large amounts of magmatism, which in turn influence the dynamics. In a first active phase (10-20 Ma) rising diapirs within the crust lead to the formation of the typical dome and keel pattern (e.g. Kaapvaal craton in South Africa, Pilbara craton in northwest Australia). A long passive phase follows with strong growth of crust and lithosphere. Both crust and lithosphere thickness are regulated by thermal-chemical instabilities assisted by lower crust eclogitization. Eclogitization depth is reached after ~80 Ma and linear or cylindrical drips originate at the crust or lithosphere bottom. Delamination of lower crust and lithosphere then occurs as one 'catastrophic' event within the next 20 Ma.
Designing stream restoration structures using 3D hydro-morphodynamic numerical modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khosronejad, A.; Kozarek, J. L.; Hill, C.; Kang, S.; Plott, R.; Diplas, P.; Sotiropoulos, F.
2012-12-01
Efforts to stabilize and restore streams and rivers across the nation have grown dramatically in the last fifteen years, with over $1 billion spent every year since 1990. The development of effective and long-lasting strategies, however, is far from trivial and despite large investments it is estimated that at least 50% of stream restoration projects fail. This is because stream restoration is today more of an art than a science. The lack of physics-based engineering standards for stream restoration techniques is best underscored in the design and installation of shallow, in-stream, low-flow structures, which direct flow away from the banks, protect stream banks from erosion and scour, and increase habitat diversity. Present-day design guidelines for such in-stream structures are typically vague and rely heavily on empirical knowledge and intuition rather than physical understanding of the interactions of the structures the flow and sediment transport processes in the waterway. We have developed a novel computer-simulation based paradigm for designing in stream structures that is based on state-of-the-art 3D hydro-morphodynamic modeling validated with laboratory and field-scale experiments. The numerical model is based on the Curvilinear Immersed Boundary (CURVIB) approach of Kang et al. and Khosronejad et al. (Adv. in Water Res. 2010, 2011), which can simulate flow and sediment transport processes in arbitrarily complex waterways with embedded rock structures. URANS or large-eddy simulation (LES) models are used to simulate turbulence. Transport of bed materials is simulated using the non-equilibrium Exner equation for the bed surface elevation coupled with a transport equation for suspended load. Extensive laboratory and field-scale experiments have been carried out and employed to validate extensively the computational model. The numerical model is used to develop a virtual testing environment within which one or multiple in-stream structures can be embedded in
Geodynamic background of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake based on 3D visco-elastic numerical modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Chang; Zhu, Bojing; Yang, Xiaolin; Shi, Yaolin
2016-03-01
The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Mw7.9) occurred in the Longmen Shan fault zone. The stress change and crustal deformation during the accumulation period is computed using 3D finite element modelling assuming visco-elastic rheology. Our results support that the eastward movement of the Tibetan Plateau resulting from the India-Eurasia collision is obstructed at the Longmen Shan fault zone by the strong Yangtze craton. In response, the Tibetan ductile crust thickens and accumulates at the contact between the Tibetan Plateau and the Sichuan Basin. This process implies a strong uplift with the rate of about 1.8 mm/a of the upper crust and induces a stress concentration nearly at the bottom of the Longmen Shan fault zone. We believe that the stress concentration in the Longmen Shan fault zone provides a very important geodynamic background of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Using numerical experiments we find that the key factor controlling this stress concentration process is the large viscosity contrast in the middle and lower crusts between the Tibetan Plateau and the Sichuan Basin. The results show that large viscosity contrast in the middle and lower crusts accelerates the stress concentration in the Longmen Shan fault zone. Fast moving lower crustal flow accelerates this stress accumulation process. During the inter-seismic period, spatially the maximum stress accumulation rate of the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau is located nearly at the bottom of the brittle upper crust of the Longmen Shan fault zone. The spatial distribution of the stress accumulation along the strike of the Longmen Shan fault zone is as follows: the normal stress decreases while the shear stress increases from southwest to northeast along the Longmen Shan fault zone. This stress distribution explains the thrust motion in the SW and strike-slip motion in the NE during the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake.
Understanding heavy mineral enrichment – Using a 3D numerical model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartzke, Gerhard; Schmeeckle, Mark; Huhn, Katrin
2015-04-01
Layered deposits of light and heavy minerals can be found in many aquatic environments. Various researchers attempted to understand the role of the enrichment process of heavy minerals in placers using flume or in situ field experiments, because of their high economic value. However, a precise quantification of the physical processes occurring at the direct vicinity and in the interior of layered deposits is often limited with such techniques. To investigate the physical processes causing heavy particle enrichment in layers at the direct vicinity and in the interior of sediment beds, a 3D numerical model as an alternative to in situ measurement was used. The 3D model simulates particle transport in water by combining a turbulence-resolving large eddy simulation (LES) with a discrete element model (DEM) prescribing the motion of individual grains. The dimensions of model domain where X = 0.12 [m], Y = 0.06 [m], and Z = 0.04 [m]. A pressure gradient and cyclic boundaries at the side walls allowed the simulation of a recycling flow. For the generation of a granular bed 0.004 [m] in height 200,000 spherical particles (D50 = 500 µm) were generated randomly and deposited under gravity at the bottom of the domain. Seven suites of experiments were designed in which the concentration of heavy i.e. 5000 [kg/m³] over light particles i.e. 2560 [kg/m³] was increased ranging from 0%, 10%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 90%, to 100% heavy particle content. All beds where tested for five seconds at a predefined flow speed of 0.35 [m/s]. The model results showed that at the direct vicinity of the bed the presence of high-vorticity turbulence structures embedded within broader high speed fluid regions caused the formation of particle sweeps or high-speed wedges. The vertical extension of the sweeps decreased when a higher amount of heavy particles was mixed to the beds, which ultimately resulted in a decrease of the bed roughness. Further, the particle flux decreased when higher quantities of
Early Earth tectonics: A high-resolution 3D numerical modelling approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fischer, Ria; Gerya, Taras
2015-04-01
Early Earth had a higher amount of remaining radiogenic elements as well as a higher amount of leftover primordial heat. Both contributed to the increased temperature in the Earth's interior and it is mainly this increased mantle potential temperature ΔTp that controls the dynamics of the crust and upper mantle and the style of Early Earth tectonics. We conduct 3D petrological-thermomechanical numerical modelling experiments of the crust and upper mantle under Early Earth conditions using a plume tectonics model setup. For varying crustal structures and an increased mantle potential temperature ΔTp, a hot lower thermal boundary layer is used to introduce spontaneously developing mantle plumes. The model is able to self-sufficiently form depleted mantle lithosphere after repeated melt removal. New crust can be produced in the form of volcanics and/or plutonics. To simulate differentiation the newly formed crust can have a range in composition from basaltic to granitic depending on its source rock. For a major increase in the mantle temperature, presumably corresponding to an Archean mantle (ΔTp = 200 - 300K compared to present day conditions), models show large amounts of subcrustal decompression melting and consequently large amounts of volcanics, which in turn influence the dynamics. Mantle and crust are convecting separately. Dome-shaped felsic plutons can be observed in the crust. Between these domes elongated belts of downwelling basalt and sediments are formed. Both crust and lithosphere thickness are regulated by thermo-chemical instabilities assisted by lower crust eclogitization: linear or cylindrical drips originating at the crust or lithosphere bottom or delamination of lower crust or lithosphere. Very similar examples of dome and belt structures are still preserved in Archean cratons. One example is the Kaapvaal craton is South Africa where the elongated shape of the Barberton Greenstone Belt, mainly built from mafic rocks and sediments, is surrounded
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cédric, Guyonnet-Benaize; Fabrice, Hollender; Maria, Manakou; Alexandros, Savvaidis; Elena, Zargli; Cécile, Cornou; Nikolaos, Veranis; Dimitrios, Raptakis; Artemios, Atzemoglou; Pierre-Yves, Bard; Nikolaos, Theodulidis; Kyriazis, Pitilakis; Emmanuelle, Chaljub
2013-04-01
The Mygdonian basin, located 30 km E-NE close to Thessaloniki, is a typical active tectonic basin, trending E-NW, filled by sediments 200 to 400 m thick. This basin has been chosen as a European experimental site since 1993 (European Commission research projects - EUROSEISTEST). It has been investigated for experimental and theoretical studies on site effects. The Mygdonian basin is currently covered by a permanent seismological network and has been mainly characterized in 2D and 3D with geophysical and geotechnical studies (Bastani et al, 2011; Cadet and Savvaidis, 2011; Gurk et al, 2007; Manakou et al, 2007; Manakou et al, 2010; Pitilakis et al, 1999; Raptakis et al, 2000; Raptakis et al, 2005). All these studies allowed understanding the influence of geological structures and local site conditions on seismic site response. For these reasons, this site has been chosen for a verification exercise for numerical simulations in the framework of an ongoing international collaborative research project (Euroseistest Verification and Validation Project - E2VP). The verification phase has been made using a first 3D geophysical and geotechnical model (Manakou, 2007) about 5 km wide and 15 km long, centered on the Euroseistest site. After this verification phase, it has been decided to update, optimize and extend this model in order to obtain a more detailed model of the 3D geometry of the entire basin, especially the bedrock 3D geometry which can affect drastically the results of numerical simulations for site effect studies. In our study, we build a 3D geological model of the present-day structure of the entire Mygdonian basin. This "precise" model is 12 km wide, 65 km long and is 400 m deep in average. It has been built using geophysical, geotechnical and geological data. The database is heterogeneous and composed of hydrogeological boreholes, seismic refraction surveys, array microtremor measurements, electrical and geotechnical surveys. We propose an integrated
Comparison between 2D and 3D Numerical Modelling of a hot forging simulative test
Croin, M.; Ghiotti, A.; Bruschi, S.
2007-04-07
The paper presents the comparative analysis between 2D and 3D modelling of a simulative experiment, performed in laboratory environment, in which operating conditions approximate hot forging of a turbine aerofoil section. The plane strain deformation was chosen as an ideal case to analyze the process because of the thickness variations in the final section and the consequent distributions of contact pressure and sliding velocity at the interface that are closed to the conditions of the real industrial process. In order to compare the performances of 2D and 3D approaches, two different analyses were performed and compared with the experiments in terms of loads and temperatures peaks at the interface between the dies and the workpiece.
Numerical simulation of a combined oxidation ditch flow using 3D k-epsilon turbulence model.
Luo, Lin; Li, Wei-min; Deng, Yong-sen; Wang, Tao
2005-01-01
The standard three dimensional(3D) k-epsilon turbulence model was applied to simulate the flow field of a small scale combined oxidation ditch. The moving mesh approach was used to model the rotor of the ditch. Comparison of the computed and the measured data is acceptable. A vertical reverse flow zone in the ditch was found, and it played a very important role in the ditch flow behavior. The flow pattern in the ditch is discussed in detail, and approaches are suggested to improve the hydrodynamic performance in the ditch. PMID:16313008
The DESIRE Airborne gravity project in the Dead Sea Basin and 3D numerical gravity modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, S.; Goetze, H.; Meyer, U.; Group, D.
2008-12-01
This geo-scientific research focuses on the geological setting of the Dead Sea Transform (DST) and the Dead Sea Basin (DSB) and its resulting pull-apart basins. Since the late 1970s, crustal scale geophysical experiments have been carried out in this region. However, the nature of the crust underlying the eastern and western shoulders of the DSB and underneath the DST itself is still a hotly debated topic among researchers. To address one of the central questions of plate tectonics - How do large transform systems work and what are their typical features? - An international geoscientific Dead Sea Integrated Research project (DESIRE) is being conducted by colleagues from Germany, Israel, Palestine, and Jordan. In order to provide a high resolution gravity database that support 3D numerical modeling and hence a more comprehensive understanding of the nature and segmentation of the DST, an airborne gravity survey as a part of the DESIRE project has been carried out from February to March 2007. The airborne gravity survey covered the DST from Elat/Aqaba in the South to the northern rim of the Dead Sea. The low speed and terrain-following helicopter gravity flights were performed to acquire the highest possible data quality. In total, 32 north-south profiles and 16 west-east profiles crossing the DST have been measured. Most of the profiles concentrated in areas that lacked terrestrial gravity data coverage, e. g. over the shoulders of the DSB. The airborne gravity data are merged with existing conventional (terrestrial) data sets to provide a seamless gravity map of the area of interest. Using that combined gravity dataset and DESIRE wide angle refractions seismic interpretation we modified density structures in the DSB. As results we estimated that (1) the Moho depth varies from 26 km in the Israel side to 34 km in the Jordan side. (2) The maximum thickness of the Dead Sea sediment Basin is about 15 km. (3) The salt rock with an average thickness of about 5 km is
3D numerical simulations of dispersion of volcanic ash using a Lagrangian model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, Yujiro; Koyaguchi, Takehiro
2014-05-01
Dispersion of volcanic ash largely depends on the atmospheric wind speed and eruption intensity. In general, when the atmospheric wind is weak and/or eruption intensity is strong (i.e., magma discharge rate is small), the volcanic plume is characterized by the formation of umbrella cloud and the particles (i.e., volcanic ashes) are transported by the gravity current of umbrella cloud. On the other hand, if the wind is strong and/or eruption intensity is weak, the volcanic plume tends to be distorted by wind and the particles are drifted mainly by the wind. Because these effects of gravity current and wind also change depending on the particle size, it is difficult to quantitatively predict the distributions of particles suspended in the atmosphere and those deposited on the ground. In this study, we are developing a 3-D numerical model which directly simulates the ash transport and deposition. The model is designed to simulate the injection of a mixture of solid pyroclasts and volcanic gas from a circular vent above a flat surface in a stratified atmosphere, using a combination of a pseudo-gas model for fluid motion and a Lagrangian model for particle motion. During fluid dynamics calculations, we ignore the separation of solid pyroclasts from the eruption cloud, treating an eruption cloud as a single gas with a density calculated using a mixing ratio between ejected material and entrained air (Suzuki et al., 2005, JGR). In order to calculate the location and movement of ash particles, we employ Lagrangian marker particles of various sizes and densities. The marker particles are ejected from the vent with the same velocity of the eruption cloud every 2 sec. The particles are accelerated or decelerated by the drag force on the spheres and fall to the ground with their terminal velocities. We carried out a simulation of a small-scale eruption in the strong wind fields with the magma discharge rate of 2.5 x 106 kg/s. The rising plume is largely distorted by wind and
Ash3d: A finite-volume, conservative numerical model for ash transport and tephra deposition
Schwaiger, Hans F.; Denlinger, Roger P.; Mastin, Larry G.
2012-01-01
We develop a transient, 3-D Eulerian model (Ash3d) to predict airborne volcanic ash concentration and tephra deposition during volcanic eruptions. This model simulates downwind advection, turbulent diffusion, and settling of ash injected into the atmosphere by a volcanic eruption column. Ash advection is calculated using time-varying pre-existing wind data and a robust, high-order, finite-volume method. Our routine is mass-conservative and uses the coordinate system of the wind data, either a Cartesian system local to the volcano or a global spherical system for the Earth. Volcanic ash is specified with an arbitrary number of grain sizes, which affects the fall velocity, distribution and duration of transport. Above the source volcano, the vertical mass distribution with elevation is calculated using a Suzuki distribution for a given plume height, eruptive volume, and eruption duration. Multiple eruptions separated in time may be included in a single simulation. We test the model using analytical solutions for transport. Comparisons of the predicted and observed ash distributions for the 18 August 1992 eruption of Mt. Spurr in Alaska demonstrate to the efficacy and efficiency of the routine.
Numerical Simulations of High-Frequency Respiratory Flows in 2D and 3D Lung Bifurcation Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Zixi; Parameswaran, Shamini; Hu, Yingying; He, Zhaoming; Raj, Rishi; Parameswaran, Siva
2014-07-01
To better understand the human pulmonary system and optimize the high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) design, numerical simulations were conducted under normal breathing frequency and HFOV condition using a CFD code Ansys Fluent and its user-defined C programs. 2D and 3D double bifurcating lung models were created, and the geometry corresponds to fifth to seventh generations of airways with the dimensions based on the Weibel's pulmonary model. Computations were carried out for different Reynolds numbers (Re = 400 and 1000) and Womersley numbers (α = 4 and 16) to study the air flow fields, gas transportation, and wall shear stresses in the lung airways. Flow structure was compared with experimental results. Both 2D and 3D numerical models successfully reproduced many results observed in the experiment. The oxygen concentration distribution in the lung model was investigated to analyze the influence of flow oscillation on gas transport inside the lung model.
A numerical study of the 3D random interchange and random loop models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barp, Alessandro; Barp, Edoardo Gabriele; Briol, François-Xavier; Ueltschi, Daniel
2015-08-01
We have studied numerically the random interchange model and related loop models on the three-dimensional cubic lattice. We have determined the transition time for the occurrence of long loops. The joint distribution of the lengths of long loops is Poisson-Dirichlet with parameter 1 or \\frac{1}{2}.
Parallel 3D Finite Element Numerical Modelling of DC Electron Guns
Prudencio, E.; Candel, A.; Ge, L.; Kabel, A.; Ko, K.; Lee, L.; Li, Z.; Ng, C.; Schussman, G.; /SLAC
2008-02-04
In this paper we present Gun3P, a parallel 3D finite element application that the Advanced Computations Department at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is developing for the analysis of beam formation in DC guns and beam transport in klystrons. Gun3P is targeted specially to complex geometries that cannot be described by 2D models and cannot be easily handled by finite difference discretizations. Its parallel capability allows simulations with more accuracy and less processing time than packages currently available. We present simulation results for the L-band Sheet Beam Klystron DC gun, in which case Gun3P is able to reduce simulation time from days to some hours.
PFLOW: A 3-D Numerical Modeling Tool for Calculating Fluid-Pressure Diffusion from Coulomb Strain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wolf, L. W.; Lee, M.; Meir, A.; Dyer, G.; Ma, K.; Chan, C.
2009-12-01
A new 3D time-dependent pore-pressure diffusion model PFLOW is developed to investigate the response of pore fluids to the crustal deformation generated by strong earthquakes in heterogeneous geologic media. Given crustal strain generated by changes in Coulomb stress, this MATLAB-based code uses Skempton's coefficient to calculate resulting changes fluid pressure. Pore-pressure diffusion can be tracked over time in a user-defined model space with user-prescribed Neumann or Dirchilet boundary conditions and with spatially variable values of permeability. PFLOW employs linear or quadratic finite elements for spatial discretization and first order or second order, explicit or implicit finite difference discretization in time. PFLOW is easily interfaced with output from deformation modeling programs such as Coulomb (Toda et al., 2007) or 3D-DEF (Gomberg and Ellis, 1994). The code is useful for investigating to first-order the evolution of pore pressure changes induced by changes in Coulomb stress and their possible relation to water-level changes in wells or changes in stream discharge. It can also be used for student research and classroom instruction. As an example application, we calculate the coseismic pore pressure changes and diffusion induced by volumetric strain associated with the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (Mw = 7.6) in Taiwan. The Chi-Chi earthquake provides an unique opportunity to investigate the spatial and time-dependent poroelastic response of near-field rocks and sediments because there exist extensive observational data of water-level changes and crustal deformation. The integrated model allows us to explore whether changes in Coulomb stress can adequately explain hydrologic anomalies observed in areas such as Taiwan’s western foothills and the Choshui River alluvial plain. To calculate coseismic strain, we use the carefully calibrated finite fault-rupture model of Ma et al. (2005) and the deformation modeling code Coulomb 3.1 (Toda et al., 2007
Efficient 3D Acoustic Numerical modeling in the Logarithmic-grid using the Expanding Domain Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hong, B. R.; Chung, W.; Ko, H.; Bae, H. S.
2015-12-01
In the numerical modeling of seismic wave propagation by the use of a discrete computing domain, dispersion analysis is preceded by the determination of the spatial grid spacings in order to ensure accurate modeling results. Grid spacing is a function of wavelength, and the wavelength depends on the minimum velocity and maximum source frequency. Therefore, as the frequency increases, the number of grids increase and this leads to computational overburden. In order to reduce the computing complexity, coordinate transformation techniques such as Riemannian coordinates and logarithmic grid sets are proposed. Riemannian wave-field extrapolation is a way to reformulate the wave-field by expressing it in Riemannian coordinates. In the logarithmic grid, grid spacing changes logarithmically, so this enables us to reduce the number of grids compared to a conventional grid set. Furthermore, this could completely remove boundary reflections by extending the model dimensions. However, numerical modeling in the logarithmic grid is still inefficient because it is performed for whole model at every individual time step. In this study we applied the expanding domain method to the logarithmic modeling in order to improve computational efficiency. This method, based on amplitude comparison, excludes computations for zero wave-fields by considering a non-zero domain boundary. Numerical examples demonstrated that our new modeling method enhances computational efficiency maintaining accuracy compared with conventional modeling methods. In wider and higher-order dimensions, particularly, the efficiency of our modeling method increased. Our new modeling technique could also be applied to the generation of underwater target echo signals requiring high frequency analysis.
Numerical model of formation of a 3-D strike-slip fault system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chemenda, Alexandre I.; Cavalié, Olivier; Vergnolle, Mathilde; Bouissou, Stéphane; Delouis, Bertrand
2016-01-01
The initiation and the initial evolution of a strike-slip fault are modeled within an elastoplasticity constitutive framework taking into account the evolution of the hardening modulus with inelastic straining. The initial and boundary conditions are similar to those of the Riedel shear experiment. The models first deform purely elastically. Then damage (inelastic deformation) starts at the model surface. The damage zone propagates both normal to the forming fault zone and downwards. Finally, it affects the whole layer thickness, forming flower-like structure in cross-section. At a certain stage, a dense set of parallel Riedel shears forms at shallow depth. A few of these propagate both laterally and vertically, while others die. The faults first propagate in-plane, but then rapidly change direction to make a larger angle with the shear axis. New fault segments form as well, resulting in complex 3-D fault zone architecture. Different fault segments accommodate strike-slip and normal displacements, which results in the formation of valleys and rotations along the fault system.
Code and Solution Verification of 3D Numerical Modeling of Flow in the Gust Erosion Chamber
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuen, A.; Bombardelli, F. A.
2014-12-01
Erosion microcosms are devices commonly used to investigate the erosion and transport characteristics of sediments at the bed of rivers, lakes, or estuaries. In order to understand the results these devices provide, the bed shear stress and flow field need to be accurately described. In this research, the UMCES Gust Erosion Microcosm System (U-GEMS) is numerically modeled using Finite Volume Method. The primary aims are to simulate the bed shear stress distribution at the surface of the sediment core/bottom of the microcosm, and to validate the U-GEMS produces uniform bed shear stress at the bottom of the microcosm. The mathematical model equations are solved by on a Cartesian non-uniform grid. Multiple numerical runs were developed with different input conditions and configurations. Prior to developing the U-GEMS model, the General Moving Objects (GMO) model and different momentum algorithms in the code were verified. Code verification of these solvers was done via simulating the flow inside the top wall driven square cavity on different mesh sizes to obtain order of convergence. The GMO model was used to simulate the top wall in the top wall driven square cavity as well as the rotating disk in the U-GEMS. Components simulated with the GMO model were rigid bodies that could have any type of motion. In addition cross-verification was conducted as results were compared with numerical results by Ghia et al. (1982), and good agreement was found. Next, CFD results were validated by simulating the flow within the conventional microcosm system without suction and injection. Good agreement was found when the experimental results by Khalili et al. (2008) were compared. After the ability of the CFD solver was proved through the above code verification steps. The model was utilized to simulate the U-GEMS. The solution was verified via classic mesh convergence study on four consecutive mesh sizes, in addition to that Grid Convergence Index (GCI) was calculated and based on
Numerical study of 3-D inducer and impeller for pump model development
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cheng, G. C.; Chen, Y. S.; Garcia, R.; Williams, R. W.
1993-01-01
Current design of high-performance turbopumps for rocket engines requires effective and robust analytical tools to provide design information in a productive manner. The main goal of this study is to develop a robust and effective CFD pump model for general turbopump design and analysis applications. A finite difference Navier-Stokes flow solver, FDNS, which includes an extended k-epsilon turbulence model and appropriate moving zonal interface boundary conditions, was developed to analyze turbulent flows in turbomachinery devices. In the present study, two key components of the turbopump, the inducer and impeller, were investigated by the proposed pump model, and the numerical results were benchmarked by the experimental data provided by Rocketdyne.
Symmetry-plane model of 3D Euler flows: Mapping to regular systems and numerical solutions of blowup
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mulungye, Rachel M.; Lucas, Dan; Bustamante, Miguel D.
2014-11-01
We introduce a family of 2D models describing the dynamics on the so-called symmetry plane of the full 3D Euler fluid equations. These models depend on a free real parameter and can be solved analytically. For selected representative values of the free parameter, we apply the method introduced in [M.D. Bustamante, Physica D: Nonlinear Phenom. 240, 1092 (2011)] to map the fluid equations bijectively to globally regular systems. By comparing the analytical solutions with the results of numerical simulations, we establish that the numerical simulations of the mapped regular systems are far more accurate than the numerical simulations of the original systems, at the same spatial resolution and CPU time. In particular, the numerical integrations of the mapped regular systems produce robust estimates for the growth exponent and singularity time of the main blowup quantity (vorticity stretching rate), converging well to the analytically-predicted values even beyond the time at which the flow becomes under-resolved (i.e. the reliability time). In contrast, direct numerical integrations of the original systems develop unstable oscillations near the reliability time. We discuss the reasons for this improvement in accuracy, and explain how to extend the analysis to the full 3D case. Supported under the programme for Research in Third Level Institutions (PRTLI) Cycle 5 and co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund.
Pattern formation of down-built salt structures: insights from 3D numerical models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernandez, Naiara; Kaus, Boris
2015-04-01
Many salt diapirs are thought to have formed as a result of down-building, which implies that the top of the diapir remained close to the surface during sediment deposition. This process is largely three-dimensional and in order to better understand what controls the patterns that form as a result of this down-building process, we here perform three-dimensional numerical models and compare the results with analytical models. In our models, we vary several parameters such as initial salt thickness, sedimentation rate, salt viscosity, salt-sediment viscosity contrast as well as the density of sediments. Down-building of three-dimensional diapirs only occurs for a certain range of parameters and is favored by lower sediment/salt viscosity contrasts and sedimentation rates in agreement with analytical predictions and findings from previous 2D models. However, the models show that the sedimentation rate has an additional effect on the formation and evolution of three-dimensional diapir patterns. At low sedimentation rates, salt ridges that form during early model stages remain preserved at later stages as well. For higher sedimentation rates, the initial salt ridges break up and form finger-like diapirs at the junction of salt ridges, which results in different salt exposure patterns at the surface. Once the initial pattern of diapirs is formed, higher sedimentation rate can also result in covered diapirs if the diapir extrusion velocity is insufficiently large. We quantify the effect of sedimentation rate on the number of diapirs exposed at the surface as well as on their spacing. In some cases, this final pattern is distinctly different from the initial polygonal pattern. We also study the extrusion of salt through time in the simulations, and show that it can be related to the geometries of the sedimentary layers surrounding the diapirs. Acknowledgements. Funding was provided by the European Research Council under the European Community's Seventh Framework Program
Montant, S; Marre, G; Blanchot, N; Rouyer, C; Videau, L; Sauteret, C
2006-12-11
An important issue, mosaic grating compressor, is studied to recompress pulses for multiPetawatt, high energy laser systems. Alignment of the mosaic elements is crucial to control the focal spot and thus the intensity on target. No theoretical approach analyses the influence of compressor misalignment on spatial and temporal profiles in the focal plane. We describe a simple 3D numerical model giving access to the focal plane view after a compressor. This model is computationally inexpensive since it needs only 1D Fourier transforms to access to the temporal profile. We present simulations of monolithic and mosaic grating compressors. PMID:19529688
A 3-D prognostic numerical model study of the Georges Bank ecosystem. Part I: physical model1
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Changsheng; Beardsley, Robert; Franks, Peter J. S.
The influence of tidal forcing and tidal and wind mixing on circulation and stratification over Georges Bank and adjacent regions in the Gulf of Maine has been examined using the 3-D semi-implicit version of the Blumberg and Mellor (1987) primitive equation ocean-circulation model. The numerical domain covered the Gulf of Maine/Georges Bank region with an open boundary starting at the New Jersey coast and ending at the Nova Scotia coast, with increased spatial resolution over Georges Bank. Numerical experiments were conducted using both smoothed and non-smoothed high-resolution (15 s) bottom topography. The model was forced by specifying the M 2 elevation and phase on the open boundary, and several forms of the bottom roughness parameter zo were used. The model provided a reasonable simulation of the M 2 tidal elevations and currents. The model, when run as an initial value problem with early summer stratification, exhibited tidal mixing fronts around the 40-60 m isobath over Georges Bank and Nantucket Shoals, and 100-m isobath on Brown Bank. The formation of these tidal mixing fronts significantly enhanced the along-isobath tidal rectified current over Georges Bank and the other two shoal regions. A cool-water band developed within the frontal zone along the eastern and southern flanks of Georges Bank and Nantucket Shoal, and it became cooler owing to wind mixing and upwelling as a mean summer wind stress was added. Tidal mixing and turbulent dissipation varied in time asymmetrically over Georges Bank. Over Georges Bank, tidal mixing was generally characterized as a local 1-D balance between turbulent shear production and dissipation. The spatial structure of the tidal residual flow and local turbulent dissipation rate depended critically on the spatial resolution of the bottom topography and the spatial distribution of z0. Analysis of the 3-D momentum balance and the residual flow over the center of Georges Bank indicates that earlier results based on a 2-D cross
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calvisi, Michael; Manmi, Kawa; Wang, Qianxi
2014-11-01
Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) are microbubbles stabilized with a shell typically of lipid, polymer, or protein and are emerging as a unique tool for noninvasive therapies ranging from gene delivery to tumor ablation. The nonspherical dynamics of contrast agents are thought to play an important role in both diagnostic and therapeutic applications, for example, causing the emission of subharmonic frequency components and enhancing the uptake of therapeutic agents across cell membranes and tissue interfaces. A three-dimensional model for nonspherical contrast agent dynamics based on the boundary integral method is presented. The effects of the encapsulating shell are approximated by adapting Hoff's model for thin-shell, spherical contrast agents to the nonspherical case. A high-quality mesh of the bubble surface is maintained by implementing a hybrid approach of the Lagrangian method and elastic mesh technique. Numerical analyses for the dynamics of UCAs in an infinite liquid and near a rigid wall are performed in parameter regimes of clinical relevance. The results show that the presence of a coating significantly reduces the oscillation amplitude and period, increases the ultrasound pressure amplitude required to incite jetting, and reduces the jet width and velocity.
A continuous flow microfluidic calorimeter: 3-D numerical modeling with aqueous reactants
Sen, Mehmet A.; Kowalski, Gregory J.; Fiering, Jason; Larson, Dale
2015-01-01
A computational analysis of the reacting flow field, species diffusion and heat transfer processes with thermal boundary layer effects in a microchannel reactor with a coflow configuration was performed. Two parallel adjacent streams of aqueous reactants flow along a wide, shallow, enclosed channel in contact with a substrate, which is affixed to a temperature controlled plate. The Fluent computational fluid dynamics package solved the Navier–Stokes, mass transport and energy equations. The energy model, including the enthalpy of reaction as a nonuniform heat source, was validated by calculating the energy balance at several control volumes in the microchannel. Analysis reveals that the temperature is nearly uniform across the channel thickness, in the direction normal to the substrate surface; hence, measurements made by sensors at or near the surface are representative of the average temperature. Additionally, modeling the channel with a glass substrate and a silicone cover shows that heat transfer is predominantly due to the glass substrate. Finally, using the numerical results, we suggest that a microcalorimeter could be based on this configuration, and that temperature sensors such as optical nanohole array sensors could have sufficient spatial resolution to determine enthalpy of reaction. PMID:25937678
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beretta, S.; Moia, F.; Guandalini, R.; Cappelletti, F.
2012-04-01
The research activities carried out by the Environment and Sustainable Development Department of RSE S.p.A. aim to evaluate the feasibility of CO2 geological sequestration in Italy, with particular reference to the storage into saline aquifers. The identification and geological characterization of the Italian potential storage sites, together with the study of the temporal and spatial evolution of the CO2 plume within the caprock-reservoir system, are performed using different modelling tools available in the Integrated Analysis Modelling System (SIAM) entirely powered in RSE. The numerical modelling approach is the only one that allows to investigate the behaviour of the injected CO2 regarding the fluid dynamic, geochemical and geomechanical aspects and effects due to its spread, in order to verify the safety of the process. The SIAM tools allow: - Selection of potential Italian storage sites through geological and geophysical data collected in the GIS-CO2 web database; - Characterization of caprock and aquifer parameters, seismic risk and environmental link for the selected site; - Creation of the 3D simulation model for the selected domain, using the modeller METHODRdS powered by RSE and the mesh generator GMSH; - Simulation of the injection and the displacement of CO2: multiphase fluid 3D dynamics is based on the modified version of TOUGH2 model; - Evaluation of geochemical reaction effects; - Evaluation of geomechanic effects, using the coupled 3D CANT-SD finite elements code; - Detailed local analysis through the use of open source auxiliary tools, such as SHEMAT and FEHM. - 3D graphic analysis of the results. These numerical tools have been successfully used for simulating the injection and the spread of CO2 into several real Italian reservoirs and have allowed to achieve accurate results in terms of effective storage capacity and safety analysis. The 3D geological models represent the high geological complexity of the Italian subsoil, where reservoirs are
The numerical simulation for a 3D two-phase anisotropic medium based on BISQ model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhejiang; He, Qiaodeng; Wang, Deli
2008-03-01
Biot-flow and squirt-flow are the two most important fluid flow mechanisms in porous media containing fluids. Based on the BISQ (Biot-Squirt) model where the two mechanisms are treated simultaneously, the elastic wave-field simulation in the porous medium is limited to two-dimensions and two-components (2D2C) or two-dimensions and three-components (2D3C). There is no previous report on wave simulation in three-dimensions and three-components. Only through three dimensional numerical simulations can we have an overall understanding of wave field coupling relations and the spatial distribution characteristics between the solid and fluid phases in the dual-phase anisotropic medium. In this paper, based on the BISQ equation, we present elastic wave propagation in a three dimensional dual-phase anisotropic medium simulated by the staggered-grid high-order finite-difference method. We analyze the resulting wave fields and show that the results are an improvement.
Numerical simulation of 3D breaking waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fraunie, Philippe; Golay, Frederic
2015-04-01
Numerical methods dealing with two phase flows basically can be classified in two ways : the "interface tracking" methods when the two phases are resolved separately including boundary conditions fixed at the interface and the "interface capturing" methods when a single flow is considered with variable density. Physical and numerical properties of the two approaches are discussed, based on some numerical experiments performed concerning 3D breaking waves. Acknowledgements : This research was supported by the Modtercom program of Region PACA.
Malapaka, Shiva Kumar; Mueller, Wolf-Christian
2013-09-01
Statistical properties of the Sun's photospheric turbulent magnetic field, especially those of the active regions (ARs), have been studied using the line-of-sight data from magnetograms taken by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory and several other instruments. This includes structure functions and their exponents, flatness curves, and correlation functions. In these works, the dependence of structure function exponents ({zeta}{sub p}) of the order of the structure functions (p) was modeled using a non-intermittent K41 model. It is now well known that the ARs are highly turbulent and are associated with strong intermittent events. In this paper, we compare some of the observations from Abramenko et al. with the log-Poisson model used for modeling intermittent MHD turbulent flows. Next, we analyze the structure function data obtained from the direct numerical simulations (DNS) of homogeneous, incompressible 3D-MHD turbulence in three cases: sustained by forcing, freely decaying, and a flow initially driven and later allowed to decay (case 3). The respective DNS replicate the properties seen in the plots of {zeta}{sub p} against p of ARs. We also reproduce the trends and changes observed in intermittency in flatness and correlation functions of ARs. It is suggested from this analysis that an AR in the onset phase of a flare can be treated as a forced 3D-MHD turbulent system in its simplest form and that the flaring stage is representative of decaying 3D-MHD turbulence. It is also inferred that significant changes in intermittency from the initial onset phase of a flare to its final peak flaring phase are related to the time taken by the system to reach the initial onset phase.
Comparative study of 3D numerical and puff models for dense air pollutants
Chang, N.B.; Wei, Y.L.; Tseng, C.C.; Kao, C.Y.J.
1999-02-01
To prepare for a chemical emergency response program in those industrial cities that might involve a release of chemical contaminants to the atmosphere, the authors have adopted a series of source emission models and a three-dimensional atmospheric model along with its companion diffusion module for predicting the dispersion and concentrations of these hazardous chemicals with various types of release scenarios. The three-dimensional atmospheric model predicts the wind, temperature, and turbulence fields in which the physical processes associated with terrain, clouds, radiation, and surface vegetation are included. The analytical framework is designed by the fact that the diffusion module uses the estimated release rate from a source emission model and the predicted winds and turbulence conditions from the atmospheric model to compute particle trajectories, concentrations, and dosages in the area of a release. In addition, the model results have been coupled with the geographical information system, which may be used for risk assessment at the urban industrial area of south Taiwan by emergency planners.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dobreva, P. S.; Kartalev, M. D.; Borodkova, N. L.; Zastenker, G. N.
2016-07-01
This paper describes an approach to a theoretical interpretation of Interball-1 satellite measurements data in two cases of the satellite's crossings of the magnetosheath. An interpretation is made of both the measured crossings of the magnetosheath boundaries and the behavior of the registered plasma parameters. In our case, it is the value of the ion flux along the spacecraft trajectory. The magnetosheath-magnetosphere model, developed at the Institute of Mechanics, Sofia, Bulgaria, is used as a theoretical basis. It describes the interaction between the solar wind and the Earth's magnetosphere in a simplified gas-dynamic approximation. A characteristic feature of the model is that it allows for the self-consistent description of the magnetosheath boundaries - the bow shock (BS) and the magnetopause (MP). The three-dimensional picture of the magnetosheath fluid flow is also obtained as part of the solution. The magnetosheath characteristics thus obtained are in correspondence with a given momentary state of the interplanetary medium, defined on the basis of WIND satellite data (appropriately shifted by time). The results are discussed in the context of advantages and limitations of using the gas-dynamic model for the interpretation of magnetosheath plasma measurements in the near-magnetopause magnetosheath.
Role of Mechanical Cues in Cell Differentiation and Proliferation: A 3D Numerical Model
Mousavi, Seyed Jamaleddin; Hamdy Doweidar, Mohamed
2015-01-01
Cell differentiation, proliferation and migration are essential processes in tissue regeneration. Experimental evidence confirms that cell differentiation or proliferation can be regulated according to the extracellular matrix stiffness. For instance, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate to neuroblast, chondrocyte or osteoblast within matrices mimicking the stiffness of their native substrate. However, the precise mechanisms by which the substrate stiffness governs cell differentiation or proliferation are not well known. Therefore, a mechano-sensing computational model is here developed to elucidate how substrate stiffness regulates cell differentiation and/or proliferation during cell migration. In agreement with experimental observations, it is assumed that internal deformation of the cell (a mechanical signal) together with the cell maturation state directly coordinates cell differentiation and/or proliferation. Our findings indicate that MSC differentiation to neurogenic, chondrogenic or osteogenic lineage specifications occurs within soft (0.1-1 kPa), intermediate (20-25 kPa) or hard (30-45 kPa) substrates, respectively. These results are consistent with well-known experimental observations. Remarkably, when a MSC differentiate to a compatible phenotype, the average net traction force depends on the substrate stiffness in such a way that it might increase in intermediate and hard substrates but it would reduce in a soft matrix. However, in all cases the average net traction force considerably increases at the instant of cell proliferation because of cell-cell interaction. Moreover cell differentiation and proliferation accelerate with increasing substrate stiffness due to the decrease in the cell maturation time. Thus, the model provides insights to explain the hypothesis that substrate stiffness plays a key role in regulating cell fate during mechanotaxis. PMID:25933372
Magnetic fields end-face effect investigation of HTS bulk over PMG with 3D-modeling numerical method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qin, Yujie; Lu, Yiyun
2015-09-01
In this paper, the magnetic fields end-face effect of high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk over a permanent magnetic guideway (PMG) is researched with 3D-modeling numerical method. The electromagnetic behavior of the bulk is simulated using finite element method (FEM). The framework is formulated by the magnetic field vector method (H-method). A superconducting levitation system composed of one rectangular HTS bulk and one infinite long PMG is successfully investigated using the proposed method. The simulation results show that for finite geometrical HTS bulk, even the applied magnetic field is only distributed in x-y plane, the magnetic field component Hz which is along the z-axis can be observed interior the HTS bulk.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trovato, Claudio; Aochi, Hideo; De Martin, Florent
2014-05-01
Understanding the source mechanism of long-period (LP) seismic signals on volcanoes is an important key point in volcanology and for the hazard forecasting. In the last decades, moment tensor inversions have led to various descriptions of the kinematic source mechanism. These inversions suppose a relatively simple structure of the medium. However, the seismic wave propagation in a realistic 3-D volcano model should be taken into account for understanding the complicated physical processes of magma and gas behaviors at depth. We are studying Etna volcano, Italy, to understand the volcanic processes during different stages of activity. We adopt a spectral element method (SEM), a code EFISPEC3D (De Martin, BSSA, 2011), which shows a good accuracy and numerical stability in the simulations of seismic wave propagation. First we construct the geometrical model. We use a digital elevation model (DEM) to generate finite element meshes with a spacing of 50 m on the ground surface. We aim to calculate the ground motions until 3 Hz for the shallowest layer with Vs = ~500 m/s. The minimal size of the hexahedral elements is required to be around 100 m, with a total number of elements n = ~2 10 ^ 6 for the whole model. We compare different velocity structure configurations. We start with a homogeneous medium and add complexities taking in account the shallow low velocity structure. We also introduce a velocity gradient towards depth. Simulations performed in the homogeneous medium turn in approximately 20 hours for calculations parallelized on 16 CPUs. Complex velocity models should take approximately the same time of computation. We then try to simulate the ground motion from the LP sources (0.1-1.5 Hz) obtained by the inversion for the Etna volcano in 2008 (De Barros, GRL, 2009 and De Barros, JGR, 2011). Some vertical and horizontal structures can be added to reproduce injected dikes or sills respectively.
Huang, Qinghua; Lin, Yufeng
2010-01-01
Although seismic electric signal (SES) has been used for short-term prediction of earthquakes, selectivity of SES still remains as one of the mysterious features. As a case study, we made a numerical simulation based on a 3D finite element method (FEM) on the selectivity of SES observed in the case of the 2000 Izu earthquake swarm. Our numerical results indicated that the existence of conductive channel under Niijima island could explain the reported SES selectivity. PMID:20228625
Huang, Qinghua; Lin, Yufeng
2010-01-01
Although seismic electric signal (SES) has been used for short-term prediction of earthquakes, selectivity of SES still remains as one of the mysterious features. As a case study, we made a numerical simulation based on a 3D finite element method (FEM) on the selectivity of SES observed in the case of the 2000 Izu earthquake swarm. Our numerical results indicated that the existence of conductive channel under Niijima island could explain the reported SES selectivity. PMID:20228625
3D Numerical simulations of oblique subduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malatesta, C.; Gerya, T.; Scambelluri, M.; Crispini, L.; Federico, L.; Capponi, G.
2012-04-01
In the past 2D numerical studies (e.g. Gerya et al., 2002; Gorczyk et al., 2007; Malatesta et al., 2012) provided evidence that during intraoceanic subduction a serpentinite channel forms above the downgoing plate. This channel forms as a result of hydration of the mantle wedge by uprising slab-fluids. Rocks buried at high depths are finally exhumed within this buoyant low-viscosity medium. Convergence rate in these 2D models was described by a trench-normal component of velocity. Several present and past subduction zones worldwide are however driven by oblique convergence between the plates, where trench-normal motion of the subducting slab is coupled with trench-parallel displacement of the plates. Can the exhumation mechanism and the exhumation rates of high-pressure rocks be affected by the shear component of subduction? And how uprise of these rocks can vary along the plate margin? We tried to address these questions performing 3D numerical models that simulate an intraoceanic oblique subduction. The models are based on thermo-mechanical equations that are solved with finite differences method and marker-in-cell techniques combined with multigrid approach (Gerya, 2010). In most of the models a narrow oceanic basin (500 km-wide) surrounded by continental margins is depicted. The basin is floored by either layered or heterogeneous oceanic lithosphere with gabbro as discrete bodies in serpentinized peridotite and a basaltic layer on the top. A weak zone in the mantle is prescribed to control the location of subduction initiation and therefore the plate margins geometry. Finally, addition of a third dimension in the simulations allowed us to test the role of different plate margin geometries on oblique subduction dynamics. In particular in each model we modified the dip angle of the weak zone and its "lateral" geometry (e.g. continuous, segmented). We consider "continuous" weak zones either parallel or increasingly moving away from the continental margins
Numerical model of water flow and solute accumulation in vertisols using HYDRUS 2D/3D code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weiss, Tomáš; Dahan, Ofer; Turkeltub, Tuvia
2015-04-01
Keywords: dessication-crack-induced-salinization, preferential flow, conceptual model, numerical model, vadose zone, vertisols, soil water retention function, HYDRUS 2D/3D Vertisols cover a hydrologically very significant area of semi-arid regions often through which water infiltrates to groundwater aquifers. Understanding of water flow and solute accumulation is thus very relevant to agricultural activity and water resources management. Previous works suggest a conceptual model of dessication-crack-induced-salinization where salinization of sediment in the deep section of the vadose zone (up to 4 m) is induced by subsurface evaporation due to convective air flow in the dessication cracks. It suggests that the salinization is induced by the hydraulic gradient between the dry sediment in the vicinity of cracks (low potential) and the relatively wet sediment further from the main cracks (high potential). This paper presents a modified previously suggested conceptual model and a numerical model. The model uses a simple uniform flow approach but unconventionally prescribes the boundary conditions and the hydraulic parameters of soil. The numerical model is bound to one location close to a dairy farm waste lagoon, but the application of the suggested conceptual model could be possibly extended to all semi-arid regions with vertisols. Simulations were conducted using several modeling approaches with an ultimate goal of fitting the simulation results to the controlling variables measured in the field: temporal variation in water content across thick layer of unsaturated clay sediment (>10 m), sediment salinity and salinity the water draining down the vadose zone to the water table. The development of the model was engineered in several steps; all computed as forward solutions by try-and-error approach. The model suggests very deep instant infiltration of fresh water up to 12 m, which is also supported by the field data. The paper suggests prescribing a special atmospheric
3D Faulting Numerical Model Related To 2009 L'Aquila Earthquake Based On DInSAR Observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castaldo, Raffaele; Tizzani, Pietro; Solaro, Giuseppe; Pepe, Susi; Lanari, Riccardo
2014-05-01
We investigate the surface displacements in the area affected by the April 6, 2009 L'Aquila earthquake (Central Italy) through an advanced 3D numerical modeling approach, by exploiting DInSAR deformation velocity maps based on ENVISAT (Ascending and Descending orbits) and COSMO-SkyMed data (Ascending orbit). We benefited from the available geological and geophysical information to investigate the impact of known buried structures on the modulation of the observed ground deformation field; in this context we implemented the a priori information in a Finite Element (FE) Environment considering a structural mechanical physical approach. The performed analysis demonstrate that the displacement pattern associated with the Mw 6.3 main-shock event is consistent with the activation of several fault segments of the Paganica fault. In particular, we analyzed the seismic events in a structural mechanical context under the plane stress mode approximation to solve for the retrieved displacements. We defined the sub-domain setting of the 3D FEM model using the information derived from the CROOP M-15 seismic line. We assumed stationarity and linear elasticity of the involved materials by considering a solution of classical equilibrium mechanical equations. We evolved our model through two stages: the model compacted under the weight of the rock successions (gravity loading) until it reached a stable equilibrium. At the second stage (co-seismic), where the stresses were released through a slip along the faults, by using an optimization procedure we retrieved: (i) the active seismogenic structures responsible for the observed ground deformation, (ii) the effects of the different mechanical constraints on the ground deformation pattern and (iii) the spatial distribution of the retrieved stress field. We evaluated the boundary setting best fit configuration responsible for the observed ground deformation. To this aim, we first generated several forward structural mechanical models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartzke, Gerhard; Kuhlmann, Jannis; Huhn, Katrin
2016-04-01
The entrainment of single grains and, hence, their erosion characteristics are dependent on fluid forcing, grain size and density, but also shape variations. To quantitatively describe and capture the hydrodynamic conditions around individual grains, researchers commonly use empirical approaches such as laboratory flume tanks. Nonetheless, it is difficult with such physical experiments to measure the flow velocities in the direct vicinity or within the pore spaces of sediments, at a sufficient resolution and in a non-invasive way. As a result, the hydrodynamic conditions in the water column, at the fluid-porous interface and within pore spaces of a granular medium of various grain shapes is not yet fully understood. For that reason, there is a strong need for numerical models, since these are capable of quantifying fluid speeds within a granular medium. A 3D-SPH (Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics) numerical wave tank model was set up to provide quantitative evidence on the flow velocities in the direct vicinity and in the interior of granular beds composed of two shapes as a complementary method to the difficult task of in situ measurement. On the basis of previous successful numerical wave tank models with SPH, the model geometry was chosen in dimensions of X=2.68 [m], Y=0.48 [m], and Z=0.8 [m]. Three suites of experiments were designed with a range of particle shape models: (1) ellipsoids with the long axis oriented in the across-stream direction, (2) ellipsoids with the long axis oriented in the along-stream direction, and (3) spheres. Particle diameters ranged from 0.04 [m] to 0.08 [m]. A wave was introduced by a vertical paddle that accelerated to 0.8 [m/s] perpendicular to the granular bed. Flow measurements showed that the flow velocity values into the beds were highest when the grains were oriented across the stream direction and lowest in case when the grains were oriented parallel to the stream, indicating that the model was capable to simulate simultaneously
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gac, Sébastien; Dyment, Jérôme; Tisseau, Chantal; Goslin, Jean
2003-09-01
The axial magnetic anomaly amplitude along Mid-Atlantic Ridge segments is systematically twice as high at segment ends compared with segment centres. Various processes have been proposed to account for such observations, either directly or indirectly related to the thermal structure of the segments: (1) shallower Curie isotherm at segment centres, (2) higher Fe-Ti content at segment ends, (3) serpentinized peridotites at segment ends or (4) a combination of these processes. In this paper the contribution of each of these processes to the axial magnetic anomaly amplitude is quantitatively evaluated by achieving a 3-D numerical modelling of the magnetization distribution and a magnetic anomaly over a medium-sized, 50 km long segment. The magnetization distribution depends on the thermal structure and thermal evolution of the lithosphere. The thermal structure is calculated considering the presence of a permanent hot zone beneath the segment centre. The `best-fitting' thermal structure is determined by adjusting the parameters (shape, size, depth, etc.) of this hot zone, to fit the modelled geophysical outputs (Mantle Bouguer anomaly, maximum earthquake depths and crustal thickness) to the observations. Both the thermoremanent magnetization, acquired during the thermal evolution, and the induced magnetization, which depends on the present thermal structure, are modelled. The resulting magnetic anomalies are then computed and compared with the observed ones. This modelling exercise suggests that, in the case of aligned and slightly offset segments, a combination of higher Fe-Ti content and the presence of serpentinized peridotites at segment ends will produce the observed higher axial magnetic anomaly amplitudes over the segment ends. In the case of greater offsets, the presence of serpentinized peridotites at segment ends is sufficient to account for the observations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bagaiev, Andrii; Ivanov, Vitaliy
2014-05-01
The Black Sea north-western shelf plays a key role in economics of the developing countries such as Ukraine due to food supply, invaluable recreational potential and variety of the relevant maritime shipping routes. On the other hand, a shallow flat shelf is mostly affected by anthropogenic pollution, eutrophication, hypoxia and harmful algae blooms. The research is focused on modeling the transport and transformation of PCBs (PolyChlorinated Biphenyls) because they are exceedingly toxic and highly resistant to degradation, hence cumulatively affect marine ecosystems. Being lipophilic compounds, PCBs demonstrate the distinguishing sorption/desorption activity taking part in the biogeochemical fluxes via the organic matter particles and sediments. In the framework of the research, the coastal in-situ data on PCB concentration in the water column and sediments are processed, visualized and analyzed. It is concluded that the main sources of PCBs are related to the Danube discharge and resuspension from the shallow-water sediments. Developed 3D numerical model is aimed at simulation of PCB contamination of the water column and sediment. The model integrates the full physics hydrodynamic block as well as modules, which describe detritus transport and transformation and PCB dynamics. Three state variables are simulated in PCB transport module: concentration in solute, on the settling particles of detritus and in the top layer of sediments. PCB adsorption/desorption on detritus; the reversible PCB fluxes at the water-sediment boundary; destruction of detritus are taken into consideration. Formalization of PCB deposition/resuspension in the sediments is adapted from Van Rijn's model of the suspended sediment transport. The model was spun up to reconstruct the short term scenario of the instantaneous PCB release from the St. George Arm of Danube. It has been shown that PCB transport on sinking detritus represents the natural buffer mechanism damping the spreading PCB
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reiter, Karsten; Hergert, Tobias; Heidbach, Oliver
2016-04-01
The in situ stress conditions are of key importance for the evaluation of radioactive waste repositories. In stage two of the Swiss site selection program, the three siting areas of high-level radioactive waste are located in the Alpine foreland in northern Switzerland. The sedimentary succession overlays the basement, consisting of variscan crystalline rocks as well as partly preserved Permo-Carboniferous deposits in graben structures. The Mesozoic sequence represents nearly the complete era and is covered by Cenozoic Molasse deposits as well as Quaternary sediments, mainly in the valleys. The target horizon (designated host rock) is an >100 m thick argillaceous Jurassic deposit (Opalinus Clay). To enlighten the impact of site-specific features on the state of stress within the sedimentary succession, 3-D-geomechanical-numerical models with elasto-plastic rock properties are set up for three potential siting areas. The lateral extent of the models ranges between 12 and 20 km, the vertical extent is up to a depth of 2.5 or 5 km below sea level. The sedimentary sequence plus the basement are separated into 10 to 14 rock mechanical units. The Mesozoic succession is intersected by regional fault zones; two or three of them are present in each model. The numerical problem is solved with the finite element method with a resolution of 100-150 m laterally and 10-30 m vertically. An initial stress state is established for all models taking into account the depth-dependent overconsolidation ratio in Opalinus Clay in northern Switzerland. The influence of topography, rock properties, friction on the faults as well as the impact of tectonic shortening on the state of stress is investigated. The tectonic stress is implemented with lateral displacement boundary conditions, calibrated on stress data that are compiled in Northern Switzerland. The model results indicate that the stress perturbation by the topography is significant to depths greater than the relief contrast. The
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castaldo, Raffaele; De Novellis, Vincenzo; Lollino, Piernicola; Manunta, Michele; Tizzani, Pietro
2015-04-01
The new challenge that the research in slopes instabilities phenomena is going to tackle is the effective integration and joint exploitation of remote sensing measurements with in situ data and observations to study and understand the sub-surface interactions, the triggering causes, and, in general, the long term behaviour of the investigated landslide phenomenon. In this context, a very promising approach is represented by Finite Element (FE) techniques, which allow us to consider the intrinsic complexity of the mass movement phenomena and to effectively benefit from multi source observations and data. In this context, we perform a three dimensional (3D) numerical model of the Ivancich (Assisi, Central Italy) instability phenomenon. In particular, we apply an inverse FE method based on a Genetic Algorithm optimization procedure, benefitting from advanced DInSAR measurements, retrieved through the full resolution Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) technique, and an inclinometric array distribution. To this purpose we consider the SAR images acquired from descending orbit by the COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) X-band radar constellation, from December 2009 to February 2012. Moreover the optimization input dataset is completed by an array of eleven inclinometer measurements, from 1999 to 2006, distributed along the unstable mass. The landslide body is formed of debris material sliding on a arenaceous marl substratum, with a thin shear band detected using borehole and inclinometric data, at depth ranging from 20 to 60 m. Specifically, we consider the active role of this shear band in the control of the landslide evolution process. A large field monitoring dataset of the landslide process, including at-depth piezometric and geological borehole observations, were available. The integration of these datasets allows us to develop a 3D structural geological model of the considered slope. To investigate the dynamic evolution of a landslide, various physical approaches can be considered
Shen, Yanhong; Gao, Tao; Tian, Xiaofeng; Chen, Xiaojun; Xiao, ChengJian; Lu, Tiecheng
2015-01-01
The three-dimensional (3D) nanocrystalline models of lithium silicates with the log-normal grain size distribution are constructed by constrained Voronoi tessellation. During evolution process, the algorithm is improved. We proposed a new algorithm idea by combining Genetic Algorithm (GA) with Least Square (LS) method to make up for the disadvantages of traditional genetic algorithm which may be easily trapped in local optimal solution. In the process of modeling, it is the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that we keep the whole sample showing the charge neutrality by deleting the excess atoms on the polyhedron boundary during the modeling. By using the molecular-dynamics method, the relaxation procedure of nanostructured Li4SiO4 is carried out. The results show that the average mass density of the sample is slightly lower than the experimental data of the perfect crystal after relaxation process. In addition, boundary component proportion (BCP) and density reduction proportion (DRP) of the sample is obtained, respectively. The present results display a significantly reduced BCP but an increased DRP when increasing the mean grain size of the sample. PMID:26031562
Shen, Yanhong; Gao, Tao; Tian, Xiaofeng; Chen, Xiaojun; Xiao, ChengJian; Lu, Tiecheng
2015-01-01
The three-dimensional (3D) nanocrystalline models of lithium silicates with the log-normal grain size distribution are constructed by constrained Voronoi tessellation. During evolution process, the algorithm is improved. We proposed a new algorithm idea by combining Genetic Algorithm (GA) with Least Square (LS) method to make up for the disadvantages of traditional genetic algorithm which may be easily trapped in local optimal solution. In the process of modeling, it is the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that we keep the whole sample showing the charge neutrality by deleting the excess atoms on the polyhedron boundary during the modeling. By using the molecular-dynamics method, the relaxation procedure of nanostructured Li4SiO4 is carried out. The results show that the average mass density of the sample is slightly lower than the experimental data of the perfect crystal after relaxation process. In addition, boundary component proportion (BCP) and density reduction proportion (DRP) of the sample is obtained, respectively. The present results display a significantly reduced BCP but an increased DRP when increasing the mean grain size of the sample. PMID:26031562
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshida, M.; Tajima, F.
2012-04-01
Water content in the mantle transition zone (MTZ) has been broadly debated in the Earth science community as a key issue for plate dynamics [e.g., Bercovici and Karato, 2003]. In this study, a systematic series of three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulation are performed in an attempt to verify two hypotheses for plate subduction with effects of deep water transport: (1) the small-scale behavior of subducted oceanic plate in the MTZ; and (2) the role of subducted crust in the MTZ. These hypotheses are postulated based on the seismic observations characterized by large-scale flattened high velocity anomalies (i.e., stagnant slabs) in the MTZ and discontinuity depth variations. The proposed model states that under wet conditions the subducted plate main body of peridotite (olivine rich) is abutted by subducted crustal materials (majorite rich) at the base of the MTZ. The computational domain of mantle convection is confined to 3D regional spherical-shell geometry with a thickness of 1000 km and a lateral extent of 10° × 30° in the latitudinal and longitudinal directions. A semi-dynamic model of subduction zone [Morishige et al., 2010] is applied to let the highly viscous, cold oceanic plate subduct. Weak (low-viscosity) fault zones (WFZs), which presumably correspond to the fault boundaries of large subduction earthquakes, are imposed on the top part of subducting plates. The phase transitions of olivine to wadsleyite and ringwoodite to perovskite+magnesiowüstite with Clapeyron slopes under both "dry" and "wet" conditions are considered based on recent high pressure experiments [e.g., Ohtani and Litasov, 2006]. Another recent experiment provides new evidence for lower-viscosity (weaker strength) of garnet-rich zones than the olivine dominant mantle under wet conditions [Katayama and Karato, 2008]. According to this, the effect of viscosity reduction of oceanic crust is considered under wet condition in the MTZ. Results show that there is a substantial difference
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scalapino, D. J.; Sugar, R. L.; White, S. R.; Bickers, N. E.; Scalettar, R. T.
1989-01-01
Numerical simulations on the half-filled three-dimensional Hubbard model clearly show the onset of Neel order. Simulations of the two-dimensional electron-phonon Holstein model show the competition between the formation of a Peierls-CDW state and a superconducting state. However, the behavior of the partly filled two-dimensional Hubbard model is more difficult to determine. At half-filling, the antiferromagnetic correlations grow as T is reduced. Doping away from half-filling suppresses these correlations, and it is found that there is a weak attractive pairing interaction in the d-wave channel. However, the strength of the pair field susceptibility is weak at the temperatures and lattice sizes that have been simulated, and the nature of the low-temperature state of the nearly half-filled Hubbard model remains open.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zanini, A.; Tanda, M.
2007-12-01
The groundwater in Italy plays an important role as drinking water; in fact it covers about the 30% of the national demand (70% in Northern Italy). The mineral water distribution in Italy is an important business with an increasing demand from abroad countries. The mineral water Companies have a great interest in order to increase the water extraction, but for the delicate and complex geology of the subsoil, where such very high quality waters are contained, a particular attention must be paid in order to avoid an excessive lowering of the groundwater reservoirs or great changes in the groundwater flow directions. A big water Company asked our University to set up a numerical model of the groundwater basin, in order to obtain a useful tool which allows to evaluate the strength of the aquifer and to design new extraction wells. The study area is located along Appennini Mountains and it covers a surface of about 18 km2; the topography ranges from 200 to 600 m a.s.l.. In ancient times only a spring with naturally sparkling water was known in the area, but at present the mineral water is extracted from deep pumping wells. The area is characterized by a very complex geology: the subsoil structure is described by a sequence of layers of silt-clay, marl-clay, travertine and alluvial deposit. Different groundwater layers are present and the one with best quality flows in the travertine layer; the natural flow rate seems to be not subjected to seasonal variations. The water age analysis revealed a very old water which means that the mineral aquifers are not directly connected with the meteoric recharge. The Geologists of the Company suggest that the water supply of the mineral aquifers comes from a carbonated unit located in the deep layers of the mountains bordering the spring area. The valley is crossed by a river that does not present connections to the mineral aquifers. Inside the area there are about 30 pumping wells that extract water at different depths. We built a 3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartzke, Gerhard; Rogers, Benedict D.; Fourtakas, Georgios; Mokos, Athanasios; Huhn, Katrin
2016-04-01
The processes that cause the creation of a variety of sediment morphological features, e.g. laminated beds, ripples, or dunes, are based on the initial motion of individual sediment grains. However, with experimental techniques it is difficult to measure the flow characteristics, i.e., the velocity of the pore water flow in sediments, at a sufficient resolution and in a non-intrusive way. As a result, the role of fluid infiltration at the surface and in the interior affecting the initiation of motion of a sediment bed is not yet fully understood. Consequently, there is a strong need for numerical models, since these are capable of quantifying fluid driven sediment transport processes of complex sediment beds composed of irregular shapes. The numerical method Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) satisfies this need. As a meshless and Lagrangian technique, SPH is ideally suited to simulating flows in sediment beds composed of various grain shapes, but also flow around single grains at a high temporal and spatial resolution. The solver chosen is DualSPHysics (www.dual.sphysics.org) since this is validated for a range of flow conditions. For the present investigation a 3-D numerical flume model was generated using SPH with a length of 4.0 cm, a width of 0.05 cm and a height of 0.2 cm where mobile sediment particles were deposited in a recess. An experimental setup was designed to test sediment configurations composed of irregular grain shapes (grain diameter, D50=1000 μm). Each bed consisted of 3500 mobile objects. After the bed generation process, the entire domain was flooded with 18 million fluid particles. To drive the flow, an oscillating motion perpendicular to the bed was applied to the fluid, reaching a peak value of 0.3 cm/s, simulating 4 seconds of real time. The model results showed that flow speeds decreased logarithmically from the top of the domain towards the surface of the beds, indicating a fully developed boundary layer. Analysis of the fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Apuani, T.; Merri, A.
2009-04-01
A stress-strain analysis of the Stromboli volcano was performed using a three-dimensional explicit finite difference numerical code (FLAC 3D, ITASCA, 2005), to evaluate the effects associated to the presence of magma pressure in magmatic conduit and to foresee the evolution of the magmatic feeding complex. The simulations considered both the ordinary state for the Stromboli, characterized by a partial fill of the active dyke with regular emission of gas and lava fountains and the paroxysmal conditions observed during the March 2007's eruptive crisis, with the magma level in the active dyke reaching the topographic surface along the Sciara del Fuoco depression. The modeling contributes to identify the most probable directions of propagation of new dikes, and the effects of their propagation on the stability of the volcano edifice. The numerical model extends 6 x 6 x 2.6 km3, with a mesh resolution of 100 m, adjusting the grid to fit the shape of the object to be modeled. An elasto-plastic constitutive law was adopted and an homogeneous Mohr-Coulomb strength criterion was chosen for the volcanic cone, assuming one lithotechnical unit (alternation of lava and breccia layers "lava-breccia unit"- Apuani et al 2005). The dykes are represented as discontinuities of the grid, and are modeled by means of interfaces. The magmatic pressure is imposed to the model as normal pressure applied on both sides of the interfaces. The magmastatic pressure was calculated as Pm=d•h, where d is the magma unit weight assumed equal to 25 KN/m3, and h (m) is the height of the magma column. Values of overpressure between 0 and 1 MPa were added to simulate the paroxysmal eruption. The simulation was implemented in successive stages, assuming the results of the previous stages as condition for the next one. A progressive propagation of the dike was simulated, in accordance with the stress conditions identified step by step, and in accordance with the evidences detected by in situ survey, and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gnesin, V. I.; Kolodyazhnaya, L. V.; Rzadkowski, R.
2005-09-01
In this study presented the algorithm proposed involves the coupled solution of 3-D unsteady flow through a turbine stage and the dynamics problem for rotor-blade motion by the action of aerodynamic forces, without separating the outer and inner flow fluctuations. The partially integrated method involves the solution of the fluid and structural equations separately, but information is exchanged at each time step, so that solution from one domain is used as a boundary condition for the other domain. 3-D transonic gas flow through the stator and rotor blades in relative motion with periodicity on the whole annulus is described by the unsteady Euler conservation equations, which are integrated using the explicit monotonous finite-volume difference scheme of Godunov-Kolgan. The structural analysis uses the modal approach and a 3-D finite element model of a blade. A calculation has been done for the last stage of the steam turbine, under design and off-design regimes. It is shown that the amplitude-frequency spectrum of blade oscillations contains the high frequency harmonics, corresponding to the rotor moving past one stator blade pitch, and low frequency harmonics caused by blade oscillations and flow nonuniformity downstream from the blade row; moreover, the spectrum involves the harmonics which are not multiples of the rotation frequency.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koptev, Alexander; Burov, Evgueni; Gerya, Taras
2015-04-01
We implement fully-coupled high resolution 3D thermo-mechanical numerical models to investigate the impact of the laterally heterogeneous structure and rheological stratification of the continental lithosphere on the plume-activated rifting and continental break-up processes in presence of preexisting far-field tectonic stresses. In our experiments, the "plumes" represent short-lived diapiric upwellings that have no continuous feeding from the depth. Such upwellings may be associated with "true" plumes but also with various instabilities in the convective mantle. The models demonstrate that the prerequisite of strongly anisotropic strain localization during plume-lithosphere interaction (linear rift structures instead of axisymmetric radial faulting) refers to simultaneous presence of a mantle upwelling and of (even extremely weak) directional stress field produced by far-field tectonic forces (i.e. ultra-slow far field extension at < 3 mm/y). Although in all experiments the new-formed spreading centers have similar orientations perpendicular to the direction of the main far-field axis, the models with homogeneous lithosphere show that their number and spatial location is different for various extension rates and thermo-rheological structures of the lithosphere: relatively slow extension (3 mm/year) and colder isotherm (600-700°C at Moho depth) at the crustal bottom lead to the development of single rifts, whereas "faster" external velocities (6 mm/year) and "hotter" crustal geotherm (800°C at Moho depth) result in dual (sometimes asymmetric) rift evolution. On the contrary, the models with heterogeneous lithosphere (thick cratonic block with cold and thick depleted mantle embedded into «normal» lithosphere) and the plume centered below the craton, systematically show similar behaviors: two symmetrical and coeval rifting zones embrace the cratonic micro-plate along its long sides. The experiments where the initial plume position has been laterally shifted with
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
LeVeque, R. J.; Motley, M. R.
2015-12-01
A series of tsunami wave basin experiments of flow through a scale model of Seaside, Oregon have been used as validation data for a 2015 benchmarking workshop hosted by the National Tsunami Mitigation Program, which focused on better understanding the ability of tsunami models to predict flow velocities and inundation depths following a coastal inundation event. As researchers begin to assess the safety of coastal infrastructures, proper assessment of tsunami-induced forces on coastal structures is critical. Hydrodynamic forces on these structures are fundamentally proportional to the local momentum flux of the fluid, and experimental data included momentum flux measurements at many instrumented gauge locations. The GeoClaw tsunami model, which solves the two-dimensional shallow water equations, was compared against other codes during the benchmarking workshop, and more recently a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model using the open-source OpenFOAM software has been developed and results from this model are being compared with both the experimental data and the 2D GeoClaw results. In addition, the 3D model allows for computation of fluid forces on the faces of structures, permitting an investigation of the common use of momentum flux as a proxy for these forces. This work aims to assess the potential to apply these momentum flux predictions locally within the model to determine tsunami-induced forces on critical structures. Difficulties in working with these data sets and cross-model comparisons will be discussed. Ultimately, application of the more computationally efficient GeoClaw model, informed by the 3D OpenFOAM models, to predict forces on structures at the community scale can be expected to improve the safety and resilience of coastal communities.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Manos, Harry
2016-01-01
Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huber, E.; Huggenberger, P.
2012-12-01
Accurate predictions on groundwater flow and transport behavior within fluvial and glaciofluvial sediments, but also interaction with surface water bodies, rely on knowledge of distributed aquifer properties. The complexity of the depositional and erosional processes in fluvial systems leads to highly heterogeneous distributions of hydrogeological parameters. The system dynamics, such as aggradation rates and channel mobility of alluvial systems; its influence on the preservation potential of the key depositional elements in the geological record; and its influence on the heterogeneity scales and the relevance for groundwater hydraulics is topic of the presentation. The aims of our work are to find a relation between surface morphological structures and the sedimentary structures in vertical profiles (i.e. gravel pits or GPR sections) and to derive rules for the interpretation of horizontal time-slices from 3D GPR data. Based on these data we set-up conceptual models of the structures of coarse alluvial systems at different scales which can be tested by stochastic methods. Relevant depositional elements and a hierarchy or genetic relationship of such elements will be defined based on the knowledge of depositional processes in alluvial systems inferred from: field observations after major flood events; 2D and 3D GPR data; and from existing data derived from laboratory flumes. Extensive geophysical field experiments within the Tagliamento alluvial system gave new insights to the sedimentary structures developing at high flows. Owing to the fact that rivers often destroy at least part of their bed during or shortly after large floods and subsequently rebuild, it is not easy to establish a simple relationship between surface morphology and the sedimentary structures found in vertical sections of many alluvial outcrops. According to these findings we suppose that surface or near-surface structures will not catch the essence of heterogeneity of alluvial aquifers
Kao, C.Y.J.; Ni-Bin Chang
1996-12-31
A three dimensional, time dependent, numerical model is developed for the simulation of vapor cloud of chemical substance being accidentally released in urban environment. Such a modeling technique as it would apply to chemical emergency response situation in the urban environment is considerably important due to the behavior of heavy gas diffusion and dispersion. Within the scope of this study, the distribution of chemicals being released is estimated based on the kernel density estimator along with a three-dimension wind field model in which the horizontal momentum equations, turbulence kinetic energy equation, and a set of conservation equations are integrated together. By utilizing the capability of numerical analysis, the solution of such a hydrodynamic model can be found to constitute the analytical framework in the process of pollutant transport and even transformation. Such a result is required for both short-term and long-term risk analyses in urban environment.
Numerical study on 3D composite morphing actuators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oishi, Kazuma; Saito, Makoto; Anandan, Nishita; Kadooka, Kevin; Taya, Minoru
2015-04-01
There are a number of actuators using the deformation of electroactive polymer (EAP), where fewer papers seem to have focused on the performance of 3D morphing actuators based on the analytical approach, due mainly to their complexity. The present paper introduces a numerical analysis approach on the large scale deformation and motion of a 3D half dome shaped actuator composed of thin soft membrane (passive material) and EAP strip actuators (EAP active coupon with electrodes on both surfaces), where the locations of the active EAP strips is a key parameter. Simulia/Abaqus Static and Implicit analysis code, whose main feature is the high precision contact analysis capability among structures, are used focusing on the whole process of the membrane to touch and wrap around the object. The unidirectional properties of the EAP coupon actuator are used as input data set for the material properties for the simulation and the verification of our numerical model, where the verification is made as compared to the existing 2D solution. The numerical results can demonstrate the whole deformation process of the membrane to wrap around not only smooth shaped objects like a sphere or an egg, but also irregularly shaped objects. A parametric study reveals the proper placement of the EAP coupon actuators, with the modification of the dome shape to induce the relevant large scale deformation. The numerical simulation for the 3D soft actuators shown in this paper could be applied to a wider range of soft 3D morphing actuators.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haji Mohammadi, M.; Kang, S.; Sotiropoulos, F.
2011-12-01
It is well-known that meander bends impose local losses of energy to the flow in rivers. These local losses should be added together with friction loss to get the total loss of energy. In this work, we strive to develop a framework that considers the effect of bends in meandering rivers for one-dimensional (1-D) homogenous equations of flow. Our objective is to develop a simple, yet physically sound, and efficient model for carrying out engineering computations of flow through meander bends. We consider several approaches for calculating 1-D hydraulic properties of meandering rivers such as friction factor and Manning coefficient. The method of Kasper et al. (2005), which is based on channel top width, aspect ratio and radius of curvature, is adopted for further calculations. In this method, a correction is implemented in terms of local energy loss, due to helical motion and secondary currents of fluid particles driven by centrifugal force, in meanders. To validate the model, several test cases are simulated and the computed results are compared with the reported data in the literature in terms of water surface elevation, shear velocity, etc. For all cases the computed results are in reasonable agreement with the experimental data. 3-D RANS turbulent flow simulations are also carried out, using the method of Kang et al. (Adv. In Water Res., vol. 34, 2011), for different geometrical parameters of Kinoshita Rivers to determine the spatial distribution of shear stress on river bed and banks, which is the key factor in scour/deposition patterns. The 3-D solutions are then cross-sectionally averaged and compared with the respective solutions from the 1-D model. The comparisons show that the improved 1D model, which incorporates the effect of local bend loss, captures key flow parameters with reasonable accuracy. Our results also underscore the range of validity and limitations of 1D models for meander bend simulations. This work was supported by NSF Grants (as part of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rühaak, W.; Bär, K.; Sass, I.
2012-04-01
Based on a 3D structural GOCAD model of the German federal state Hessen the subsurface temperature distribution is computed. Since subsurface temperature data for greater depth are typically sparse, two different approaches for estimating the spatial subsurface temperature distribution are tested. One approach is the numerical computation of a 3D purely conductive steady state temperature distribution. This numerical model is based on measured thermal conductivity data for all relevant geological units, together with heat flow measurements and surface temperatures. The model is calibrated using continuous temperature-logs. Here only conductive heat transfer is considered as data for convective heat transport at great depth are currently not available. The other approach is by 3D ordinary Kriging; applying a modified approach where the quality of the temperature measurements is taken into account. A difficult but important part here is to derive good variograms for the horizontal and vertical direction. The variograms give necessary information about the spatial dependence. Both approaches are compared and discussed. Differences are mainly related due to convective processes, which are reflected by the interpolation result, but not by the numerical model. Therefore, a comparison of the two results is a good way to obtain information about flow processes in such great depth. This way an improved understanding of this mid enthalpy geothermal reservoir (1000 - 6000 m) is possible. Future work will be the reduction of the small but - especially for depth up to approximately 1000 m - relevant paleoclimate signal.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Jianfeng; Kaus, Boris
2016-04-01
The mechanism of intraplate deformation remains incompletely understood by plate tectonics theory. The India-Asia collision zone is the largest present-day example of continental collision, which makes it an ideal location to study the processes of continental deformation. Existing models of lithospheric deformation are typically quasi two-dimensional and often assume that the lithosphere is a thin viscous sheet, which deforms homogeneously as a result of the collision, or flows above a partially molten lower crust, which explains the exhumation of Himalayan units and lateral spreading of Tibetan plateau. An opposing view is that most deformation localize in shear zones separating less deformed blocks, requiring the lithosphere to have an elasto-plastic rather than a viscous rheology. In order to distinguish which model best fits the observations we develop a 3-D visco-elasto-plastic model, which can model both distributed and highly localized deformation. In our preliminary result, most of the large-scale strike-slips faults including Altyn-Tagh fault, Xianshuihe fault, Red-River fault, Sagaing fault and Jiali fault can be simulated. The topography is consistent with observations that flat plateau in central Tibet and steep, abrupt margins adjacent to Sichuan basin, and gradual topography in southeast Tibet. These models suggest that the localized large-scale strike-slip faults accommodate the continental deformation. These results show the importance of a weak lower crust and topographic effects, as well as the effect of rheology and temperature structure of the lithosphere on the deformation patterns.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morrow, T. A.; Mittelstaedt, E. L.; Olive, J. A. L.
2015-12-01
Observations along oceanic fracture zones suggest that some mid-ocean ridge transform faults (TFs) previously split into multiple strike-slip segments separated by short (<~50 km) intra-transform spreading centers and then reunited to a single TF trace. This history of segmentation appears to correspond with changes in plate motion direction. Despite the clear evidence of TF segmentation, the processes governing its development and evolution are not well characterized. Here we use a 3-D, finite-difference / marker-in-cell technique to model the evolution of localized strain at a TF subjected to a sudden change in plate motion direction. We simulate the oceanic lithosphere and underlying asthenosphere at a ridge-transform-ridge setting using a visco-elastic-plastic rheology with a history-dependent plastic weakening law and a temperature- and stress-dependent mantle viscosity. To simulate the development of topography, a low density, low viscosity 'sticky air' layer is present above the oceanic lithosphere. The initial thermal gradient follows a half-space cooling solution with an offset across the TF. We impose an enhanced thermal diffusivity in the uppermost 6 km of lithosphere to simulate the effects of hydrothermal circulation. An initial weak seed in the lithosphere helps localize shear deformation between the two offset ridge axes to form a TF. For each model case, the simulation is run initially with TF-parallel plate motion until the thermal structure reaches a steady state. The direction of plate motion is then rotated either instantaneously or over a specified time period, placing the TF in a state of trans-tension. Model runs continue until the system reaches a new steady state. Parameters varied here include: initial TF length, spreading rate, and the rotation rate and magnitude of spreading obliquity. We compare our model predictions to structural observations at existing TFs and records of TF segmentation preserved in oceanic fracture zones.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Menant, Armel; Sternai, Pietro; Jolivet, Laurent; Guillou-Frottier, Laurent; Gerya, Taras
2016-05-01
Interactions between subduction dynamics and magma genesis have been intensely investigated, resulting in several conceptual models derived from geological, geochemical and geophysical data. To provide physico-chemical constraints on these conceptual models, self-consistent numerical simulations containing testable thermo-mechanical parameters are required, especially considering the three-dimensional (3D) natural complexity of subduction systems. Here, we use a 3D high-resolution petrological and thermo-mechanical numerical model to quantify the relative contribution of oceanic and continental subduction/collision, slab roll-back and tearing to magma genesis and transport processes. Our modeling results suggest that the space and time distribution and composition of magmas in the overriding plate is controlled by the 3D slab dynamics and related asthenospheric flow. Moreover, the decrease of the bulk lithospheric strength induced by mantle- and crust-derived magmas promotes the propagation of strike-slip and extensional fault zones through the overriding crust as response to slab roll-back and continental collision. Reduction of the lithosphere/asthenosphere rheological contrast by lithospheric weakening also favors the transmission of velocities from the flowing mantle to the crust. Similarities between our modeling results and the late Cenozoic tectonic and magmatic evolution across the eastern Mediterranean region suggest an efficient control of mantle flow on the magmatic activity in this region, which in turn promotes lithospheric deformation by mantle drag via melt-induced weakening effects.
Rodrigues, Dario B.; Maccarini, Paolo F.; Salahi, Sara; Colebeck, Erin; Topsakal, Erdem; Pereira, Pedro J. S.; Limão-Vieira, Paulo; Stauffer, Paul R.
2013-01-01
Background Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in whole body metabolism and could potentially mediate weight gain and insulin sensitivity. Although some imaging techniques allow BAT detection, there are currently no viable methods for continuous acquisition of BAT energy expenditure. We present a non-invasive technique for long term monitoring of BAT metabolism using microwave radiometry. Methods A multilayer 3D computational model was created in HFSS™ with 1.5 mm skin, 3–10 mm subcutaneous fat, 200 mm muscle and a BAT region (2–6 cm3) located between fat and muscle. Based on this model, a log-spiral antenna was designed and optimized to maximize reception of thermal emissions from the target (BAT). The power absorption patterns calculated in HFSS™ were combined with simulated thermal distributions computed in COMSOL® to predict radiometric signal measured from an ultra-low-noise microwave radiometer. The power received by the antenna was characterized as a function of different levels of BAT metabolism under cold and noradrenergic stimulation. Results The optimized frequency band was 1.5–2.2 GHz, with averaged antenna efficiency of 19%. The simulated power received by the radiometric antenna increased 2–9 mdBm (noradrenergic stimulus) and 4–15 mdBm (cold stimulus) corresponding to increased 15-fold BAT metabolism. Conclusions Results demonstrated the ability to detect thermal radiation from small volumes (2–6 cm3) of BAT located up to 12 mm deep and to monitor small changes (0.5 °C) in BAT metabolism. As such, the developed miniature radiometric antenna sensor appears suitable for non-invasive long term monitoring of BAT metabolism. PMID:24244831
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodrigues, Dario B.; Maccarini, Paolo F.; Salahi, Sara; Colebeck, Erin; Topsakal, Erdem; Pereira, Pedro J. S.; Limão-Vieira, Paulo; Stauffer, Paul R.
2013-02-01
Background: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in whole body metabolism and could potentially mediate weight gain and insulin sensitivity. Although some imaging techniques allow BAT detection, there are currently no viable methods for continuous acquisition of BAT energy expenditure. We present a non-invasive technique for long term monitoring of BAT metabolism using microwave radiometry. Methods: A multilayer 3D computational model was created in HFSSTM with 1.5 mm skin, 3-10 mm subcutaneous fat, 200 mm muscle and a BAT region (2-6 cm3) located between fat and muscle. Based on this model, a log-spiral antenna was designed and optimized to maximize reception of thermal emissions from the target (BAT). The power absorption patterns calculated in HFSSTM were combined with simulated thermal distributions computed in COMSOL® to predict radiometric signal measured from an ultra-low-noise microwave radiometer. The power received by the antenna was characterized as a function of different levels of BAT metabolism under cold and noradrenergic stimulation. Results: The optimized frequency band was 1.5-2.2 GHz, with averaged antenna efficiency of 19%. The simulated power received by the radiometric antenna increased 2-9 mdBm (noradrenergic stimulus) and 4-15 mdBm (cold stimulus) corresponding to increased 15-fold BAT metabolism. Conclusions: Results demonstrated the ability to detect thermal radiation from small volumes (2-6 cm3) of BAT located up to 12 mm deep and to monitor small changes (0.5 °C) in BAT metabolism. As such, the developed miniature radiometric antenna sensor appears suitable for non-invasive long term monitoring of BAT metabolism.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spitz, Richard; Schmalholz, Stefan; Kaus, Boris
2016-04-01
The Helvetic nappe system of the European Alps is generally described as a complex of fold and thrust belts. While the overall geology of the system has been studied in detail, the understanding of the tectonic development and mechanical interconnection between overthrusting and folding is still incomplete. One clue comes from the mechanical stratigraphy and the corresponding lateral transition from overthrusting to folding, which is characteristic for the Helvetic nappe system. We employ a three-dimensional numerical model with linear and non-linear viscous rheology to investigate the control of the lateral variation in the thickness of a weak detachment horizon on the transition from folding to overthrusting during continental shortening. The model configuration is based on published work based on 2D numerical simulations. The simulations are conducted with the three-dimensional staggered-grid finite difference code LaMEM (Lithosphere and Mantle Evolution Model), which allows for coupled nonlinear thermo-mechanical modeling of lithospheric deformation with visco-elasto-plastic rheology and computation on massive parallel machines. Our model configuration consists of a stiff viscous layer, with a pre-existing weak zone, resting within a weaker viscous matrix. The reference viscosity ratio μL/μM (for the same strain rate) between the layer and matrix ranges from 10 to 200. The simulations were run with several distinct initial geometries by altering the thickness of the detachment horizon below the stiff layer across the configurations. Shortening with a constant bulk rate is induced by the prescription of a horizontal velocity on one side of the model. The first results of our simulations highlight the general importance of the initial geometry on the lateral transition from overthrusting to folding. Additionally, models with a stepwise lateral variation of the detachment horizon indicate a fold development orthogonal to the main compressional axis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manos, Harry
2016-03-01
Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the TPT theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity well tailored to specific class lessons. Most of the supplies are readily available in the home or at school: rubbing alcohol, a rag, two colors of spray paint, art brushes, and masking tape. The cost of these supplies, if you don't have them, is less than 20.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Misawa, Takeharu; Takase, Kazuyuki
Two-fluid model can simulate two-phase flow by computational cost less than detailed two-phase flow simulation method such as interface tracking method or particle interaction method. Therefore, two-fluid model is useful for thermal hydraulic analysis in large-scale domain such as a rod bundle. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) develops three dimensional two-fluid model analysis code ACE-3D that adopts boundary fitted coordinate system in order to simulate complex shape flow channel. In this paper, boiling two-phase flow analysis in a tight-lattice rod bundle was performed by ACE-3D code. The parallel computation using 126 CPUs was applied to this analysis. In the results, the void fraction, which distributes in outermost region of rod bundle, is lower than that in center region of rod bundle. The tendency of void fraction distribution agreed with the measurement results by neutron radiography qualitatively. To evaluate effects of two-phase flow model used in ACE-3D code, numerical simulation of boiling two-phase in tight-lattice rod bundle with no lift force model was also performed. From the comparison of calculated results, it was concluded that the effects of lift force model were not so large for overall void fraction distribution of tight-lattice rod bundle. However, the lift force model is important for local void fraction distribution of fuel bundles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Qianxi; Manmi, Kawa; Calvisi, Michael L.
2015-02-01
Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) are microbubbles stabilized with a shell typically of lipid, polymer, or protein and are emerging as a unique tool for noninvasive therapies ranging from gene delivery to tumor ablation. While various models have been developed to describe the spherical oscillations of contrast agents, the treatment of nonspherical behavior has received less attention. However, the nonspherical dynamics of contrast agents are thought to play an important role in therapeutic applications, for example, enhancing the uptake of therapeutic agents across cell membranes and tissue interfaces, and causing tissue ablation. In this paper, a model for nonspherical contrast agent dynamics based on the boundary integral method is described. The effects of the encapsulating shell are approximated by adapting Hoff's model for thin-shell, spherical contrast agents. A high-quality mesh of the bubble surface is maintained by implementing a hybrid approach of the Lagrangian method and elastic mesh technique. The numerical model agrees well with a modified Rayleigh-Plesset equation for encapsulated spherical bubbles. Numerical analyses of the dynamics of UCAs in an infinite liquid and near a rigid wall are performed in parameter regimes of clinical relevance. The oscillation amplitude and period decrease significantly due to the coating. A bubble jet forms when the amplitude of ultrasound is sufficiently large, as occurs for bubbles without a coating; however, the threshold amplitude required to incite jetting increases due to the coating. When a UCA is near a rigid boundary subject to acoustic forcing, the jet is directed towards the wall if the acoustic wave propagates perpendicular to the boundary. When the acoustic wave propagates parallel to the rigid boundary, the jet direction has components both along the wave direction and towards the boundary that depend mainly on the dimensionless standoff distance of the bubble from the boundary. In all cases, the jet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Yongle; Li, Q. M.; Withers, P. J.
2015-09-01
Realistic simulations are increasingly demanded to clarify the dynamic behaviour of foam materials, because, on one hand, the significant variability (e.g. 20% scatter band) of foam properties and the lack of reliable dynamic test methods for foams bring particular difficulty to accurately evaluate the strain-rate sensitivity in experiments; while on the other hand numerical models based on idealised cell structures (e.g. Kelvin and Voronoi) may not be sufficiently representative to capture the actual structural effect. To overcome these limitations, the strain-rate sensitivity of the compressive and tensile properties of closed-cell aluminium Alporas foam is investigated in this study by means of meso-scale realistic finite element (FE) simulations. The FE modelling method based on X-ray computed tomography (CT) image is introduced first, as well as its applications to foam materials. Then the compression and tension of Alporas foam at a wide variety of applied nominal strain-rates are simulated using FE model constructed from the actual cell geometry obtained from the CT image. The stain-rate sensitivity of compressive strength (collapse stress) and tensile strength (0.2% offset yield point) are evaluated when considering different cell-wall material properties. The numerical results show that the rate dependence of cell-wall material is the main cause of the strain-rate hardening of the compressive and tensile strengths at low and intermediate strain-rates. When the strain-rate is sufficiently high, shock compression is initiated, which significantly enhances the stress at the loading end and has complicated effect on the stress at the supporting end. The plastic tensile wave effect is evident at high strain-rates, but shock tension cannot develop in Alporas foam due to the softening associated with single fracture process zone occurring in tensile response. In all cases the micro inertia of individual cell walls subjected to localised deformation is found to
Using 3-D Numerical Weather Data in Piloted Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Daniels, Taumi S.
2016-01-01
This report describes the process of acquiring and using 3-D numerical model weather data sets in NASA Langley's Research Flight Deck (RFD). A set of software tools implement the process and can be used for other purposes as well. Given time and location information of a weather phenomenon of interest, the user can download associated numerical weather model data. These data are created by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) High Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) model, and are then processed using a set of Mathworks' Matlab(TradeMark) scripts to create the usable 3-D weather data sets. Each data set includes radar re ectivity, water vapor, component winds, temperature, supercooled liquid water, turbulence, pressure, altitude, land elevation, relative humidity, and water phases. An open-source data processing program, wgrib2, is available from NOAA online, and is used along with Matlab scripts. These scripts are described with sucient detail to make future modi cations. These software tools have been used to generate 3-D weather data for various RFD experiments.
Zhang, Liwei; Anderson, Nicole; Dilmore, Robert; Soeder, Daniel J; Bromhal, Grant
2014-09-16
Potential natural gas leakage into shallow, overlying formations and aquifers from Marcellus Shale gas drilling operations is a public concern. However, before natural gas could reach underground sources of drinking water (USDW), it must pass through several geologic formations. Tracer and pressure monitoring in formations overlying the Marcellus could help detect natural gas leakage at hydraulic fracturing sites before it reaches USDW. In this study, a numerical simulation code (TOUGH 2) was used to investigate the potential for detecting leaking natural gas in such an overlying geologic formation. The modeled zone was based on a gas field in Greene County, Pennsylvania, undergoing production activities. The model assumed, hypothetically, that methane (CH4), the primary component of natural gas, with some tracer, was leaking around an existing well between the Marcellus Shale and the shallower and lower-pressure Bradford Formation. The leaky well was located 170 m away from a monitoring well, in the Bradford Formation. A simulation study was performed to determine how quickly the tracer monitoring could detect a leak of a known size. Using some typical parameters for the Bradford Formation, model results showed that a detectable tracer volume fraction of 2.0 × 10(-15) would be noted at the monitoring well in 9.8 years. The most rapid detection of tracer for the leak rates simulated was 81 days, but this scenario required that the leakage release point was at the same depth as the perforation zone of the monitoring well and the zones above and below the perforation zone had low permeability, which created a preferred tracer migration pathway along the perforation zone. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the time needed to detect CH4 leakage at the monitoring well was very sensitive to changes in the thickness of the high-permeability zone, CH4 leaking rate, and production rate of the monitoring well. PMID:25144442
Zemskova, Varvara; Garaud, Pascale; Deal, Morgan; Vauclair, Sylvie
2014-11-10
Iron-rich layers are known to form in the stellar subsurface through a combination of gravitational settling and radiative levitation. Their presence, nature, and detailed structure can affect the excitation process of various stellar pulsation modes and must therefore be modeled carefully in order to better interpret Kepler asteroseismic data. In this paper, we study the interplay between atomic diffusion and fingering convection in A-type stars, as well as its role in the establishment and evolution of iron accumulation layers. To do so, we use a combination of three-dimensional idealized numerical simulations of fingering convection (which neglect radiative transfer and complex opacity effects) and one-dimensional realistic stellar models. Using the three-dimensional simulations, we first validate the mixing prescription for fingering convection recently proposed by Brown et al. (within the scope of the aforementioned approximation) and identify what system parameters (total mass of iron, iron diffusivity, thermal diffusivity, etc.) play a role in the overall evolution of the layer. We then implement the Brown et al. prescription in the Toulouse-Geneva Evolution Code to study the evolution of the iron abundance profile beneath the stellar surface. We find, as first discussed by Théado et al., that when the concurrent settling of helium is ignored, this accumulation rapidly causes an inversion in the mean molecular weight profile, which then drives fingering convection. The latter mixes iron with the surrounding material very efficiently, and the resulting iron layer is very weak. However, taking helium settling into account partially stabilizes the iron profile against fingering convection, and a large iron overabundance can accumulate. The opacity also increases significantly as a result, and in some cases it ultimately triggers dynamical convection. The direct effects of radiative acceleration on the dynamics of fingering convection (especially in the
Progress in the Peeling-Ballooning Model of ELMs: Numerical Studies of 3D Nonlinear ELM Dynamics
Snyder, P B; Wilson, H R; Xu, X Q
2004-12-13
Nonlinear simulations with the 3D electromagnetic two-fluid BOUT code are employed to study the dynamics of edge localized modes (ELMs) driven by intermediate wavelength peeling-ballooning modes. It is found that the early behavior of the modes is similar to expectations from linear, ideal peeling-ballooning mode theory, with the modes growing linearly at a fraction of the Alfven frequency. In the non-linear phase, the modes grow explosively, forming a number of extended filaments which propagate rapidly from the outer closed flux region into the open flux region toward the outer wall. Similarities to non-linear linear ballooning theory, as well as additional complexities are observed. Comparison to observations reveals a number of similarities. Implications of the simulations and proposals for the dynamics of the full ELM crash are discussed.
PROGRESS IN THE PEELING-BALLOONING MODEL OF ELMS: NUMERICAL STUDIES OF 3D NONLINEAR ELM DYNAMICS
SNYDER,P.B; WILSON,H.R; XU,X.Q
2004-11-01
Nonlinear simulations with the 3D electromagnetic two-fluid BOUT code are employed to study the dynamics of edge localized modes (ELMs) driven by intermediate wavelength peeling-ballooning modes. It is found that the early behavior of the modes is similar to expectations from linear, ideal peeling-ballooning mode theory, with the modes growing linearly at a fraction of the Alfven frequency. In the nonlinear phase, the modes grow explosively, forming a number of extended filaments which propagate rapidly from the outer closed flux region into the open flux region toward the outboard wall. Similarities to non-linear ballooning theory, as well as additional complexities are observed. Comparison to observations reveals a number of similarities. Implications of the simulations and proposals for the dynamics of the full ELM crash are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaljub, Emmanuel; Maufroy, Emeline; Moczo, Peter; Kristek, Jozef; Priolo, Enrico; Klin, Peter; De Martin, Florent; Zhang, Zenghuo; Hollender, Fabrice; Bard, Pierre-Yves
2013-04-01
Numerical simulation is playing a role of increasing importance in the field of seismic hazard by providing quantitative estimates of earthquake ground motion, its variability, and its sensitivity to geometrical and mechanical properties of the medium. Continuous efforts to develop accurate and computationally efficient numerical methods, combined with increasing computational power have made it technically feasible to calculate seismograms in 3D realistic configurations and for frequencies of interest in seismic design applications. Now, in order to foster the use of numerical simulations in practical prediction of earthquake ground motion, it is important to evaluate the accuracy of current numerical methods when applied to realistic 3D sites. This process of verification is a necessary prerequisite to confrontation of numerical predictions and observations. Through the ongoing Euroseistest Verification and Validation Project (E2VP), which focuses on the Mygdonian basin (northern Greece), we investigated the capability of numerical methods to predict earthquake ground motion for frequencies up to 4 Hz. Numerical predictions obtained by several teams using a wide variety of methods were compared using quantitative goodness-of-fit criteria. In order to better understand the cause of misfits between different simulations, initially performed for the realistic geometry of the Mygdonian basin, we defined five stringent canonical configurations. The canonical models allow for identifying sources of misfits and quantify their importance. Detailed quantitative comparison of simulations in relation to dominant features of the models shows that even relatively simple heterogeneous models must be treated with maximum care in order to achieve sufficient level of accuracy. One important conclusion is that the numerical representation of models with strong variations (e.g. discontinuities) may considerably vary from one method to the other, and may become a dominant source of
MT3D was first developed by Chunmiao Zheng in 1990 at S.S. Papadopulos & Associates, Inc. with partial support from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Starting in 1990, MT3D was released as a pubic domain code from the USEPA. Commercial versions with enhanced capab...
Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.
2016-06-01
Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Yiyun; Qin, Yujie
2015-09-01
Numerical simulations of thermo-electromagnetic properties of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk levitating over a permanent magnetic guideway (PMG) are performed by resorting to the quasistatic approximation of the H-method coupling with the classical description of the heat conduction equation. The numerical resolving codes are practiced with the help of the finite element program generation system (FEPG) platform using finite element method (FEM). The E-J power law is used to describe the electric current nonlinear characteristics of HTS bulk. The simulation results show that the heat conduction and the critical current density are tightly relative to the thermal effects of the HTS bulk over the PMG. The heat intensity which responds to the heat loss of the HTS bulk is mainly distributed at the two bottom-corners of the bulk sample.
Numerical simulation of vortex breakdown via 3-D Euler equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le, T. H.; Mege, P.; Morchoisne, Y.
1990-06-01
The long term goal is the modeling of vortex breakdown that occurs in some aerodynamic configurations at high angle of attack, (i.e., fighters with highly swept delta wings or missiles). A numerical simulation was made based on solving the 3-D Euler equations for an usteady incompressible flow. Preliminary results were obtained using a pressure-velocity formulation with periodic boundary conditions, the Euler equations being discretized by 2nd order finite difference schemes. The continuation to this work by implementing more realistic boundary conditions and 4th order finite difference discretization schemes are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castellanza, Riccardo; Fernandez Merodo, Josè Antonio; di Prisco, Claudio; Frigerio, Gabriele; Crosta, Giovanni B.; Orlandi, Gianmarco
2013-04-01
Aim of the study is the assessment of stability conditions for an abandoned gypsum mine (Bologna , Italy). Mining was carried out til the end of the 70s by the room and pillar method. During mining a karst cave was crossed karstic waters flowed into the mine. As a consequence, the lower level of the mining is completely flooded and portions of the mining levels show critical conditions and are structurally prone to instability. Buildings and infrastructures are located above the first and second level and a large portion of the area below the mine area, and just above of the Savena river, is urbanised. Gypsum geomechanical properties change over time; water, or even air humidity, dissolves or weaken gypsum pillars, leading progressively to collapse. The mine is located in macro-crystalline gypsum beds belonging to the Messinian Gessoso Solfifera Formation. Selenitic gypsum beds are interlayered with by centimetre to meter thick shales layers. In order to evaluate the risk related to the collapse of the flooded level (level 3) a deterministic approach based on 3D numerical analyses has been considered. The entire abandoned mine system up to the ground surface has been generated in 3D. The considered critical scenario implies the collapse of the pillars and roof of the flooded level 3. In a first step, a sequential collapse starting from the most critical pillar has been simulated by means of a 3D Finite Element code. This allowed the definition of the subsidence basin at the ground surface and the interaction with the buildings in terms of ground displacements. 3D numerical analyses have been performed with an elasto-perfectly plastic constitutive model. In a second step, the effect of a simultaneous collapse of the entire level 3 has been considered in order to evaluate the risk of a flooding due to the water outflow from the mine system. Using a 3D CFD (Continuum Fluid Dynamics) finite element code the collapse of the level 3 has been simulated and the volume of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brune, Sascha; Autin, Julia
2013-11-01
The Gulf of Aden provides an ideal setting to study oblique rifting since numerous structural data are available onshore and offshore. Recent surveys showed that the spatio-temporal evolution of the Gulf of Aden rift system is dominated by three fault orientations: displacement-orthogonal (WSW), rift-parallel (WNW) and an intermediate E-W trend. The oldest parts of the rift that are exposed onshore feature displacement-orthogonal and intermediate directions, whereas the subsequently active necking zone involves mainly rift-parallel faults. The final rift phase recorded at the distal margin is characterised by displacement-orthogonal and intermediate fault orientations. We investigate the evolution of the Gulf of Aden from rift initiation to break-up by means of 3D numerical experiments on lithospheric scale. We apply the finite element model SLIM3D which includes realistic, elasto-visco-plastic rheology and a free surface. Despite recent advances, 3D numerical experiments still require relatively coarse resolution so that individual faults are poorly resolved. We address this issue by proposing a simple post-processing method that uses the surface stress-tensor to evaluate stress regime (extensional, strike-slip, compressional) and preferred fault azimuth. The described method is applicable to any geodynamic model and easy to introduce. Our model reproduces the observed fault pattern of the Gulf of Aden and illustrates how multiple fault directions arise from the interaction of local and far-field tectonic stresses in an evolving rift system. The numerical simulations robustly feature intermediate faults during the initial rift phase, followed by rift-parallel normal faulting at the rift flanks and strike-slip faults in the central part of the rift system. Upon break-up, displacement-orthogonal as well as intermediate faults occur. This study corroborates and extends findings from previous analogue experiments of oblique rifting on lithospheric scale and allows new
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, L. C.; Tang, C. A.; Li, G.; Wang, S. Y.; Liang, Z. Z.; Zhang, Y. B.
2012-09-01
The failure mechanism of hydraulic fractures in heterogeneous geological materials is an important topic in mining and petroleum engineering. A three-dimensional (3D) finite element model that considers the coupled effects of seepage, damage, and the stress field is introduced. This model is based on a previously developed two-dimensional (2D) version of the model (RFPA2D-Rock Failure Process Analysis). The RFPA3D-Parallel model is developed using a parallel finite element method with a message-passing interface library. The constitutive law of this model considers strength and stiffness degradation, stress-dependent permeability for the pre-peak stage, and deformation-dependent permeability for the post-peak stage. Using this model, 3D modelling of progressive failure and associated fluid flow in rock are conducted and used to investigate the hydro-mechanical response of rock samples at laboratory scale. The responses investigated are the axial stress-axial strain together with permeability evolution and fracture patterns at various stages of loading. Then, the hydraulic fracturing process inside a rock specimen is numerically simulated. Three coupled processes are considered: (1) mechanical deformation of the solid medium induced by the fluid pressure acting on the fracture surfaces and the rock skeleton, (2) fluid flow within the fracture, and (3) propagation of the fracture. The numerically simulated results show that the fractures from a vertical wellbore propagate in the maximum principal stress direction without branching, turning, and twisting in the case of a large difference in the magnitude of the far-field stresses. Otherwise, the fracture initiates in a non-preferred direction and plane then turns and twists during propagation to become aligned with the preferred direction and plane. This pattern of fracturing is common when the rock formation contains multiple layers with different material properties. In addition, local heterogeneity of the rock
Ng, E Y K; Ng, W K; Acharya, U Rajendra
2008-01-01
Breast cancer is a disease characterized by the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells. Early detection of this disease is the most effective way to reduce mortality. Although several new technologies show promise for improved capability of diagnosis, none have yet proved superior to traditional, X-ray film mammography in screening for breast cancer. More evaluation and development of new imaging tools and of promising skin surface electrical potential techniques is required and warranted. In the present study, we propose a theoretical three-dimensional, simplified and realistic model of the female breast to distinguish the surface biopotential in different types of breast abnormalities. We developed an inhomogeneous female breast model, closer to the actual, by considering the breast as a hemisphere with various layers of unequal thickness in supine condition. In order to determine the potential distribution developed, isotropic homogeneous conductivity was assigned to each of these compartments and the volume conductor problem was solved using finite element method. Richardson extrapolation for grid invariance test was used to ensure the results are of reliable accuracy. The simulation results show that the surface potentials are sensitive to the presence of tumour, location and placement of the electrodes. PMID:18183519
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koptev, Alexander; Burov, Evgueni; Calais, Eric; Leroy, Sylvie; Gerya, Taras
2014-05-01
We explore the evolution of plume-activated rifting in a heterogeneous continental lithosphere containing embedded cratonic blocks, with a particular focus on the impact of horizontal position of a plume with respect to the craton. We also study the influence of a preexisting far-field stress/strain field on the «active» rifting style by implementing a slow far-field extension during the plume-lithosphere interaction. In the experiments, a «cratonic» block (cold, thick depleted mantle) is embedded into a «normal» lithosphere roughly mimicking the configuration of the Tanzanian craton and of its surroundings. We next varied the far-field extension rates, the thickness of the craton as well as the thermo-rheological profile and the position of the plume with respect to the center of the craton (placed either strictly under the center of the «Tanzanian» craton or slightly shifted in the NE direction). Despite significant disparities in style and timing of rifting process observed in models with different parameters, the common feature for all cases with central plume position refers to the development of largely symmetric diverging rift branches embracing the craton. The models with shifted initial plume position demonstrate a fundamentally different behavior because in this case the cratonic block deflects plume material to one side of the craton, leading to a strongly asymmetric spreading of plume-head material under the bottom of the lithosphere. This asymmetry results in development of two different rift branches: the first one is more pronounced and develops right above the plume head at the north-east of the craton, with a lot of magmatic material arriving to the surface. The second branch appears almost simultaneously but is less pronounced, amagmatic, and propagates northward over the western part of the craton. This evolution resembles the one inferred for east (warm and magmatic) and west (cold and amagmatic) rift braches in the East African rift
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Usoskin, Ilya; Kovaltsov, Gennady
A new quantitative model of production of the cosmogenic isotopes, produced by spallation of atmospheric constitutes by the nucleonic component of cosmic rays induced cascade in the Earth's atmosphere is presented. We presents the results for three cosmogenic isotopes: 7 Be, 10 Be and 22 Na, using the CRAC (Cosmic Ray induced Atmospheric Cascade) model is based on a full numerical Monte-Carlo simulation of the nucleonic-electromagnetic-muon cascade induced by cosmic rays in the atmosphere and is able to compute the isotope's production rate at any given 3D location (geographical and altitude) and time, for all possible parameters including solar energetic particle events. The model was tested against the results of direct measurements of production of 10 Be and 7 Be in a number of dedicated experiments to confirm its quantitative correctness. A set of tabulated values for the yield function is provided along with a detailed numerical recipe forming a `do-it-yourself' kit, which allows anyone interested to apply the model for any given conditions. This provides a useful tool for applying the cosmogenic isotope method in direct integration with other models, e.g., dynamical atmospheric transport.
Integrated Biogeomorphological Modeling Using Delft3D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Q.; Jagers, B.
2011-12-01
The skill of numerical morphological models has improved significantly from the early 2D uniform, total load sediment models (with steady state or infrequent wave updates) to recent 3D hydrodynamic models with multiple suspended and bed load sediment fractions and bed stratigraphy (online coupled with waves). Although there remain many open questions within this combined field of hydro- and morphodynamics, we observe an increasing need to include biological processes in the overall dynamics. In riverine and inter-tidal environments, there is often an important influence by riparian vegetation and macrobenthos. Over the past decade more and more researchers have started to extend the simulation environment with wrapper scripts and other quick code hacks to estimate their influence on morphological development in coastal, estuarine and riverine environments. Although one can in this way quickly analyze different approaches, these research tools have generally not been designed with reuse, performance and portability in mind. We have now implemented a reusable, flexible, and efficient two-way link between the Delft3D open source framework for hydrodynamics, waves and morphology, and the water quality and ecology modules. The same link will be used for 1D, 2D and 3D modeling on networks and both structured and unstructured grids. We will describe the concepts of the overall system, and illustrate it with some first results.
The Esri 3D city information model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reitz, T.; Schubiger-Banz, S.
2014-02-01
With residential and commercial space becoming increasingly scarce, cities are going vertical. Managing the urban environments in 3D is an increasingly important and complex undertaking. To help solving this problem, Esri has released the ArcGIS for 3D Cities solution. The ArcGIS for 3D Cities solution provides the information model, tools and apps for creating, analyzing and maintaining a 3D city using the ArcGIS platform. This paper presents an overview of the 3D City Information Model and some sample use cases.
Numerical analysis of 3-D potential flow in centrifugal turbomachines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daiguji, H.
1983-09-01
A numerical method is developed for analysing a three-dimensional steady incompressible potential flow through an impeller in centrifugal turbomachines. The method is the same as the previous method which was developed for the axial flow turbomachines, except for some treatments in the downstream region. In order to clarify the validity and limitation of the method, a comparison with the existing experimental data and numerical results is made for radial flow compressor impellers. The calculated blade surface pressure distributions almost coincide with the quasi-3-D calculation by Krimerman and Adler (1978), but are different partly from the quasi-3-D calculation using one meridional flow analysis. It is suggested from this comparison that the flow through an impeller with high efficiency near the design point can be predicted by this fully 3-D numerical method.
MOSSFRAC: An anisotropic 3D fracture model
Moss, W C; Levatin, J L
2006-08-14
Despite the intense effort for nearly half a century to construct detailed numerical models of plastic flow and plastic damage accumulation, models for describing fracture, an equally important damage mechanism still cannot describe basic fracture phenomena. Typical fracture models set the stress tensor to zero for tensile fracture and set the deviatoric stress tensor to zero for compressive fracture. One consequence is that the simple case of the tensile fracture of a cylinder under combined compressive radial and tensile axial loads is not modeled correctly. The experimental result is a cylinder that can support compressive radial loads, but no axial load, whereas, the typical numerical result is a cylinder with all stresses equal to zero. This incorrect modeling of fracture locally also has a global effect, because material that is fracturing produces stress release waves, which propagate from the fracture and influence the surrounding material. Consequently, it would be useful to have a model that can describe the stress relief and the resulting anisotropy due to fracture. MOSSFRAC is a material model that simulates three-dimensional tensile and shear fracture in initially isotropic elastic-plastic materials, although its framework is also amenable to initially anisotropic materials. It differs from other models by accounting for the effects of cracks on the constitutive response of the material, so that the previously described experiment, as well as complicated fracture scenarios are simulated more accurately. The model is implemented currently in the LLNL hydrocodes DYNA3D, PARADYN, and ALE3D. The purpose of this technical note is to present a complete qualitative description of the model and quantitative descriptions of salient features.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
López-Venegas, Alberto M.; Horrillo, Juan; Pampell-Manis, Alyssa; Huérfano, Victor; Mercado, Aurelio
2015-06-01
The most recent tsunami observed along the coast of the island of Puerto Rico occurred on October 11, 1918, after a magnitude 7.2 earthquake in the Mona Passage. The earthquake was responsible for initiating a tsunami that mostly affected the northwestern coast of the island. Runup values from a post-tsunami survey indicated the waves reached up to 6 m. A controversy regarding the source of the tsunami has resulted in several numerical simulations involving either fault rupture or a submarine landslide as the most probable cause of the tsunami. Here we follow up on previous simulations of the tsunami from a submarine landslide source off the western coast of Puerto Rico as initiated by the earthquake. Improvements on our previous study include: (1) higher-resolution bathymetry; (2) a 3D-2D coupled numerical model specifically developed for the tsunami; (3) use of the non-hydrostatic numerical model NEOWAVE (non-hydrostatic evolution of ocean WAVE) featuring two-way nesting capabilities; and (4) comprehensive energy analysis to determine the time of full tsunami wave development. The three-dimensional Navier-Stokes model tsunami solution using the Navier-Stokes algorithm with multiple interfaces for two fluids (water and landslide) was used to determine the initial wave characteristic generated by the submarine landslide. Use of NEOWAVE enabled us to solve for coastal inundation, wave propagation, and detailed runup. Our results were in agreement with previous work in which a submarine landslide is favored as the most probable source of the tsunami, and improvement in the resolution of the bathymetry yielded inundation of the coastal areas that compare well with values from a post-tsunami survey. Our unique energy analysis indicates that most of the wave energy is isolated in the wave generation region, particularly at depths near the landslide, and once the initial wave propagates from the generation region its energy begins to stabilize.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kattenhorn, Simon A.; Aydin, Atilla; Pollard, David D.
2000-01-01
Structural methods based on homogeneous stress states predict that joints growing in an extending crust form with strike orientations identical to normal faults. However, we document a field example where the strikes of genetically related normal faults and joints are almost mutually perpendicular. Field relationships allowed us to constrain the fracture sequence and tectonic environment for fault and joint growth. We hypothesize that fault slip can perturb the surrounding stress field in a manner that controls the orientations of induced secondary structures. Numerical models were used to examine the stress field around normal faults, taking into consideration the effects of 3-D fault shape, geometrical arrangement of overlapping faults, and a range of stress states. The calculated perturbed stress fields around model normal faults indicate that it is possible for joints to form at high angles to fault strike. Such joint growth may occur at the lateral tips of an isolated fault, but is most likely in a relay zone between overlapping faults. However, the angle between joints and faults is also influenced by the remote stress state, and is particularly sensitive to the ratio of fault-parallel to fault-perpendicular stress. As this ratio increases, joints can propagate away from faults at increasingly higher angles to fault strike. We conclude that the combined remote stress state and perturbed local stress field associated with overlapping fault geometries resulted in joint growth at high angles to normal fault strike at a field location in Arches National Park, Utah.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Autin, J.; Brune, S.
2013-12-01
Oblique rift systems like the Gulf of Aden are intrinsically three-dimensional. In order to understand the evolution of these systems, one has to decode the fundamental mechanical similarities of oblique rifts. One way to accomplish this, is to strip away the complexity that is generated by inherited fault structures. In doing so, we assume a laterally homogeneous segment of Earth's lithosphere and ask how many different fault populations are generated during oblique extension inbetween initial deformation and final break-up. We combine results of an analog and a numerical model that feature a 3D segment of a layered lithosphere. In both cases, rift evolution is recorded quantitatively in terms of crustal fault geometries. For the numerical model, we adopt a novel post-processing method that allows to infer small-scale crustal fault orientation from the surface stress tensor. Both models involve an angle of 40 degrees between the rift normal and the extensional direction which allows comparison to the Gulf of Aden rift system. The resulting spatio-temporal fault pattern of our models shows three normal fault orientations: rift-parallel, extension-orthogonal, and intermediate, i.e. with a direction inbetween the two previous orientations. The rift evolution involves three distinct phases: (i) During the initial rift phase, wide-spread faulting with intermediate orientation occurs. (ii) Advanced lithospheric necking enables rift-parallel normal faulting at the rift flanks, while strike-slip faulting in the central part of the rift system indicates strain partitioning. (iii) During continental break-up, displacement-orthogonal as well as intermediate faults occur. We compare our results to the structural evolution of the Eastern Gulf of Aden. External parts of the rift exhibit intermediate and displacement-orthogonal faults while rift-parallel faults are present at the rift borders. The ocean-continent transition mainly features intermediate and displacement
The numerical measure of symmetry for 3D stick creatures.
Jaśkowski, Wojciech; Komosinski, Maciej
2008-01-01
This work introduces a numerical, continuous measure of symmetry for 3D stick creatures and solid 3D objects. Background information about the property of symmetry is provided, and motivations for developing a symmetry measure are described. Three approaches are mentioned, and two of them are presented in detail using formal mathematical language. The best approach is used to sort a set of creatures according to their symmetry. Experiments with a mixed set of 84 individuals originating from both human design and evolution are performed to examine symmetry within these two sources, and to determine if human designers and evolutionary processes prefer symmetry or asymmetry. PMID:18573069
BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model
Lazerson, Samuel
2014-04-14
With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.
Modeling Cellular Processes in 3-D
Mogilner, Alex; Odde, David
2011-01-01
Summary Recent advances in photonic imaging and fluorescent protein technology offer unprecedented views of molecular space-time dynamics in living cells. At the same time, advances in computing hardware and software enable modeling of ever more complex systems, from global climate to cell division. As modeling and experiment become more closely integrated, we must address the issue of modeling cellular processes in 3-D. Here, we highlight recent advances related to 3-D modeling in cell biology. While some processes require full 3-D analysis, we suggest that others are more naturally described in 2-D or 1-D. Keeping the dimensionality as low as possible reduces computational time and makes models more intuitively comprehensible; however, the ability to test full 3-D models will build greater confidence in models generally and remains an important emerging area of cell biological modeling. PMID:22036197
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Filina, Irina Y.; Blankenship, Donald D.; Thoma, Malte; Lukin, Valery V.; Masolov, Valery N.; Sen, Mrinal K.
2008-11-01
A new distribution of water and unconsolidated sediments in subglacial Lake Vostok, East Antarctica was developed via inversion of airborne gravity data constrained by 60 seismic soundings. A model was developed for host rock with a density of 2550 kg/m 3 that was inferred from prior 2D modeling. Our 3D bathymetry model of Lake Vostok corresponds better with seismic data (RMS of 125 m) than two previous models based on the same gravity dataset. The good match in both water and sediment thicknesses between the gravity model and seismic measurements confirms two major facts about Lake Vostok: (1) the lake is hosted by sedimentary rocks, and (2) the bottom of the lake is covered with a layer of unconsolidated sediments that does not exceed 300 m in the southern basin and thickens almost to 400 m in the northern basin. Our new bathymetry model suggests much shallower water thicknesses (up to twice the previous estimates) in the middle and northern parts of the lake, while the water layer is thicker in the southern basin. Numerical modeling of the internal processes in the lake reveals the relevance of our new bathymetry model to the basal mass balance. A significant decrease in transport is observed in the shallower northern basin, as well as a decrease of 33% in the turbulent kinetic energy. However, only minor differences were observed in the distribution of the calculated freezing and melting zones compared to previous models. Estimates for the sedimentation rates for six possible mechanisms were made. Possible sedimentation mechanisms are: (1) fluvial and periglacial, i.e. those that are active prior to the establishment of a large subglacial lake; (2) deposition due to overlying ice sheet, including melting out of the ice, as well as bulldozering by the overriding ice; and (3) suspended sediments from subglacial water flow including those deposited by periodical subglacial outbursts. The estimates for these mechanisms show that unconsolidated sediments of the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruh, Jonas B.; Gerya, Taras
2015-04-01
The Simply Folded Belt of the Zagros orogen is characterized by elongated fold trains symptomatically defining the geomorphology along this mountain range. The Zagros orogen results from the collision of the Arabian and the Eurasian plates. The Simply Folded Belt is located southwest of the Zagros suture zone. An up to 2 km thick salt horizon below the sedimentary sequence enables mechanical and structural detachment from the underlying Arabian basement. Nevertheless, deformation within the basement influences the structural evolution of the Simply Folded Belt. It has been shown that thrusts in form of reactivated normal faults can trigger out-of-sequence deformation within the sedimentary stratigraphy. Furthermore, deeply rooted strike-slip faults, such as the Kazerun faults between the Fars zone in the southeast and the Dezful embayment and the Izeh zone, are largely dispersing into the overlying stratigraphy, strongly influencing the tectonic evolution and mechanical behaviour. The aim of this study is to reveal the influence of basement thrusts and strike-slip faults on the structural evolution of the Simply Folded Belt depending on the occurrence of intercrustal weak horizons (Hormuz salt) and the rheology and thermal structure of the basement. Therefore, we present high-resolution 3D thermo-mechnical models with pre-existing, inversively reactivated normal faults or strike-slip faults within the basement. Numerical models are based on finite difference, marker-in-cell technique with (power-law) visco-plastic rheology accounting for brittle deformation. Preliminary results show that deep tectonic structures present in the basement may have crucial effects on the morphology and evolution of a fold-and-thrust belt above a major detachment horizon.
Radiosity diffusion model in 3D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riley, Jason D.; Arridge, Simon R.; Chrysanthou, Yiorgos; Dehghani, Hamid; Hillman, Elizabeth M. C.; Schweiger, Martin
2001-11-01
We present the Radiosity-Diffusion model in three dimensions(3D), as an extension to previous work in 2D. It is a method for handling non-scattering spaces in optically participating media. We present the extension of the model to 3D including an extension to the model to cope with increased complexity of the 3D domain. We show that in 3D more careful consideration must be given to the issues of meshing and visibility to model the transport of light within reasonable computational bounds. We demonstrate the model to be comparable to Monte-Carlo simulations for selected geometries, and show preliminary results of comparisons to measured time-resolved data acquired on resin phantoms.
3D model reconstruction of underground goaf
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fang, Yuanmin; Zuo, Xiaoqing; Jin, Baoxuan
2005-10-01
Constructing 3D model of underground goaf, we can control the process of mining better and arrange mining work reasonably. However, the shape of goaf and the laneway among goafs are very irregular, which produce great difficulties in data-acquiring and 3D model reconstruction. In this paper, we research on the method of data-acquiring and 3D model construction of underground goaf, building topological relation among goafs. The main contents are as follows: a) The paper proposed an efficient encoding rule employed to structure the field measurement data. b) A 3D model construction method of goaf is put forward, which by means of combining several TIN (triangulated irregular network) pieces, and an efficient automatic processing algorithm of boundary of TIN is proposed. c) Topological relation of goaf models is established. TIN object is the basic modeling element of goaf 3D model, and the topological relation among goaf is created and maintained by building the topological relation among TIN objects. Based on this, various 3D spatial analysis functions can be performed including transect and volume calculation of goaf. A prototype is developed, which can realized the model and algorithm proposed in this paper.
3-D Numerical Field Calculations of CESR's Upgraded Superconducting Magnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greenwald, Zipi; Greenwald, Shlomo
1997-05-01
A 3-D numerical code( Z. Greenwald, ``BST.c 3-D Magnetic Field Calculation Numerical Code'', Cornell University Note 96-09) was used to calculate the spatial magnetic fields generated by a current carrying wire. In particular, the code calculates the fields of wire loops wrapped on a pipe similar to superconductive magnet structures. The arrangement and dimensions of the loops can be easily modified to create dipoles, quadrupoles, skew magnets etc., and combinations of the above. In this paper we show the calculated 3-D fields of ironless superconducting quadrupole dipole combination designed for CESR phase III upgrade (which will be manufactured by TESLA). Since the magnet poles are made of loops, the fields at the edges are not only distorted but have a component, B_z, in the z direction as well. This Bz field can cause X-Y coupling of the beam. In order to calculate the coupling, the particle trajectories through the whole magnet were computed. The code is also used to calculate local fields errors due to possible manufacturing imperfections. An example of a rotational error of one pole, and an example of an error in the winding width are shown.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Audigane, Pascal; Chiaberge, Christophe; Mathurin, Frédéric; Lions, Julie; Picot-Colbeaux, Géraldine
2011-04-01
This paper is addressed to the TOUGH2 user community. It presents a new tool for handling simulations run with the TOUGH2 code with specific application to CO 2 geological storage. This tool is composed of separate FORTRAN subroutines (or modules) that can be run independently, using input and output files in ASCII format for TOUGH2. These modules have been developed specifically for modeling of carbon dioxide geological storage and their use with TOUGH2 and the Equation of State module ECO2N, dedicated to CO 2-water-salt mixture systems, with TOUGHREACT, which is an adaptation of TOUGH2 with ECO2N and geochemical fluid-rock interactions, and with TOUGH2 and the EOS7C module dedicated to CO 2-CH 4 gas mixture is described. The objective is to save time for the pre-processing, execution and visualization of complex geometry for geological system representation. The workflow is rapid and user-friendly and future implementation to other TOUGH2 EOS modules for other contexts (e.g. nuclear waste disposal, geothermal production) is straightforward. Three examples are shown for validation: (i) leakage of CO 2 up through an abandoned well; (ii) 3D reactive transport modeling of CO 2 in a sandy aquifer formation in the Sleipner gas Field, (North Sea, Norway); and (iii) an estimation of enhanced gas recovery technology using CO 2 as the injected and stored gas to produce methane in the K12B Gas Field (North Sea, Denmark).
Regional geothermal 3D modelling in Denmark
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poulsen, S. E.; Balling, N.; Bording, T. S.; Nielsen, S. B.
2012-04-01
In the pursuit of sustainable and low carbon emission energy sources, increased global attention has been given to the exploration and exploitation of geothermal resources within recent decades. In 2009 a national multi-disciplinary geothermal research project was established. As a significant part of this project, 3D temperature modelling is to be carried out, with special emphasis on temperatures of potential geothermal reservoirs in the Danish area. The Danish subsurface encompasses low enthalpy geothermal reservoirs of mainly Triassic and Jurassic age. Geothermal plants at Amager (Copenhagen) and Thisted (Northern Jutland) have the capacity of supplying the district heating network with up to 14 MW and 7 MW, respectively, by withdrawing warm pore water from the Gassum (Lower Jurassic/Upper Triassic) and Bunter (Lower Triassic) sandstone reservoirs, respectively. Explorative studies of the subsurface temperature regime typically are based on a combination of observations and modelling. In this study, the open-source groundwater modelling code MODFLOW is modified to simulate the subsurface temperature distribution in three dimensions by taking advantage of the mathematical similarity between saturated groundwater flow (Darcy flow) and heat conduction. A numerical model of the subsurface geology in Denmark is built and parameterized from lithological information derived from joint interpretation of seismic surveys and borehole information. Boundary conditions are constructed from knowledge about the heat flow from the Earth's interior and the shallow ground temperature. Matrix thermal conductivities have been estimated from analysis of high-resolution temperature logs measured in deep wells and porosity-depth relations are included using interpreted main lithologies. The model takes into account the dependency of temperature and pressure on thermal conductivity. Moreover, a transient model based correction of the paleoclimatic thermal disturbance caused by the
3D Modeling Engine Representation Summary Report
Steven Prescott; Ramprasad Sampath; Curtis Smith; Timothy Yang
2014-09-01
Computers have been used for 3D modeling and simulation, but only recently have computational resources been able to give realistic results in a reasonable time frame for large complex models. This summary report addressed the methods, techniques, and resources used to develop a 3D modeling engine to represent risk analysis simulation for advanced small modular reactor structures and components. The simulations done for this evaluation were focused on external events, specifically tsunami floods, for a hypothetical nuclear power facility on a coastline.
BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McMillan, Matthew; Lazerson, Samuel A.
2014-09-01
With the advent of applied 3D fields in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous slowing down, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database. Elementary benchmark calculations are presented to verify the collisionless particle orbits, NBI model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields. Notice: this manuscript has been authored by Princeton University under Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466 with the US Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wichura, Henry; Quinteros, Javier; Melnick, Daniel; Brune, Sascha; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Strecker, Manfred R.
2015-04-01
Over the last four years sedimentologic and thermochronologic studies in the western and eastern branches of the Cenozoic East African Rift System (EARS) have supported the notion of a broadly contemporaneous onset of normal faulting and rift-basin formation in both segments. These studies support previous interpretations based on geophysical investigations from which an onset of rifting during the Paleogene had been postulated. In light of these studies we explore the evolution of the Lake Victoria basin, a shallow, unfaulted sedimentary basin centered between both branches of the EARS and located in the interior of the East African Plateau (EAP). We quantify the fluvial catchment evolution of the Lake Victoria basin and assess the topographic response of African crust to the onset of rifting in both branches. Furthermore, we evaluate and localize the nature of strain and flexural rift-flank uplift in both branches. We use a 3D numerical forward model that includes nonlinear temperature- and stress-dependent elasto-visco-plastic rheology. The model is able to reproduce the flexural response of variably thick lithosphere to rift-related deformation processes such as lithospheric thinning and asthenospheric upwelling. The model domain covers the entire EAP and integrates extensional processes in a heterogeneous, yet cold and thick cratonic block (Archean Tanzania craton), which is surrounded by mechanically weaker Proterozoic mobile belts, which are characterized by thinner lithosphere ("thin spots"). The lower limits of the craton (170 km) and the mobile belts (120 km) are simulated by different depths of the 1300 °C lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. We assume a constant extension rate of 4 mm/a throughout the entire simulation of 30 Ma and neglect the effect of dynamic topography and magmatism. Even though the model setup is very simple and the resolution is not high enough to calculate realistic rift-flank uplift, it intriguingly reveals important topographic
Meng, Da; Zheng, Bin; Lin, Guang; Sushko, Maria L.
2014-08-29
We have developed efficient numerical algorithms for the solution of 3D steady-state Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations (PNP) with excess chemical potentials described by the classical density functional theory (cDFT). The coupled PNP equations are discretized by finite difference scheme and solved iteratively by Gummel method with relaxation. The Nernst-Planck equations are transformed into Laplace equations through the Slotboom transformation. Algebraic multigrid method is then applied to efficiently solve the Poisson equation and the transformed Nernst-Planck equations. A novel strategy for calculating excess chemical potentials through fast Fourier transforms is proposed which reduces computational complexity from O(N2) to O(NlogN) where N is the number of grid points. Integrals involving Dirac delta function are evaluated directly by coordinate transformation which yields more accurate result compared to applying numerical quadrature to an approximated delta function. Numerical results for ion and electron transport in solid electrolyte for Li ion batteries are shown to be in good agreement with the experimental data and the results from previous studies.
Solar abundances and 3D model atmospheres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ludwig, Hans-Günter; Caffau, Elisabetta; Steffen, Matthias; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Freytag, Bernd; Cayrel, Roger
2010-03-01
We present solar photospheric abundances for 12 elements from optical and near-infrared spectroscopy. The abundance analysis was conducted employing 3D hydrodynamical (CO5BOLD) as well as standard 1D hydrostatic model atmospheres. We compare our results to others with emphasis on discrepancies and still lingering problems, in particular exemplified by the pivotal abundance of oxygen. We argue that the thermal structure of the lower solar photosphere is very well represented by our 3D model. We obtain an excellent match of the observed center-to-limb variation of the line-blanketed continuum intensity, also at wavelengths shortward of the Balmer jump.
Gis-Based Smart Cartography Using 3d Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malinverni, E. S.; Tassetti, A. N.
2013-08-01
3D City Models have evolved to be important tools for urban decision processes and information systems, especially in planning, simulation, analysis, documentation and heritage management. On the other hand existing and in use numerical cartography is often not suitable to be used in GIS because not geometrically and topologically correctly structured. The research aim is to 3D structure and organize a numeric cartography for GIS and turn it into CityGML standardized features. The work is framed around a first phase of methodological analysis aimed to underline which existing standard (like ISO and OGC rules) can be used to improve the quality requirement of a cartographic structure. Subsequently, from this technical specifics, it has been investigated the translation in formal contents, using an owner interchange software (SketchUp), to support some guide lines implementations to generate a GIS3D structured in GML3. It has been therefore predisposed a test three-dimensional numerical cartography (scale 1:500, generated from range data captured by 3D laser scanner), tested on its quality according to the previous standard and edited when and where necessary. Cad files and shapefiles are converted into a final 3D model (Google SketchUp model) and then exported into a 3D city model (CityGML LoD1/LoD2). The GIS3D structure has been managed in a GIS environment to run further spatial analysis and energy performance estimate, not achievable in a 2D environment. In particular geometrical building parameters (footprint, volume etc.) are computed and building envelop thermal characteristics are derived from. Lastly, a simulation is carried out to deal with asbestos and home renovating charges and show how the built 3D city model can support municipal managers with risk diagnosis of the present situation and development of strategies for a sustainable redevelop.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bradley, Joan; Farland-Smith, Donna
2010-01-01
Allowing a student to "see" through touch what other students see through a microscope can be a challenging task. Therefore, author Joan Bradley created three-dimensional (3-D) models with one student's visual impairment in mind. They are meant to benefit all students and can be used to teach common high school biology topics, including the…
Comparing a quasi-3D to a full 3D nearshore circulation model: SHORECIRC and ROMS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haas, Kevin A.; Warner, John C.
Predictions of nearshore and surf zone processes are important for determining coastal circulation, impacts of storms, navigation, and recreational safety. Numerical modeling of these systems facilitates advancements in our understanding of coastal changes and can provide predictive capabilities for resource managers. There exists many nearshore coastal circulation models, however they are mostly limited or typically only applied as depth integrated models. SHORECIRC is an established surf zone circulation model that is quasi-3D to allow the effect of the variability in the vertical structure of the currents while maintaining the computational advantage of a 2DH model. Here we compare SHORECIRC to ROMS, a fully 3D ocean circulation model which now includes a three dimensional formulation for the wave-driven flows. We compare the models with three different test applications for: (i) spectral waves approaching a plane beach with an oblique angle of incidence; (ii) monochromatic waves driving longshore currents in a laboratory basin; and (iii) monochromatic waves on a barred beach with rip channels in a laboratory basin. Results identify that the models are very similar for the depth integrated flows and qualitatively consistent for the vertically varying components. The differences are primarily the result of the vertically varying radiation stress utilized by ROMS and the utilization of long wave theory for the radiation stress formulation in vertical varying momentum balance by SHORECIRC. The quasi-3D model is faster, however the applicability of the fully 3D model allows it to extend over a broader range of processes, temporal, and spatial scales.
Comparing a quasi-3D to a full 3D nearshore circulation model: SHORECIRC and ROMS
Haas, K.A.; Warner, J.C.
2009-01-01
Predictions of nearshore and surf zone processes are important for determining coastal circulation, impacts of storms, navigation, and recreational safety. Numerical modeling of these systems facilitates advancements in our understanding of coastal changes and can provide predictive capabilities for resource managers. There exists many nearshore coastal circulation models, however they are mostly limited or typically only applied as depth integrated models. SHORECIRC is an established surf zone circulation model that is quasi-3D to allow the effect of the variability in the vertical structure of the currents while maintaining the computational advantage of a 2DH model. Here we compare SHORECIRC to ROMS, a fully 3D ocean circulation model which now includes a three dimensional formulation for the wave-driven flows. We compare the models with three different test applications for: (i) spectral waves approaching a plane beach with an oblique angle of incidence; (ii) monochromatic waves driving longshore currents in a laboratory basin; and (iii) monochromatic waves on a barred beach with rip channels in a laboratory basin. Results identify that the models are very similar for the depth integrated flows and qualitatively consistent for the vertically varying components. The differences are primarily the result of the vertically varying radiation stress utilized by ROMS and the utilization of long wave theory for the radiation stress formulation in vertical varying momentum balance by SHORECIRC. The quasi-3D model is faster, however the applicability of the fully 3D model allows it to extend over a broader range of processes, temporal, and spatial scales. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.
Debris Dispersion Model Using Java 3D
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar; Bardina, Jorge
2004-01-01
This paper describes web based simulation of Shuttle launch operations and debris dispersion. Java 3D graphics provides geometric and visual content with suitable mathematical model and behaviors of Shuttle launch. Because the model is so heterogeneous and interrelated with various factors, 3D graphics combined with physical models provides mechanisms to understand the complexity of launch and range operations. The main focus in the modeling and simulation covers orbital dynamics and range safety. Range safety areas include destruct limit lines, telemetry and tracking and population risk near range. If there is an explosion of Shuttle during launch, debris dispersion is explained. The shuttle launch and range operations in this paper are discussed based on the operations from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, USA.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fuchsluger, Martin; Götzl, Gregor
2014-05-01
flow has been realized. In addition the effects of the basement of the building to the groundwater flow have been analyzed. The results of the 2D model show an underestimation of more than 10 % of the performance of the groundwater utilization facility and a considerable smaller groundwater table drawdown compared to the 3D simulations. This is due to the possibility of 3D modeling to consider (i) the heat distribution and storage in the adjacent layers, (ii) the climatic surface effect and (iii) vertical groundwater flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Yu-Bong; Jung, Duk-Young; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Yoshino, Nobuyuki; Tsutsumi, Sadami; Ikeuchi, Ken
Whiplash injuries are most common disorders in rear-end car accidents, while the injury mechanism is yet unknown. Many numerical and experimental approaches have conducted to investigate the cervical behaviors with solely two-dimensional analyses in the sagittal plane. In real accidents, however, as impacts may affect several directions, the cervical behaviors should be evaluated three-dimensionally. Therefore, we evaluated the cervical behaviors under assumption of the posterior-oblique impacts depending on the impact angles with 3-D FE analysis. In addition, we analyzed the stresses occurred in the facet joints considering the relationship with a whiplash disorders. The cervical behaviors showed complex motion combined with axial torsion and lateral bending. The bending angle peaked in the impact at the angle of 15°, and the peak compressive and shear stress on the facet cartilage at C6-C7 increased by 11% and 14%. In the impact at the angle of 30°, the torsion angle peaked at C2-C3, the peak shear stress in the facet cartilage increased by 27%. It showed that the torsion and lateral bending affected the cervical behaviors, and caused the increase of peak stresses on the soft tissues. It is assumed as one of important causes of whiplash injury.
Illustrative visualization of 3D city models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doellner, Juergen; Buchholz, Henrik; Nienhaus, Marc; Kirsch, Florian
2005-03-01
This paper presents an illustrative visualization technique that provides expressive representations of large-scale 3D city models, inspired by the tradition of artistic and cartographic visualizations typically found in bird"s-eye view and panoramic maps. We define a collection of city model components and a real-time multi-pass rendering algorithm that achieves comprehensible, abstract 3D city model depictions based on edge enhancement, color-based and shadow-based depth cues, and procedural facade texturing. Illustrative visualization provides an effective visual interface to urban spatial information and associated thematic information complementing visual interfaces based on the Virtual Reality paradigm, offering a huge potential for graphics design. Primary application areas include city and landscape planning, cartoon worlds in computer games, and tourist information systems.
Metrological validation for 3D modeling of dental plaster casts.
Brusco, Nicola; Andreetto, Marco; Lucchese, Luca; Carmignato, Simone; Cortelazzo, Guido M
2007-11-01
The contribution of this paper is twofold: (1) it presents an automatic 3D modeling technique and (2) it advances a procedure for its metrological evaluation in the context of a medical application, the 3D modeling of dental plaster casts. The motivation for this work is the creation of a "virtual gypsotheque" where cumbersome dental plaster casts can be replaced by numerical 3D models, thereby alleviating storage and access problems and allowing dentists and orthodontists the use of novel and unprecedented software tools for their medical evaluations. Modeling free-form surfaces of anatomical interest is an intriguing mixture of open issues concerning 3D modeling, geometrical metrology, and medicine. Of general interest is both the fact that a widespread use of 3D modeling in non-engineering applications requires automatic procedures of the kind presented in this work and the adopted validation paradigm for free-form surfaces, rather useful for practical purposes. In this latter respect, the metrological analysis we advance is the first seminal attempt in the field of 3D modeling and can be readily extended to contexts other than the medical one discussed in this paper. PMID:17126062
3D visualization of numeric planetary data using JMARS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dickenshied, S.; Christensen, P. R.; Anwar, S.; Carter, S.; Hagee, W.; Noss, D.
2013-12-01
JMARS (Java Mission-planning and Analysis for Remote Sensing) is a free geospatial application developed by the Mars Space Flight Facility at Arizona State University. Originally written as a mission planning tool for the THEMIS instrument on board the MARS Odyssey Spacecraft, it was released as an analysis tool to the general public in 2003. Since then it has expanded to be used for mission planning and scientific data analysis by additional NASA missions to Mars, the Moon, and Vesta, and it has come to be used by scientists, researchers and students of all ages from more than 40 countries around the world. The public version of JMARS now also includes remote sensing data for Mercury, Venus, Earth, the Moon, Mars, and a number of the moons of Jupiter and Saturn. Additional datasets for asteroids and other smaller bodies are being added as they becomes available and time permits. In addition to visualizing multiple datasets in context with one another, significant effort has been put into on-the-fly projection of georegistered data over surface topography. This functionality allows a user to easily create and modify 3D visualizations of any regional scene where elevation data is available in JMARS. This can be accomplished through the use of global topographic maps or regional numeric data such as HiRISE or HRSC DTMs. Users can also upload their own regional or global topographic dataset and use it as an elevation source for 3D rendering of their scene. The 3D Layer in JMARS allows the user to exaggerate the z-scale of any elevation source to emphasize the vertical variance throughout a scene. In addition, the user can rotate, tilt, and zoom the scene to any desired angle and then illuminate it with an artificial light source. This scene can be easily overlain with additional JMARS datasets such as maps, images, shapefiles, contour lines, or scale bars, and the scene can be easily saved as a graphic image for use in presentations or publications.
Sensing and compressing 3-D models
Krumm, J.
1998-02-01
The goal of this research project was to create a passive and robust computer vision system for producing 3-D computer models of arbitrary scenes. Although the authors were unsuccessful in achieving the overall goal, several components of this research have shown significant potential. Of particular interest is the application of parametric eigenspace methods for planar pose measurement of partially occluded objects in gray-level images. The techniques presented provide a simple, accurate, and robust solution to the planar pose measurement problem. In addition, the representational efficiency of eigenspace methods used with gray-level features were successfully extended to binary features, which are less sensitive to illumination changes. The results of this research are presented in two papers that were written during the course of this project. The papers are included in sections 2 and 3. The first section of this report summarizes the 3-D modeling efforts.
3D modeling of optically challenging objects.
Park, Johnny; Kak, Avinash
2008-01-01
We present a system for constructing 3D models of real-world objects with optically challenging surfaces. The system utilizes a new range imaging concept called multi-peak range imaging, which stores multiple candidates of range measurements for each point on the object surface. The multiple measurements include the erroneous range data caused by various surface properties that are not ideal for structured-light range sensing. False measurements generated by spurious reflections are eliminated by applying a series of constraint tests. The constraint tests based on local surface and local sensor visibility are applied first to individual range images. The constraint tests based on global consistency of coordinates and visibility are then applied to all range images acquired from different viewpoints. We show the effectiveness of our method by constructing 3D models of five different optically challenging objects. To evaluate the performance of the constraint tests and to examine the effects of the parameters used in the constraint tests, we acquired the ground truth data by painting those objects to suppress the surface-related properties that cause difficulties in range sensing. Experimental results indicate that our method significantly improves upon the traditional methods for constructing reliable 3D models of optically challenging objects. PMID:18192707
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berchtold, Waldemar; Schäfer, Marcel; Rettig, Michael; Steinebach, Martin
2014-02-01
3D models and applications are of utmost interest in both science and industry. With the increment of their usage, their number and thereby the challenge to correctly identify them increases. Content identification is commonly done by cryptographic hashes. However, they fail as a solution in application scenarios such as computer aided design (CAD), scientific visualization or video games, because even the smallest alteration of the 3D model, e.g. conversion or compression operations, massively changes the cryptographic hash as well. Therefore, this work presents a robust hashing algorithm for 3D mesh data. The algorithm applies several different bit extraction methods. They are built to resist desired alterations of the model as well as malicious attacks intending to prevent correct allocation. The different bit extraction methods are tested against each other and, as far as possible, the hashing algorithm is compared to the state of the art. The parameters tested are robustness, security and runtime performance as well as False Acceptance Rate (FAR) and False Rejection Rate (FRR), also the probability calculation of hash collision is included. The introduced hashing algorithm is kept adaptive e.g. in hash length, to serve as a proper tool for all applications in practice.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hunter, Kendall; Zhang, Yanhang; Lanning, Craig
2005-11-01
Insight into the progression of pulmonary hypertension may be obtained from thorough study of vascular flow during reactivity testing, an invasive diagnostic procedure which can dramatically alter vascular hemodynamics. Diagnostic imaging methods, however, are limited in their ability to provide extensive data. Here we present detailed flow and wall deformation results from simulations of pulmonary arteries undergoing this procedure. Patient-specific 3-D geometric reconstructions of the first four branches of the pulmonary vasculature were obtained clinically and meshed for use with computational software. Transient simulations in normal and reactive states were obtained from four such models were completed with patient-specific velocity inlet conditions and flow impedance exit conditions. A microstructurally based orthotropic hyperelastic model that simulates pulmonary artery mechanics under normotensive and hypoxic hypertensive conditions treated wall constitutive changes due to pressure reactivity and arterial remodeling. Pressure gradients, velocity fields, arterial deformation, and complete topography of shear stress were obtained. These models provide richer detail of hemodynamics than can be obtained from current imaging techniques, and should allow maximum characterization of vascular function in the clinical situation.
Automatic Texture Mapping of Architectural and Archaeological 3d Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kersten, T. P.; Stallmann, D.
2012-07-01
Today, detailed, complete and exact 3D models with photo-realistic textures are increasingly demanded for numerous applications in architecture and archaeology. Manual texture mapping of 3D models by digital photographs with software packages, such as Maxon Cinema 4D, Autodesk 3Ds Max or Maya, still requires a complex and time-consuming workflow. So, procedures for automatic texture mapping of 3D models are in demand. In this paper two automatic procedures are presented. The first procedure generates 3D surface models with textures by web services, while the second procedure textures already existing 3D models with the software tmapper. The program tmapper is based on the Multi Layer 3D image (ML3DImage) algorithm and developed in the programming language C++. The studies showing that the visibility analysis using the ML3DImage algorithm is not sufficient to obtain acceptable results of automatic texture mapping. To overcome the visibility problem the Point Cloud Painter algorithm in combination with the Z-buffer-procedure will be applied in the future.
Fallon FORGE 3D Geologic Model
Doug Blankenship
2016-03-01
An x,y,z scattered data file for the 3D geologic model of the Fallon FORGE site. Model created in Earthvision by Dynamic Graphic Inc. The model was constructed with a grid spacing of 100 m. Geologic surfaces were extrapolated from the input data using a minimum tension gridding algorithm. The data file is tabular data in a text file, with lithology data associated with X,Y,Z grid points. All the relevant information is in the file header (the spatial reference, the projection etc.) In addition all the fields in the data file are identified in the header.
3D Models of Symbiotic Binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohamed, S.; Booth, R.; Podsiadlowski, Ph.; Ramstedt, S.; Vlemmings, W.; Maercker, M.
2015-12-01
Symbiotic binaries consist of a cool, mass-losing giant and an accreting, compact companion. We present 3D Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) models of two such interacting binaries, RS Oph and Mira AB. RS Oph is also a recurrent nova system, thus we model multiple quiescent mass transfer-nova outburst cycles. The resulting circumstellar structures of both systems are highly complex with the formation of spirals, arcs, shells, equatorial and bipolar outflows. We compare the models to recent observations and discuss the implications of our results for related systems, e.g., bipolar nebulae and jets, chemically peculiar stars, and the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae.
3-D numerical simulations of volcanic ash transport and deposition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, Y. J.; Koyaguchi, T.
2012-12-01
During an explosive volcanic eruption, volcanic gas and pyroclasts are ejected from the volcanic vent. The pyroclasts are carried up within a convective plume, advected by the surrounding wind field, and sediment on the ground depending on their terminal velocity. The fine ash are expected to have atmospheric residence, whereas the coarser particles form fall deposits. Accurate modeling of particle transport and deposition is of critical importance from the viewpoint of disaster prevention. Previously, some particle-tracking models (e.g., PUFF) and advection-diffusion models (e.g., TEPHRA2 and FALL3D) tried to forecast particle concentration in the atmosphere and particle loading at ground level. However, these models assumed source conditions (the grain-size distribution, plume height, and mass release location) based on the simple 1-D model of convective plume. In this study, we aim to develop a new 3-D model which reproduces both of the dynamics of convective plume and the ash transport. The model is designed to describe the injection of eruption cloud and marker particles from a circular vent above a flat surface into the stratified atmosphere. Because the advection is the predominant mechanism of particle transport near the volcano, the diffusive process is not taken into account in this model. The distribution of wind velocity is given as an initial condition. The model of the eruption cloud dynamics is based on the 3-D time-dependent model of Suzuki et al. (2005). We apply a pseudo-gas model to calculate the eruption cloud dynamics: the effect of particle separation on the cloud dynamics is not considered. In order to reproduce the drastic change of eruption cloud density, we change the effective gas constant and heat capacity of the mixture in the equation of state for ideal gases with the mixing ratio between the ejected material and entrained air. In order to calculate the location and movement of ash particles, the present model employs Lagrangian marker
Inferential modeling of 3D chromatin structure
Wang, Siyu; Xu, Jinbo; Zeng, Jianyang
2015-01-01
For eukaryotic cells, the biological processes involving regulatory DNA elements play an important role in cell cycle. Understanding 3D spatial arrangements of chromosomes and revealing long-range chromatin interactions are critical to decipher these biological processes. In recent years, chromosome conformation capture (3C) related techniques have been developed to measure the interaction frequencies between long-range genome loci, which have provided a great opportunity to decode the 3D organization of the genome. In this paper, we develop a new Bayesian framework to derive the 3D architecture of a chromosome from 3C-based data. By modeling each chromosome as a polymer chain, we define the conformational energy based on our current knowledge on polymer physics and use it as prior information in the Bayesian framework. We also propose an expectation-maximization (EM) based algorithm to estimate the unknown parameters of the Bayesian model and infer an ensemble of chromatin structures based on interaction frequency data. We have validated our Bayesian inference approach through cross-validation and verified the computed chromatin conformations using the geometric constraints derived from fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments. We have further confirmed the inferred chromatin structures using the known genetic interactions derived from other studies in the literature. Our test results have indicated that our Bayesian framework can compute an accurate ensemble of 3D chromatin conformations that best interpret the distance constraints derived from 3C-based data and also agree with other sources of geometric constraints derived from experimental evidence in the previous studies. The source code of our approach can be found in https://github.com/wangsy11/InfMod3DGen. PMID:25690896
3D Model of Surfactant Replacement Therapy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grotberg, James; Tai, Cheng-Feng; Filoche, Marcel
2015-11-01
Surfactant Replacement Therapy (SRT) involves instillation of a liquid-surfactant mixture directly into the lung airway tree. Though successful in neonatal applications, its use in adults had early success followed by failure. We present the first mathematical model of 3D SRT where a liquid plug propagates through the tree from forced inspiration. In two separate modeling steps, the plug first deposits a coating film on the airway wall which subtracts from its volume, a ``coating cost''. Then the plug splits unevenly at the airway bifurcation due to gravity. The steps are repeated until a plug ruptures or reaches the tree endpoint alveoli/acinus. The model generates 3D images of the resulting acinar distribution and calculates two global indexes, efficiency and homogeneity. Simulating published literature, the earlier successful adult SRT studies show comparatively good index values, while the later failed studies do not. Those unsuccessful studies used smaller dose volumes with higher concentration mixtures, apparently assuming a well mixed compartment. The model shows that adult lungs are not well mixed in SRT due to the coating cost and gravity effects. Returning to the higher dose volume protocols could save many thousands of lives annually in the US. Supported by NIH Grants HL85156, HL84370 and Agence Nationale de la Recherche, ANR no. 2010-BLAN-1119-05.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yokota, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Takuji; Date, Kensuke
Facebolts are frequently used in order to reinforce the ground ahead of the cutting face. They are especially effective for tunnelling in poor conditions due to ground squeezlng. According to our centrifuge model tests and parametric studies with numeric alanalysis method, it demonstrated that bond strength was influential on failure pattern and ground movement. We subsequently developed new facebolts with checkered steel surface which can present much larger bond strength. Furthermore, this paper describes an actual employment of these new bolts to several site.
Convective instability in sedimentation: 3-D numerical study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Xiao; Hsu, Tian-Jian; Balachandar, S.
2014-11-01
To provide a probable explanation on the field observed rapid sedimentation process near river mouths, we investigate the convective sedimentation in stably stratified saltwater using 3-D numerical simulations. Guided by the linear stability analysis, this study focuses on the nonlinear interactions of several mechanisms, which lead to various sediment finger patterns, and the effective settling velocity for sediment ranging from clay (single-particle settling velocity V0 = 0.0036 and 0.0144 mm/s, or particle diameter d = 2 and 4 μm) to silt (V0 = 0.36 mm/s, or d = 20 μm). For very fine sediment with V0 = 0.0036 mm/s, the convective instability is dominated by double diffusion, characterized by millimeter-scale fingers. Gravitational settling slightly increases the growth rate; however, it has notable effect on the downward development of vertical mixing shortly after the sediment interface migrates below the salt interface. For sediment with V0 = 0.0144 mm/s, Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities become dominant before double-diffusive modes grow sufficiently large. Centimeter-scale and highly asymmetric sediment fingers are obtained due to nonlinear interactions between different modes. For sediment with V0 = 0.36 mm/s, Rayleigh-Taylor mechanism dominates and the resulting centimeter-scale sediment fingers show a plume-like structure. The flow pattern is similar to that without ambient salt stratification. Rapid sedimentation with effective settling velocity on the order of 1 cm/s is likely driven by convective sedimentation for sediment with V0 greater than 0.1 mm/s at concentration greater than 10-20 g/L.
3D Geological Model for "LUSI" - a Deep Geothermal System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sohrabi, Reza; Jansen, Gunnar; Mazzini, Adriano; Galvan, Boris; Miller, Stephen A.
2016-04-01
Geothermal applications require the correct simulation of flow and heat transport processes in porous media, and many of these media, like deep volcanic hydrothermal systems, host a certain degree of fracturing. This work aims to understand the heat and fluid transport within a new-born sedimentary hosted geothermal system, termed Lusi, that began erupting in 2006 in East Java, Indonesia. Our goal is to develop conceptual and numerical models capable of simulating multiphase flow within large-scale fractured reservoirs such as the Lusi region, with fractures of arbitrary size, orientation and shape. Additionally, these models can also address a number of other applications, including Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), CO2 sequestration (Carbon Capture and Storage CCS), and nuclear waste isolation. Fractured systems are ubiquitous, with a wide-range of lengths and scales, making difficult the development of a general model that can easily handle this complexity. We are developing a flexible continuum approach with an efficient, accurate numerical simulator based on an appropriate 3D geological model representing the structure of the deep geothermal reservoir. Using previous studies, borehole information and seismic data obtained in the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n°308126), we present here the first 3D geological model of Lusi. This model is calculated using implicit 3D potential field or multi-potential fields, depending on the geological context and complexity. This method is based on geological pile containing the geological history of the area and relationship between geological bodies allowing automatic computation of intersections and volume reconstruction. Based on the 3D geological model, we developed a new mesh algorithm to create hexahedral octree meshes to transfer the structural geological information for 3D numerical simulations to quantify Thermal-Hydraulic-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) physical processes.
Multivariate 3D modelling of Scottish soil properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poggio, Laura; Gimona, Alessandro
2015-04-01
Information regarding soil properties across landscapes at national or continental scales is critical for better soil and environmental management and for climate regulation and adaptation policy. The prediction of soil properties variation in space and time and their uncertainty is an important part of environmental modelling. Soil properties, and in particular the 3 fractions of soil texture, exhibit strong co-variation among themselves and therefore taking into account this correlation leads to spatially more accurate results. In this study the continuous vertical and lateral distributions of relevant soil properties in Scottish soils were modelled with a multivariate 3D-GAM+GS approach. The approach used involves 1) modelling the multivariate trend with full 3D spatial correlation, i.e., exploiting the values of the neighbouring pixels in 3D-space, and 2) 3D kriging to interpolate the residuals. The values at each cell for each of the considered depth layers were defined using a hybrid GAM-geostatistical 3D model, combining the fitting of a GAM (generalised Additive Models) to estimate multivariate trend of the variables, using a 3D smoother with related covariates. Gaussian simulations of the model residuals were used as spatial component to account for local details. A dataset of about 26,000 horizons (7,800 profiles) was used for this study. A validation set was randomly selected as 25% of the full dataset. Numerous covariates derived from globally available data, such as MODIS and SRTM, are considered. The results of the 3D-GAM+kriging showed low RMSE values, good R squared and an accurate reproduction of the spatial structure of the data for a range of soil properties. The results have an out-of-sample RMSE between 10 to 15% of the observed range when taking into account the whole profile. The approach followed allows the assessment of the uncertainty of both the trend and the residuals.
Improvements to the RELAP5-3D Nearly-Implicit Numerical Scheme
Richard A. Riemke; Walter L. Weaver; RIchard R. Schultz
2005-05-01
The RELAP5-3D computer program has been improved with regard to its nearly-implicit numerical scheme for twophase flow and single-phase flow. Changes were made to the nearly-implicit numerical scheme finite difference momentum equations as follows: (1) added the velocity flip-flop mass/energy error mitigation logic, (2) added the modified Henry-Fauske choking model, (3) used the new time void fraction in the horizontal stratification force terms and gravity head, and (4) used an implicit form of the artificial viscosity. The code modifications allow the nearly-implicit numerical scheme to be more implicit and lead to enhanced numerical stability.
3D Stratigraphic Modeling of Central Aachen
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, M.; Neukum, C.; Azzam, R.; Hu, H.
2010-05-01
Since 1980s, advanced computer hardware and software technologies, as well as multidisciplinary research have provided possibilities to develop advanced three dimensional (3D) simulation software for geosciences application. Some countries, such as USA1) and Canada2) 3), have built up regional 3D geological models based on archival geological data. Such models have played huge roles in engineering geology2), hydrogeology2) 3), geothermal industry1) and so on. In cooperating with the Municipality of Aachen, the Department of Engineering Geology of RWTH Aachen University have built up a computer-based 3D stratigraphic model of 50 meter' depth for the center of Aachen, which is a 5 km by 7 km geologically complex area. The uncorrelated data from multi-resources, discontinuous nature and unconformable connection of the units are main challenges for geological modeling in this area. The reliability of 3D geological models largely depends on the quality and quantity of data. Existing 1D and 2D geological data were collected, including 1) approximately 6970 borehole data of different depth compiled in Microsoft Access database and MapInfo database; 2) a Digital Elevation Model (DEM); 3) geological cross sections; and 4) stratigraphic maps in 1m, 2m and 5m depth. Since acquired data are of variable origins, they were managed step by step. The main processes are described below: 1) Typing errors of borehole data were identified and the corrected data were exported to Variowin2.2 to distinguish duplicate points; 2) The surface elevation of borehole data was compared to the DEM, and differences larger than 3m were eliminated. Moreover, where elevation data missed, it was read from the DEM; 3) Considerable data were collected from municipal constructions, such as residential buildings, factories, and roads. Therefore, many boreholes are spatially clustered, and only one or two representative points were picked out in such areas; After above procedures, 5839 boreholes with -x
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
von Tscharner, M.; Schmalholz, S. M.; Epard, J.-L.
2016-05-01
The Helvetic nappe system exhibits three-dimensional (3-D) features such as the lateral variation in geometry between the Morcles and Doldenhorn fold nappes or the Rawil depression. We perform 3-D finite element simulations of linear and power-law viscous flow to investigate fold nappe formation during shortening of a half graben with laterally varying thickness. 3-D ellipsoids and corresponding 2-D intersection ellipses are used to quantify finite strain. Fold nappes which formed above a thicker graben have (i) larger amplitudes, (ii) a less sheared and thinned overturned limb, and (iii) a larger thickness than fold nappes formed above a thinner graben. These results agree with observations for the Morcles and Doldenhorn nappes. We also perform 3-D simulations for a tectonic scenario suggested for the evolution of the Rawil depression. The basement is shortened and extended laterally and includes a graben which is oblique to the shortening direction and acts as mechanical weak zone. The graben causes laterally varying basement uplift generating a depression whose amplitude depends on the graben orientation and the stress exponent of basement and sediments. The axial plunge of the depression is smaller (approximately 10°) than the observed plunge (approximately 30°) indicating that additional processes are required to explain the geometry of the Rawil depression.
3D numerical analysis of crack propagation of heterogeneous notched rock under uniaxial tension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, S. Y.; Sloan, S. W.; Sheng, D. C.; Tang, C. A.
2016-05-01
Macroscopic notches play an important role in evaluating the fracture process zone (FPZ) and the strengths of a heterogeneous rock mass. Crack initiation, propagation and coalescence for unnotched, single-notched and double-notched rock specimens are numerically simulated in a 3-D numerical model (RFPA3D). A feature of the code RFPA3D is that it can numerically simulate the evolution of cracks in three-dimensional space, as well as the heterogeneity of the rock mass. For the unnotched case, special attention is given to the complete stress-strain curve and the corresponding AE events for the failure process of rock specimen. By comparing with published experimental results, the simulation results from RFPA3D are found to be satisfactory. For the single-notched case, the effect of the length and the depth of the single notch and the thickness of the specimen on the failure mode and peak stress are evaluated. The 3D FPZ is very different from that in two dimensions. For the double-notched case, the effects of the separation distance and overlap distance of the double notches, as well as influence of the homogeneity index (m) are also investigated. As the overlap distance increases, the direction of the principal tensile stress at each notch-end changes from a perpendicular direction (tensile stress field) to a nearly parallel direction (compressive stress field), which affects the evolution of the cracks from the two notches.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mascali, David; Torrisi, Giuseppe; Neri, Lorenzo; Sorbello, Gino; Castro, Giuseppe; Celona, Luigi; Gammino, Santo
2015-01-01
Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion Sources are the most performing machines for the production of intense beams of multi-charged ions in fundamental science, applied physics and industry. Investigation of plasma dynamics in ECRIS still remains a challenge. A better comprehension of electron heating, ionization and diffusion processes, ion confinement and ion beam formation is mandatory in order to increase ECRIS performances both in terms of output beams currents, charge states, beam quality (emittance minimization, beam halos suppression, etc.). Numerical solution of Vlasov equation via kinetic codes coupled to FEM solvers is ongoing at INFN-LNS, based on a PIC strategy. Preliminary results of the modeling will be shown about wave-plasma interaction and electron-ion confinement: the obtained results are very helpful to better understand the influence of the different parameters (especially RF frequency and power) on the ion beam formation mechanism.
3D Modeling of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huba, Joseph; Joyce, Glenn; Krall, Jonathan
2011-10-01
Post-sunset ionospheric irregularities in the equatorial F region were first observed by Booker and Wells (1938) using ionosondes. This phenomenon has become known as equatorial spread F (ESF). During ESF the equatorial ionosphere becomes unstable because of a Rayleigh-Taylor-like instability: large scale (10s km) electron density ``bubbles'' can develop and rise to high altitudes (1000 km or greater at times). Understanding and modeling ESF is important because of its impact on space weather: it causes radio wave scintillation that degrades communication and navigation systems. In fact, it is the focus of of the Air Force Communications/Navigation Outage Forecast Satellite (C/NOFS) mission. We will describe 3D simulation results from the NRL ionosphere models SAMI3 and SAMI3/ESF of this phenomenon. In particular, we will examine the causes of the day-to-day ariability of ESF which is an unresolved problem at this time. Post-sunset ionospheric irregularities in the equatorial F region were first observed by Booker and Wells (1938) using ionosondes. This phenomenon has become known as equatorial spread F (ESF). During ESF the equatorial ionosphere becomes unstable because of a Rayleigh-Taylor-like instability: large scale (10s km) electron density ``bubbles'' can develop and rise to high altitudes (1000 km or greater at times). Understanding and modeling ESF is important because of its impact on space weather: it causes radio wave scintillation that degrades communication and navigation systems. In fact, it is the focus of of the Air Force Communications/Navigation Outage Forecast Satellite (C/NOFS) mission. We will describe 3D simulation results from the NRL ionosphere models SAMI3 and SAMI3/ESF of this phenomenon. In particular, we will examine the causes of the day-to-day ariability of ESF which is an unresolved problem at this time. Research supported by ONR.
3D numerical simulation analysis of passive drag near free surface in swimming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhan, Jie-min; Li, Tian-zeng; Chen, Xue-bin; Li, Yok-sheung; Wai, Wing-hong Onyx
2015-04-01
The aim of this work is to build a 3D numerical model to study the characteristics of passive drag on competitive swimmers taking into account the impact of the free surface. This model solves the 3D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations using RNG k- ɛ turbulence closure. The volume of fluid (VOF) method is used to locate the free surface. The 3D virtual model is created by Computer Aided Industrial Design (CAID) software, Rhinoceros. Firstly, a specific posture of swimming is studied. The simulation results are in good agreement with the data from mannequin towing experiments. The effects of a swimmer's arms and legs positions on swimming performance are then studied. Finally, it is demonstrated that the present method is capable of simulating gliding near the free surface.
Reservoir geology using 3D modelling tools
Dubrule, O.; Samson, P.; Segonds, D.
1996-12-31
The last decade has seen tremendous developments in the area of quantitative geological modelling. These developments have a significant impact on the current practice of constructing reservoir models. A structural model can first be constructed on the basis of depth-converted structural interpretations produced on a seismic interpretation workstation. Surfaces and faults can be represented as geological objects, and interactively modified. Once the tectonic framework has been obtained, intermediate stratigraphic surfaces can be constructed between the main structural surfaces. Within each layer, reservoir attributes can be represented using various techniques. Examples show how the distribution of different facies (i.e. from fine to coarse grain) can be represented, or how various depositional units (for instance channels, crevasses and lobes in a turbidite setting) can be modelled as geological {open_quotes}objects{close_quotes} with complex geometries. Elf Aquitaine, in close co-operation with the GOCAD project in Nancy (France) is investigating how geological models can be made more realistic by developing interactive functionalities. Examples show that, contrary to standard deterministic or geostatistical modelling techniques (which tend to be difficult to control) the use of new 3D tools allows the geologist to interactively modify geological surfaces (including faults) or volumetric properties. Thus, the sensitivity of various economic parameters (oil in place, connected volumes, reserves) to major geological uncertainties can be evaluated. It is argued that future breakthroughs in geological modelling techniques are likely to happen in the development of interactive approaches rather than in the research of new mathematical algorithms.
Reservoir geology using 3D modelling tools
Dubrule, O. ); Samson, P. ); Segonds, D. )
1996-01-01
The last decade has seen tremendous developments in the area of quantitative geological modelling. These developments have a significant impact on the current practice of constructing reservoir models. A structural model can first be constructed on the basis of depth-converted structural interpretations produced on a seismic interpretation workstation. Surfaces and faults can be represented as geological objects, and interactively modified. Once the tectonic framework has been obtained, intermediate stratigraphic surfaces can be constructed between the main structural surfaces. Within each layer, reservoir attributes can be represented using various techniques. Examples show how the distribution of different facies (i.e. from fine to coarse grain) can be represented, or how various depositional units (for instance channels, crevasses and lobes in a turbidite setting) can be modelled as geological [open quotes]objects[close quotes] with complex geometries. Elf Aquitaine, in close co-operation with the GOCAD project in Nancy (France) is investigating how geological models can be made more realistic by developing interactive functionalities. Examples show that, contrary to standard deterministic or geostatistical modelling techniques (which tend to be difficult to control) the use of new 3D tools allows the geologist to interactively modify geological surfaces (including faults) or volumetric properties. Thus, the sensitivity of various economic parameters (oil in place, connected volumes, reserves) to major geological uncertainties can be evaluated. It is argued that future breakthroughs in geological modelling techniques are likely to happen in the development of interactive approaches rather than in the research of new mathematical algorithms.
Impact of 3D root uptake on solute transport: a numerical study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schröder, N.; Javaux, M.; Vanderborght, J.; Steffen, B.; Vereecken, H.
2011-12-01
Plant transpiration is an important component of the hydrological cycle. Through root water uptake, plants do not only affect the 3D soil water flow velocity distribution, but also solute movement in soil. This numerical study aims at investigating how solute fate is impacted by root uptake using the 3D biophysical model R-SWMS (Javaux et al., 2008). This model solves the Richards equation in 3D in the soil and the flow equation within the plant root xylem vessels. Furthermore, for solute transport simulations, the 3D particle tracker PARTRACE (Bechtold et al., 2011) was used. . We generated 3D virtual steady-state breakthrough curves (BTC) experiments in soils with transpiring plants. The averaged BTCs were then fitted with a 1D numerical flow model under steady-state conditions to obtain apparent CDE parameters. Two types of root architecture, a fibrous and a taprooted structure, were compared in virtual 3D experiments. The solute uptake type or the transpiration rate were also modified and we analyzed how these parameters affected apparent disperisivity and velocity profiles. Our simulation results show, that both, apparent velocity and dispersivity length are affected by water and solute root uptake. In addition, under high exclusion processes (slight or no active uptake), solute accumulates around roots and generates a long tailing to the breakthrough curves, which cannot be reproduced by 1D models that simulate root water uptake with solute exclusion. This observation may have an important impact on how to model pollutant mass transfer to groundwater at larger scales. Javaux, M., T. Schröder, J. Vanderborght, and H. Vereecken. 2008. Use of a three-dimensional detailed modeling approach for predicting root water uptake. Vadose Zone J. 7:1079-1088.doi: 10.2136/vzj2007.0115. Bechtold, M., S. Haber-Pohlmeier, J. Vanderborght, A. Pohlmeier, P.A. Ferre, and H. Vereecken. 2011. Near-surface solute redistribution during evaporation. Submitted to Geophys. Res. Lett
Howard Barker; Jason Cole
2012-05-17
Utilization of cloud-resolving models and multi-dimensional radiative transfer models to investigate the importance of 3D radiation effects on the numerical simulation of cloud fields and their properties.
Comprehensive study of numerical anisotropy and dispersion in 3-D TLM meshes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berini, Pierre; Wu, Ke
1995-05-01
This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the numerical anisotropy and dispersion of 3-D TLM meshes constructed using several generalized symmetrical condensed TLM nodes. The dispersion analysis is performed in isotropic lossless, isotropic lossy and anisotropic lossless media and yields a comparison of the simulation accuracy for the different TLM nodes. The effect of mesh grading on the numerical dispersion is also determined. The results compare meshes constructed with Johns' symmetrical condensed node (SCN), two hybrid symmetrical condensed nodes (HSCN) and two frequency domain symmetrical condensed nodes (FDSCN). It has been found that under certain circumstances, the time domain nodes may introduce numerical anisotropy when modelling isotropic media.
3D numerical simulations of vesicle and inextensible capsule dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farutin, Alexander; Biben, Thierry; Misbah, Chaouqi
2014-10-01
Vesicles are locally-inextensible fluid membranes, capsules are endowed with in-plane shear elasticity mimicking the cytoskeleton of red blood cells (RBCs), but are extensible, while RBCs are inextensible. We use boundary integral (BI) methods based on the Green function techniques to model and solve numerically their dynamics. We regularize the single layer integral by subtraction of exact identities for the terms involving the normal and the tangential components of the force. The stability and precision of BI calculation is enhanced by taking advantage of additional quadrature nodes located in vertices of an auxiliary mesh, constructed by a standard refinement procedure from the main mesh. We extend the partition of unity technique to boundary integral calculation on triangular meshes. The proposed algorithm offers the same treatment of near-singular integration regardless whether the source and the target points belong to the same surface or not. Bending forces are calculated by using expressions derived from differential geometry. Membrane incompressibility is handled by using two penalization parameters per suspended entity: one for deviation of the global area from prescribed value and another for the sum of squares of local strains defined on each vertex. Extensible or inextensible capsules, a model of RBC, are studied by storing the position in the reference configuration for each vertex. The elastic force is then calculated by direct variation of the elastic energy. Various nonequilibrium physical examples on vesicles and capsules will be presented and the convergence and precision tests highlighted. Overall, a good convergence is observed with numerical error inversely proportional to the number of vertices used for surface discretization, the highest order of convergence allowed by piece-wise linear interpolation of the surface.
3-D numerical evaluation of density effects on tracer tests.
Beinhorn, M; Dietrich, P; Kolditz, O
2005-12-01
In this paper we present numerical simulations carried out to assess the importance of density-dependent flow on tracer plume development. The scenario considered in the study is characterized by a short-term tracer injection phase into a fully penetrating well and a natural hydraulic gradient. The scenario is thought to be typical for tracer tests conducted in the field. Using a reference case as a starting point, different model parameters were changed in order to determine their importance to density effects. The study is based on a three-dimensional model domain. Results were interpreted using concentration contours and a first moment analysis. Tracer injections of 0.036 kg per meter of saturated aquifer thickness do not cause significant density effects assuming hydraulic gradients of at least 0.1%. Higher tracer input masses, as used for geoelectrical investigations, may lead to buoyancy-induced flow in the early phase of a tracer test which in turn impacts further plume development. This also holds true for shallow aquifers. Results of simulations with different tracer injection rates and durations imply that the tracer input scenario has a negligible effect on density flow. Employing model cases with different realizations of a log conductivity random field, it could be shown that small variations of hydraulic conductivity in the vicinity of the tracer injection well have a major control on the local tracer distribution but do not mask effects of buoyancy-induced flow. PMID:16183165
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leroy, S. D.; Koptev, A.; Burov, E. B.; Calais, E.; Gerya, T.
2015-12-01
The Central East African Rift (CEAR) bifurcates in two branches (eastern, magma-rich and western, magma-poor) surrounding strong Tanzanian craton. Intensive magmatism and continental flood basalts are largely present in many of the eastern rift segments, but other segments, first of all the western branch, exhibit very small volcanic activity. The Eastern rift is characterized by southward progression of the onset of volcanism, the extensional features and topographic expression of the rift vary significantly north-southward: in northern Kenya the deformation is very wide (some 150-250 km in E-W direction), to the south the rift narrows to 60-70 km, yet further to the south the deformation widens again in the so-called Tanzania divergence zone. Widening of the Eastern branch within its southern part is associated with the impingement of the southward-propagating rift on the strong Masai block situated to east of the Tanzanian craton. To understand the mechanisms behind this complex deformation distribution, we implemented a 3Dl ultra-high resolution visco-plastic thermo-mechanical numerical model accounting for thermo-rheological structure of the lithosphere and hence captures essential features of the CEAR. The preferred model has a plume seeded slightly to the northeast of the craton center, consistent with seismic tomography, and produces surface strain distribution that is in good agreement with observed variation of deformation zone width along eastern side of Tanzanian craton: localized above bulk of mantle material deflected by cratonic keel narrow high strain zone (Kenia Rift) is replaced by wide distributed deformations within areas situated to north (northern Kenya, Turkana Rift) and to south (Tanzania divergence, Masai block) of it. These results demonstrate significant differences in the impact of the rheological profile on rifting style in case of dominant active rifting compared to dominant passive rifting. Narrow rifting, conventionally attributed to
3-D physical models of amitosis (cytokinesis).
Cheng, Kang; Zou, Changhua
2005-01-01
Based on Newton's laws, extended Coulomb's law and published biological data, we develop our 3-D physical models of natural and normal amitosis (cytokinesis), for prokaryotes (bacterial cells) in M phase. We propose following hypotheses: Chromosome rings exclusion: No normally and naturally replicated chromosome rings (RCR) can occupy the same prokaryote, a bacterial cell. The RCR produce spontaneous and strong electromagnetic fields (EMF), that can be alternated environmentally, in protoplasm and cortex. The EMF is approximately a repulsive quasi-static electric (slowly variant and mostly electric) field (EF). The EF forces between the RCR are strong enough, and orderly accumulate contractile proteins that divide the procaryotes in the cell cortex of division plane or directly split the cell compartment envelope longitudinally. The radial component of the EF forces could also make furrows or cleavages of procaryotes. The EF distribution controls the protoplasm partition and completes the amitosis (cytokinesis). After the cytokinesis, the spontaneous and strong EF disappear because the net charge accumulation becomes weak, in the protoplasm. The exclusion is because the two sets of informative objects (RCR) have identical DNA codes information and they are electro magnetically identical, therefore they repulse from each other. We also compare divisions among eukaryotes, prokaryotes, mitochondria and chloroplasts and propose our hypothesis: The principles of our models are applied to divisions of mitochondria and chloroplasts of eucaryotes too because these division mechanisms are closer than others in a view of physics. Though we develop our model using 1 division plane (i.e., 1 cell is divided into 2 cells) as an example, the principle of our model is applied to the cases with multiple division planes (i.e., 1 cell is divided into multiple cells) too. PMID:15533619
3D Models of Stellar Interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohamed, S.; Podsiadlowski, Ph.; Booth, R.; Maercker, M.; Ramstedt, S.; Vlemmings, W.; Harries, T.; Mackey, J.; Langer, N.; Corradi, R.
2014-04-01
Symbiotic binaries consist of a cool, evolved mass-losing giant and an accreting compact companion. As symbiotic nebulae show similar morphologies to those in planetary nebulae (so much so that it is often difficult to distinguish between the two), they are ideal laboratories for understanding the role a binary companion plays in shaping the circumstellar envelopes in these evolved systems. We will present 3D Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) models of interacting binaries, e.g. R Aquarii and Mira, and discuss the formation of spiral outflows, arcs, shells and equatorial density enhancements.We will also discuss the implications of the former for planetary nebulae, e.g. the Egg Nebula and Cat's Eye, and the latter for the formation of bipolar geometries, e.g. M2-9. We also investigate accretion and angular momentum evolution in symbiotic binaries which may be important to understand the formation of jets and more episodic mass-loss features we see in circumstellar envelopes and the orbital characteristics of binary central stars of planetary nebulae.
Multi-view and 3D deformable part models.
Pepik, Bojan; Stark, Michael; Gehler, Peter; Schiele, Bernt
2015-11-01
As objects are inherently 3D, they have been modeled in 3D in the early days of computer vision. Due to the ambiguities arising from mapping 2D features to 3D models, 3D object representations have been neglected and 2D feature-based models are the predominant paradigm in object detection nowadays. While such models have achieved outstanding bounding box detection performance, they come with limited expressiveness, as they are clearly limited in their capability of reasoning about 3D shape or viewpoints. In this work, we bring the worlds of 3D and 2D object representations closer, by building an object detector which leverages the expressive power of 3D object representations while at the same time can be robustly matched to image evidence. To that end, we gradually extend the successful deformable part model [1] to include viewpoint information and part-level 3D geometry information, resulting in several different models with different level of expressiveness. We end up with a 3D object model, consisting of multiple object parts represented in 3D and a continuous appearance model. We experimentally verify that our models, while providing richer object hypotheses than the 2D object models, provide consistently better joint object localization and viewpoint estimation than the state-of-the-art multi-view and 3D object detectors on various benchmarks (KITTI [2] , 3D object classes [3] , Pascal3D+ [4] , Pascal VOC 2007 [5] , EPFL multi-view cars[6] ). PMID:26440264
3d model for site effect assessment at Nice (France)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertrand, E.; Courrioux, G.; Bourgine, B.; Bour, M.; Guillen, A.; Mouroux, P.; Devaux, E.; Duval, A. M.
2003-04-01
including the outcroping bedrock cover 90% of total area. Given some seismic loading and assigning proper geotechnical properties to columns, numerical simulations of seismic response are performed using CyberQuake software. It is then possible to identify and map homogeneous zones. The model will also be used to simulate the 3D propagation of seismic waves. It constitutes the basis for assessment of seismic risk scenarios in the district of Nice.
3D-GNOME: an integrated web service for structural modeling of the 3D genome
Szalaj, Przemyslaw; Michalski, Paul J.; Wróblewski, Przemysław; Tang, Zhonghui; Kadlof, Michal; Mazzocco, Giovanni; Ruan, Yijun; Plewczynski, Dariusz
2016-01-01
Recent advances in high-throughput chromosome conformation capture (3C) technology, such as Hi-C and ChIA-PET, have demonstrated the importance of 3D genome organization in development, cell differentiation and transcriptional regulation. There is now a widespread need for computational tools to generate and analyze 3D structural models from 3C data. Here we introduce our 3D GeNOme Modeling Engine (3D-GNOME), a web service which generates 3D structures from 3C data and provides tools to visually inspect and annotate the resulting structures, in addition to a variety of statistical plots and heatmaps which characterize the selected genomic region. Users submit a bedpe (paired-end BED format) file containing the locations and strengths of long range contact points, and 3D-GNOME simulates the structure and provides a convenient user interface for further analysis. Alternatively, a user may generate structures using published ChIA-PET data for the GM12878 cell line by simply specifying a genomic region of interest. 3D-GNOME is freely available at http://3dgnome.cent.uw.edu.pl/. PMID:27185892
3D-GNOME: an integrated web service for structural modeling of the 3D genome.
Szalaj, Przemyslaw; Michalski, Paul J; Wróblewski, Przemysław; Tang, Zhonghui; Kadlof, Michal; Mazzocco, Giovanni; Ruan, Yijun; Plewczynski, Dariusz
2016-07-01
Recent advances in high-throughput chromosome conformation capture (3C) technology, such as Hi-C and ChIA-PET, have demonstrated the importance of 3D genome organization in development, cell differentiation and transcriptional regulation. There is now a widespread need for computational tools to generate and analyze 3D structural models from 3C data. Here we introduce our 3D GeNOme Modeling Engine (3D-GNOME), a web service which generates 3D structures from 3C data and provides tools to visually inspect and annotate the resulting structures, in addition to a variety of statistical plots and heatmaps which characterize the selected genomic region. Users submit a bedpe (paired-end BED format) file containing the locations and strengths of long range contact points, and 3D-GNOME simulates the structure and provides a convenient user interface for further analysis. Alternatively, a user may generate structures using published ChIA-PET data for the GM12878 cell line by simply specifying a genomic region of interest. 3D-GNOME is freely available at http://3dgnome.cent.uw.edu.pl/. PMID:27185892
Numerical Optimization Strategy for Determining 3D Flow Fields in Microfluidics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eden, Alex; Sigurdson, Marin; Mezic, Igor; Meinhart, Carl
2015-11-01
We present a hybrid experimental-numerical method for generating 3D flow fields from 2D PIV experimental data. An optimization algorithm is applied to a theory-based simulation of an alternating current electrothermal (ACET) micromixer in conjunction with 2D PIV data to generate an improved representation of 3D steady state flow conditions. These results can be used to investigate mixing phenomena. Experimental conditions were simulated using COMSOL Multiphysics to solve the temperature and velocity fields, as well as the quasi-static electric fields. The governing equations were based on a theoretical model for ac electrothermal flows. A Nelder-Mead optimization algorithm was used to achieve a better fit by minimizing the error between 2D PIV experimental velocity data and numerical simulation results at the measurement plane. By applying this hybrid method, the normalized RMS velocity error between the simulation and experimental results was reduced by more than an order of magnitude. The optimization algorithm altered 3D fluid circulation patterns considerably, providing a more accurate representation of the 3D experimental flow field. This method can be generalized to a wide variety of flow problems. This research was supported by the Institute for Collaborative Biotechnologies through grant W911NF-09-0001 from the U.S. Army Research Office.
A 3D numerical study of antimicrobial persistence in heterogeneous multi-species biofilms.
Zhao, Jia; Shen, Ya; Haapasalo, Markus; Wang, Zhejun; Wang, Qi
2016-03-01
We develop a 3D hydrodynamic model to investigate the mechanism of antimicrobial persistence in a multi-species oral biofilm and its recovery after being treated by bisbiguanide chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX). In addition to the hydrodynamic transport in the spatially heterogeneous biofilm, the model also includes mechanisms of solvent-biomass interaction, bacterial phenotype conversion, and bacteria-drug interaction. A numerical solver for the model is developed using a second order numerical scheme in 3D space and time and implemented on GPUs for high-performance computing. The model is calibrated against a set of experimental data obtained using confocal laser scan microscopy (CLSM) on multi-species oral biofilms, where a quantitative agreement is reached. Our numerical results reveal that quorum sensing molecules and growth factors in this model are instrumental in biofilm formation and recovery after the antimicrobial treatment. In particular, we show that (i) young biofilms are more susceptible to the antimicrobial treatment than the mature ones, (ii) this phenomenon is strongly correlated with volume fractions of the persister and EPS in the biofilm being treated. This suggests that antimicrobial treatment should be best administered to biofilms earlier before they mature to produce a thick protective EPS layer. In addition, the numerical study also indicates that an antimicrobial effect can be achieved should a proper mechanism be devised to minimize the conversion of susceptible bacteria to persisters during and even after the treatment. PMID:26739374
Thermal 3D Modeling of Geothermal Area Using Terrestrial Photogrammetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akcay, Ozgun; Cuneyt Erenoglu, Ramazan; Erenoglu, Oya; Yılmazturk, Ferruh; Karaca, Zeki
2015-04-01
Photogrammetry and computer vision, sciences producing high accuracy 3D models from digital images based on projective geometry. 3D models can also be produced using thermal camera images using photogrammetry and computer vision techniques. Thermal images are capable of displaying hotspots on geothermal areas as a heat source in details. In the research, Tuzla geothermal area in Çanakkale province of Turkey is inspected using imaging techniques of terrestrial photogrammetry. Both a digital camera Canon EOS 650D and an infrared camera Optris PI 450 are used to obtain images of the thermal site. Calibration parameters (focal length, principle point, distortion coefficients) of thermal and digital cameras are determined using the calibration test field at the laboratory before the field work. In order to provide the georeferencing and the robustness of the 3D model, aluminum discs having diameter of 30 centimeters as ground control points (GCPs) are set to the geothermal area appropriately before imaging. Aluminum targets are chosen as the GCP because they are determined on the image depending on the contrast reflectance rate of the aluminum. Using GNSS RTK receivers supplying ±1 cm accuracy positioning, GCPs are measured so as to implement photogrammetric process successfully with thermal images. Numerous corresponding points are detected on the overlapped images with image matching techniques. Later on, bundle block adjustment is applied to calculate the revised interior orientation parameters of camera and exterior orientation parameters of camera positions. The 3D model showing details of the surface temperatures of the geothermal area are produced with multi view stereo (MVS) technique. The technique is able to produce 3D representation (point cloud, mesh and textured surface) of the field from both the thermal and digital images. The research presents that photogrammetric evaluation of thermal images is a noteworthy method to obtain a quick- accurate 3D
3D fast wavelet network model-assisted 3D face recognition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Said, Salwa; Jemai, Olfa; Zaied, Mourad; Ben Amar, Chokri
2015-12-01
In last years, the emergence of 3D shape in face recognition is due to its robustness to pose and illumination changes. These attractive benefits are not all the challenges to achieve satisfactory recognition rate. Other challenges such as facial expressions and computing time of matching algorithms remain to be explored. In this context, we propose our 3D face recognition approach using 3D wavelet networks. Our approach contains two stages: learning stage and recognition stage. For the training we propose a novel algorithm based on 3D fast wavelet transform. From 3D coordinates of the face (x,y,z), we proceed to voxelization to get a 3D volume which will be decomposed by 3D fast wavelet transform and modeled after that with a wavelet network, then their associated weights are considered as vector features to represent each training face . For the recognition stage, an unknown identity face is projected on all the training WN to obtain a new vector features after every projection. A similarity score is computed between the old and the obtained vector features. To show the efficiency of our approach, experimental results were performed on all the FRGC v.2 benchmark.
Two-equation turbulence modeling for 3-D hypersonic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bardina, J. E.; Coakley, T. J.; Marvin, J. G.
1992-01-01
An investigation to verify, incorporate and develop two-equation turbulence models for three-dimensional high speed flows is presented. The current design effort of hypersonic vehicles has led to an intensive study of turbulence models for compressible hypersonic flows. This research complements an extensive review of experimental data and the current development of 2D turbulence models. The review of experimental data on 2D and 3D flows includes complex hypersonic flows with pressure profiles, skin friction, wall heat transfer, and turbulence statistics data. In a parallel effort, turbulence models for high speed flows have been tested against flat plate boundary layers, and are being tested against the 2D database. In the present paper, we present the results of 3D Navier-Stokes numerical simulations with an improved k-omega two-equation turbulence model against experimental data and empirical correlations of an adiabatic flat plate boundary layer, a cold wall flat plate boundary layer, and a 3D database flow, the interaction of an oblique shock wave and a thick turbulent boundary layer with a free stream Mach number = 8.18 and Reynolds number = 5 x 10 to the 6th.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mock, Samuel; Allenbach, Robin; Reynolds, Lance; Wehrens, Philip; Kurmann-Matzenauer, Eva; Kuhn, Pascal; Michael, Salomè; Di Tommaso, Gennaro; Herwegh, Marco
2016-04-01
The Swiss Molasse Basin comprises the western and central part of the North Alpine Foreland Basin. In recent years it has come under closer scrutiny due to its promising geopotentials such as geothermal energy and CO2 sequestration. In order to adress these topics good knowledge of the subsurface is a key prerequisite. For that matter, geological 3D models serve as valuable tools. In collaboration with the Swiss Geological Survey (swisstopo) and as part of the project GeoMol CH, a geological 3D model of the Swiss Molasse Basin in the Canton of Bern has been built. The model covers an area of 1810 km2and reaches depth of up to 6.7 km. It comprises 10 major Cenozoic and Mesozoic units and numerous faults. The 3D model is mainly based on 2D seismic data complemented by information from few deep wells. Additionally, data from geological maps and profiles were used for refinement at shallow depths. In total, 1163 km of reflection seismic data, along 77 seismic lines, have been interpreted by different authors with respect to stratigraphy and structures. Both, horizons and faults, have been interpreted in 2D and modelled in 3D using IHS's Kingdom Suite and Midland Valley's MOVE software packages, respectively. Given the variable degree of subsurface information available, each 3D model is subject of uncertainty. With the primary input data coming from interpretation of reflection seismic data, a variety of uncertainties comes into play. Some of them are difficult to address (e.g. author's style of interpretation) while others can be quantified (e.g. mis-tie correction, well-tie). An important source of uncertainties is the quality of seismic data; this affects the traceability and lateral continuation of seismic reflectors. By defining quality classes we can semi-quantify this source of uncertainty. In order to visualize the quality and density of the input data in a meaningful way, we introduce quality-weighted data density maps. In combination with the geological 3D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hashimoto, A.; Suzuki, Y.; Shimbori, T.; Ishii, K.; Takagi, A.
2014-12-01
The result of volcanic ash transport simulation strongly depends on an eruption column model, that gives a profile of discharging rate of ash particles, for a predictability of dispersion of ash particles. Simple eruption column models, such as proposed by Suzuki (1983), have been adopted in volcanic ash transport simulations for its simplicity and convenience. However, such a model sometimes brings erroneous results especially when an environmental wind field considerably affects the behavior of eruption column. The distortion of eruption column and enhancement of turbulent mixing due to wind shear should be taken into account in an eruption column model for the improvement of its applicability. The authors have conducted the three-dimensional simulation of volcanic plume for the 2011 Shinmoe-dake eruption, assuming the vertically-sheared wind field actually observed in the event, and have taken statistics of the locations and mobile vectors of the ash particles getting out of the simulated volcanic plume to establish the profile of discharging rate. The resulted profile is distinctly different from that based on a usual eruption column model. The new profile is characterized by the relatively large discharge of micron-sized ash particles from the middle level of the plume, comparing to the usual one. The authors plan to validate the new model in the simulation of long-range transport of volcanic ash, based on satellite observation data. This work will be a basis for a future improvement of the volcanic ash fall forecast by Japan Meteorological Agency, which is established with the Suzuki's model. The characteristics and validity of new model will be discussed in the presentation. Acknowledgement This study was supported by the Earthquake Research Institute cooperative research program. References Suzuki, T., 1983: A theoretical model for dispersion of tephra. Arc Volcanism: Physics and Tectonics. TERRAPUB, 95-113.
A 3-D shape model of Interamnia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sato, Isao
2015-08-01
A 3-D shape model of the sixth largest of the main belt asteroids, (704) Interamnia, is presented. The model is reproduced from its two stellar occultation observations and six lightcurves between 1969 and 2011. The first stellar occultation was the occultation of TYC 234500183 on 1996 December 17 observed from 13 sites in the USA. An elliptical cross section of (344.6±9.6km)×(306.2±9.1km), for position angle P=73.4±12.5 was fitted. The lightcurve around the occultation shows that the peak-to-peak amplitude was 0.04 mag. and the occultation phase was just before the minimum. The second stellar occultation was the occultation of HIP 036189 on 2003 March 23 observed from 39 sites in Japan and Hawaii. An elliptical cross section of (349.8±0.9km)×(303.7±1.7km), for position angle P=86.0±1.1 was fitted. A companion of 8.5 mag. of the occulted star was discovered whose separation is 12±2 mas (milli-arcseconds), P=148±11 . A combined analysis of rotational lightcurves and occultation chords can return more information than can be obtained with either technique alone. From follow-up photometric observations of the asteroid between 2003 and 2011, its rotation period is determined to be 8.728967167±0.00000007 hours, which is accurate enough to fix the rotation phases at other occultation events. The derived north pole is λ2000=259±8, β2000=-50±5 (retrograde rotation); the lengths of the three principal axes are 2a=361.8±2.8km, 2b=324.4±5.0km, 2c=297.3±3.5km, and the mean diameter is D=326.8±3.0km. Supposing the mass of Interamnia as (3.5±0.9)×10-11 solar masses, the density is then ρ=3.8±1.0 g cm-3.
Ababou, R.
1996-12-31
Subsurface flow processes are inherently three-dimensional and heterogeneous over many scales. Taking this into account, for instance assuming random heterogeneity in 3-D space, puts heavy constraints on numerical models. An efficient numerical code has been developed for solving the porous media flow equations, appropriately generalized to account for 3-D, random-like heterogeneity. The code is based on implicit finite differences (or finite volumes), and uses specialized versions of pre-conditioned iterative solvers that take advantage of sparseness. With Diagonally Scaled Conjugate Gradients, in particular, large systems on the order of several million equations, with randomly variable coefficients, have been solved efficiently on Cray-2 and Cray-Y/MP8 machines, in serial mode as well as parallel mode (autotasking). The present work addresses, first, the numerical aspects and computational issues associated with detailed 3-D flow simulations, and secondly, presents a specific application related to the conductivity homogenization problem (identifying a macroscale conduction law, and an equivalent or effective conductivity). Analytical expressions of effective conductivities are compared with empirical values obtained from several large scale simulations conducted for single realizations of random porous media.
Robust model-based 3d/3D fusion using sparse matching for minimally invasive surgery.
Neumann, Dominik; Grbic, Sasa; John, Matthias; Navab, Nassir; Hornegger, Joachim; Ionasec, Razvan
2013-01-01
Classical surgery is being disrupted by minimally invasive and transcatheter procedures. As there is no direct view or access to the affected anatomy, advanced imaging techniques such as 3D C-arm CT and C-arm fluoroscopy are routinely used for intra-operative guidance. However, intra-operative modalities have limited image quality of the soft tissue and a reliable assessment of the cardiac anatomy can only be made by injecting contrast agent, which is harmful to the patient and requires complex acquisition protocols. We propose a novel sparse matching approach for fusing high quality pre-operative CT and non-contrasted, non-gated intra-operative C-arm CT by utilizing robust machine learning and numerical optimization techniques. Thus, high-quality patient-specific models can be extracted from the pre-operative CT and mapped to the intra-operative imaging environment to guide minimally invasive procedures. Extensive quantitative experiments demonstrate that our model-based fusion approach has an average execution time of 2.9 s, while the accuracy lies within expert user confidence intervals. PMID:24505663
3D Modeling Techniques for Print and Digital Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stephens, Megan Ashley
In developing my thesis, I looked to gain skills using ZBrush to create 3D models, 3D scanning, and 3D printing. The models created compared the hearts of several vertebrates and were intended for students attending Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy. I used several resources to create a model of the human heart and was able to work from life while creating heart models from other vertebrates. I successfully learned ZBrush and 3D scanning, and successfully printed 3D heart models. ZBrush allowed me to create several intricate models for use in both animation and print media. The 3D scanning technique did not fit my needs for the project, but may be of use for later projects. I was able to 3D print using two different techniques as well.
Numerical solution of 3-D magnetotelluric using vector finite element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prihantoro, Rudy; Sutarno, Doddy; Nurhasan
2015-09-01
Magnetotelluric (MT) is a passive electromagnetic (EM) method which measure natural variations of electric and magnetic vector fields at the Earth surface to map subsurface electrical conductivity/resistivity structure. In this study, we obtained numerical solution of three-dimensional (3-D) MT using vector finite element method by solving second order Maxwell differential equation describing diffusion of plane wave through the conductive earth. Rather than the nodes of the element, the edges of the element is used as a vector basis to overcome the occurrence of nonphysical solutions that usually faced by scalar (node based) finite element method. Electric vector fields formulation was used and the resulting system of equation was solved using direct solution method to obtain the electric vector field distribution throughout the earth resistivity model structure. The resulting MT response functions was verified with 1-D layered Earth and 3-D2 COMMEMI outcropping structure. Good agreement is achieved for both structure models.
Numerical investigation of band gaps in 3D printed cantilever-in-mass metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qureshi, Awais; Li, Bing; Tan, K. T.
2016-06-01
In this research, the negative effective mass behavior of elastic/mechanical metamaterials is exhibited by a cantilever-in-mass structure as a proposed design for creating frequency stopping band gaps, based on local resonance of the internal structure. The mass-in-mass unit cell model is transformed into a cantilever-in-mass model using the Bernoulli-Euler beam theory. An analytical model of the cantilever-in-mass structure is derived and the effects of geometrical dimensions and material parameters to create frequency band gaps are examined. A two-dimensional finite element model is created to validate the analytical results, and excellent agreement is achieved. The analytical model establishes an easily tunable metamaterial design to realize wave attenuation based on locally resonant frequency. To demonstrate feasibility for 3D printing, the analytical model is employed to design and fabricate 3D printable mechanical metamaterial. A three-dimensional numerical experiment is performed using COMSOL Multiphysics to validate the wave attenuation performance. Results show that the cantilever-in-mass metamaterial is capable of mitigating stress waves at the desired resonance frequency. Our study successfully presents the use of one constituent material to create a 3D printed cantilever-in-mass metamaterial with negative effective mass density for stress wave mitigation purposes.
Numerical investigation of band gaps in 3D printed cantilever-in-mass metamaterials.
Qureshi, Awais; Li, Bing; Tan, K T
2016-01-01
In this research, the negative effective mass behavior of elastic/mechanical metamaterials is exhibited by a cantilever-in-mass structure as a proposed design for creating frequency stopping band gaps, based on local resonance of the internal structure. The mass-in-mass unit cell model is transformed into a cantilever-in-mass model using the Bernoulli-Euler beam theory. An analytical model of the cantilever-in-mass structure is derived and the effects of geometrical dimensions and material parameters to create frequency band gaps are examined. A two-dimensional finite element model is created to validate the analytical results, and excellent agreement is achieved. The analytical model establishes an easily tunable metamaterial design to realize wave attenuation based on locally resonant frequency. To demonstrate feasibility for 3D printing, the analytical model is employed to design and fabricate 3D printable mechanical metamaterial. A three-dimensional numerical experiment is performed using COMSOL Multiphysics to validate the wave attenuation performance. Results show that the cantilever-in-mass metamaterial is capable of mitigating stress waves at the desired resonance frequency. Our study successfully presents the use of one constituent material to create a 3D printed cantilever-in-mass metamaterial with negative effective mass density for stress wave mitigation purposes. PMID:27329828
Numerical investigation of band gaps in 3D printed cantilever-in-mass metamaterials
Qureshi, Awais; Li, Bing; Tan, K. T.
2016-01-01
In this research, the negative effective mass behavior of elastic/mechanical metamaterials is exhibited by a cantilever-in-mass structure as a proposed design for creating frequency stopping band gaps, based on local resonance of the internal structure. The mass-in-mass unit cell model is transformed into a cantilever-in-mass model using the Bernoulli-Euler beam theory. An analytical model of the cantilever-in-mass structure is derived and the effects of geometrical dimensions and material parameters to create frequency band gaps are examined. A two-dimensional finite element model is created to validate the analytical results, and excellent agreement is achieved. The analytical model establishes an easily tunable metamaterial design to realize wave attenuation based on locally resonant frequency. To demonstrate feasibility for 3D printing, the analytical model is employed to design and fabricate 3D printable mechanical metamaterial. A three-dimensional numerical experiment is performed using COMSOL Multiphysics to validate the wave attenuation performance. Results show that the cantilever-in-mass metamaterial is capable of mitigating stress waves at the desired resonance frequency. Our study successfully presents the use of one constituent material to create a 3D printed cantilever-in-mass metamaterial with negative effective mass density for stress wave mitigation purposes. PMID:27329828
The Engelbourg's ruins: from 3D TLS point cloud acquisition to 3D virtual and historic models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koehl, Mathieu; Berger, Solveig; Nobile, Sylvain
2014-05-01
The Castle of Engelbourg was built at the beginning of the 13th century, at the top of the Schlossberg. It is situated on the territory of the municipality of Thann (France), at the crossroads of Alsace and Lorraine, and dominates the outlet of the valley of Thur. Its strategic position was one of the causes of its systematic destructions during the 17th century, and Louis XIV finished his fate by ordering his demolition in 1673. Today only few vestiges remain, of which a section of the main tower from about 7m of diameter and 4m of wide laying on its slice, unique characteristic in the regional castral landscape. It is visible since the valley, was named "the Eye of the witch", and became a key attraction of the region. The site, which extends over approximately one hectare, is for several years the object of numerous archaeological studies and is at the heart of a project of valuation of the vestiges today. It was indeed a key objective, among the numerous planned works, to realize a 3D model of the site in its current state, in other words, a virtual model "such as seized", exploitable as well from a cultural and tourist point of view as by scientists and in archaeological researches. The team of the ICube/INSA lab had in responsibility the realization of this model, the acquisition of the data until the delivery of the virtual model, thanks to 3D TLS and topographic surveying methods. It was also planned to integrate into this 3D model, data of 2D archives, stemming from series of former excavations. The objectives of this project were the following ones: • Acquisition of 3D digital data of the site and 3D modelling • Digitization of the 2D archaeological data and integration in the 3D model • Implementation of a database connected to the 3D model • Virtual Visit of the site The obtained results allowed us to visualize every 3D object individually, under several forms (point clouds, 3D meshed objects and models, etc.) and at several levels of detail
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jiajia; Ward, Steven N.; Xiao, Lili
2015-06-01
Flow-like landslides are rapidly moving fluid-solid mixtures that can cause significant destruction along paths that run far from their original sources. Existing models for run out prediction and motion simulation of flow-like landslides have many limitations. In this paper, we develop a new method named `Tsunami Squares' to simulate the generation, propagation and stoppage of flow-like landslides based on conservation of volume and momentum. Landslide materials in the new method form divisible squares that are displaced, then further fractured. The squares move under the influence of gravity-driven acceleration and suffer decelerations due to basal and dynamic frictions. Distinctively, this method takes into account solid and fluid mechanics, particle interactions and flow regime transitions. We apply this approach to simulate the 1982 El Picacho landslide in San Salvador, capital city of El Salvador. Landslide products from Tsunami Squares such as run out distance, velocities, erosion and deposition depths and impacted area agree well with field investigated and eyewitness data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Yiyun; Dang, Qiaohong; Liu, Minxian
2013-10-01
Magnetic levitation force of bulk high temperature superconductors (HTSCs) above monopole permanent magnet guideway (PMG) is simulated using finite element method (FEM). The models are formulated by H-formulation and resolving codes is developed using Finite Element Program Generator (FEPG). The E- J power law is used to describe the electrical field vs. current density nonlinear characteristic of HTSC. By the method, the levitation performance is studied consider different cross-section configure of the monopole PMG. The simulation results show that the maximum levitation force (MLF) of the bulk HTSC will increase when the height/width of the PMG rises while fixing the width/height of the monopole PMG cross-section. The increasing trends to slow when the absolute differential value of the height and the width of the PMG cross-section become larger and larger. For a certain cross-section area of the monopole PMG, the economical levitation cost may be achieved while the ratio of height to width of the cross-section changes between 0.475 and 0.525.
Numerical simulation of 3-D Benard convection with gravitational modulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biringen, S.; Peltier, L. J.
1990-01-01
In this numerical study, randomly and sinusoidally modulated gravitational fields imposed on three-dimensional Rayleigh-Benard convection are investigated in an effort to understand the effects of vibration (G-Jitter) on fluid systems. The time-dependent, Navier-Stokes equations and the energy equation with Boussinesq approximations are solved by a semi-implicit, pseudospectral procedure. An analysis of energy balances indicates that with increasing modulation amplitude, transition from synchronous to relaxation oscillation goes through the subharmonic response. Random modulations are found to be less stabilizing than sinusoidal and are shown to impose three-dimensionality on the flow for some parameter ranges both at terrestrial and zero base gravity conditions.
Quasi 3D modeling of water flow in vadose zone and groundwater
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuznetsov, M.; Yakirevich, A.; Pachepsky, Y. A.; Sorek, S.; Weisbrod, N.
2012-07-01
SummaryThe complexity of subsurface flow systems calls for a variety of concepts leading to the multiplicity of simplified flow models. One habitual simplification is based on the assumption that lateral flow and transport in unsaturated zone are not significant unless the capillary fringe is involved. In such cases the flow and transport in the unsaturated zone above groundwater level can be simulated as a 1D phenomenon, whereas the flow and transport through groundwater are viewed as 2D or 3D phenomena. A new approach for a numerical scheme for 3D variably saturated flow using quasi 3D Richards' equation and finite difference scheme is presented. The corresponding numerical algorithm and the QUASI-3D computer code were developed. Results of the groundwater level simulations were compared with transient laboratory experimental data for 2D data constant-flux infiltration, quasi-3D HYDRUS-MODFLOW numerical model and a FULL-3D numerical model using Richards' equation. Hypothetical 3D examples of infiltration, pumping and groundwater mound dissipation for different spatial-time scales are presented. Water flow simulation for the Alto Piura aquifer (Peru) demonstrates the QUASI-3D model application at the regional scale. Computationally the QUASI-3D code was found to be more efficient by an order of 10-300%, while being accurate with respect to the benchmark fully 3D variable saturation code, when the capillary fringe was considered.
3D modeling of metallic grain growth
George, D.; Carlson, N.; Gammel, J.T.; Kuprat, A.
1999-06-01
This paper will describe simulating metallic grain growth using the Gradient Weighted Moving Finite Elements code, GRAIN3D. The authors also describe the set of mesh topology change operations developed to respond to changes in the physical topology such as the collapse of grains and to maintain uniform calculational mesh quality. Validation of the method is demonstrated by comparison to analytic calculations. The authors present results of multigrain simulations where grain boundaries evolve by mean curvature motion and include results which incorporate grain boundary orientation dependence.
The 3D rocket combustor acoustics model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Priem, Richard J.; Breisacher, Kevin J.
1992-01-01
The theory and procedures for determining the characteristics of pressure oscillations in rocket engines with prescribed burning rate oscillations are presented. Analyses including radial and hub baffles and absorbers can be performed in one, two, and three dimensions. Pressure and velocity oscillations calculated using this procedure are presented for the SSME to show the influence of baffles and absorbers on the burning rate oscillations required to achieve neutral stability. Comparisons are made between the results obtained utilizing 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D assumptions with regards to capturing the physical phenomena of interest and computational requirements.
CityGML - Interoperable semantic 3D city models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gröger, Gerhard; Plümer, Lutz
2012-07-01
CityGML is the international standard of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) for the representation and exchange of 3D city models. It defines the three-dimensional geometry, topology, semantics and appearance of the most relevant topographic objects in urban or regional contexts. These definitions are provided in different, well-defined Levels-of-Detail (multiresolution model). The focus of CityGML is on the semantical aspects of 3D city models, its structures, taxonomies and aggregations, allowing users to employ virtual 3D city models for advanced analysis and visualization tasks in a variety of application domains such as urban planning, indoor/outdoor pedestrian navigation, environmental simulations, cultural heritage, or facility management. This is in contrast to purely geometrical/graphical models such as KML, VRML, or X3D, which do not provide sufficient semantics. CityGML is based on the Geography Markup Language (GML), which provides a standardized geometry model. Due to this model and its well-defined semantics and structures, CityGML facilitates interoperable data exchange in the context of geo web services and spatial data infrastructures. Since its standardization in 2008, CityGML has become used on a worldwide scale: tools from notable companies in the geospatial field provide CityGML interfaces. Many applications and projects use this standard. CityGML is also having a strong impact on science: numerous approaches use CityGML, particularly its semantics, for disaster management, emergency responses, or energy-related applications as well as for visualizations, or they contribute to CityGML, improving its consistency and validity, or use CityGML, particularly its different Levels-of-Detail, as a source or target for generalizations. This paper gives an overview of CityGML, its underlying concepts, its Levels-of-Detail, how to extend it, its applications, its likely future development, and the role it plays in scientific research. Furthermore, its
The Vajont disaster: a 3D numerical simulation for the slide and the waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rubino, Angelo; Androsov, Alexey; Vacondio, Renato; Zanchettin, Davide; Voltzinger, Naum
2016-04-01
A very high resolution O(5 m), 3D hydrostatic nonlinear numerical model was used to simulate the dynamics of both the slide and the surface waves produced during the Vajont disaster (north Italy, 1963), one of the major landslide-induced tsunamis ever documented. Different simulated wave phenomena like, e.g., maximum run-up on the opposite shore, maximum height, and water velocity were analyzed and compared with data available in literature, including the results of a fully 3D simulation obtained with a Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic code. The difference between measured and simulated after-slide bathymetries was calculated and used in an attempt to quantify the relative magnitude and extension of rigid and fluid motion components during the event.
Filice, Luigino; Gagliardi, Francesco; Umbrello, Domenico; Shivpuri, Rajiv
2007-05-17
Metallic foams represent one of the most exciting materials introduced in the manufacturing scenario in the last years. In the study here addressed, the experimental and numerical investigations on the forging process of a simple foam billet shaped into complex sculptured parts were carried out. In particular, the deformation behavior of metallic foams and the development of density gradients were investigated through a series of experimental forging tests in order to produce a selected portion of a hip prosthesis. The human bone replacement was chosen as case study due to its industrial demand and for its particular 3D complex shape. A finite element code (Deform 3D) was utilized for modeling the foam behavior during the forging process and an accurate material rheology description was used based on a porous material model which includes the measured local density. Once the effectiveness of the utilized Finite Element model was verified through the comparison with the experimental evidences, a numerical study of the influence of the foam density was investigated. The obtained numerical results shown as the initial billet density plays an important role on the prediction of the final shape, the optimization of the flash as well as the estimation of the punch load.
3D Face Modeling Using the Multi-Deformable Method
Hwang, Jinkyu; Yu, Sunjin; Kim, Joongrock; Lee, Sangyoun
2012-01-01
In this paper, we focus on the problem of the accuracy performance of 3D face modeling techniques using corresponding features in multiple views, which is quite sensitive to feature extraction errors. To solve the problem, we adopt a statistical model-based 3D face modeling approach in a mirror system consisting of two mirrors and a camera. The overall procedure of our 3D facial modeling method has two primary steps: 3D facial shape estimation using a multiple 3D face deformable model and texture mapping using seamless cloning that is a type of gradient-domain blending. To evaluate our method's performance, we generate 3D faces of 30 individuals and then carry out two tests: accuracy test and robustness test. Our method shows not only highly accurate 3D face shape results when compared with the ground truth, but also robustness to feature extraction errors. Moreover, 3D face rendering results intuitively show that our method is more robust to feature extraction errors than other 3D face modeling methods. An additional contribution of our method is that a wide range of face textures can be acquired by the mirror system. By using this texture map, we generate realistic 3D face for individuals at the end of the paper. PMID:23201976
Life in 3D is never flat: 3D models to optimise drug delivery.
Fitzgerald, Kathleen A; Malhotra, Meenakshi; Curtin, Caroline M; O' Brien, Fergal J; O' Driscoll, Caitriona M
2015-10-10
The development of safe, effective and patient-acceptable drug products is an expensive and lengthy process and the risk of failure at different stages of the development life-cycle is high. Improved biopharmaceutical tools which are robust, easy to use and accurately predict the in vivo response are urgently required to help address these issues. In this review the advantages and challenges of in vitro 3D versus 2D cell culture models will be discussed in terms of evaluating new drug products at the pre-clinical development stage. Examples of models with a 3D architecture including scaffolds, cell-derived matrices, multicellular spheroids and biochips will be described. The ability to simulate the microenvironment of tumours and vital organs including the liver, kidney, heart and intestine which have major impact on drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and toxicity will be evaluated. Examples of the application of 3D models including a role in formulation development, pharmacokinetic profiling and toxicity testing will be critically assessed. Although utilisation of 3D cell culture models in the field of drug delivery is still in its infancy, the area is attracting high levels of interest and is likely to become a significant in vitro tool to assist in drug product development thus reducing the requirement for unnecessary animal studies. PMID:26220617
Assessing the RELAPS-3D Heat Conduction Enclosure Model
McCann, Larry D.
2008-09-30
Three heat conduction problems that have exact solutions are modeled with RELAP5-3D using the conduction enclosure model. These comparisons are designed to be used in the RELAP5-3D development assessment scheduled to be completed in 2009. It is shown that with proper input choices and adequate model detail the exact solutions can be matched. In addition, this analysis identified an error and the required correction in the cylindrical and spherical heat conductor models in RELAP5-3D which will be corrected in a future version of RELAP5-3D.
Numerical homogenization for seismic wave propagation in 3D geological media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cupillard, P.; Capdeville, Y.; Botella, A.
2014-12-01
Despite the important increase of the computational power in the last decades, simulating the seismic wave propagation through realistic geological models is still a challenge. By realistic models we here mean 3D media in which a broad variety (in terms of amplitude and extent) of heterogeneities lies, including discontinuities with complex geometry such as faulted and folded horizons, intrusive geological contacts and fault systems. To perform accurate numerical simulations, these discontinuities require complicated meshes which usually contain extremely small elements, yielding large, sometimes prohibitive, computation costs. Fortunately, the recent development of the non-periodic homogenization technique now enables to overcome this problem by computing smooth equivalent models for which a coarse mesh is sufficient to get an accurate wavefield. In this work, we present an efficient implementation of the technique which now allows for the homogenization of large 3D geological models. This implementation relies on a tetrahedral finite-element solution of the elasto-static equation behind the homogenization problem. Because this equation is time-independent, solving it is numerically cheaper than solving the wave equation, but it nevertheless requires some care because of the large size of the stiffness matrix arising from the fine mesh of realistic geological structures. A domain decomposition is therefore adopted. In our strategy, the obtained sub-domains overlap but they are independent so the solution within each of them can be computed either in series or in parallel. In addition, well-balanced loads, efficient search algorithms and multithreading are implemented to speed up the computation. The resulting code enables the homogenization of 3D elastic media in a time that is neglectable with respect to the simulation time of the wave propagation within. This is illustrated through a sub-surface model of the Furfooz karstic region, Belgium.
Effect of Frictions on the Ballistic Performance of a 3D Warp Interlock Fabric: Numerical Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ha-Minh, Cuong; Boussu, François; Kanit, Toufik; Crépin, David; Imad, Abdellatif
2012-06-01
3D interlock woven fabrics are promising materials to replace the 2D structures in the field of ballistic protection. The structural complexity of this material caused many difficulties in numerical modeling. This paper presents a new tool that permits to generate a geometry model of any woven fabric, then, mesh this model in shell or solid elements, and apply the mechanical properties of yarns to them. The tool shows many advantages over existing software. It is very handy in use with an organization of the functions in menu and using a graphic interface. It can describe correctly the geometry of all textile woven fabrics. With this tool, the orientation of the local axes of finite elements following the yarn direction facilitates defining the yarn mechanical properties in a numerical model. This tool can be largely applied because it is compatible with popular finite element codes such as Abaqus, Ansys, Radioss etc. Thanks to this tool, a finite element model was carried out to describe a ballistic impact on a 3D warp interlock Kevlar KM2® fabric. This work focuses on studying the effect of friction onto the ballistic impact behavior of this textile interlock structure. Results showed that the friction among yarns affects considerably on the impact behavior of this fabric. The effect of the friction between projectile and yarn is less important. The friction plays an important role in keeping the fabric structural stability during the impact event. This phenomenon explained why the projectile is easier to penetrate this 3D warp interlock fabric in the no-friction case. This result also indicates that the ballistic performance of the interlock woven fabrics can be improved by using fibers with great friction coefficients.
3D scene modeling from multiple range views
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sequeira, Vitor; Goncalves, Joao G. M.; Ribeiro, M. Isabel
1995-09-01
This paper presents a new 3D scene analysis system that automatically reconstructs the 3D geometric model of real-world scenes from multiple range images acquired by a laser range finder on board of a mobile robot. The reconstruction is achieved through an integrated procedure including range data acquisition, geometrical feature extraction, registration, and integration of multiple views. Different descriptions of the final 3D scene model are obtained: a polygonal triangular mesh, a surface description in terms of planar and biquadratics surfaces, and a 3D boundary representation. Relevant experimental results from the complete 3D scene modeling are presented. Direct applications of this technique include 3D reconstruction and/or update of architectual or industrial plans into a CAD model, design verification of buildings, navigation of autonomous robots, and input to virtual reality systems.
Visualization of 3D Geological Models on Google Earth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Y.; Um, J.; Park, M.
2013-05-01
Google Earth combines satellite imagery, aerial photography, thematic maps and various data sets to make a three-dimensional (3D) interactive image of the world. Currently, Google Earth is a popular visualization tool in a variety of fields and plays an increasingly important role not only for private users in daily life, but also for scientists, practitioners, policymakers and stakeholders in research and application. In this study, a method to visualize 3D geological models on Google Earth is presented. COLLAborative Design Activity (COLLADA, an open standard XML schema for establishing interactive 3D applications) was used to represent different 3D geological models such as borehole, fence section, surface-based 3D volume and 3D grid by triangle meshes (a set of triangles connected by their common edges or corners). In addition, we designed Keyhole Markup Language (KML, the XML-based scripting language of Google Earth) codes to import the COLLADA files into the 3D render window of Google Earth. The method was applied to the Grosmont formation in Alberta, Canada. The application showed that the combination of COLLADA and KML enables Google Earth to effectively visualize 3D geological structures and properties.; Visualization of the (a) boreholes, (b) fence sections, (c) 3D volume model and (d) 3D grid model of Grossmont formation on Google Earth
a Fast Method for Measuring the Similarity Between 3d Model and 3d Point Cloud
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Zongliang; Li, Jonathan; Li, Xin; Lin, Yangbin; Zhang, Shanxin; Wang, Cheng
2016-06-01
This paper proposes a fast method for measuring the partial Similarity between 3D Model and 3D point Cloud (SimMC). It is crucial to measure SimMC for many point cloud-related applications such as 3D object retrieval and inverse procedural modelling. In our proposed method, the surface area of model and the Distance from Model to point Cloud (DistMC) are exploited as measurements to calculate SimMC. Here, DistMC is defined as the weighted distance of the distances between points sampled from model and point cloud. Similarly, Distance from point Cloud to Model (DistCM) is defined as the average distance of the distances between points in point cloud and model. In order to reduce huge computational burdens brought by calculation of DistCM in some traditional methods, we define SimMC as the ratio of weighted surface area of model to DistMC. Compared to those traditional SimMC measuring methods that are only able to measure global similarity, our method is capable of measuring partial similarity by employing distance-weighted strategy. Moreover, our method is able to be faster than other partial similarity assessment methods. We demonstrate the superiority of our method both on synthetic data and laser scanning data.
A 3D Geometry Model Search Engine to Support Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tam, Gary K. L.; Lau, Rynson W. H.; Zhao, Jianmin
2009-01-01
Due to the popularity of 3D graphics in animation and games, usage of 3D geometry deformable models increases dramatically. Despite their growing importance, these models are difficult and time consuming to build. A distance learning system for the construction of these models could greatly facilitate students to learn and practice at different…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Lijun; Huang, Xiaolong; Jia, Shenli; Deng, Jie; Qian, Zhonghao; Shi, Zongqian; Schellenkens, H.; Godechot, X.
2015-06-01
A time-dependent 3D numerical model considering anode evaporation is developed for the high current vacuum arc (VA) under a realistic spatial magnetic field. The simulation work contains steady state 3D numerical simulation of high current VA considering anode evaporation at nine discrete moments of first half wave of 50 Hz AC current, transient numerical simulation of anode activity, and realistic spatial magnetic field calculation of commercial cup-shaped electrodes. In the simulation, contact opening and arc diffusion processes are also considered. Due to the effect of electrode slots, the simulation results of magnetic field and temperature of anode plate exhibit six leaves shape (SLS). During 6-8 ms, the strong evaporation of anode surface seriously influence the parameter distributions of VA. Ions emitted from anode penetrate into arc column and the axial velocity distribution on the anode side exhibits SLS. The ions emitted from anode surface have the same temperature with anode surface, which cool the arc plasma and lead to a relative low temperature area formed. The seriously evaporation of anode leads to the accumulation of ions near the anode, and then the current density is more uniform.
3-D-numerical approach to simulate an avalanche impact into a reservoir
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gabl, R.; Seibl, J.; Gems, B.; Aufleger, M.
2015-06-01
The impact of an avalanche into a reservoir induces an impulse wave, which poses a threat to population and infrastructure. For a good approximation of the generated wave height and length as well as the resulting outflow volume over structures and dams, formulas, which base on different simplifying assumptions, can be used. Further project-specific investigations by means of a scale model test or numerical simulations are advisable for complex reservoirs as well as the inclusion of hydraulic structures such as spillways. The paper presents a new approach for a 3-D-numerical simulation of an avalanche impact into a reservoir. In this model concept the energy and mass of the avalanche are represented by accelerated water on the real hill slope. Instead of snow, only water and air are used to simulate the moving avalanche with the software FLOW-3D. A significant advantage of this assumption is the self-adaptation of the model avalanche onto the terrain. In order to reach good comparability of the results with existing research at the ETH Zürich, a simplified reservoir geometry is investigated. Thus, a reference case has been analysed including a variation of three geometry parameters (still water depth in the reservoir, freeboard of the dam and reservoir width).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xiao-kang; Liu, Zhen-guo; Hu, Long; Wang, Yi-bo; Lei, Bing; Huang, Xiang
2016-08-01
Numerical studied on T-joints with three-dimensional four directional (3D4D) braided composite fillers was presented in this article. Compared with conventional unidirectional prepreg fillers, the 3D braided composite fillers have excellent ability to prevent crack from penetrating trigone fillers, which constantly occurred in the conventional fillers. Meanwhile, the 3D braided composite fillers had higher fiber volume fraction and eliminated the fiber folding problem in unidirectional prepreg fillers. The braiding technology and mechanical performance of 3D4D braided fillers were studied. The numerical model of carbon fiber T-joints with 3D4D braided composite fillers was built by finite element analysis software. The damage formation, extension and failing process of T-joints with 3D4D braided fillers under tensile load were investigated. Further investigation was extended to the effect of 3D4D braided fillers with different braiding angles on mechanical behavior of the T-joints. The study results revealed that the filling area was the weakest part of the T-joints where the damage first appeared and the crack then rapidly spread to the glue film around the filling area and the interface between over-laminate and soleplate. The 3D4D braided fillers were undamaged and the braiding angle change induced a little effect on the bearing capacity of T-joints.
Evaluation of 3D-Jury on CASP7 models
Kaján, László; Rychlewski, Leszek
2007-01-01
Background 3D-Jury, the structure prediction consensus method publicly available in the Meta Server , was evaluated using models gathered in the 7th round of the Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction (CASP7). 3D-Jury is an automated expert process that generates protein structure meta-predictions from sets of models obtained from partner servers. Results The performance of 3D-Jury was analysed for three aspects. First, we examined the correlation between the 3D-Jury score and a model quality measure: the number of correctly predicted residues. The 3D-Jury score was shown to correlate significantly with the number of correctly predicted residues, the correlation is good enough to be used for prediction. 3D-Jury was also found to improve upon the competing servers' choice of the best structure model in most cases. The value of the 3D-Jury score as a generic reliability measure was also examined. We found that the 3D-Jury score separates bad models from good models better than the reliability score of the original server in 27 cases and falls short of it in only 5 cases out of a total of 38. We report the release of a new Meta Server feature: instant 3D-Jury scoring of uploaded user models. Conclusion The 3D-Jury score continues to be a good indicator of structural model quality. It also provides a generic reliability score, especially important for models that were not assigned such by the original server. Individual structure modellers can also benefit from the 3D-Jury scoring system by testing their models in the new instant scoring feature available in the Meta Server. PMID:17711571
Computational modeling of RNA 3D structures and interactions.
Dawson, Wayne K; Bujnicki, Janusz M
2016-04-01
RNA molecules have key functions in cellular processes beyond being carriers of protein-coding information. These functions are often dependent on the ability to form complex three-dimensional (3D) structures. However, experimental determination of RNA 3D structures is difficult, which has prompted the development of computational methods for structure prediction from sequence. Recent progress in 3D structure modeling of RNA and emerging approaches for predicting RNA interactions with ions, ligands and proteins have been stimulated by successes in protein 3D structure modeling. PMID:26689764
3D Tissue-Engineered Model of Ewing Sarcoma
Lamhamedi-Cherradi, Salah-Eddine; Santoro, Marco; Ramammoorthy, Vandhana; Menegaz, Brian A.; Bartholomeusz, Geoffrey; Iles, Lakesla R.; Amin, Hesham M.; Livingston, Andrew J.; Mikos, Antonios G.; Ludwig, Joseph A.
2015-01-01
Despite longstanding reliance upon monolayer culture for studying cancer cells, and numerous advantages from both a practical and experimental standpoint, a growing body of evidence suggests more complex three-dimensional (3D) models are necessary to properly mimic many of the critical hallmarks associated with the oncogenesis, maintenance and spread of Ewing sarcoma (ES), the second most common pediatric bone tumor. And as clinicians increasingly turn to biologically-targeted therapies that exert their effects not only on the tumor cells themselves, but also on the surrounding extracellular matrix, it is especially important that preclinical models evolve in parallel to reliably measure antineoplastic effects and possible mechanisms of de novo and acquired drug resistance. Herein, we highlight a number of innovative methods used to fabricate biomimetic ES tumors, encompassing both the surrounding cellular milieu and extracellular matrix (ECM), and suggest potential applications to advance our understanding of ES biology, preclinical drug testing, and personalized medicine. PMID:25109853
An Automated 3d Indoor Topological Navigation Network Modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jamali, A.; Rahman, A. A.; Boguslawski, P.; Gold, C. M.
2015-10-01
Indoor navigation is important for various applications such as disaster management and safety analysis. In the last decade, indoor environment has been a focus of wide research; that includes developing techniques for acquiring indoor data (e.g. Terrestrial laser scanning), 3D indoor modelling and 3D indoor navigation models. In this paper, an automated 3D topological indoor network generated from inaccurate 3D building models is proposed. In a normal scenario, 3D indoor navigation network derivation needs accurate 3D models with no errors (e.g. gap, intersect) and two cells (e.g. rooms, corridors) should touch each other to build their connections. The presented 3D modeling of indoor navigation network is based on surveying control points and it is less dependent on the 3D geometrical building model. For reducing time and cost of indoor building data acquisition process, Trimble LaserAce 1000 as surveying instrument is used. The modelling results were validated against an accurate geometry of indoor building environment which was acquired using Trimble M3 total station.
Highway 3D model from image and lidar data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Jinfeng; Chu, Henry; Sun, Xiaoduan
2014-05-01
We present a new method of highway 3-D model construction developed based on feature extraction in highway images and LIDAR data. We describe the processing road coordinate data that connect the image frames to the coordinates of the elevation data. Image processing methods are used to extract sky, road, and ground regions as well as significant objects (such as signs and building fronts) in the roadside for the 3D model. LIDAR data are interpolated and processed to extract the road lanes as well as other features such as trees, ditches, and elevated objects to form the 3D model. 3D geometry reasoning is used to match the image features to the 3D model. Results from successive frames are integrated to improve the final model.
Simulation of 3D infrared scenes using random fields model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shao, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Jianqi
2001-09-01
Analysis and simulation of smart munitions requires imagery for the munition's sensor to view. The traditional infrared background simulations are always limited in the plane scene studies. A new method is described to synthesize the images in 3D view and with various terrains texture. We develop the random fields model and temperature fields to simulate 3D infrared scenes. Generalized long-correlation (GLC) model, one of random field models, will generate both the 3D terrains skeleton data and the terrains texture in this work. To build the terrain mesh with the random fields, digital elevation models (DEM) are introduced in the paper. And texture mapping technology will perform the task of pasting the texture in the concavo-convex surfaces of the 3D scene. The simulation using random fields model is a very available method to produce 3D infrared scene with great randomicity and reality.
An Automatic Registration Algorithm for 3D Maxillofacial Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiu, Luwen; Zhou, Zhongwei; Guo, Jixiang; Lv, Jiancheng
2016-09-01
3D image registration aims at aligning two 3D data sets in a common coordinate system, which has been widely used in computer vision, pattern recognition and computer assisted surgery. One challenging problem in 3D registration is that point-wise correspondences between two point sets are often unknown apriori. In this work, we develop an automatic algorithm for 3D maxillofacial models registration including facial surface model and skull model. Our proposed registration algorithm can achieve a good alignment result between partial and whole maxillofacial model in spite of ambiguous matching, which has a potential application in the oral and maxillofacial reparative and reconstructive surgery. The proposed algorithm includes three steps: (1) 3D-SIFT features extraction and FPFH descriptors construction; (2) feature matching using SAC-IA; (3) coarse rigid alignment and refinement by ICP. Experiments on facial surfaces and mandible skull models demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of our algorithm.
Crashworthiness analysis using advanced material models in DYNA3D
Logan, R.W.; Burger, M.J.; McMichael, L.D.; Parkinson, R.D.
1993-10-22
As part of an electric vehicle consortium, LLNL and Kaiser Aluminum are conducting experimental and numerical studies on crashworthy aluminum spaceframe designs. They have jointly explored the effect of heat treat on crush behavior and duplicated the experimental behavior with finite-element simulations. The major technical contributions to the state of the art in numerical simulation arise from the development and use of advanced material model descriptions for LLNL`s DYNA3D code. Constitutive model enhancements in both flow and failure have been employed for conventional materials such as low-carbon steels, and also for lighter weight materials such as aluminum and fiber composites being considered for future vehicles. The constitutive model enhancements are developed as extensions from LLNL`s work in anisotropic flow and multiaxial failure modeling. Analysis quality as a function of level of simplification of material behavior and mesh is explored, as well as the penalty in computation cost that must be paid for using more complex models and meshes. The lightweight material modeling technology is being used at the vehicle component level to explore the safety implications of small neighborhood electric vehicles manufactured almost exclusively from these materials.
Extending 3D city models with legal information
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frank, A. U.; Fuhrmann, T.; Navratil, G.
2012-10-01
3D city models represent existing physical objects and their topological and functional relations. In everyday life the rights and responsibilities connected to these objects, primarily legally defined rights and obligations but also other socially and culturally established rights, are of importance. The rights and obligations are defined in various laws and it is often difficult to identify the rules applicable for a certain case. The existing 2D cadastres show civil law rights and obligations and plans to extend them to provide information about public law restrictions for land use are in several countries under way. It is tempting to design extensions to the 3D city models to provide information about legal rights in 3D. The paper analyses the different types of information that are needed to reduce conflicts and to facilitate decisions about land use. We identify the role 3D city models augmented with planning information in 3D can play, but do not advocate a general conversion from 2D to 3D for the legal cadastre. Space is not anisotropic and the up/down dimension is practically very different from the two dimensional plane - this difference must be respected when designing spatial information systems. The conclusions are: (1) continue the current regime for ownership of apartments, which is not ownership of a 3D volume, but co-ownership of a building with exclusive use of some rooms; such exclusive use rights could be shown in a 3D city model; (2) ownership of 3D volumes for complex and unusual building situations can be reported in a 3D city model, but are not required everywhere; (3) indicate restrictions for land use and building in 3D city models, with links to the legal sources.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sack, Jacqueline J.
2013-01-01
This article explicates the development of top-view numeric coding of 3-D cube structures within a design research project focused on 3-D visualization skills for elementary grades children. It describes children's conceptual development of 3-D cube structures using concrete models, conventional 2-D pictures and abstract top-view numeric…
3D scanning modeling method application in ancient city reconstruction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Pu; Zhou, Mingquan; Du, Guoguang; Shui, Wuyang; Zhou, Pengbo
2015-07-01
With the development of optical engineering technology, the precision of 3D scanning equipment becomes higher, and its role in 3D modeling is getting more distinctive. This paper proposed a 3D scanning modeling method that has been successfully applied in Chinese ancient city reconstruction. On one hand, for the existing architectures, an improved algorithm based on multiple scanning is adopted. Firstly, two pieces of scanning data were rough rigid registered using spherical displacers and vertex clustering method. Secondly, a global weighted ICP (iterative closest points) method is used to achieve a fine rigid registration. On the other hand, for the buildings which have already disappeared, an exemplar-driven algorithm for rapid modeling was proposed. Based on the 3D scanning technology and the historical data, a system approach was proposed for 3D modeling and virtual display of ancient city.
Insights from 3D numerical simulations on the dynamics of the India-Asia collision zone
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pusok, A. E.; Kaus, B.; Popov, A.
2013-12-01
The dynamics of the India-Asia collision zone remains one of the most remarkable topics of the current research interest: the transition from subduction to collision and uplift, followed by the rise of the abnormally thick Tibetan plateau, and the deformation at its Eastern and Western syntaxes, are processes still not fully understood. Models that have addressed this topic include wholescale underthrusting of Indian lithospheric mantle under Tibet, distributed homogeneous shortening or the thin-sheet model, slip-line field model for lateral extrusion or lower crustal flow models for the exhumation of the Himalayan units and lateral spreading of the Tibetan plateau. Of these, the thin-sheet model has successfully illustrated some of the basic physics of continental collision and has the advantage of a 3D model being reduced to 2D, but one of its major shortcomings is that it cannot simultaneously represent channel flow and gravitational collapse of the mantle lithosphere, since these mechanisms require the lithosphere to interact with the underlying mantle, or to have a vertically non-homogeneous rheology. As a consequence, 3D models are emerging as powerful tools to understand the dynamics of coupled systems. However, because of yet recent developments and various complexities, the current 3D models simulating the dynamics of continent collision zones have relied on certain explicit assumptions, such as replacing part of the asthenosphere with various types of boundary conditions that mimic the effect of mantle flow, in order to focus on the lithospheric/crustal deformation. Here, we employ the parallel 3D code LaMEM (Lithosphere and Mantle Evolution Model), with a finite difference staggered grid solver, which is capable of simulating lithospheric deformation while simultaneously taking mantle flow and a free surface into account. We present qualitative results on lithospheric and upper-mantle scale simulations in which the Indian lithosphere is subducted and
3-D model-based Bayesian classification
Soenneland, L.; Tenneboe, P.; Gehrmann, T.; Yrke, O.
1994-12-31
The challenging task of the interpreter is to integrate different pieces of information and combine them into an earth model. The sophistication level of this earth model might vary from the simplest geometrical description to the most complex set of reservoir parameters related to the geometrical description. Obviously the sophistication level also depend on the completeness of the available information. The authors describe the interpreter`s task as a mapping between the observation space and the model space. The information available to the interpreter exists in observation space and the task is to infer a model in model-space. It is well-known that this inversion problem is non-unique. Therefore any attempt to find a solution depend son constraints being added in some manner. The solution will obviously depend on which constraints are introduced and it would be desirable to allow the interpreter to modify the constraints in a problem-dependent manner. They will present a probabilistic framework that gives the interpreter the tools to integrate the different types of information and produce constrained solutions. The constraints can be adapted to the problem at hand.
Opportunity Landing Spot Panorama (3-D Model)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2004-01-01
The rocky outcrop traversed by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity is visible in this three-dimensional model of the rover's landing site. Opportunity has acquired close-up images along the way, and scientists are using the rover's instruments to closely examine portions of interest. The white fragments that look crumpled near the center of the image are portions of the airbags. Distant scenery is displayed on a spherical backdrop or 'billboard' for context. Artifacts near the top rim of the crater are a result of the transition between the three-dimensional model and the billboard. Portions of the terrain model lacking sufficient data appear as blank spaces or gaps, colored reddish-brown for better viewing. This image was generated using special software from NASA's Ames Research Center and a mosaic of images taken by the rover's panoramic camera.
[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger view
The rocky outcrop traversed by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity is visible in this zoomed-in portion of a three-dimensional model of the rover's landing site. Opportunity has acquired close-up images along the way, and scientists are using the rover's instruments to closely examine portions of interest. The white fragments that look crumpled near the center of the image are portions of the airbags. Distant scenery is displayed on a spherical backdrop or 'billboard' for context. Artifacts near the top rim of the crater are a result of the transition between the three-dimensional model and the billboard. Portions of the terrain model lacking sufficient data appear as blank spaces or gaps, colored reddish-brown for better viewing. This image was generated using special software from NASA's Ames Research Center and a mosaic of images taken by the rover's panoramic camera.
Numerical Simulation of 3-D Supersonic Viscous Flow in an Experimental MHD Channel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kato, Hiromasa; Tannehill, John C.; Gupta, Sumeet; Mehta, Unmeel B.
2004-01-01
The 3-D supersonic viscous flow in an experimental MHD channel has been numerically simulated. The experimental MHD channel is currently in operation at NASA Ames Research Center. The channel contains a nozzle section, a center section, and an accelerator section where magnetic and electric fields can be imposed on the flow. In recent tests, velocity increases of up to 40% have been achieved in the accelerator section. The flow in the channel is numerically computed using a new 3-D parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) algorithm that has been developed to efficiently compute MHD flows in the low magnetic Reynolds number regime. The MHD effects are modeled by introducing source terms into the PNS equations which can then be solved in a very e5uent manner. To account for upstream (elliptic) effects, the flowfield can be computed using multiple streamwise sweeps with an iterated PNS algorithm. The new algorithm has been used to compute two test cases that match the experimental conditions. In both cases, magnetic and electric fields are applied to the flow. The computed results are in good agreement with the available experimental data.
Virtual 3d City Modeling: Techniques and Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.
2013-08-01
3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as Building, Tree, Vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. There are various terms used for 3D city models such as "Cybertown", "Cybercity", "Virtual City", or "Digital City". 3D city models are basically a computerized or digital model of a city contains the graphic representation of buildings and other objects in 2.5 or 3D. Generally three main Geomatics approach are using for Virtual 3-D City models generation, in first approach, researcher are using Conventional techniques such as Vector Map data, DEM, Aerial images, second approach are based on High resolution satellite images with LASER scanning, In third method, many researcher are using Terrestrial images by using Close Range Photogrammetry with DSM & Texture mapping. We start this paper from the introduction of various Geomatics techniques for 3D City modeling. These techniques divided in to two main categories: one is based on Automation (Automatic, Semi-automatic and Manual methods), and another is Based on Data input techniques (one is Photogrammetry, another is Laser Techniques). After details study of this, finally in short, we are trying to give the conclusions of this study. In the last, we are trying to give the conclusions of this research paper and also giving a short view for justification and analysis, and present trend for 3D City modeling. This paper gives an overview about the Techniques related with "Generation of Virtual 3-D City models using Geomatics Techniques" and the Applications of Virtual 3D City models. Photogrammetry, (Close range, Aerial, Satellite), Lasergrammetry, GPS, or combination of these modern Geomatics techniques play a major role to create a virtual 3-D City model. Each and every techniques and method has some advantages and some drawbacks. Point cloud model is a modern trend for virtual 3-D city model. Photo-realistic, Scalable, Geo-referenced virtual 3
Venusian Applications of 3D Convection Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bonaccorso, Timary Annie
2011-01-01
This study models mantle convection on Venus using the 'cubed sphere' code OEDIPUS, which models one-sixth of the planet in spherical geometry. We are attempting to balance internal heating, bottom mantle viscosity, and temperature difference across Venus' mantle, in order to create a realistic model that matches with current planetary observations. We also have begun to run both lower and upper mantle simulations to determine whether layered (as opposed to whole-mantle) convection might produce more efficient heat transfer, as well as to model coronae formation in the upper mantle. Upper mantle simulations are completed using OEDIPUS' Cartesian counterpart, JOCASTA. This summer's central question has been how to define a mantle plume. Traditionally, we have defined a hot plume the region with temperature at or above 40% of the difference between the maximum and horizontally averaged temperature, and a cold plume as the region with 40% of the difference between the minimum and average temperature. For less viscous cases (1020 Pa?s), the plumes generated by that definition lacked vigor, displaying buoyancies 1/100th of those found in previous, higher viscosity simulations (1021 Pa?s). As the mantle plumes with large buoyancy flux are most likely to produce topographic uplift and volcanism, the low viscosity cases' plumes may not produce observable deformation. In an effort to eliminate the smallest plumes, we experimented with different lower bound parameters and temperature percentages.
James E. Fisher; Cliff B. Davis; Walter L. Weaver
2005-06-01
A compressor model has been implemented in the RELAP5-3D© code. The model is similar to that of the existing pump model, and performs the same function on a gas as the pump performs on a single-phase or two-phase fluid. The compressor component consists of an inlet junction and a control volume, and optionally, an outlet junction. This feature permits cascading compressor components in series. The equations describing the physics of the compressor are derived from first principles. These equations are used to obtain the head, the torque, and the energy dissipation. Compressor performance is specified using a map, specific to the design of the machine, in terms of the ratio of outlet-to-inlet total (or stagnation) pressure and adiabatic efficiency as functions of rotational velocity and flow rate. The input quantities are specified in terms of dimensionless variables, which are corrected to stagnation density and stagnation sound speed. A small correction was formulated for the input of efficiency to account for the error introduced by assumption of constant density when integrating the momentum equation. Comparison of the results of steady-state operation of the compressor model to those of the MIT design calculation showed excellent agreement for both pressure ratio and power.
Image based 3D city modeling : Comparative study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.
2014-06-01
3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as building, tree, vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. The demand of 3D city modeling is increasing rapidly for various engineering and non-engineering applications. Generally four main image based approaches were used for virtual 3D city models generation. In first approach, researchers were used Sketch based modeling, second method is Procedural grammar based modeling, third approach is Close range photogrammetry based modeling and fourth approach is mainly based on Computer Vision techniques. SketchUp, CityEngine, Photomodeler and Agisoft Photoscan are the main softwares to represent these approaches respectively. These softwares have different approaches & methods suitable for image based 3D city modeling. Literature study shows that till date, there is no complete such type of comparative study available to create complete 3D city model by using images. This paper gives a comparative assessment of these four image based 3D modeling approaches. This comparative study is mainly based on data acquisition methods, data processing techniques and output 3D model products. For this research work, study area is the campus of civil engineering department, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India). This 3D campus acts as a prototype for city. This study also explains various governing parameters, factors and work experiences. This research work also gives a brief introduction, strengths and weakness of these four image based techniques. Some personal comment is also given as what can do or what can't do from these softwares. At the last, this study shows; it concluded that, each and every software has some advantages and limitations. Choice of software depends on user requirements of 3D project. For normal visualization project, SketchUp software is a good option. For 3D documentation record, Photomodeler gives good result. For Large city
NoSQL Based 3D City Model Management System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mao, B.; Harrie, L.; Cao, J.; Wu, Z.; Shen, J.
2014-04-01
To manage increasingly complicated 3D city models, a framework based on NoSQL database is proposed in this paper. The framework supports import and export of 3D city model according to international standards such as CityGML, KML/COLLADA and X3D. We also suggest and implement 3D model analysis and visualization in the framework. For city model analysis, 3D geometry data and semantic information (such as name, height, area, price and so on) are stored and processed separately. We use a Map-Reduce method to deal with the 3D geometry data since it is more complex, while the semantic analysis is mainly based on database query operation. For visualization, a multiple 3D city representation structure CityTree is implemented within the framework to support dynamic LODs based on user viewpoint. Also, the proposed framework is easily extensible and supports geoindexes to speed up the querying. Our experimental results show that the proposed 3D city management system can efficiently fulfil the analysis and visualization requirements.
Modelling Polymer Deformation during 3D Printing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McIlroy, Claire; Olmsted, Peter
Three-dimensional printing has the potential to transform manufacturing processes, yet improving the strength of printed parts, to equal that of traditionally-manufactured parts, remains an underlying issue. The fused deposition modelling technique involves melting a thermoplastic, followed by layer-by-layer extrusion to fabricate an object. The key to ensuring strength at the weld between layers is successful inter-diffusion. However, prior to welding, both the extrusion process and the cooling temperature profile can significantly deform the polymer micro-structure and, consequently, how well the polymers are able to ``re-entangle'' across the weld. In particular, polymer alignment in the flow can cause de-bonding of the layers and create defects. We have developed a simple model of the non-isothermal extrusion process to explore the effects that typical printing conditions and material rheology have on the conformation of a polymer melt. In particular, we incorporate both stretch and orientation using the Rolie-Poly constitutive equation to examine the melt structure as it flows through the nozzle, the subsequent alignment with the build plate and the resulting deformation due to the fixed nozzle height, which is typically less than the nozzle radius.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Przyborska, Anna; Kosecki, Szymon; Jakacki, Jaromir
2014-05-01
Kongsfjorden is a West Svalbard fjord with a surface area of about 210 km2. It is obvious that the depths of the outer and central basins are influenced by the open sea, under influence of West Spitsbergen Current (WSC), which curry out warm Atlantic water and cold East Spitsbergen Current, while the shallower, inner basin has a large glacial outflow and its maximum depths do not exceed 100 m. Freshwater stored in Spitsbergen glaciers have strong influence on local hydrology and physical fjord conditions. Both, local and shelf conditions have impact on state of the fjord. External forces like tides, velocities at the boundary and atmospheric forces together with sources of cold and dens fresh water in the fjords will give reliable representation of physical conditions in Kongsfjorden. Modeling could help to solve this problem and we have hope that we find answer which one is the most important for local conditions in fjord. Calculations of balances between cold fresh water and warm and salt will provide additional information that could help to answer the main question of the GAME (Growing of the Arctic Marine Ecosystem) project - what is the reaction of physically controlled Arctic marine ecosystem to temperature rise.
3D PIC Modeling of Microcavity Discharge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hopkins, Matthew; Manginell, Ronald; Moore, Christopher; Yee, Benjamin; Moorman, Matthew
2015-09-01
We present a number of techniques and challenges in simulating the transient behavior of a microcavity discharge. Our microcavities are typically cylindrical with diameters approximately 50 - 100 μm, heights of 50 - 200 μm, pressure near atmospheric, and operate at a few hundred volts. We employ a fully kinetic simulation methodology, the Particle-in-Cell (PIC) method, with interparticle collisions handled via methods based on direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC). In particular, we explicitly include kinetic electrons. Some of the challenges we encounter include variations in number densities, external circuit coupling, and time step resolution constraints. By employing dynamic particle weighting (particle weights vary over time by species and location) we can mitigate some of the challenges modeling systems with 107 variations in number densities. Smoothing mechanisms have been used to attempt to mitigate external circuit response. We perform our simulations on hundreds or thousands of processing cores to accommodate the computational work inherent in using relatively small time step sizes (e.g., 50 fs for a 100 ns calculation). In addition, particle weighting issues inherent to three-dimensional low temperature plasma systems will be mentioned. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's NNSA under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erlström, M.; Niemi, A.; Lindström, S.; Gunnarsson, N.; Daher, S. Bou
2012-04-01
llviken Halfgraben. Relatively less sand in wells away from the main faults imply a distal position and/or a lack of accumulation space. In this study special emphasis is in building a 3D site model by using the simulation software Petrel, evaluating geostatistical data as well as stochastic simulations by using different geostatistical algorithms and evaluating the benefits in this. The primary aim has been to produce a 3D model of the distribution patterns of the different facies and the porosity. The results will be used for CO2 injection simulation purposes in the continuing work of CO2 Mustang (EU Fp 7 project).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Filice, Luigino; Gagliardi, Francesco; Shivpuri, Rajiv; Umbrello, Domenico
2007-05-01
Metallic foams represent one of the most exciting materials introduced in the manufacturing scenario in the last years. In the study here addressed, the experimental and numerical investigations on the forging process of a simple foam billet shaped into complex sculptured parts were carried out. In particular, the deformation behavior of metallic foams and the development of density gradients were investigated through a series of experimental forging tests in order to produce a selected portion of a hip prosthesis. The human bone replacement was chosen as case study due to its industrial demand and for its particular 3D complex shape. A finite element code (Deform 3D®) was utilized for modeling the foam behavior during the forging process and an accurate material rheology description was used based on a porous material model which includes the measured local density. Once the effectiveness of the utilized Finite Element model was verified through the comparison with the experimental evidences, a numerical study of the influence of the foam density was investigated. The obtained numerical results shown as the initial billet density plays an important role on the prediction of the final shape, the optimization of the flash as well as the estimation of the punch load.
3D Model Segmentation and Representation with Implicit Polynomials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Bo; Takamatsu, Jun; Ikeuchi, Katsushi
When large-scale and complex 3D objects are obtained by range finders, it is often necessary to represent them by algebraic surfaces for such purposes as data compression, multi-resolution, noise elimination, and 3D recognition. Representing the 3D data with algebraic surfaces of an implicit polynomial (IP) has proved to offer the advantages that IP representation is capable of encoding geometric properties easily with desired smoothness, few parameters, algebraic/geometric invariants, and robustness to noise and missing data. Unfortunately, generating a high-degree IP surface for a whole complex 3D shape is impossible because of high computational cost and numerical instability. In this paper we propose a 3D segmentation method based on a cut-and-merge approach. Two cutting procedures adopt low-degree IPs to divide and fit the surface segments simultaneously, while avoiding generating high-curved segments. A merging procedure merges the similar adjacent segments to avoid over-segmentation. To prove the effectiveness of this segmentation method, we open up some new vistas for 3D applications such as 3D matching, recognition, and registration.
3D numerical investigation on landslide generated tsunamis around a conical island
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Montagna, Francesca; Bellotti, Giorgio
2010-05-01
This paper presents numerical computations of tsunamis generated by subaerial and submerged landslides falling along the flank of a conical island. The study is inspired by the tsunamis that on 30th December 2002 attacked the coast of the volcanic island of Stromboli (South Tyrrhenian sea, Italy). In particular this paper analyzes the important feature of the lateral spreading of landside generated tsunamis and the associated flooding hazard. The numerical model used in this study is the full three dimensional commercial code FLOW-3D. The model has already been successfully used (Choi et al., 2007; 2008; Chopakatla et al, 2008) to study the interaction of waves and structures. In the simulations carried out in this work a particular feature of the code has been employed: the GMO (General Moving Object) algorithm. It allows to reproduce the interaction between moving objects, as a landslide, and the water. FLOW-3D has been firstly validated using available 3D experiments reproducing tsunamis generated by landslides at the flank of a conical island. The experiments have been carried out in the LIC laboratory of the Polytechnic of Bari, Italy (Di Risio et al., 2009). Numerical and experimental time series of run-up and sea level recorded at gauges located at the flanks of the island and offshore have been successfully compared. This analysis shows that the model can accurately represent the generation, the propagation and the inundation of landslide generated tsunamis and suggests the use of the numerical model as a tool for preparing inundation maps. At the conference we will present the validation of the model and parametric analyses aimed to investigate how wave properties depend on the landslide kinematic and on further parameters such as the landslide volume and shape, as well as the radius of the island. The expected final results of the research are precomputed inundation maps that depend on the characteristics of the landslide and of the island. Finally we
The 3D model: explaining densification and deformation mechanisms by using 3D parameter plots.
Picker, Katharina M
2004-04-01
The aim of the study was to analyze very differently deforming materials using 3D parameter plots and consequently to gain deeper insights into the densification and deformation process described with the 3D model in order to define an ideal tableting excipient. The excipients used were dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), sodium chloride (NaCl), microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), xylitol, mannitol, alpha-lactose monohydrate, maltose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC), cellulose acetate (CAC), maize starch, potato starch, pregelatinized starch, and maltodextrine. All of the materials were tableted to graded maximum relative densities (rhorel, max) using an eccentric tableting machine. The data which resulted, namely force, displacement, and time, were analyzed by the application of 3D modeling. Different particle size fractions of DCPD, CAC, and MCC were analyzed in addition. Brittle deforming materials such as DCPD exhibited a completely different 3D parameter plot, with low time plasticity, d, and low pressure plasticity, e, and a strong decrease in omega values when densification increased, in contrast to the plastically deforming MCC, which had much higher d, e, and omega values. e and omega values changed only slightly when densification increased for MCC. NaCl showed less of a decrease in omega values than DCPD did, and the d and e values were between those of MCC and DCPD. The sugar alcohols, xylitol and mannitol, behaved in a similar fashion to sodium chloride. This is also valid for the crystalline sugars, alpha-lactose monohydrate, and maltose. However, the sugars are more brittle than the sugar alcohols. The cellulose derivatives, HPMC, NaCMC, and CAC, are as plastic as MCC, however, their elasticity depends on substitution indicated by lower (more elastic) or higher (less elastic) omega values. The native starches, maize starch and potato starch, are very elastic, and pregelatinized starch and maltodextrine are
3D numerical simulation of the evolutionary process of aeolian downsized crescent-shaped dunes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Xiaosi; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Yuan; Li, Min
2016-06-01
A dune constitutive model was coupled with a large eddy simulation (LES) with the Smagorinsky subgrid-scale (SGS) model to accurately describe the evolutionary process of dunes from the macroscopic perspective of morphological dynamics. A 3D numerical simulation of the evolution of aeolian downsized crescent-shaped dunes was then performed. The evolution of the 3D structure of Gaussian-shaped dunes was simulated under the influence of gravity modulation, which was the same with the vertical oscillation of the sand bed to adjust the threshold of sand grain liftoff in wind tunnel experiments under the same wind speed. The influence of gravity modulation intensity on the characteristic scale parameter of the dune was discussed. Results indicated that the crescent shape of the dune was reproduced with the action of gravity during regulation of the saturation of wind-sand flow at specific times. The crescent shape was not dynamically maintained as time passed, and the dunes dwindled until they reached final decomposition because of wind erosion. The height of the dunes decreased over time, and the height-time curve converged as the intensity of modulation increased linearly. The results qualitatively agreed with those obtained from wind tunnel experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Menant, Armel; Jolivet, Laurent; Guillou-Frottier, Laurent; Sternai, Pietro; Gerya, Taras
2016-04-01
Active convergent margins are the locus of various large-scale lithospheric processes including subduction, back-arc opening, lithospheric delamination, slab tearing and break-off. Coexistence of such processes results in a complex lithospheric deformation pattern through the rheological stratification of the overriding lithosphere. In this context, another major feature is the development of an intense arc- and back-arc-related magmatism whose effects on lithospheric deformation by rheological weakening are largely unknown. Quantifying this magma-related weakening effect and integrating the three-dimensional (3D) natural complexity of subduction system is however challenging because of the large number of physico-chemical processes involved (e.g. heat advection, dehydration of subducted material, partial melting of the mantle wedge). We present here a set of 3D high-resolution petrological and thermo-mechanical numerical experiments to assess the role of low-viscosity magmatic phases on lithospheric deformation associated with coeval oceanic and continental subduction, followed by slab retreat and tearing processes. Results in terms of crustal kinematics, patterns of lithospheric deformation and distribution and composition of magmatic phases are then compared to a natural example displaying a similar geodynamical evolution: the eastern Mediterranean subduction zone. Our modeling results suggest that the asthenospheric flow controls the ascending trajectories of mantle-derived magmatic sources developed in the mantle wedge in response to dehydration of oceanic slab. Once stored at the base of the overriding continental crust, low-viscosity mantle- and crustal-derived magmatic phases allow to decrease the lithospheric strength. This weakening then enhances the propagation of localized extensional and strike-slip deformation in response to slab roll-back and extrusion tectonics respectively. In addition, we show that storage of large amounts of low-viscosity magmas
3D-model building of the jaw impression
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmed, Moumen T.; Yamany, Sameh M.; Hemayed, Elsayed E.; Farag, Aly A.
1997-03-01
A novel approach is proposed to obtain a record of the patient's occlusion using computer vision. Data acquisition is obtained using intra-oral video cameras. The technique utilizes shape from shading to extract 3D information from 2D views of the jaw, and a novel technique for 3D data registration using genetic algorithms. The resulting 3D model can be used for diagnosis, treatment planning, and implant purposes. The overall purpose of this research is to develop a model-based vision system for orthodontics to replace traditional approaches. This system will be flexible, accurate, and will reduce the cost of orthodontic treatments.
3D model-based still image object categorization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petre, Raluca-Diana; Zaharia, Titus
2011-09-01
This paper proposes a novel recognition scheme algorithm for semantic labeling of 2D object present in still images. The principle consists of matching unknown 2D objects with categorized 3D models in order to infer the semantics of the 3D object to the image. We tested our new recognition framework by using the MPEG-7 and Princeton 3D model databases in order to label unknown images randomly selected from the web. Results obtained show promising performances, with recognition rate up to 84%, which opens interesting perspectives in terms of semantic metadata extraction from still images/videos.
Summary on Several Key Techniques in 3D Geological Modeling
2014-01-01
Several key techniques in 3D geological modeling including planar mesh generation, spatial interpolation, and surface intersection are summarized in this paper. Note that these techniques are generic and widely used in various applications but play a key role in 3D geological modeling. There are two essential procedures in 3D geological modeling: the first is the simulation of geological interfaces using geometric surfaces and the second is the building of geological objects by means of various geometric computations such as the intersection of surfaces. Discrete geometric surfaces that represent geological interfaces can be generated by creating planar meshes first and then spatially interpolating; those surfaces intersect and then form volumes that represent three-dimensional geological objects such as rock bodies. In this paper, the most commonly used algorithms of the key techniques in 3D geological modeling are summarized. PMID:24772029
3D-radiative transfer in terrestrial atmosphere: An efficient parallel numerical procedure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bass, L. P.; Germogenova, T. A.; Nikolaeva, O. V.; Kokhanovsky, A. A.; Kuznetsov, V. S.
2003-04-01
Light propagation and scattering in terrestrial atmosphere is usually studied in the framework of the 1D radiative transfer theory [1]. However, in reality particles (e.g., ice crystals, solid and liquid aerosols, cloud droplets) are randomly distributed in 3D space. In particular, their concentrations vary both in vertical and horizontal directions. Therefore, 3D effects influence modern cloud and aerosol retrieval procedures, which are currently based on the 1D radiative transfer theory. It should be pointed out that the standard radiative transfer equation allows to study these more complex situations as well [2]. In recent year the parallel version of the 2D and 3D RADUGA code has been developed. This version is successfully used in gammas and neutrons transport problems [3]. Applications of this code to radiative transfer in atmosphere problems are contained in [4]. Possibilities of code RADUGA are presented in [5]. The RADUGA code system is an universal solver of radiative transfer problems for complicated models, including 2D and 3D aerosol and cloud fields with arbitrary scattering anisotropy, light absorption, inhomogeneous underlying surface and topography. Both delta type and distributed light sources can be accounted for in the framework of the algorithm developed. The accurate numerical procedure is based on the new discrete ordinate SWDD scheme [6]. The algorithm is specifically designed for parallel supercomputers. The version RADUGA 5.1(P) can run on MBC1000M [7] (768 processors with 10 Gb of hard disc memory for each processor). The peak productivity is equal 1 Tfl. Corresponding scalar version RADUGA 5.1 is working on PC. As a first example of application of the algorithm developed, we have studied the shadowing effects of clouds on neighboring cloudless atmosphere, depending on the cloud optical thickness, surface albedo, and illumination conditions. This is of importance for modern satellite aerosol retrieval algorithms development. [1] Sobolev
Formal representation of 3D structural geological models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhangang; Qu, Honggang; Wu, Zixing; Yang, Hongjun; Du, Qunle
2016-05-01
The development and widespread application of geological modeling methods has increased demands for the integration and sharing services of three dimensional (3D) geological data. However, theoretical research in the field of geological information sciences is limited despite the widespread use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in geology. In particular, fundamental research on the formal representations and standardized spatial descriptions of 3D structural models is required. This is necessary for accurate understanding and further applications of geological data in 3D space. In this paper, we propose a formal representation method for 3D structural models using the theory of point set topology, which produces a mathematical definition for the major types of geological objects. The spatial relationships between geologic boundaries, structures, and units are explained in detail using the 9-intersection model. Reasonable conditions for describing the topological space of 3D structural models are also provided. The results from this study can be used as potential support for the standardized representation and spatial quality evaluation of 3D structural models, as well as for specific needs related to model-based management, query, and analysis.
Numerical 3D study of FZ growth: dependence on growth parameters and melt instability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ratnieks, G.; Muižnieks, A.; Mühlbauer, A.; Raming, G.
2001-08-01
Three-dimensional modelling of the floating zone (needle-eye) crystal growth process is carried out to analyse numerically the stability of the melt flow and the influence of the crystal rotation rate and inductor slit width on the 3D flow field and on the grown crystal resistivity. The unsteadiness of the melt is simulated and it is found that for the considered growth parameters a steady-state flow can be a reasonable approximation to the unsteady melt motion. The parametric studies have shown that increasing the rotation rate essentially changes the flow pattern and weakens the rotational striations, while the inductor slit width has a more local influence on these characteristics.
Numerical simulation of unsteady flow characteristics for cavitation around a 3-D hydrofoil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahn, S. H.; Xiao, Y. X.; Wang, Z. W.
2015-01-01
At present it is possible to predict more accurately by various numerical methods established for cavitation simulation around a hydrofoil. However, for the solution of the complex unsteady cavity flow, it is still marginal. In this paper, numerical method is adopted to simulate cavitation around 3-D NACA0015 hydrofoil with homogeneous two-phase flow calculation using commercial code CFX-solver with two turbulence models, the standard RNG k-epsilon turbulence model and the modified RNG k-epsilon turbulence model respectively. First, pressure coefficient for non-cavitating flow, time averaged values of unsteady cavity flow around a hydrofoil are verified to simulate more closely to an actual cavity flow. And then frequency analysis is performed with Fast Fourier Transform. The results show that the calculation results with modified RNG k-epsilon turbulence model agree with experimental results in terms of mean cavity length and pressure drop, but the unsteady flow characteristics of oscillating cavitation still deviate slightly in terms of unsteady cavity flow.
3D numerical simulation of the transport of chemical signature compounds from buried landmines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Irrazabal, Maik; Borrero, Ernesto; Briano, Julio G.; Castro, Miguel; Hernandez, Samuel P.
2005-06-01
The transport of the chemical signature compounds from buried landmines in a three-dimensional (3D) array has been numerically modeled using the finite-volume technique. Compounds such as trinitrotoluene, dinitrotoluene, and their degradation products, are semi volatile and somewhat soluble in water. Furthermore, they can strongly adsorb to the soil and undergo chemical and biological degradation. Consequently, the spatial and temporal concentration distributions of such chemicals depend on the mobility of the water and gaseous phases, their molecular and mechanical diffusion, adsorption characteristics, soil water content, compaction, and environmental factors. A 3D framework is required since two-dimensional (2D) symmetry may easily fade due to terrain topography: non-flat surfaces, soil heterogeneity, or underground fractures. The spatial and temporal distribution of the chemical-signature-compounds, in an inclined grid has been obtained. The fact that the chemicals may migrate horizontally, giving higher surface concentrations at positions not directly on top of the objects, emphasizes the need for understanding the transport mechanism when a chemical detector is used. Deformation in the concentration contours after rainfall is observed in the inclined surface and is attributed to both: the advective flux, and to the water flux at the surface caused by the slope. The analysis of the displacements in the position of the maximum concentrations at the surface, respect to the actual location of the mine, in an inclined system, is presented.
3D Modeling from Photos Given Topological Information.
Kim, Young Min; Cho, Junghyun; Ahn, Sang Chul
2016-09-01
Reconstructing 3D models given a single-view 2D information is inherently an ill-posed problem and requires additional information such as shape prior or user input.We introduce a method to generate multiple 3D models of a particular category given corresponding photographs when the topological information is known. While there is a wide range of shapes for an object of a particular category, the basic topology usually remains constant.In consequence, the topological prior needs to be provided only once for each category and can be easily acquired by consulting an existing database of 3D models or by user input. The input of topological description is only connectivity information between parts; this is in contrast to previous approaches that have required users to interactively mark individual parts. Given the silhouette of an object and the topology, our system automatically finds a skeleton and generates a textured 3D model by jointly fitting multiple parts. The proposed method, therefore, opens the possibility of generating a large number of 3D models by consulting a massive number of photographs. We demonstrate examples of the topological prior and reconstructed 3D models using photos. PMID:26661474
Performance Evaluation of 3d Modeling Software for Uav Photogrammetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yanagi, H.; Chikatsu, H.
2016-06-01
UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) photogrammetry, which combines UAV and freely available internet-based 3D modeling software, is widely used as a low-cost and user-friendly photogrammetry technique in the fields such as remote sensing and geosciences. In UAV photogrammetry, only the platform used in conventional aerial photogrammetry is changed. Consequently, 3D modeling software contributes significantly to its expansion. However, the algorithms of the 3D modelling software are black box algorithms. As a result, only a few studies have been able to evaluate their accuracy using 3D coordinate check points. With this motive, Smart3DCapture and Pix4Dmapper were downloaded from the Internet and commercial software PhotoScan was also employed; investigations were performed in this paper using check points and images obtained from UAV.
Goldberg, K.A. |; Tejnil, E.; Bokor, J. |
1995-12-01
A 3-D electromagnetic field simulation is used to model the propagation of extreme ultraviolet (EUV), 13-nm, light through sub-1500 {Angstrom} dia pinholes in a highly absorptive medium. Deviations of the diffracted wavefront phase from an ideal sphere are studied within 0.1 numerical aperture, to predict the accuracy of EUV point diffraction interferometersused in at-wavelength testing of nearly diffraction-limited EUV optical systems. Aberration magnitudes are studied for various 3-D pinhole models, including cylindrical and conical pinhole bores.
Combined registration of 3D tibia and femur implant models in 3D magnetic resonance images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Englmeier, Karl-Hans; Siebert, Markus; von Eisenhart-Rothe, Ruediger; Graichen, Heiko
2008-03-01
The most frequent reasons for revision of total knee arthroplasty are loosening and abnormal axial alignment leading to an unphysiological kinematic of the knee implant. To get an idea about the postoperative kinematic of the implant, it is essential to determine the position and orientation of the tibial and femoral prosthesis. Therefore we developed a registration method for fitting 3D CAD-models of knee joint prostheses into an 3D MR image. This rigid registration is the basis for a quantitative analysis of the kinematics of knee implants. Firstly the surface data of the prostheses models are converted into a voxel representation; a recursive algorithm determines all boundary voxels of the original triangular surface data. Secondly an initial preconfiguration of the implants by the user is still necessary for the following step: The user has to perform a rough preconfiguration of both remaining prostheses models, so that the fine matching process gets a reasonable starting point. After that an automated gradient-based fine matching process determines the best absolute position and orientation: This iterative process changes all 6 parameters (3 rotational- and 3 translational parameters) of a model by a minimal amount until a maximum value of the matching function is reached. To examine the spread of the final solutions of the registration, the interobserver variability was measured in a group of testers. This variability, calculated by the relative standard deviation, improved from about 50% (pure manual registration) to 0.5% (rough manual preconfiguration and subsequent fine registration with the automatic fine matching process).
Development of topography in 3-D continental-collision models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pusok, A. E.; Kaus, Boris J. P.
2015-05-01
Understanding the formation and evolution of high mountain belts, such as the Himalayas and the adjacent Tibetan Plateau, has been the focus of many tectonic and numerical models. Here we employ 3-D numerical simulations to investigate the role that subduction, collision, and indentation play on lithosphere dynamics at convergent margins, and to analyze the conditions under which large topographic plateaus can form in an integrated lithospheric and upper mantle-scale model. Distinct dynamics are obtained for the oceanic subduction side (trench retreat, slab rollback) and the continental-collision side (trench advance, slab detachment, topographic uplift, lateral extrusion). We show that slab pull alone is insufficient to generate high topography in the upper plate, and that external forcing and the presence of strong blocks such as the Tarim Basin are necessary to create and shape anomalously high topographic fronts and plateaus. Moreover, scaling is used to predict four different modes of surface expression in continental-collision models: (I) low-amplitude homogeneous shortening, (II) high-amplitude homogeneous shortening, (III) Alpine-type topography with topographic front and low plateau, and (IV) Tibet-Himalaya-type topography with topographic front and high plateau. Results of semianalytical models suggest that the Argand number governs the formation of high topographic fronts, while the amplitude of plateaus is controlled by the initial buoyancy ratio of the upper plate. Applying these results to natural examples, we show that the Alps belong to regime (III), the Himalaya-Tibet to regime (IV), whereas the Andes-Altiplano fall at the boundary between regimes (III) and (IV).
3D Bioprinting of Tissue/Organ Models.
Pati, Falguni; Gantelius, Jesper; Svahn, Helene Andersson
2016-04-01
In vitro tissue/organ models are useful platforms that can facilitate systematic, repetitive, and quantitative investigations of drugs/chemicals. The primary objective when developing tissue/organ models is to reproduce physiologically relevant functions that typically require complex culture systems. Bioprinting offers exciting prospects for constructing 3D tissue/organ models, as it enables the reproducible, automated production of complex living tissues. Bioprinted tissues/organs may prove useful for screening novel compounds or predicting toxicity, as the spatial and chemical complexity inherent to native tissues/organs can be recreated. In this Review, we highlight the importance of developing 3D in vitro tissue/organ models by 3D bioprinting techniques, characterization of these models for evaluating their resemblance to native tissue, and their application in the prioritization of lead candidates, toxicity testing, and as disease/tumor models. PMID:26895542
3D web visualization of huge CityGML models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prandi, F.; Devigili, F.; Soave, M.; Di Staso, U.; De Amicis, R.
2015-08-01
Nowadays, rapid technological development into acquiring geo-spatial information; joined to the capabilities to process these data in a relative short period of time, allows the generation of detailed 3D textured city models that will become an essential part of the modern city information infrastructure (Spatial Data Infrastructure) and, can be used to integrate various data from different sources for public accessible visualisation and many other applications. One of the main bottlenecks, which at the moment limit the use of these datasets to few experts, is a lack on efficient visualization systems through the web and interoperable frameworks that allow standardising the access to the city models. The work presented in this paper tries to satisfy these two requirements developing a 3D web-based visualization system based on OGC standards and effective visualization concepts. The architectural framework, based on Services Oriented Architecture (SOA) concepts, provides the 3D city data to a web client designed to support the view process in a very effective way. The first part of the work is to design a framework compliant to the 3D Portrayal Service drafted by the of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) 3D standardization working group. The latter is related to the development of an effective web client able to render in an efficient way the 3D city models.
3-D electromagnetic modeling of wakefields in accelerator components
Poole, B.R.; Caporaso, G.J.; Ng, Wang C.; Shang, C.C.; Steich, D.
1996-09-18
We discuss the use of 3-D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) electromagnetic codes for modeling accelerator components. Computational modeling of cylindrically symmetric structures such as induction accelerator cells has been very successful in predicting the wake potential and wake impedances of these structures, but full 3-D modeling of complex structures has been limited due to substantial computer resources required for a full 3-D model. New massively parallel 3-D time domain electromagnetic codes now under development using conforming unstructured meshes allow a substantial increase in the geometric fidelity of the structures being modeled. Development of these new codes are discussed in context of applicability to accelerator problems. Various 3-D structures are tested with an existing cubical cell FDTD code and wake impedances compared with simple analytic models for the structures; results will be used as benchmarks for testing the new time time domain codes. Structures under consideration include a stripline beam position monitor as well as circular and elliptical apertures in circular waveguides. Excellent agreement for monopole and dipole impedances with models were found for these structures below the cutoff frequency of the beam line.
3-D electromagnetic modeling of wakefields in accelerator components
Poole, Brian R.; Caporaso, George J.; Ng, Wang C.; Shang, Clifford C.; Steich, David
1997-02-01
We discuss the use of 3-D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) electromagnetic codes for the modeling of accelerator components. Computational modeling of cylindrically symmetric structures such as induction accelerator cells has been extremely successful in predicting the wake potential and wake impedances of these structures, but fully 3-D modeling of complex structures has been limited due to the substantial computer resources required for a fully 3-D model. New massively parallel 3-D time domain electromagnetic codes now under development using conforming unstructured meshes allow a substantial increase in the geometric fidelity of the structures being modeled. Development of these new codes will be discussed in the context of their applicability to accelerator problems. A variety of 3-D structures are tested with an existing cubical cell FDTD code and the wake impedances are compared with simple analytic models for the structures. These results will provide a set of benchmarks for testing the new time domain codes. Structures under consideration include a stripline beam position monitor as well as circular and elliptical apertures in circular waveguides. Excellent agreement for the monopole and dipole impedances with the models are found for these structures below the cutoff frequency of the beam line.
Perception-based shape retrieval for 3D building models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Man; Zhang, Liqiang; Takis Mathiopoulos, P.; Ding, Yusi; Wang, Hao
2013-01-01
With the help of 3D search engines, a large number of 3D building models can be retrieved freely online. A serious disadvantage of most rotation-insensitive shape descriptors is their inability to distinguish between two 3D building models which are different at their main axes, but appear similar when one of them is rotated. To resolve this problem, we present a novel upright-based normalization method which not only correctly rotates such building models, but also greatly simplifies and accelerates the abstraction and the matching of building models' shape descriptors. Moreover, the abundance of architectural styles significantly hinders the effective shape retrieval of building models. Our research has shown that buildings with different designs are not well distinguished by the widely recognized shape descriptors for general 3D models. Motivated by this observation and to further improve the shape retrieval quality, a new building matching method is introduced and analyzed based on concepts found in the field of perception theory and the well-known Light Field descriptor. The resulting normalized building models are first classified using the qualitative shape descriptors of Shell and Unevenness which outline integral geometrical and topological information. These models are then put in on orderly fashion with the help of an improved quantitative shape descriptor which we will term as Horizontal Light Field Descriptor, since it assembles detailed shape characteristics. To accurately evaluate the proposed methodology, an enlarged building shape database which extends previous well-known shape benchmarks was implemented as well as a model retrieval system supporting inputs from 2D sketches and 3D models. Various experimental performance evaluation results have shown that, as compared to previous methods, retrievals employing the proposed matching methodology are faster and more consistent with human recognition of spatial objects. In addition these performance
Microfluidic 3D cell culture: from tools to tissue models.
van Duinen, Vincent; Trietsch, Sebastiaan J; Joore, Jos; Vulto, Paul; Hankemeier, Thomas
2015-12-01
The transition from 2D to 3D cell culture techniques is an important step in a trend towards better biomimetic tissue models. Microfluidics allows spatial control over fluids in micrometer-sized channels has become a valuable tool to further increase the physiological relevance of 3D cell culture by enabling spatially controlled co-cultures, perfusion flow and spatial control over of signaling gradients. This paper reviews most important developments in microfluidic 3D culture since 2012. Most efforts were exerted in the field of vasculature, both as a tissue on its own and as part of cancer models. We observe that the focus is shifting from tool building to implementation of specific tissue models. The next big challenge for the field is the full validation of these models and subsequently the implementation of these models in drug development pipelines of the pharmaceutical industry and ultimately in personalized medicine applications. PMID:26094109
Evaluating Biomaterial- and Microfluidic-Based 3D Tumor Models.
Carvalho, Mariana R; Lima, Daniela; Reis, Rui L; Correlo, Vitor M; Oliveira, Joaquim M
2015-11-01
Cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with a disease burden estimated to increase over the coming decades. Disease heterogeneity and limited information on cancer biology and disease mechanisms are aspects that 2D cell cultures fail to address. Here, we review the current ‘state-of-the-art’ in 3D tissue-engineering (TE) models developed for, and used in, cancer research. We assess the potential for scaffold-based TE models and microfluidics to fill the gap between 2D models and clinical application. We also discuss recent advances in combining the principles of 3D TE models and microfluidics, with a special focus on biomaterials and the most promising chip-based 3D models. PMID:26603572
Eck, Simon; Wörz, Stefan; Müller-Ott, Katharina; Hahn, Matthias; Biesdorf, Andreas; Schotta, Gunnar; Rippe, Karsten; Rohr, Karl
2016-08-01
The genome is partitioned into regions of euchromatin and heterochromatin. The organization of heterochromatin is important for the regulation of cellular processes such as chromosome segregation and gene silencing, and their misregulation is linked to cancer and other diseases. We present a model-based approach for automatic 3D segmentation and 3D shape analysis of heterochromatin foci from 3D confocal light microscopy images. Our approach employs a novel 3D intensity model based on spherical harmonics, which analytically describes the shape and intensities of the foci. The model parameters are determined by fitting the model to the image intensities using least-squares minimization. To characterize the 3D shape of the foci, we exploit the computed spherical harmonics coefficients and determine a shape descriptor. We applied our approach to 3D synthetic image data as well as real 3D static and real 3D time-lapse microscopy images, and compared the performance with that of previous approaches. It turned out that our approach yields accurate 3D segmentation results and performs better than previous approaches. We also show that our approach can be used for quantifying 3D shape differences of heterochromatin foci. PMID:27037463
Incorporation of 3D Shortwave Radiative Effects within the Weather Research and Forecasting Model
O'Hirok, W.; Ricchiazzi, P.; Gautier, C.
2005-03-18
A principal goal of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is to understand the 3D cloud-radiation problem from scales ranging from the local to the size of global climate model (GCM) grid squares. For climate models using typical cloud overlap schemes, 3D radiative effects are minimal for all but the most complicated cloud fields. However, with the introduction of ''superparameterization'' methods, where sub-grid cloud processes are accounted for by embedding high resolution 2D cloud system resolving models within a GCM grid cell, the impact of 3D radiative effects on the local scale becomes increasingly relevant (Randall et al. 2003). In a recent study, we examined this issue by comparing the heating rates produced from a 3D and 1D shortwave radiative transfer model for a variety of radar derived cloud fields (O'Hirok and Gautier 2005). As demonstrated in Figure 1, the heating rate differences for a large convective field can be significant where 3D effects produce areas o f intense local heating. This finding, however, does not address the more important question of whether 3D radiative effects can alter the dynamics and structure of a cloud field. To investigate that issue we have incorporated a 3D radiative transfer algorithm into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Here, we present very preliminary findings of a comparison between cloud fields generated from a high resolution non-hydrostatic mesoscale numerical weather model using 1D and 3D radiative transfer codes.
DynEarthSol3D: numerical studies of basal crevasses and calving blocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Logan, E.; Lavier, L. L.; Choi, E.; Tan, E.; Catania, G. A.
2014-12-01
DynEarthSol3D (DES) is a thermomechanical model for the simulation of dynamic ice flow. We present the application of DES toward two case studies - basal crevasses and calving blocks - to illustrate the potential of the model to aid in understanding calving processes. Among the advantages of using DES are: its unstructured meshes which adaptively resolve zones of high interest; its use of multiple rheologies to simulate different types of dynamic behavior; and its explicit and parallel numerical core which both make the implementation of different boundary conditions easy and the model highly scalable. We examine the initiation and development of both basal crevasses and calving blocks through time using visco-elasto-plastic rheology. Employing a brittle-to-ductile transition zone (BDTZ) based on local strain rate shows that the style and development of brittle features like crevasses differs markedly on the rheological parameters. Brittle and ductile behavior are captured by Mohr-Coulomb elastoplasticity and Maxwell viscoelasticity, respectively. We explore the parameter spaces which define these rheologies (including temperature) as well as the BDTZ threshold (shown in the literature as 10-7 Pa s), using time-to-failure as a metric for accuracy within the model. As the time it takes for a block of ice to fail can determine an iceberg's size, this work has implications for calving laws.
Numerical Calculations of 3-D High-Lift Flows and Comparison with Experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Compton, William B, III
2015-01-01
Solutions were obtained with the Navier-Stokes CFD code TLNS3D to predict the flow about the NASA Trapezoidal Wing, a high-lift wing composed of three elements: the main-wing element, a deployed leading-edge slat, and a deployed trailing-edge flap. Turbulence was modeled by the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation turbulence model. One case with massive separation was repeated using Menter's two-equation SST (Menter's Shear Stress Transport) k-omega turbulence model in an attempt to improve the agreement with experiment. The investigation was conducted at a free stream Mach number of 0.2, and at angles of attack ranging from 10.004 degrees to 34.858 degrees. The Reynolds number based on the mean aerodynamic chord of the wing was 4.3 x 10 (sup 6). Compared to experiment, the numerical procedure predicted the surface pressures very well at angles of attack in the linear range of the lift. However, computed maximum lift was 5% low. Drag was mainly under predicted. The procedure correctly predicted several well-known trends and features of high-lift flows, such as off-body separation. The two turbulence models yielded significantly different solutions for the repeated case.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uznir, U.; Anton, F.; Suhaibah, A.; Rahman, A. A.; Mioc, D.
2013-09-01
The advantages of three dimensional (3D) city models can be seen in various applications including photogrammetry, urban and regional planning, computer games, etc.. They expand the visualization and analysis capabilities of Geographic Information Systems on cities, and they can be developed using web standards. However, these 3D city models consume much more storage compared to two dimensional (2D) spatial data. They involve extra geometrical and topological information together with semantic data. Without a proper spatial data clustering method and its corresponding spatial data access method, retrieving portions of and especially searching these 3D city models, will not be done optimally. Even though current developments are based on an open data model allotted by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) called CityGML, its XML-based structure makes it challenging to cluster the 3D urban objects. In this research, we propose an opponent data constellation technique of space-filling curves (3D Hilbert curves) for 3D city model data representation. Unlike previous methods, that try to project 3D or n-dimensional data down to 2D or 3D using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) or Hilbert mappings, in this research, we extend the Hilbert space-filling curve to one higher dimension for 3D city model data implementations. The query performance was tested using a CityGML dataset of 1,000 building blocks and the results are presented in this paper. The advantages of implementing space-filling curves in 3D city modeling will improve data retrieval time by means of optimized 3D adjacency, nearest neighbor information and 3D indexing. The Hilbert mapping, which maps a subinterval of the [0, 1] interval to the corresponding portion of the d-dimensional Hilbert's curve, preserves the Lebesgue measure and is Lipschitz continuous. Depending on the applications, several alternatives are possible in order to cluster spatial data together in the third dimension compared to its
STELLOPT Modeling of the 3D Diagnostic Response in ITER
Lazerson, Samuel A
2013-05-07
The ITER three dimensional diagnostic response to an n=3 resonant magnetic perturbation is modeled using the STELLOPT code. The in-vessel coils apply a resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) fi eld which generates a 4 cm edge displacement from axisymmetry as modeled by the VMEC 3D equilibrium code. Forward modeling of flux loop and magnetic probe response with the DIAGNO code indicates up to 20 % changes in measured plasma signals. Simulated LIDAR measurements of electron temperature indicate 2 cm shifts on the low field side of the plasma. This suggests that the ITER diagnostic will be able to diagnose the 3D structure of the equilibria.
MR image denoising method for brain surface 3D modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, De-xin; Liu, Peng-jie; Zhang, De-gan
2014-11-01
Three-dimensional (3D) modeling of medical images is a critical part of surgical simulation. In this paper, we focus on the magnetic resonance (MR) images denoising for brain modeling reconstruction, and exploit a practical solution. We attempt to remove the noise existing in the MR imaging signal and preserve the image characteristics. A wavelet-based adaptive curve shrinkage function is presented in spherical coordinates system. The comparative experiments show that the denoising method can preserve better image details and enhance the coefficients of contours. Using these denoised images, the brain 3D visualization is given through surface triangle mesh model, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Potential of 3D City Models to assess flood vulnerability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schröter, Kai; Bochow, Mathias; Schüttig, Martin; Nagel, Claus; Ross, Lutz; Kreibich, Heidi
2016-04-01
Vulnerability, as the product of exposure and susceptibility, is a key factor of the flood risk equation. Furthermore, the estimation of flood loss is very sensitive to the choice of the vulnerability model. Still, in contrast to elaborate hazard simulations, vulnerability is often considered in a simplified manner concerning the spatial resolution and geo-location of exposed objects as well as the susceptibility of these objects at risk. Usually, area specific potential flood loss is quantified on the level of aggregated land-use classes, and both hazard intensity and resistance characteristics of affected objects are represented in highly simplified terms. We investigate the potential of 3D City Models and spatial features derived from remote sensing data to improve the differentiation of vulnerability in flood risk assessment. 3D City Models are based on CityGML, an application scheme of the Geography Markup Language (GML), which represents the 3D geometry, 3D topology, semantics and appearance of objects on different levels of detail. As such, 3D City Models offer detailed spatial information which is useful to describe the exposure and to characterize the susceptibility of residential buildings at risk. This information is further consolidated with spatial features of the building stock derived from remote sensing data. Using this database a spatially detailed flood vulnerability model is developed by means of data-mining. Empirical flood damage data are used to derive and to validate flood susceptibility models for individual objects. We present first results from a prototype application in the city of Dresden, Germany. The vulnerability modeling based on 3D City Models and remote sensing data is compared i) to the generally accepted good engineering practice based on area specific loss potential and ii) to a highly detailed representation of flood vulnerability based on a building typology using urban structure types. Comparisons are drawn in terms of
3D MHD Models of Active Region Loops
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ofman, Leon
2004-01-01
Present imaging and spectroscopic observations of active region loops allow to determine many physical parameters of the coronal loops, such as the density, temperature, velocity of flows in loops, and the magnetic field. However, due to projection effects many of these parameters remain ambiguous. Three dimensional imaging in EUV by the STEREO spacecraft will help to resolve the projection ambiguities, and the observations could be used to setup 3D MHD models of active region loops to study the dynamics and stability of active regions. Here the results of 3D MHD models of active region loops are presented, and the progress towards more realistic 3D MHD models of active regions. In particular the effects of impulsive events on the excitation of active region loop oscillations, and the generation, propagations and reflection of EIT waves are shown. It is shown how 3D MHD models together with 3D EUV observations can be used as a diagnostic tool for active region loop physical parameters, and to advance the science of the sources of solar coronal activity.
3D head model classification using optimized EGI
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tong, Xin; Wong, Hau-san; Ma, Bo
2006-02-01
With the general availability of 3D digitizers and scanners, 3D graphical models have been used widely in a variety of applications. This has led to the development of search engines for 3D models. Especially, 3D head model classification and retrieval have received more and more attention in view of their many potential applications in criminal identifications, computer animation, movie industry and medical industry. This paper addresses the 3D head model classification problem using 2D subspace analysis methods such as 2D principal component analysis (2D PCA[3]) and 2D fisher discriminant analysis (2DLDA[5]). It takes advantage of the fact that the histogram is a 2D image, and we can extract the most useful information from these 2D images to get a good result accordingingly. As a result, there are two main advantages: First, we can perform less calculation to obtain the same rate of classification; second, we can reduce the dimensionality more than PCA to obtain a higher efficiency.
Numerical study of the 3-D effect on FEL performance and its application to the APS LEUTL FEL
Chae, Y.C.
1998-09-01
A Low-Energy Undulator Test Line (LEUTL) is under construction at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). In LEUTL periodic focusing is provided by external quadrupoles. This results in an elliptical beam with its betatron oscillation envelope varying along the undulators. The free-electron laser (FEL) interaction with such a beam will exhibit truly 3-D effects. Thus the investigation of 3-D effects is important in optimizing the FEL performance. The programs GINGER and TDA3D, coupled with theoretically known facts, have been used for this purpose. Both programs are fully 3-D in moving the particle, but model the interaction between particles and axially symmetric electromagnetic waves. Even though TDA3D can include a few azimuthal modes in the interaction, it is still not a fully 3-D FEL code. However, they show that these 2-D programs can still be used for an elliptical beam whose aspect ratio is within certain limits. The author presents numerical results of FEL performance for the circular beam, the elliptical beam, and finally for the beam in the realistic LEUTL lattice.
Vhrs Stereo Images for 3d Modelling of Buildings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bujakiewicz, A.; Holc, M.
2012-07-01
The paper presents the project which was carried out in the Photogrammetric Laboratory of Warsaw University of Technology. The experiment is concerned with the extraction of 3D vector data for buildings creation from 3D photogrammetric model based on the Ikonos stereo images. The model was reconstructed with photogrammetric workstation - Summit Evolution combined with ArcGIS 3D platform. Accuracy of 3D model was significantly improved by use for orientation of pair of satellite images the stereo measured tie points distributed uniformly around the model area in addition to 5 control points. The RMS for model reconstructed on base of the RPC coefficients only were 16,6 m, 2,7 m and 47,4 m, for X, Y and Z coordinates, respectively. By addition of 5 control points the RMS were improved to 0,7 m, 0,7 m 1,0 m, where the best results were achieved when RMS were estimated from deviations in 17 check points (with 5 control points)and amounted to 0,4 m, 0,5 m and 0,6 m, for X, Y, and Z respectively. The extracted 3D vector data for buildings were integrated with 2D data of the ground footprints and afterwards they were used for 3D modelling of buildings in Google SketchUp software. The final results were compared with the reference data obtained from other sources. It was found that the shape of buildings (in concern to the number of details) had been reconstructed on level of LoD1, when the accuracy of these models corresponded to the level of LoD2.
3D model of amphioxus steroid receptor complexed with estradiol
Baker, Michael E.; Chang, David J.
2009-08-28
The origins of signaling by vertebrate steroids are not fully understood. An important advance was the report that an estrogen-binding steroid receptor [SR] is present in amphioxus, a basal chordate with a similar body plan as vertebrates. To investigate the evolution of estrogen-binding to steroid receptors, we constructed a 3D model of amphioxus SR complexed with estradiol. This 3D model indicates that although the SR is activated by estradiol, some interactions between estradiol and human ER{alpha} are not conserved in the SR, which can explain the low affinity of estradiol for the SR. These differences between the SR and ER{alpha} in the steroid-binding domain are sufficient to suggest that another steroid is the physiological regulator of the SR. The 3D model predicts that mutation of Glu-346 to Gln will increase the affinity of testosterone for amphioxus SR and elucidate the evolution of steroid-binding to nuclear receptors.
Quality of 3D Models Generated by SFM Technology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marčiš, Marián
2013-12-01
Using various types of automation in digital photogrammetry is associated with questions such as the accuracy of a 3D model generated on various types of surfaces and textures, the financial costs of the equipment needed, and also the time costs of the processing. This topic deals with the actual technology of computer vision, which allows the automated exterior orientation of images, camera calibration, and the generation of 3D models directly from images of the object itself, based on the automatic detection of significant points. Detailed testing is done using the Agisoft PhotoScan system, and the camera configuration is solved with respect to the accuracy of the 3D model generated and the time consumption of the calculations for the different types of textures and the different settings for the processing.
3D surface digitizing and modeling development at ITRI
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsueh, Wen-Jean
2000-06-01
This paper gives an overview of the research and development activities in 3D surface digitizing and modeling conducted at the Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) of Taiwan in the past decade. As a major technology and consulting service provider of the area, ITRI has developed 3D laser scanning digitizers ranging from low-cost compacts, industrial CAD/CAM digitizing, to large human body scanner, with in-house 3D surface modeling software to provide total solution in reverse engineering that requires processing capabilities of large number of 3D data. Based on both hardware and software technologies in scanning, merging, registration, surface fitting, reconstruction, and compression, ITRI is now exploring innovative methodologies that provide higher performances, including hardware-based correlation algorithms with advanced camera designs, animation surface model reconstruction, and optical tracking for motion capture. It is expected that the need for easy and fast high-quality 3D information in the near future will grow exponentially, at the same amazing rate as the internet and the human desire for realistic and natural images.
Diffusion approximation for modeling of 3-D radiation distributions
Zardecki, A.; Gerstl, S.A.W.; De Kinder, R.E. Jr.
1985-01-01
A three-dimensional transport code DIF3D, based on the diffusion approximation, is used to model the spatial distribution of radiation energy arising from volumetric isotropic sources. Future work will be concerned with the determination of irradiances and modeling of realistic scenarios, relevant to the battlefield conditions. 8 refs., 4 figs.
The program FANS-3D (finite analytic numerical simulation 3-dimensional) and its applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bravo, Ramiro H.; Chen, Ching-Jen
1992-01-01
In this study, the program named FANS-3D (Finite Analytic Numerical Simulation-3 Dimensional) is presented. FANS-3D was designed to solve problems of incompressible fluid flow and combined modes of heat transfer. It solves problems with conduction and convection modes of heat transfer in laminar flow, with provisions for radiation and turbulent flows. It can solve singular or conjugate modes of heat transfer. It also solves problems in natural convection, using the Boussinesq approximation. FANS-3D was designed to solve heat transfer problems inside one, two and three dimensional geometries that can be represented by orthogonal planes in a Cartesian coordinate system. It can solve internal and external flows using appropriate boundary conditions such as symmetric, periodic and user specified.
Modelling Gaia CCD pixels with Silvaco 3D engineering software
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seabroke, G. M.; Prod'Homme, T.; Hopkinson, G.; Burt, D.; Robbins, M.; Holland, A.
2011-02-01
Gaia will only achieve its unprecedented measurement accuracy requirements with detailed calibration and correction for radiation damage. We present our Silvaco 3D engineering software model of the Gaia CCD pixel and two of its applications for Gaia: (1) physically interpreting supplementary buried channel (SBC) capacity measurements (pocket-pumping and first pixel response) in terms of e2v manufacturing doping alignment tolerances; and (2) deriving electron densities within a charge packet as a function of the number of constituent electrons and 3D position within the charge packet as input to microscopic models being developed to simulate radiation damage.
Parallel Optimization of 3D Cardiac Electrophysiological Model Using GPU
Xia, Yong; Wang, Kuanquan; Zhang, Henggui
2015-01-01
Large-scale 3D virtual heart model simulations are highly demanding in computational resources. This imposes a big challenge to the traditional computation resources based on CPU environment, which already cannot meet the requirement of the whole computation demands or are not easily available due to expensive costs. GPU as a parallel computing environment therefore provides an alternative to solve the large-scale computational problems of whole heart modeling. In this study, using a 3D sheep atrial model as a test bed, we developed a GPU-based simulation algorithm to simulate the conduction of electrical excitation waves in the 3D atria. In the GPU algorithm, a multicellular tissue model was split into two components: one is the single cell model (ordinary differential equation) and the other is the diffusion term of the monodomain model (partial differential equation). Such a decoupling enabled realization of the GPU parallel algorithm. Furthermore, several optimization strategies were proposed based on the features of the virtual heart model, which enabled a 200-fold speedup as compared to a CPU implementation. In conclusion, an optimized GPU algorithm has been developed that provides an economic and powerful platform for 3D whole heart simulations. PMID:26581957
Geospatial Modelling Approach for 3d Urban Densification Developments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koziatek, O.; Dragićević, S.; Li, S.
2016-06-01
With growing populations, economic pressures, and the need for sustainable practices, many urban regions are rapidly densifying developments in the vertical built dimension with mid- and high-rise buildings. The location of these buildings can be projected based on key factors that are attractive to urban planners, developers, and potential buyers. Current research in this area includes various modelling approaches, such as cellular automata and agent-based modelling, but the results are mostly linked to raster grids as the smallest spatial units that operate in two spatial dimensions. Therefore, the objective of this research is to develop a geospatial model that operates on irregular spatial tessellations to model mid- and high-rise buildings in three spatial dimensions (3D). The proposed model is based on the integration of GIS, fuzzy multi-criteria evaluation (MCE), and 3D GIS-based procedural modelling. Part of the City of Surrey, within the Metro Vancouver Region, Canada, has been used to present the simulations of the generated 3D building objects. The proposed 3D modelling approach was developed using ESRI's CityEngine software and the Computer Generated Architecture (CGA) language.
3D Model Generation From the Engineering Drawing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vaský, Jozef; Eliáš, Michal; Bezák, Pavol; Červeňanská, Zuzana; Izakovič, Ladislav
2010-01-01
The contribution deals with the transformation of engineering drawings in a paper form into a 3D computer representation. A 3D computer model can be further processed in CAD/CAM system, it can be modified, archived, and a technical drawing can be then generated from it as well. The transformation process from paper form to the data one is a complex and difficult one, particularly owing to the different types of drawings, forms of displayed objects and encountered errors and deviations from technical standards. The algorithm for 3D model generating from an orthogonal vector input representing a simplified technical drawing of the rotational part is described in this contribution. The algorithm was experimentally implemented as ObjectARX application in the AutoCAD system and the test sample as the representation of the rotational part was used for verificaton.
3D flow past transonic turbine cascade SE 1050 — Experiment and numerical simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Šimurda, D.; Fürst, J.; Luxa, M.
2013-08-01
This paper is concerned with experimental and numerical research on 3D flow past prismatic turbine cascade SE1050 (known in QNET network as open test case SE1050). The primary goal was to assess the influence of the inlet velocity profile on the flow structures in the interblade channel and on the flow field parameters at the cascade exit and to compare these findings to results of numerical simulations. Investigations of 3D flow past the cascade with non-uniform inlet velocity profile were carried out both experimentally and numerically at subsonic ( M 2is = 0.8) and at transonic ( M 2is = 1.2) regime at design angle of incidence. Experimental data was obtained using a traversing device with a five-hole conical probe. Numerically, the 3D flow was simulated by open source code OpenFOAM and in-house code. Analyses of experimental data and CFD simulations have revealed the development of distinctive vortex structures resulting from non-uniform inlet velocity profile. Origin of these structures results in increased loss of kinetic energy and spanwise shift of kinetic energy loss coefficient distribution. Differences found between the subsonic and the transonic case confirm earlier findings available in the literature. Results of CFD and experiments agree reasonably well.
3D shape decomposition and comparison for gallbladder modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Weimin; Zhou, Jiayin; Liu, Jiang; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Tao; Su, Yi; Law, Gim Han; Chui, Chee Kong; Chang, Stephen
2011-03-01
This paper presents an approach to gallbladder shape comparison by using 3D shape modeling and decomposition. The gallbladder models can be used for shape anomaly analysis and model comparison and selection in image guided robotic surgical training, especially for laparoscopic cholecystectomy simulation. The 3D shape of a gallbladder is first represented as a surface model, reconstructed from the contours segmented in CT data by a scheme of propagation based voxel learning and classification. To better extract the shape feature, the surface mesh is further down-sampled by a decimation filter and smoothed by a Taubin algorithm, followed by applying an advancing front algorithm to further enhance the regularity of the mesh. Multi-scale curvatures are then computed on the regularized mesh for the robust saliency landmark localization on the surface. The shape decomposition is proposed based on the saliency landmarks and the concavity, measured by the distance from the surface point to the convex hull. With a given tolerance the 3D shape can be decomposed and represented as 3D ellipsoids, which reveal the shape topology and anomaly of a gallbladder. The features based on the decomposed shape model are proposed for gallbladder shape comparison, which can be used for new model selection. We have collected 19 sets of abdominal CT scan data with gallbladders, some shown in normal shape and some in abnormal shapes. The experiments have shown that the decomposed shapes reveal important topology features.
Geodiversity: Exploration of 3D geological model space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lindsay, M. D.; Jessell, M. W.; Ailleres, L.; Perrouty, S.; de Kemp, E.; Betts, P. G.
2013-05-01
The process of building a 3D model necessitates the reconciliation of field observations, geophysical interpretation, geological data uncertainty and the prevailing tectonic evolution hypotheses and interpretations. Uncertainty is compounded when clustered data points collected at local scales are statistically upscaled to one or two points for use in regional models. Interpretation is required to interpolate between sparse field data points using ambiguous geophysical data in covered terranes. It becomes clear that multiple interpretations are possible during model construction. The various interpretations are considered as potential natural representatives, but pragmatism typically dictates that just a single interpretation is offered by the modelling process. Uncertainties are introduced into the 3D model during construction from a variety of sources and through data set optimisation that produces a single model. Practices such as these are likely to result in a model that does not adequately represent the target geology. A set of geometrical ‘geodiversity’ metrics are used to analyse a 3D model of the Gippsland Basin, southeastern Australia after perturbing geological input data via uncertainty simulation. The resulting sets of perturbed geological observations are used to calculate a suite of geological 3D models that display a range of geological architectures. The concept of biodiversity has been adapted for the geosciences to quantify geometric variability, or geodiversity, between models in order to understand the effect uncertainty has models geometry. Various geometrical relationships (depth, volume, contact surface area, curvature and geological complexity) are used to describe the range of possibilities exhibited throughout the model suite. End-member models geodiversity metrics are classified in a similar manner to taxonomic descriptions. Further analysis of the model suite is performed using principal component analysis (PCA) to determine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharkawi, K.-H.; Abdul-Rahman, A.
2013-09-01
Cities and urban areas entities such as building structures are becoming more complex as the modern human civilizations continue to evolve. The ability to plan and manage every territory especially the urban areas is very important to every government in the world. Planning and managing cities and urban areas based on printed maps and 2D data are getting insufficient and inefficient to cope with the complexity of the new developments in big cities. The emergence of 3D city models have boosted the efficiency in analysing and managing urban areas as the 3D data are proven to represent the real world object more accurately. It has since been adopted as the new trend in buildings and urban management and planning applications. Nowadays, many countries around the world have been generating virtual 3D representation of their major cities. The growing interest in improving the usability of 3D city models has resulted in the development of various tools for analysis based on the 3D city models. Today, 3D city models are generated for various purposes such as for tourism, location-based services, disaster management and urban planning. Meanwhile, modelling 3D objects are getting easier with the emergence of the user-friendly tools for 3D modelling available in the market. Generating 3D buildings with high accuracy also has become easier with the availability of airborne Lidar and terrestrial laser scanning equipments. The availability and accessibility to this technology makes it more sensible to analyse buildings in urban areas using 3D data as it accurately represent the real world objects. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) has accepted CityGML specifications as one of the international standards for representing and exchanging spatial data, making it easier to visualize, store and manage 3D city models data efficiently. CityGML able to represents the semantics, geometry, topology and appearance of 3D city models in five well-defined Level-of-Details (LoD), namely LoD0
Development of a 3D numerical methodology for fast prediction of gun blast induced loading
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Costa, E.; Lagasco, F.
2014-05-01
In this paper, the development of a methodology based on semi-empirical models from the literature to carry out 3D prediction of pressure loading on surfaces adjacent to a weapon system during firing is presented. This loading is consequent to the impact of the blast wave generated by the projectile exiting the muzzle bore. When exceeding a pressure threshold level, loading is potentially capable to induce unwanted damage to nearby hard structures as well as frangible panels or electronic equipment. The implemented model shows the ability to quickly predict the distribution of the blast wave parameters over three-dimensional complex geometry surfaces when the weapon design and emplacement data as well as propellant and projectile characteristics are available. Considering these capabilities, the use of the proposed methodology is envisaged as desirable in the preliminary design phase of the combat system to predict adverse effects and then enable to identify the most appropriate countermeasures. By providing a preliminary but sensitive estimate of the operative environmental loading, this numerical means represents a good alternative to more powerful, but time consuming advanced computational fluid dynamics tools, which use can, thus, be limited to the final phase of the design.
Creating Physical 3D Stereolithograph Models of Brain and Skull
Kelley, Daniel J.; Farhoud, Mohammed; Meyerand, M. Elizabeth; Nelson, David L.; Ramirez, Lincoln F.; Dempsey, Robert J.; Wolf, Alan J.; Alexander, Andrew L.; Davidson, Richard J.
2007-01-01
The human brain and skull are three dimensional (3D) anatomical structures with complex surfaces. However, medical images are often two dimensional (2D) and provide incomplete visualization of structural morphology. To overcome this loss in dimension, we developed and validated a freely available, semi-automated pathway to build 3D virtual reality (VR) and hand-held, stereolithograph models. To evaluate whether surface visualization in 3D was more informative than in 2D, undergraduate students (n = 50) used the Gillespie scale to rate 3D VR and physical models of both a living patient-volunteer's brain and the skull of Phineas Gage, a historically famous railroad worker whose misfortune with a projectile tamping iron provided the first evidence of a structure-function relationship in brain. Using our processing pathway, we successfully fabricated human brain and skull replicas and validated that the stereolithograph model preserved the scale of the VR model. Based on the Gillespie ratings, students indicated that the biological utility and quality of visual information at the surface of VR and stereolithograph models were greater than the 2D images from which they were derived. The method we developed is useful to create VR and stereolithograph 3D models from medical images and can be used to model hard or soft tissue in living or preserved specimens. Compared to 2D images, VR and stereolithograph models provide an extra dimension that enhances both the quality of visual information and utility of surface visualization in neuroscience and medicine. PMID:17971879
Teaching the geological subsurface with 3D models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thorpe, Steve; Ward, Emma
2014-05-01
3D geological models have great potential as a resource when teaching geological concepts as it allows the student to visualise and interrogate UK geology. They are especially useful when dealing with the conversion of 2D field, map and GIS outputs into three dimensional geological units, which is a common problem for many students. Today's earth science students use a variety of skills and processes during their learning experience including spatial thinking, image construction, detecting patterns, making predictions and deducing the orientation of themselves. 3D geological models can reinforce spatial thinking strategies and encourage students to think about processes and properties, in turn helping the student to recognise pre-learnt geological principles in the field and to convert what they see at the surface into a picture of what is going on at depth. The British Geological Survey (BGS) has been producing digital 3D geological models for over 10 years. The models produced are revolutionising the working practices, data standards and products of the BGS. Sharing our geoscience information with academia is highlighted throughout the BGS strategy as is instilling practical skills in future geoscience professionals, such as model building and interpretation. In 2009 a project was launched to investigate the potential of the models as a teaching resource. The study included justifying if and how the models help students to learn, how models have been used historically, and how other forms of modelling are being used today. BGS now produce 3D geological models for use by anyone teaching or learning geoscience. They incorporate educational strategies that will develop geospatial skills and alleviate potential problems that some students experience. They are contained within contemporary case studies and show standard geological concepts, structures, sedimentary rocks, cross sections and field techniques. 3D geological models of the Isle of Wight and Ingleborough
Kou, Wen; Li, Decong; Qiao, Jiyan; Chen, Li; Ding, Yansheng; Sjögren, Göran
2011-02-01
In this study, a numerical approach to the fracture behavior in a three-unit zirconia-based fixed partial denture (FPD) framework was made under mechanical loading using a newly developed three-dimensional (3D) numerical modeling code. All the materials studied were treated heterogeneously and Weibull distribution law was applied to describe the heterogeneity. The Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion with tensile strength cut-off was utilized to judge whether the material was in an elastic or failed state. For validation, the fracture pattern obtained from the numerical modeling was compared with a laboratory test; they largely correlated with each other. Similar fracture initiation sites were detected both in the numerical simulation and in an earlier fractographic analysis. The numerical simulation applied in this study clearly described the stress distribution and fracture process of zirconia-based FPD frameworks, information that could not be gained from the laboratory tests alone. Thus, the newly developed 3D numerical modeling code seems to be an efficient tool for prediction of the fracture process in ceramic FPD frameworks. PMID:21210519
3d Modelling of Convective Flow In The Rhine Graben
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bächler, D.; Kohl, T.; Rybach, L.
Detailed investigations of the temperature distribution in the Rhine Graben indi- cate regular pattern of thermal anomalies following major north-south striking faults. These anomalies remain unexplained by conventional Rhine Graben studies based on 2D east-west striking sections. First analytical solutions for convective flow in vertical faults are applied for a clearly observable anomalous temperature pattern along ma- jor Rhine Graben faults. By these calculations the fault height, fault aperture, minimal fault permeability and time to convective onset is derived from the observed distances. Since analytical solutions are limited to simple model geometries further improvement was achieved by numerical model simulations, which allow to assume more com- plex initial and boundary conditions. Using the finite volume code TOUGH2 series of anomalies following the same fault were simulated by a 3D numerical model. Fo- cussing on the predominant north-south permeability structure the model consists of a vertical north-south striking fault and surrounding matrix. The fault geometries are based on the analytically predicted fault geometries (aperture=200m, height=3500m) and on the observed temperatures. Comparison of simulation results with observed temperatures shows that the fault is situated between 500 to 600m and 4200m. The fault permeability is taken as 5*10-13m2 and the fluid velocity in the fault is calcu- lated as 10-9 to 10-10 m/s. These results indicate the importance of our considerations since mass flux is much higher in the faults than across them. The minimal age of the anomaly is considered to be 77'000 years, since steady state is reached after this time span. The study proves that the observed temperature anomaly pattern along the gamma fault at Landau can be explained by north-south striking convection systems within fault zones. Similar situations have been found at Soultz. This may be a hint on a general feature of the major north-south striking
Performance and Cognitive Assessment in 3-D Modeling
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fahrer, Nolan E.; Ernst, Jeremy V.; Branoff, Theodore J.; Clark, Aaron C.
2011-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate identifiable differences between performance and cognitive assessment scores in a 3-D modeling unit of an engineering drafting course curriculum. The study aimed to provide further investigation of the need of skill-based assessments in engineering/technical graphics courses to potentially increase…
Tracking people and cars using 3D modeling and CCTV.
Edelman, Gerda; Bijhold, Jurrien
2010-10-10
The aim of this study was to find a method for the reconstruction of movements of people and cars using CCTV footage and a 3D model of the environment. A procedure is proposed, in which video streams are synchronized and displayed in a 3D model, by using virtual cameras. People and cars are represented by cylinders and boxes, which are moved in the 3D model, according to their movements as shown in the video streams. The procedure was developed and tested in an experimental setup with test persons who logged their GPS coordinates as a recording of the ground truth. Results showed that it is possible to implement this procedure and to reconstruct movements of people and cars from video recordings. The procedure was also applied to a forensic case. In this work we experienced that more situational awareness was created by the 3D model, which made it easier to track people on multiple video streams. Based on all experiences from the experimental set up and the case, recommendations are formulated for use in practice. PMID:20439141
A Sketching Interface for Freeform 3D Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Igarashi, Takeo
This chapter introduces Teddy, a sketch-based modeling system to quickly and easily design freeform models such as stuffed animals and other rotund objects. The user draws several 2D freeform strokes interactively on the screen and the system automatically constructs plausible 3D polygonal surfaces. Our system supports several modeling operations, including the operation to construct a 3D polygonal surface from a 2D silhouette drawn by the user: it inflates the region surrounded by the silhouette making a wide area fat, and a narrow area thin. Teddy, our prototype system, is implemented as a Java program, and the mesh construction is done in real-time on a standard PC. Our informal user study showed that a first-time user masters the operations within 10 minutes, and can construct interesting 3D models within minutes. We also report the result of a case study where a high school teacher taught various 3D concepts in geography using the system.
Assessment of 3D Models Used in Contours Studies
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Alvarez, F. J. Ayala; Parra, E. B. Blazquez; Tubio, F. Montes
2015-01-01
This paper presents an experimental research focusing on the view of first year students. The aim is to check the quality of implementing 3D models integrated in the curriculum. We search to determine students' preference between the various means facilitated in order to understand the given subject. Students have been respondents to prove the…
Numerical Benchmark of 3D Ground Motion Simulation in the Alpine valley of Grenoble, France.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsuno, S.; Chaljub, E.; Cornou, C.; Bard, P.
2006-12-01
Thank to the use of sophisticated numerical methods and to the access to increasing computational resources, our predictions of strong ground motion become more and more realistic and need to be carefully compared. We report our effort of benchmarking numerical methods of ground motion simulation in the case of the valley of Grenoble in the French Alps. The Grenoble valley is typical of a moderate seismicity area where strong site effects occur. The benchmark consisted in computing the seismic response of the `Y'-shaped Grenoble valley to (i) two local earthquakes (Ml<=3) for which recordings were avalaible; and (ii) two local hypothetical events (Mw=6) occuring on the so-called Belledonne Border Fault (BBF) [1]. A free-style prediction was also proposed, in which participants were allowed to vary the source and/or the model parameters and were asked to provide the resulting uncertainty in their estimation of ground motion. We received a total of 18 contributions from 14 different groups; 7 of these use 3D methods, among which 3 could handle surface topography, the other half comprises predictions based upon 1D (2 contributions), 2D (4 contributions) and empirical Green's function (EGF) (3 contributions) methods. Maximal frequency analysed ranged between 2.5 Hz for 3D calculations and 40 Hz for EGF predictions. We present a detailed comparison of the different predictions using raw indicators (e.g. peak values of ground velocity and acceleration, Fourier spectra, site over reference spectral ratios, ...) as well as sophisticated misfit criteria based upon previous works [2,3]. We further discuss the variability in estimating the importance of particular effects such as non-linear rheology, or surface topography. References: [1] Thouvenot F. et al., The Belledonne Border Fault: identification of an active seismic strike-slip fault in the western Alps, Geophys. J. Int., 155 (1), p. 174-192, 2003. [2] Anderson J., Quantitative measure of the goodness-of-fit of
2D/1D approximations to the 3D neutron transport equation. II: Numerical comparisons
Kelley, B. W.; Collins, B.; Larsen, E. W.
2013-07-01
In a companion paper [1], (i) several new '2D/1D equations' are introduced as accurate approximations to the 3D Boltzmann transport equation, (ii) the simplest of these approximate equations is systematically discretized, and (iii) a theoretically stable iteration scheme is developed to solve the discrete equations. In this paper, numerical results are presented that confirm the theoretical predictions made in [1]. (authors)
3D geometric modelling of hand-woven textile
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shidanshidi, H.; Naghdy, F.; Naghdy, G.; Conroy, D. Wood
2008-02-01
Geometric modeling and haptic rendering of textile has attracted significant interest over the last decade. A haptic representation is created by adding the physical properties of an object to its geometric configuration. While research has been conducted into geometric modeling of fabric, current systems require time-consuming manual recognition of textile specifications and data entry. The development of a generic approach for construction of the 3D geometric model of a woven textile is pursued in this work. The geometric model would be superimposed by a haptic model in the future work. The focus at this stage is on hand-woven textile artifacts for display in museums. A fuzzy rule based algorithm is applied to the still images of the artifacts to generate the 3D model. The derived model is exported as a 3D VRML model of the textile for visual representation and haptic rendering. An overview of the approach is provided and the developed algorithm is described. The approach is validated by applying the algorithm to different textile samples and comparing the produced models with the actual structure and pattern of the samples.
A biochemical/biophysical 3D FE intervertebral disc model.
Schroeder, Y; Huyghe, J M; van Donkelaar, C C; Ito, K
2010-10-01
Present research focuses on different strategies to preserve the degenerated disc. To assure long-term success of novel approaches, favorable mechanical conditions in the disc tissue are essential. To evaluate these, a model is required that can determine internal mechanical conditions which cannot be directly measured as a function of assessable biophysical characteristics. Therefore, the objective is to evaluate if constitutive and material laws acquired on isolated samples of nucleus and annulus tissue can be used directly in a whole-organ 3D FE model to describe intervertebral disc behavior. The 3D osmo-poro-visco-hyper-elastic disc (OVED) model describes disc behavior as a function of annulus and nucleus tissue biochemical composition, organization and specific constituent properties. The description of the 3D collagen network was enhanced to account for smaller fibril structures. Tissue mechanical behavior tests on isolated nucleus and annulus samples were simulated with models incorporating tissue composition to calculate the constituent parameter values. The obtained constitutive laws were incorporated into the whole-organ model. The overall behavior and disc properties of the model were corroborated against in vitro creep experiments of human L4/L5 discs. The OVED model simulated isolated tissue experiments on confined compression and uniaxial tensile test and whole-organ disc behavior. This was possible, provided that secondary fiber structures were accounted for. The fair agreement (radial bulge, axial creep deformation and intradiscal pressure) between model and experiment was obtained using constitutive properties that are the same for annulus and nucleus. Both tissue models differed in the 3D OVED model only by composition. The composition-based modeling presents the advantage of reducing the numbers of material parameters to a minimum and to use tissue composition directly as input. Hence, this approach provides the possibility to describe internal
Use Models like Maps in a 3D SDI
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gietzel, Jan; Gabriel, Paul; Schaeben, Helmut; Le, Hai Ha
2013-04-01
Digital geological applications have become 3D up to 4D modelling of the underground. The modellers are working very heterogeneously in terms of its applied software systems. On the other hand the 3D/4D modelling of the subsurface has become part of the geological surveys all around the world. This implies a wide spread group of users working in different institutions aiming to work together on one subsurface model. Established 3D/4D-modelling software systems mainly use a file based approach to store data, which is in a high contrast to the needs of a central administrated and network based data transfer approach. At the department of geophysics and geo information sciences at the Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg, the GST system for managing 3D and 4D geosciences data in a databases system was developed and is now continued by the company GiGa infosystems. The GST-Framework includes a storage engine, a web service for sharing and a number of client software including a browser based client interface for visualising, accessing and manipulating geological CAD data. Including a check out system GST supports multi user editing on huge models, designed to manage seamless high resolution models of the subsurface. While working on complex projects various software is used for the creation of the model, the prediction of properties and final simulation. A problem rising from the use of several software is the interoperability of the models. Due to conversion errors different working groups use mainly different raw data. This results in different models, which have to be corrected with additional effort. One platform sharing the models is strongly demanded. One high potential solution is a centralized and software independent storage, which will be presented.
Robust 3D reconstruction system for human jaw modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamany, Sameh M.; Farag, Aly A.; Tazman, David; Farman, Allan G.
1999-03-01
This paper presents a model-based vision system for dentistry that will replace traditional approaches used in diagnosis, treatment planning and surgical simulation. Dentistry requires accurate 3D representation of the teeth and jaws for many diagnostic and treatment purposes. For example orthodontic treatment involves the application of force systems to teeth over time to correct malocclusion. In order to evaluate tooth movement progress, the orthodontists monitors this movement by means of visual inspection, intraoral measurements, fabrication of plastic models, photographs and radiographs, a process which is both costly and time consuming. In this paper an integrate system has been developed to record the patient's occlusion using computer vision. Data is acquired with an intraoral video camera. A modified shape from shading (SFS) technique, using perspective projection and camera calibration, is used to extract accurate 3D information from a sequence of 2D images of the jaw. A new technique for 3D data registration, using a Grid Closest Point transform and genetic algorithms, is used to register the SFS output. Triangulization is then performed, and a solid 3D model is obtained via a rapid prototype machine.
3D Geological modelling - towards a European level infrastructure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Kathryn A.; van der Krogt, Rob; Busschers, Freek S.
2013-04-01
The joint European Geological Surveys are preparing the ground for a "European Geological Data Infrastructure" (EGDI), under the framework of the FP7-project EGDI-Scope. This scoping study, started in June 2012, for a pan-European e-Infrastructure is based on the successes of earlier joint projects including 'OneGeology-Europe' and aims to provide the backbone for serving interoperable, geological data currently held by European Geological Surveys. Also data from past, ongoing and future European projects will be incorporated. The scope will include an investigation of the functional and technical requirements for serving 3D geological models and will look to research the potential for providing a framework to integrate models at different scales, and form a structure for enabling the development of new and innovative model delivery mechanisms. The EGDI-scope project encourages pan-European inter-disciplinary collaboration between all European Geological Surveys. It aims to enhance emerging web based technologies that will facilitate the delivery of geological data to user communities involved in European policy making and international industry, but also to geoscientific research communities and the general public. Therefore, stakeholder input and communication is imperative to the success, as is the collaboration with all the Geological Surveys of Europe. The most important functional and technical requirements for delivery of such information at pan-European level will be derived from exchanges with relevant European stakeholder representatives and providers of geological data. For handling and delivering 3D geological model data the project will need to address a number of strategic issues: • Which are the most important issues and queries for the relevant stakeholders, requiring 3D geological models? How can this be translated to functional requirements for development and design of an integrated European application? • How to handle the very large
Testing the hybrid-3D Hillslope Hydrological Model in a Real-World Controlled Environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hazenberg, P.; Broxton, P. D.; Gochis, D. J.; Niu, G. Y.; Pelletier, J. D.; Troch, P. A. A.; Zeng, X.
2015-12-01
Hillslopes play an important role for converting rainfall into runoff, and as such, influence theterrestrial dynamics of the Earth's climate system. Recently, we have developed a hybrid-3D (h3D) hillslope hydrological model that couples a 1D vertical soil column model with a lateral pseudo-2D saturated zone and overland flow model. The h3D model gives similar results as the CATchment HYdrological model (CATHY), which simulates the subsurface movement of water with the 3D Richards equation, though the runtime efficiency of the h3D model is about 2-3 orders of magnitude faster. In the current work, the ability of the h3D model to predict real-world hydrological dynamics is assessed using a number of recharge-drainage experiments within the Landscape Evolution Observatory (LEO) at the Biosphere 2 near Tucson, Arizona, USA. LEO offers accurate and high-resolution (both temporally and spatially) observations of the inputs, outputs and storage dynamics of several hillslopes. The level of detail of these observations is generally not possible with real-world hillslope studies. Therefore, LEO offers an optimal environment to test the h3D model. The h3D model captures the observed storage, baseflow, and overland flow dynamics of both a larger and a smaller hillslope. Furthermore, it simulates overland flow better than CATHY. The h3D model has difficulties correctly representing the height of the saturated zone close to the seepage face of the smaller hillslope, though. There is a gravel layer near this seepage face, and the numerical boundary condition of the h3D model is insufficient to capture the hydrological dynamics within this region. In addition, the h3D model is used to test the hypothesis that model parameters change through time due to the migration of soil particles during the recharge-drainage experiments. An in depth calibration of the h3D model parameters reveals that the best results are obtained by applying an event-based optimization procedure as compared
Quasi-3D Multi-scale Modeling Framework Development
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arakawa, A.; Jung, J.
2008-12-01
When models are truncated in or near an energetically active range of the spectrum, model physics must be changed as the resolution changes. The model physics of GCMs and that of CRMs are, however, quite different from each other and at present there is no unified formulation of model physics that automatically provides transition between these model physics. The Quasi-3D (Q3D) Multi-scale Modeling Framework (MMF) is an attempt to bridge this gap. Like the recently proposed Heterogeneous Multiscale Method (HMM) (E and Engquist 2003), MMF combines a macroscopic model, GCM, and a microscopic model, CRM. Unlike the traditional multiscale methods such as the multi-grid and adapted mesh refinement techniques, HMM and MMF are for solving multi-physics problems. They share the common objective "to design combined macroscopic-microscopic computational methods that are much more efficient than solving the full microscopic model and at the same time give the information we need" (E et al. 2008). The question is then how to meet this objective in practice, which can be highly problem dependent. In HHM, the efficiency is gained typically by localization of the microscale problem. Following the pioneering work by Grabowski and Smolarkiewicz (1999) and Grabowski (2001), MMF takes advantage of the fact that 2D CRMs are reasonably successful in simulating deep clouds. In this approach, the efficiency is gained by sacrificing the three-dimensionality of cloud-scale motion. It also "localizes" the algorithm through embedding a CRM in each GCM grid box using cyclic boundary condition. The Q3D MMF is an attempt to reduce the expense due to these constraints by partially including the cloud-scale 3D effects and extending the CRM beyond individual GCM grid boxes. As currently formulated, the Q3D MMF is a 4D estimation/prediction framework that combines a GCM with a 3D anelastic cloud-resolving vector vorticity equation model (VVM) applied to a network of horizontal grids. The network
3-D HYDRODYNAMIC MODELING IN A GEOSPATIAL FRAMEWORK
Bollinger, J; Alfred Garrett, A; Larry Koffman, L; David Hayes, D
2006-08-24
3-D hydrodynamic models are used by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to simulate the transport of thermal and radionuclide discharges in coastal estuary systems. Development of such models requires accurate bathymetry, coastline, and boundary condition data in conjunction with the ability to rapidly discretize model domains and interpolate the required geospatial data onto the domain. To facilitate rapid and accurate hydrodynamic model development, SRNL has developed a pre- and post-processor application in a geospatial framework to automate the creation of models using existing data. This automated capability allows development of very detailed models to maximize exploitation of available surface water radionuclide sample data and thermal imagery.
A hybrid experimental-numerical technique for determining 3D velocity fields from planar 2D PIV data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eden, A.; Sigurdson, M.; Mezić, I.; Meinhart, C. D.
2016-09-01
Knowledge of 3D, three component velocity fields is central to the understanding and development of effective microfluidic devices for lab-on-chip mixing applications. In this paper we present a hybrid experimental-numerical method for the generation of 3D flow information from 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV) experimental data and finite element simulations of an alternating current electrothermal (ACET) micromixer. A numerical least-squares optimization algorithm is applied to a theory-based 3D multiphysics simulation in conjunction with 2D PIV data to generate an improved estimation of the steady state velocity field. This 3D velocity field can be used to assess mixing phenomena more accurately than would be possible through simulation alone. Our technique can also be used to estimate uncertain quantities in experimental situations by fitting the gathered field data to a simulated physical model. The optimization algorithm reduced the root-mean-squared difference between the experimental and simulated velocity fields in the target region by more than a factor of 4, resulting in an average error less than 12% of the average velocity magnitude.
Advances in 3D electromagnetic finite element modeling
Nelson, E.M.
1997-08-01
Numerous advances in electromagnetic finite element analysis (FEA) have been made in recent years. The maturity of frequency domain and eigenmode calculations, and the growth of time domain applications is briefly reviewed. A high accuracy 3D electromagnetic finite element field solver employing quadratic hexahedral elements and quadratic mixed-order one-form basis functions will also be described. The solver is based on an object-oriented C++ class library. Test cases demonstrate that frequency errors less than 10 ppm can be achieved using modest workstations, and that the solutions have no contamination from spurious modes. The role of differential geometry and geometrical physics in finite element analysis is also discussed.
A method for building 3D models of barchan dunes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nai, Yang; Li-lan, Su; Lin, Wan; Jie, Yang; Shi-yi, Chen; Wei-lu, Hu
2016-01-01
The distributions of barchan dunes are usually represented by digital terrain models (DTMs) overlaid with digital orthophoto maps. Given that most regions with barchan dues have low relief, a 3D map obtained from a DTM may ineffectively show the stereoscopic shape of each dune. The method of building 3D models of barchan dunes using existing modeling software seldom considers the geographical environment. As a result, barchan dune models are often inconsistent with actual DTMs and incompletely express the morphological characteristics of dunes. Manual construction of barchan dune models is also costly and time consuming. Considering these problems, the morphological characteristics of barchan dunes and the mathematical relationships between the morphological parameters of the dunes, such as length, height, and width, are analyzed in this study. The methods of extracting the morphological feature points of barchan dunes, calculating their morphological parameters and building dune outlines and skeleton lines based on the medial axes, are also presented. The dune outlines, skeleton lines, and part of the medial axes of dunes are used to construct a constrained triangulated irregular network. C# and ArcEngine are employed to build 3D models of barchan dunes automatically. Experimental results of a study conducted in Tengger Desert show that the method can be used to approximate the morphological characteristics of barchan dunes and is less time consuming than manual methods.
Geometric and colour data fusion for outdoor 3D models.
Merchán, Pilar; Adán, Antonio; Salamanca, Santiago; Domínguez, Vicente; Chacón, Ricardo
2012-01-01
This paper deals with the generation of accurate, dense and coloured 3D models of outdoor scenarios from scanners. This is a challenging research field in which several problems still remain unsolved. In particular, the process of 3D model creation in outdoor scenes may be inefficient if the scene is digitalized under unsuitable technical (specific scanner on-board camera) and environmental (rain, dampness, changing illumination) conditions. We address our research towards the integration of images and range data to produce photorealistic models. Our proposal is based on decoupling the colour integration and geometry reconstruction stages, making them independent and controlled processes. This issue is approached from two different viewpoints. On the one hand, given a complete model (geometry plus texture), we propose a method to modify the original texture provided by the scanner on-board camera with the colour information extracted from external images taken at given moments and under specific environmental conditions. On the other hand, we propose an algorithm to directly assign external images onto the complete geometric model, thus avoiding tedious on-line calibration processes. We present the work conducted on two large Roman archaeological sites dating from the first century A.D., namely, the Theatre of Segobriga and the Fori Porticus of Emerita Augusta, both in Spain. The results obtained demonstrate that our approach could be useful in the digitalization and 3D modelling fields. PMID:22969327
Fully-coupled analysis of jet mixing problems. Three-dimensional PNS model, SCIP3D
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wolf, D. E.; Sinha, N.; Dash, S. M.
1988-01-01
Numerical procedures formulated for the analysis of 3D jet mixing problems, as incorporated in the computer model, SCIP3D, are described. The overall methodology closely parallels that developed in the earlier 2D axisymmetric jet mixing model, SCIPVIS. SCIP3D integrates the 3D parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) jet mixing equations, cast in mapped cartesian or cylindrical coordinates, employing the explicit MacCormack Algorithm. A pressure split variant of this algorithm is employed in subsonic regions with a sublayer approximation utilized for treating the streamwise pressure component. SCIP3D contains both the ks and kW turbulence models, and employs a two component mixture approach to treat jet exhausts of arbitrary composition. Specialized grid procedures are used to adjust the grid growth in accordance with the growth of the jet, including a hybrid cartesian/cylindrical grid procedure for rectangular jets which moves the hybrid coordinate origin towards the flow origin as the jet transitions from a rectangular to circular shape. Numerous calculations are presented for rectangular mixing problems, as well as for a variety of basic unit problems exhibiting overall capabilities of SCIP3D.
Towards a 3d Spatial Urban Energy Modelling Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bahu, J.-M.; Koch, A.; Kremers, E.; Murshed, S. M.
2013-09-01
Today's needs to reduce the environmental impact of energy use impose dramatic changes for energy infrastructure and existing demand patterns (e.g. buildings) corresponding to their specific context. In addition, future energy systems are expected to integrate a considerable share of fluctuating power sources and equally a high share of distributed generation of electricity. Energy system models capable of describing such future systems and allowing the simulation of the impact of these developments thus require a spatial representation in order to reflect the local context and the boundary conditions. This paper describes two recent research approaches developed at EIFER in the fields of (a) geo-localised simulation of heat energy demand in cities based on 3D morphological data and (b) spatially explicit Agent-Based Models (ABM) for the simulation of smart grids. 3D city models were used to assess solar potential and heat energy demand of residential buildings which enable cities to target the building refurbishment potentials. Distributed energy systems require innovative modelling techniques where individual components are represented and can interact. With this approach, several smart grid demonstrators were simulated, where heterogeneous models are spatially represented. Coupling 3D geodata with energy system ABMs holds different advantages for both approaches. On one hand, energy system models can be enhanced with high resolution data from 3D city models and their semantic relations. Furthermore, they allow for spatial analysis and visualisation of the results, with emphasis on spatially and structurally correlations among the different layers (e.g. infrastructure, buildings, administrative zones) to provide an integrated approach. On the other hand, 3D models can benefit from more detailed system description of energy infrastructure, representing dynamic phenomena and high resolution models for energy use at component level. The proposed modelling strategies
3-D model-based tracking for UAV indoor localization.
Teulière, Céline; Marchand, Eric; Eck, Laurent
2015-05-01
This paper proposes a novel model-based tracking approach for 3-D localization. One main difficulty of standard model-based approach lies in the presence of low-level ambiguities between different edges. In this paper, given a 3-D model of the edges of the environment, we derive a multiple hypotheses tracker which retrieves the potential poses of the camera from the observations in the image. We also show how these candidate poses can be integrated into a particle filtering framework to guide the particle set toward the peaks of the distribution. Motivated by the UAV indoor localization problem where GPS signal is not available, we validate the algorithm on real image sequences from UAV flights. PMID:25099967
3D Babcock-Leighton Solar Dynamo Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miesch, Mark S.; Hazra, Gopal; Karak, Bidya Binay; Teweldebirhan, Kinfe; Upton, Lisa
2016-05-01
We present results from the new STABLE (Surface flux Transport and Babcock Leighton) Dynamo Model. STABLE is a 3D Babcock-Leighton/Flux Transport dynamo model in which the source of poloidal field is the explicit emergence, distortion, and dispersal of bipolar magnetic regions (BMRs). In this talk I will discuss initial results with axisymmetric flow fields, focusing on the operation of the model, the general features of the cyclic solutions, and the challenge of achieving supercritical dynamo solutions using only the Babcock-Leighton source term. Then I will present dynamo simulations that include 3D convective flow fields based on the observed velocity power spectrum inferred from photospheric Dopplergrams. I'll use these simulations to assess how the explicit transport and amplification of fields by surface convection influences the operation of the dynamo. I will also discuss the role of surface magnetic fields in regulating the subsurface toroidal flux budget.
Summary of EASM Turbulence Models in CFL3D With Validation Test Cases
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rumsey, Christopher L.; Gatski, Thomas B.
2003-01-01
This paper summarizes the Explicit Algebraic Stress Model in k-omega form (EASM-ko) and in k-epsilon form (EASM-ke) in the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes code CFL3D. These models have been actively used over the last several years in CFL3D, and have undergone some minor modifications during that time. Details of the equations and method for coding the latest versions of the models are given, and numerous validation cases are presented. This paper serves as a validation archive for these models.
3D Multispectral Light Propagation Model For Subcutaneous Veins Imaging
Paquit, Vincent C; Price, Jeffery R; Meriaudeau, Fabrice; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William
2008-01-01
In this paper, we describe a new 3D light propagation model aimed at understanding the effects of various physiological properties on subcutaneous vein imaging. In particular, we build upon the well known MCML (Monte Carlo Multi Layer) code and present a tissue model that improves upon the current state-of-the-art by: incorporating physiological variation, such as melanin concentration, fat content, and layer thickness; including veins of varying depth and diameter; using curved surfaces from real arm shapes; and modeling the vessel wall interface. We describe our model, present results from the Monte Carlo modeling, and compare these results with those obtained with other Monte Carlo methods.
Texture blending on 3D models using casual images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xingming; Liu, Xiaoli; Li, Ameng; Liu, Junyao; Wang, Huijing
2013-12-01
In this paper, a method for constructing photorealistic textured model using 3D structured light digitizer is presented. Our method acquisition of range images and texture images around object, and range images are registered and integrated to construct geometric model of object. System is calibrated and poses of texture-camera are determined so that the relationship between texture and geometric model is established. After that, a global optimization is applied to assign compatible texture to adjacent surface and followed with a level procedure to remove artifacts due to vary lighting, approximate geometric model and so on. Lastly, we demonstrate the effect of our method on constructing a real model of world.
A 3D alcoholic liver disease model on a chip.
Lee, JaeSeo; Choi, BongHwan; No, Da Yoon; Lee, GeonHui; Lee, Seung-Ri; Oh, HyunJik; Lee, Sang-Hoon
2016-03-14
Alcohol is one of the main causes of liver diseases, and the development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) treatment methods has been one of the hottest issues. For this purpose, development of in vitro models mimicking the in vivo physiology is one of the critical requirements, and they help to determine the disease mechanisms and to discover the treatment method. Herein, a three-dimensional (3D) ALD model was developed and its superior features in mimicking the in vivo condition were demonstrated. A spheroid-based microfluidic chip was employed for the development of the 3D in vitro model of ALD progression. We co-cultured rat primary hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in a fluidic chip to investigate the role of HSCs in the recovery of liver with ALD. An interstitial level of flow derived by an osmotic pump was applied to the chip to provide in vivo mimicking of fluid activity. Using this in vitro tool, we were able to observe structural changes and decreased hepatic functions with the increase in ethanol concentration. The recovery process of liver injured by alcohol was observed by providing fresh culture medium to the damaged 3D liver tissue for few days. A reversibly- and irreversibly-injured ALD model was established. The proposed model can not only be used for the research of alcoholic disease mechanism, but also has the potential for use in studies of hepatotoxicity and drug screening applications. PMID:26857817
Generation and use of human 3D-CAD models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grotepass, Juergen; Speyer, Hartmut; Kaiser, Ralf
2002-05-01
Individualized Products are one of the ten mega trends of the 21st Century with human modeling as the key issue for tomorrow's design and product development. The use of human modeling software for computer based ergonomic simulations within the production process increases quality while reducing costs by 30- 50 percent and shortening production time. This presentation focuses on the use of human 3D-CAD models for both, the ergonomic design of working environments and made to measure garment production. Today, the entire production chain can be designed, individualized models generated and analyzed in 3D computer environments. Anthropometric design for ergonomics is matched to human needs, thus preserving health. Ergonomic simulation includes topics as human vision, reachability, kinematics, force and comfort analysis and international design capabilities. In German more than 17 billions of Mark are moved to other industries, because clothes do not fit. Individual clothing tailored to the customer's preference means surplus value, pleasure and perfect fit. The body scanning technology is the key to generation and use of human 3D-CAD models for both, the ergonomic design of working environments and made to measure garment production.
3D cartographic modeling of the Alpine arc
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vouillamoz, Naomi; Sue, Christian; Champagnac, Jean-Daniel; Calcagno, Philippe
2012-12-01
We built a 3D cartography of the Alpine arc, a highly non-cylindrical mountain belt, using the 3D GeoModeller of the BRGM (French geological survey). The model allows to handle the large-scale 3D structure of seventeen major crustal units of the belt (from the lower crust to the sedimentary cover nappes), and two main discontinuities (the Insubric Line and the Crustal Penninic Front). It provides a unique document to better understand their structural relationships and to produce new sections. The study area comprises the western Alpine arc, from the Jura to the Northwest, up to the Bergell granite intrusion and the Lepontine Dome to the East, and is limited to the South by the Ligurian basin. The model is limited vertically 10 km above sea level at the top, and the moho interface at the bottom. We discarded the structural relationships between the Alps sensus stricto and the surrounding geodynamic systems such as the Rhine graben or the connection with the Apennines. The 3D-model is based on the global integration of various data such as the DEM of the Alps, the moho isobaths, the simplified geological and tectonic maps of the belt, the crustal cross-sections ECORS-CROP and NFP-20, and complementary cross-sections specifically built to precise local complexities. The database has first been integrated in a GIS-project to prepare their implementation in the GeoModeller, by homogenizing the different spatial referencing systems. The global model is finally interpolated from all these data, using the potential field method. The final document is a new tri-dimensional cartography that would be used as input for further alpine studies.
3D modeling of dual-gate FinFET.
Mil'shtein, Samson; Devarakonda, Lalitha; Zanchi, Brian; Palma, John
2012-01-01
The tendency to have better control of the flow of electrons in a channel of field-effect transistors (FETs) did lead to the design of two gates in junction field-effect transistors, field plates in a variety of metal semiconductor field-effect transistors and high electron mobility transistors, and finally a gate wrapping around three sides of a narrow fin-shaped channel in a FinFET. With the enhanced control, performance trends of all FETs are still challenged by carrier mobility dependence on the strengths of the electrical field along the channel. However, in cases when the ratio of FinFET volume to its surface dramatically decreases, one should carefully consider the surface boundary conditions of the device. Moreover, the inherent non-planar nature of a FinFET demands 3D modeling for accurate analysis of the device performance. Using the Silvaco modeling tool with quantization effects, we modeled a physical FinFET described in the work of Hisamoto et al. (IEEE Tran. Elec. Devices 47:12, 2000) in 3D. We compared it with a 2D model of the same device. We demonstrated that 3D modeling produces more accurate results. As 3D modeling results came close to experimental measurements, we made the next step of the study by designing a dual-gate FinFET biased at Vg1 >Vg2. It is shown that the dual-gate FinFET carries higher transconductance than the single-gate device. PMID:23148493
3D modeling of high-Tc superconductors by finite element software
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Min; Coombs, T. A.
2012-01-01
A three-dimensional (3D) numerical model is proposed to solve the electromagnetic problems involving transport current and background field of a high-Tc superconducting (HTS) system. The model is characterized by the E-J power law and H-formulation, and is successfully implemented using finite element software. We first discuss the model in detail, including the mesh methods, boundary conditions and computing time. To validate the 3D model, we calculate the ac loss and trapped field solution for a bulk material and compare the results with the previously verified 2D solutions and an analytical solution. We then apply our model to test some typical problems such as superconducting bulk array and twisted conductors, which cannot be tackled by the 2D models. The new 3D model could be a powerful tool for researchers and engineers to investigate problems with a greater level of complicity.
Numerical simulation of internal and external inviscid and viscous 3-D flow fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leicher, Stefan
1986-11-01
A numerical method for solving the 3-D Euler equations in geometrical complex domains was developed. The approach divides the computational space into multiple blocks whose structure follows the natural lines of the conficuration. A systematic, multi-block grid generation scheme is used to produce the grid. The flow solutions are obtained by solving the Euler equations by a finite volume discretization and a Runge-Kutta time stepping scheme. The main advantage of this method is the applicability to complex geometries, for example complete aircraft configurations including wing, fuselage, canard and tail. The coupling with a 3-D boundary layer method allows to account for viscous effects. Another application for the method was the simulation of flows in the presence of a propeller.
Integration of 3D photogrammetric outcrop models in the reservoir modelling workflow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deschamps, Remy; Joseph, Philippe; Lerat, Olivier; Schmitz, Julien; Doligez, Brigitte; Jardin, Anne
2014-05-01
3D technologies are now widely used in geosciences to reconstruct outcrops in 3D. The technology used for the 3D reconstruction is usually based on Lidar, which provides very precise models. Such datasets offer the possibility to build well-constrained outcrop analogue models for reservoir study purposes. The photogrammetry is an alternate methodology which principles are based in determining the geometric properties of an object from photographic pictures taken from different angles. Outcrop data acquisition is easy, and this methodology allows constructing 3D outcrop models with many advantages such as: - light and fast acquisition, - moderate processing time (depending on the size of the area of interest), - integration of field data and 3D outcrops into the reservoir modelling tools. Whatever the method, the advantages of digital outcrop model are numerous as already highlighted by Hodgetts (2013), McCaffrey et al. (2005) and Pringle et al. (2006): collection of data from otherwise inaccessible areas, access to different angles of view, increase of the possible measurements, attributes analysis, fast rate of data collection, and of course training and communication. This paper proposes a workflow where 3D geocellular models are built by integrating all sources of information from outcrops (surface picking, sedimentological sections, structural and sedimentary dips…). The 3D geomodels that are reconstructed can be used at the reservoir scale, in order to compare the outcrop information with subsurface models: the detailed facies models of the outcrops are transferred into petrophysical and acoustic models, which are used to test different scenarios of seismic and fluid flow modelling. The detailed 3D models are also used to test new techniques of static reservoir modelling, based either on geostatistical approaches or on deterministic (process-based) simulation techniques. A modelling workflow has been designed to model reservoir geometries and properties from
Interchain coupling and 3D modeling of trans-polyacetylene
Bronold, F.; Saxena, A.; Bishop, A.R.
1992-01-01
In spite of the success of the SSH model for trans-polyacetylene in interpreting many experimental results (e.g. optical and magnetic properties) there remain some aspects of the real material which are outside the scope of the simple 1D model. Especially ordering phenomena of doped and undoped trans-polyacetylene as well as transport properties (e.g. electronic and thermal conductivity) are beyond a 1D description. There are many attempts to construct a transport theory for this novel class of materials using solitons or polaxons as the basic ingredients. But so far it is not yet clear whether these typical 1D excitations still exist in crystalline transpolyacetylene. Therefore, to clarify the role which intrinsic self-localized nonlinear excitations characteristic of 1D models play in the bulk (3D) material, we study the stability of a polaronic excitation against interchain coupling. As a preliminary step we consider first two coupled t-(CH){sub x}-chains where the {pi}-electrons are allowed to hop from one chain to the other. Then we introduce a 3D generalization of the SSH model and study a polaron in a 3D crystalline environment.
Interchain coupling and 3D modeling of trans-polyacetylene
Bronold, F.; Saxena, A.; Bishop, A.R.
1992-09-01
In spite of the success of the SSH model for trans-polyacetylene in interpreting many experimental results (e.g. optical and magnetic properties) there remain some aspects of the real material which are outside the scope of the simple 1D model. Especially ordering phenomena of doped and undoped trans-polyacetylene as well as transport properties (e.g. electronic and thermal conductivity) are beyond a 1D description. There are many attempts to construct a transport theory for this novel class of materials using solitons or polaxons as the basic ingredients. But so far it is not yet clear whether these typical 1D excitations still exist in crystalline transpolyacetylene. Therefore, to clarify the role which intrinsic self-localized nonlinear excitations characteristic of 1D models play in the bulk (3D) material, we study the stability of a polaronic excitation against interchain coupling. As a preliminary step we consider first two coupled t-(CH){sub x}-chains where the {pi}-electrons are allowed to hop from one chain to the other. Then we introduce a 3D generalization of the SSH model and study a polaron in a 3D crystalline environment.
The 3D model control of image processing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nguyen, An H.; Stark, Lawrence
1989-01-01
Telerobotics studies remote control of distant robots by a human operator using supervisory or direct control. Even if the robot manipulators has vision or other senses, problems arise involving control, communications, and delay. The communication delays that may be expected with telerobots working in space stations while being controlled from an Earth lab have led to a number of experiments attempting to circumvent the problem. This delay in communication is a main motivating factor in moving from well understood instantaneous hands-on manual control to less well understood supervisory control; the ultimate step would be the realization of a fully autonomous robot. The 3-D model control plays a crucial role in resolving many conflicting image processing problems that are inherent in resolving in the bottom-up approach of most current machine vision processes. The 3-D model control approach is also capable of providing the necessary visual feedback information for both the control algorithms and for the human operator.
3D root canal modeling for advanced endodontic treatment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hong, Shane Y.; Dong, Janet
2002-06-01
More than 14 million teeth receive endodontic (root canal) treatment annually. Before a clinician's inspection and diagnosis, destructive access preparation by removing teeth crown and dentin is usually needed. This paper presents a non-invasive method for accessing internal tooth geometry by building 3-D tooth model from 2-D radiographic and endoscopic images to be used for an automatic prescription system of computer-aided treatment procedure planning, and for the root canal preparation by an intelligent micro drilling machine with on-line monitoring. It covers the techniques specific for dental application in the radiographic images acquirement, image enhancement, image segmentation and feature recognition, distance measurement and calibration, merging 2D image into 3D mathematical model representation and display. Included also are the methods to form references for irregular teeth geometry and to do accurately measurement with self-calibration.
Modeling 3D faces from samplings via compressive sensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Qi; Tang, Yanlong; Hu, Ping
2013-07-01
3D data is easier to acquire for family entertainment purpose today because of the mass-production, cheapness and portability of domestic RGBD sensors, e.g., Microsoft Kinect. However, the accuracy of facial modeling is affected by the roughness and instability of the raw input data from such sensors. To overcome this problem, we introduce compressive sensing (CS) method to build a novel 3D super-resolution scheme to reconstruct high-resolution facial models from rough samples captured by Kinect. Unlike the simple frame fusion super-resolution method, this approach aims to acquire compressed samples for storage before a high-resolution image is produced. In this scheme, depth frames are firstly captured and then each of them is measured into compressed samples using sparse coding. Next, the samples are fused to produce an optimal one and finally a high-resolution image is recovered from the fused sample. This framework is able to recover 3D facial model of a given user from compressed simples and this can reducing storage space as well as measurement cost in future devices e.g., single-pixel depth cameras. Hence, this work can potentially be applied into future applications, such as access control system using face recognition, and smart phones with depth cameras, which need high resolution and little measure time.
3D Fluid-Structure Modeling of a Monofin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monier, L.; Razafimahery, F.; Rakotomanana, L.
2010-10-01
The purpose of this paper is to develop a numerical modelisation for the behaviour of a monofin. We have developped a fluid struture model simulating the movement of a fin in a swimming pool. We first present the geometry and the equations and then proceed to different numerical experiments in order to validate the model.
3D modelling of the Black Sea ecosystem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Capet, A.; Gregoire, M.; Beckers, J.-M.; Joassin, P.; Naithani, J.; Soetart, K.
2009-04-01
A coupled physical-biogeochemical model has been developed to simulate the ecosystem of the Black Sea at the end of the 80's when eutrophication and invasion by gelatinous organisms seriously affected the stability and dynamics of the system. The biogeochemical model describes the cycle of carbon, nitrogen, silicate, oxygen and phosphorus through the foodweb from bacteria to gelatinous carnivores and explicitly represents processes in the anoxic layer down to the bottom. For calibration and analyses purposes, the coupled model has first been run in 1D at several places in the Black Sea. The biogeochemical model involves some hundred parameters which have been first calibrated by hand using published values. Then, an identifiability analysis has been performed in order to determine a subset of 15 identifiable parameters. An automatic calibration subroutine has been used to fine tune these parameters. In 1D, the model solution exhibits a complex dynamics with several years of transient adjustment. This complexity is imparted by the explicit modelling of top predators. The model has been calibrated and validated using a large set of data available in the Black Sea TU Ocean Base. The calibrated biogeochemical model is implemented in a 3D hydrodynamical model of the Black Sea. Results of these 3D simulations will be presented and compared with maps of in-situ data reconstructed from available data base using the software DIVA (Data Interpolation and Variational analysis).
2D quantum double models from a 3D perspective
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernabé Ferreira, Miguel Jorge; Padmanabhan, Pramod; Teotonio-Sobrinho, Paulo
2014-09-01
In this paper we look at three dimensional (3D) lattice models that are generalizations of the state sum model used to define the Kuperberg invariant of 3-manifolds. The partition function is a scalar constructed as a tensor network where the building blocks are tensors given by the structure constants of an involutory Hopf algebra A. These models are very general and are hard to solve in its entire parameter space. One can obtain familiar models, such as ordinary gauge theories, by letting A be the group algebra {C}(G) of a discrete group G and staying on a certain region of the parameter space. We consider the transfer matrix of the model and show that quantum double Hamiltonians are derived from a particular choice of the parameters. Such a construction naturally leads to the star and plaquette operators of the quantum double Hamiltonians, of which the toric code is a special case when A={C}({{{Z}}_{2}}). This formulation is convenient to study ground states of these generalized quantum double models where they can naturally be interpreted as tensor network states. For a surface Σ, the ground state degeneracy is determined by the Kuperberg 3-manifold invariant of \\Sigma \\times {{S}^{1}}. It is also possible to obtain extra models by simply enlarging the allowed parameter space but keeping the solubility of the model. While some of these extra models have appeared before in the literature, our 3D perspective allows for an uniform description of them.
West Flank Coso, CA FORGE 3D geologic model
Doug Blankenship
2016-03-01
This is an x,y,z file of the West Flank FORGE 3D geologic model. Model created in Earthvision by Dynamic Graphic Inc. The model was constructed with a grid spacing of 100 m. Geologic surfaces were extrapolated from the input data using a minimum tension gridding algorithm. The data file is tabular data in a text file, with lithology data associated with X,Y,Z grid points. All the relevant information is in the file header (the spatial reference, the projection etc.) In addition all the fields in the data file are identified in the header.
Right approach to 3D modeling using CAD tools
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baddam, Mounica Reddy
The thesis provides a step-by-step methodology to enable an instructor dealing with CAD tools to optimally guide his/her students through an understandable 3D modeling approach which will not only enhance their knowledge about the tool's usage but also enable them to achieve their desired result in comparatively lesser time. In the known practical field, there is particularly very little information available to apply CAD skills to formal beginners' training sessions. Additionally, advent of new software in 3D domain cumulates updating into a more difficult task. Keeping up to the industry's advanced requirements emphasizes the importance of more skilled hands in the field of CAD development, rather than just prioritizing manufacturing in terms of complex software features. The thesis analyses different 3D modeling approaches specified to the varieties of CAD tools currently available in the market. Utilizing performance-time databases, learning curves have been generated to measure their performance time, feature count etc. Based on the results, improvement parameters have also been provided for (Asperl, 2005).
Effective 3-D surface modeling for geographic information systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yüksek, K.; Alparslan, M.; Mendi, E.
2013-11-01
In this work, we propose a dynamic, flexible and interactive urban digital terrain platform (DTP) with spatial data and query processing capabilities of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), multimedia database functionality and graphical modeling infrastructure. A new data element, called Geo-Node, which stores image, spatial data and 3-D CAD objects is developed using an efficient data structure. The system effectively handles data transfer of Geo-Nodes between main memory and secondary storage with an optimized Directional Replacement Policy (DRP) based buffer management scheme. Polyhedron structures are used in Digital Surface Modeling (DSM) and smoothing process is performed by interpolation. The experimental results show that our framework achieves high performance and works effectively with urban scenes independent from the amount of spatial data and image size. The proposed platform may contribute to the development of various applications such as Web GIS systems based on 3-D graphics standards (e.g. X3-D and VRML) and services which integrate multi-dimensional spatial information and satellite/aerial imagery.
Northern California Seismic Attenuation: 3-D Qp and Qs models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eberhart-Phillips, D. M.
2015-12-01
The northern California crust exhibits a wide range of rock types and deformation processes which produce pronounced heterogeneity in regional attenuation. Using local earthquakes, 3-D Qp and Qs crustal models have been obtained for this region which includes the San Andreas fault system, the Central Valley, the Sierra Nevada batholith, and the Mendocino subduction volcanic system. Path attenuation t* values were determined from P and S spectra of 959 spatially distributed earthquakes, magnitude 2.5-6.0 from 2005-2014, using 1254 stations from NCEDC networks and IRIS Mendocino and Sierra Nevada temporary arrays. The t* data were used in Q inversions, using existing hypocenters and 3-D velocity models, with basic 10-km node spacing. The uneven data coverage was accounted for with linking of nodes into larger areas in order to provide useful Q images across the 3-D volume. The results at shallow depth (< 2 km) show very low Q in the Sacramento Delta, the Eureka area, and parts of the Bay Area. In the brittle crust, fault zones that have high seismicity exhibit low Q. In the lower crust, low Q is observed along fault zones that have large cumulative displacement and have experienced grain size reduction. Underlying active volcanic areas, low Q features are apparent below 20-km depth. Moderately high Q is associated with igneous rocks of the Sierra Nevada and Salinian block, while the Franciscan subduction complex shows moderately low Q. The most prominent high Q feature is related to the Great Valley Ophiolite.
Effective 3-D surface modeling for geographic information systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yüksek, K.; Alparslan, M.; Mendi, E.
2016-01-01
In this work, we propose a dynamic, flexible and interactive urban digital terrain platform with spatial data and query processing capabilities of geographic information systems, multimedia database functionality and graphical modeling infrastructure. A new data element, called Geo-Node, which stores image, spatial data and 3-D CAD objects is developed using an efficient data structure. The system effectively handles data transfer of Geo-Nodes between main memory and secondary storage with an optimized directional replacement policy (DRP) based buffer management scheme. Polyhedron structures are used in digital surface modeling and smoothing process is performed by interpolation. The experimental results show that our framework achieves high performance and works effectively with urban scenes independent from the amount of spatial data and image size. The proposed platform may contribute to the development of various applications such as Web GIS systems based on 3-D graphics standards (e.g., X3-D and VRML) and services which integrate multi-dimensional spatial information and satellite/aerial imagery.
NuSol - Numerical solver for the 3D stationary nuclear Schrödinger equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Graen, Timo; Grubmüller, Helmut
2016-01-01
The classification of short hydrogen bonds depends on several factors including the shape and energy spacing between the nuclear eigenstates of the hydrogen. Here, we describe the NuSol program in which three classes of algorithms were implemented to solve the 1D, 2D and 3D time independent nuclear Schrödinger equation. The Schrödinger equation was solved using the finite differences based Numerov's method which was extended to higher dimensions, the more accurate pseudo-spectral Chebyshev collocation method and the sinc discrete variable representation by Colbert and Miller. NuSol can be applied to solve the Schrödinger equation for arbitrary analytical or numerical potentials with focus on nuclei bound by the potential of their molecular environment. We validated the methods against literature values for the 2D Henon-Heiles potential, the 3D linearly coupled sextic oscillators and applied them to study hydrogen bonding in the malonaldehyde derivate 4-cyano-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedione. With NuSol, the extent of nuclear delocalization in a given molecular potential can directly be calculated without relying on linear reaction coordinates in 3D molecular space.
3D Geologic Model of the San Diego Area
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Danskin, W. R.; Cromwell, G.; Glockhoff, C.; Martin, D.
2015-12-01
Prior geologic studies of the San Diego area, including northern Baja California, Mexico, focused on site investigations, characterization of rock formations, or earthquake hazards. No comprehensive, quantitative model characterizing the three-dimensional (3D) geology of the entire area has been developed. The lack of such a model limits understanding of large-scale processes, such as development of ancient landforms, and groundwater movement and availability. To evaluate these regional processes, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a study to better understand the geologic structure of the San Diego area. A cornerstone of this study is the installation and analysis of 77 wells at 12 multiple-depth monitoring-well sites. Geologic information from these wells was combined with lithologic data from 81 oil exploration wells and municipal and private water wells, gravity and seismic interpretations, and paleontological interpretations. These data were analyzed in conjunction with geologic maps and digital elevation models to develop a 3D geologic model of the San Diego area, in particular of the San Diego embayment. Existing interpretations of regional surficial geology, faulting, and tectonic history provided the framework for this model, which was refined by independent evaluation of subsurface geology. Geologic formations were simplified into five sedimentary units (Quaternary, Plio-Pleistocene, Oligocene, Eocene and Cretaceous ages), and one basal crystalline unit (primarily Cretaceous and Jurassic). Complex fault systems are represented in the model by ten fault strands that maintain overall displacement. The 3D geologic model corroborates existing geologic concepts of the San Diego area, refines the extent of subsurface geology, and allows users to holistically evaluate subsurface structures and regional hydrogeology.
Modeling and Processing of Continuous 3D Elastic Wavefield Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Milkereit, B.; Bohlen, T.
2001-12-01
Continuous seismic wavefields are excited by earthquake clustering, induced seismicity in reservoirs, and mining. In hydrocarbon reservoirs, for example, pore pressure changes and fluid flow (mass transfer) will cause incremental deviatoric stresses sufficient to trigger and sustain seismic activity. Here we address three aspects of seismic wavefields in three-dimensional heterogeneous media triggered by distributed sources in space and time: forward modeling, multichannel data processing, and source location imaging. A power law distribution of seismic sources (such as the Gutenberg-Richter law) is used for the modeling of viscoelastic/elastic wave propagation through a realistic earth model. 3D modeling provides new insight in the interaction of multi-source wavefields and the role of scale-dependend elastic model parameters on transmitted and reflected/back-scattered wavefields. There exists a strong correlation between the spatial properties of the compressional, shear wave and density perturbations and the lateral correlation length of the resulting reflected or transmitted seismic wavefields. Modeling is based on the implementation of 3D elastic/viscoelastic FD codes on massive parallel and/or distributed computing resources using MPI (message passing interface). For parallelization, large grid 3D earth models are decomposed into subvolume processing elements whereby each processing element is updating the wavefield within its portion of the grid. Processing of continuous seismic wavefields excited by multiple distributed sources is based on a combination of crosscorrelated or slowness-transformed array data and Kirchhoff or reverse time migration for source location or source volume imaging. The appearance of slowness in both migration and array data processing suggests the possibility of combining them into a single process. In order to place further constraints on the migration, the directivity properties of 3-component receiver arrays can be included in
Underwater 3d Modeling: Image Enhancement and Point Cloud Filtering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarakinou, I.; Papadimitriou, K.; Georgoula, O.; Patias, P.
2016-06-01
This paper examines the results of image enhancement and point cloud filtering on the visual and geometric quality of 3D models for the representation of underwater features. Specifically it evaluates the combination of effects from the manual editing of images' radiometry (captured at shallow depths) and the selection of parameters for point cloud definition and mesh building (processed in 3D modeling software). Such datasets, are usually collected by divers, handled by scientists and used for geovisualization purposes. In the presented study, have been created 3D models from three sets of images (seafloor, part of a wreck and a small boat's wreck) captured at three different depths (3.5m, 10m and 14m respectively). Four models have been created from the first dataset (seafloor) in order to evaluate the results from the application of image enhancement techniques and point cloud filtering. The main process for this preliminary study included a) the definition of parameters for the point cloud filtering and the creation of a reference model, b) the radiometric editing of images, followed by the creation of three improved models and c) the assessment of results by comparing the visual and the geometric quality of improved models versus the reference one. Finally, the selected technique is tested on two other data sets in order to examine its appropriateness for different depths (at 10m and 14m) and different objects (part of a wreck and a small boat's wreck) in the context of an ongoing research in the Laboratory of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.
Implementation of algebraic stress models in a general 3-D Navier-Stokes method (PAB3D)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.
1995-01-01
A three-dimensional multiblock Navier-Stokes code, PAB3D, which was developed for propulsion integration and general aerodynamic analysis, has been used extensively by NASA Langley and other organizations to perform both internal (exhaust) and external flow analysis of complex aircraft configurations. This code was designed to solve the simplified Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations. A two-equation k-epsilon turbulence model has been used with considerable success, especially for attached flows. Accurate predicting of transonic shock wave location and pressure recovery in separated flow regions has been more difficult. Two algebraic Reynolds stress models (ASM) have been recently implemented in the code that greatly improved the code's ability to predict these difficult flow conditions. Good agreement with Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) for a subsonic flat plate was achieved with ASM's developed by Shih, Zhu, and Lumley and Gatski and Speziale. Good predictions were also achieved at subsonic and transonic Mach numbers for shock location and trailing edge boattail pressure recovery on a single-engine afterbody/nozzle model.
Subduction zone guided waves: 3D modelling and attenuation effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garth, T.; Rietbrock, A.
2013-12-01
Waveform modelling is an important tool for understanding complex seismic structures such as subduction zone waveguides. These structures are often simplified to 2D structures for modelling purposes to reduce computational costs. In the case of subduction zone waveguide affects, 2D models have shown that dispersed arrivals are caused by a low velocity waveguide, inferred to be subducted oceanic crust and/or hydrated outer rise normal faults. However, due to the 2D modelling limitations the inferred seismic properties such as velocity contrast and waveguide thickness are still debated. Here we test these limitations with full 3D waveform modelling. For waveguide effects to be observable the waveform must be accurately modelled to relatively high frequencies (> 2 Hz). This requires a small grid spacing due to the high seismic velocities present in subduction zones. A large area must be modelled as well due to the long propagation distances (400 - 600 km) of waves interacting with subduction zone waveguides. The combination of the large model area and small grid spacing required means that these simulations require a large amount of computational resources, only available at high performance computational centres like the UK National super computer HECTOR (used in this study). To minimize the cost of modelling for such a large area, the width of the model area perpendicular to the subduction trench (the y-direction) is made as small as possible. This reduces the overall volume of the 3D model domain. Therefore the wave field is simulated in a model ';corridor' of the subduction zone velocity structure. This introduces new potential sources of error particularly from grazing wave side reflections in the y-direction. Various dampening methods are explored to reduce these grazing side reflections, including perfectly matched layers (PML) and more traditional exponential dampening layers. Defining a corridor model allows waveguide affects to be modelled up to at least 2
3D flare particle model for ShipIR/NTCS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramaswamy, Srinivasan; Vaitekunas, David A.
2016-05-01
A key component in any soft-kill response to an incoming guided missile is the flare /chaff decoy used to distract or seduce the seeker homing system away from the naval platform. This paper describes a new 3D flare particle model in the naval threat countermeasure simulator (NTCS) of the NATO-standard ship signature model (ShipIR), which provides independent control over the size and radial distribution of its signature. The 3D particles of each flare sub-munition are modelled stochastically and rendered using OpenGL z-buffering, 2D projection, and alpha-blending to produce a unique and time varying signature. A sensitivity analysis on each input parameter provides the data and methods needed to synthesize a model from an IR measurement of a decoy. The new model also eliminated artifacts and deficiencies in our previous model which prevented reliable tracks from the adaptive track gate algorithm already presented by Ramaswamy and Vaitekunas (2015). A sequence of scenarios are used to test and demonstrate the new flare model during a missile engagement.
3D finite element model for treatment of cleft lip
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiao, Chun; Hong, Dongming; Lu, Hongbing; Wang, Jianqi; Lin, Qin; Liang, Zhengrong
2009-02-01
Cleft lip is a congenital facial deformity with high occurrence rate in China. Surgical procedure involving Millard or Tennison methods is usually employed for treatment of cleft lip. However, due to the elasticity of the soft tissues and the mechanical interaction between skin and maxillary, the occurrence rate of facial abnormality or dehisce is still high after the surgery, leading to multiple operations of the patient. In this study, a framework of constructing a realistic 3D finite element model (FEM) for the treatment of cleft lip has been established. It consists of two major steps. The first one is the reconstruction of a 3D geometrical model of the cleft lip from scanning CT data. The second step is the build-up of a FEM for cleft lip using the geometric model, where the material property of all the tetrahedrons was calculated from the CT densities directly using an empirical curve. The simulation results demonstrated (1) the deformation procedure of the model step-by-step when forces were applied, (2) the stress distribution inside the model, and (3) the displacement of all elements in the model. With the computer simulation, the minimal force of having the cleft be repaired is predicted, as well as whether a given force sufficient for the treatment of a specific individual. It indicates that the proposed framework could integrate the treatment planning with stress analysis based on a realistic patient model.
Oxygen spectral line synthesis: 3D non-LTE with CO5BOLD hydrodynamical model atmospheres.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prakapavičius, D.; Steffen, M.; Kučinskas, A.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Freytag, B.; Caffau, E.; Cayrel, R.
In this work we present first results of our current project aimed at combining the 3D hydrodynamical stellar atmosphere approach with non-LTE (NLTE) spectral line synthesis for a number of key chemical species. We carried out a full 3D-NLTE spectrum synthesis of the oxygen IR 777 nm triplet, using a modified and improved version of our NLTE3D package to calculate departure coefficients for the atomic levels of oxygen in a CO5BOLD 3D hydrodynamical solar model atmosphere. Spectral line synthesis was subsequently performed with the Linfor3D code. In agreement with previous studies, we find that the lines of the oxygen triplet produce deeper cores under NLTE conditions, due to the diminished line source function in the line forming region. This means that the solar oxygen IR 777 nm lines should be stronger in NLTE, leading to negative 3D NLTE-LTE abundance corrections. Qualitatively this result would support previous claims for a relatively low solar oxygen abundance. Finally, we outline several further steps that need to be taken in order to improve the physical realism and numerical accuracy of our current 3D-NLTE calculations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Norajitra, Tobias; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Maier-Hein, Klaus H.
2015-03-01
During image segmentation, 3D Statistical Shape Models (SSM) usually conduct a limited search for target landmarks within one-dimensional search profiles perpendicular to the model surface. In addition, landmark appearance is modeled only locally based on linear profiles and weak learners, altogether leading to segmentation errors from landmark ambiguities and limited search coverage. We present a new method for 3D SSM segmentation based on 3D Random Forest Regression Voting. For each surface landmark, a Random Regression Forest is trained that learns a 3D spatial displacement function between the according reference landmark and a set of surrounding sample points, based on an infinite set of non-local randomized 3D Haar-like features. Landmark search is then conducted omni-directionally within 3D search spaces, where voxelwise forest predictions on landmark position contribute to a common voting map which reflects the overall position estimate. Segmentation experiments were conducted on a set of 45 CT volumes of the human liver, of which 40 images were randomly chosen for training and 5 for testing. Without parameter optimization, using a simple candidate selection and a single resolution approach, excellent results were achieved, while faster convergence and better concavity segmentation were observed, altogether underlining the potential of our approach in terms of increased robustness from distinct landmark detection and from better search coverage.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simutė, S.; Fichtner, A.
2015-12-01
We present a feasibility study for seismic source inversions using a 3-D velocity model for the Japanese Islands. The approach involves numerically calculating 3-D Green's tensors, which is made efficient by exploiting Green's reciprocity. The rationale for 3-D seismic source inversion has several aspects. For structurally complex regions, such as the Japan area, it is necessary to account for 3-D Earth heterogeneities to prevent unknown structure polluting source solutions. In addition, earthquake source characterisation can serve as a means to delineate existing faults. Source parameters obtained for more realistic Earth models can then facilitate improvements in seismic tomography and early warning systems, which are particularly important for seismically active areas, such as Japan. We have created a database of numerically computed 3-D Green's reciprocals for a 40°× 40°× 600 km size area around the Japanese Archipelago for >150 broadband stations. For this we used a regional 3-D velocity model, recently obtained from full waveform inversion. The model includes attenuation and radial anisotropy and explains seismic waveform data for periods between 10 - 80 s generally well. The aim is to perform source inversions using the database of 3-D Green's tensors. As preliminary steps, we present initial concepts to address issues that are at the basis of our approach. We first investigate to which extent Green's reciprocity works in a discrete domain. Considering substantial amounts of computed Green's tensors we address storage requirements and file formatting. We discuss the importance of the initial source model, as an intelligent choice can substantially reduce the search volume. Possibilities to perform a Bayesian inversion and ways to move to finite source inversion are also explored.
Insights on the Subduction Process from High-Resolution 3D Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jadamec, Margarete
2015-04-01
This is an exciting time in geodynamics as the use of unprecedented high-resolution 3D modeling allows us to ask new questions that were previously unattainable. It is now relatively straightforward to run 3D numerical simulations, with local mesh refinement to ~1 km, input data mapped onto over 100 million finite element nodes, and using tens of thousands of compute hours per model, e.g. Jadamec et al. [2012]. With the additional computational resources, comes a new approach to modeling the tectonic problem. For example, mapping tectonic plates onto a high-resolution 3D geodynamic model grid forces the modeler to ask questions much as a field geologist would ask when constructing a geologic map. In this process of moving from textbook models of subduction to using models based on observation, the modeler is forced to explain the more complicated geometries and features in the Earth, allowing for the new computational approaches to be powerful tools for scientific discovery. Subduction modeling of this kind has expanded the classical view of two-dimensional corner flow, e.g. McKenzie [1969], to a slab driven flow that can be quite complex with predictions for upper mantle flow rates that can be over ten times surface plate motions, e.g. Jadamec et al. [2010] and others. In this talk, I will investigate the role of the third-dimension and non-linearity in plate boundary deformation. I will present high-resolution 3D numerical models that examine the effect of observationally based slab geometry, multiple subducting plates, non-linear rheology, and variations in overriding plate thickness on the subduction related deformation of plate margins. Specific examples include the Alaska and Central America subduction systems. In addition, I will highlight future directions in subduction modeling, and how these can be advanced by the increased incorporation of observational data, high-performance computing, focused numerical algorithms, and 3D interactive data visualization.
Bazhenov fm unconventional reservoir 3D geological modeling methodology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Telnova, A.; Baranov, V.; Bukhanov, N.
2016-03-01
The Bazhenov Formation has been studied for more than 50 years, but its petroleum potential, optimal STOIIP or resource estimation approaches, the methodology used to select a reservoir, determine its properties are still unclear. The distinctive features of bituminous shale are specific geochemical properties chosen as basic parameters to perform the geological modeling of the Bazhenov deposits and determine the key areas. The main objective of this paper is to choose an optimal 3D geological modeling algorithm and test conventional (petrophysical) and specific (geochemical) properties.
Towards Forward Modeling of 3D Heterogeneity in D" region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
To, A.; Capdeville, Y.; Romanowicz, B.
2002-12-01
The presence of strong lateral heterogeneity in D" is now well documented. While tomographic modeling provides constraints on the large scale patterns, strong variations on shorter scales are best addressed by forward modeling. Appropriate tools are needed for forward modeling that will handle strong 3D heterogeneity, at relatively short periods and including diffracted waves. We use a coupled mode/SEM (Spectral Element Method) to compute synthetic seismograms in 3D models of the D" layer down to 1/12s. This coupled method (Capdeville, 2001) affords faster computations than SEM in cases where heterogeneity can be restricted to a specific layer. We compare them with observed waveforms for several events in the Western Pacific. Observed and synthetic travel time trends are very consistent, although in most cases the observed residuals are significantly larger. Waveform amplitudes are less consistent. In order to understand the origin of the amplitude difference, we test the effect of 3D heterogeneity on Sdiff phase. In particular, the results show opposite trends in the amplitude of Sdiff due to heterogeneity located near the CMB or well above it. This provides constraints on the location of the causative velocity heterogeneity. Because the forward modeling approach requires many iterations, the coupled mode/SEM approach is still computationally intensive. It is more efficient to use a less accurate traditional approach to first get closer to a final model, and only then use coupled mode/SEM to refine the model. Ray theory is the most expedient way to calculate travel times. However, it is an infinite frequency approximation and not appropriate to handle diffracting waves. We show that ray theory predicts larger travel time anomaly for Sdiff phase than the one obtained by coupled mode/SEM. Although it is based on a weak heterogeneity assumption, Non-linear Asymptotic Coupling Theory(NACT) (Li and Romanowicz, 1995) helps to overcome this difficulty. It can handle
Digital 3D Borobudur - Integration of 3D surveying and modeling techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suwardhi, D.; Menna, F.; Remondino, F.; Hanke, K.; Akmalia, R.
2015-08-01
The Borobudur temple (Indonesia) is one of the greatest Buddhist monuments in the world, now listed as an UNESCO World Heritage Site. The present state of the temple is the result of restorations after being exposed to natural disasters several times. Today there is still a growing rate of deterioration of the building stones whose causes need further researches. Monitoring programs, supported at institutional level, have been effectively executed to observe the problem. The paper presents the latest efforts to digitally document the Borobudur Temple and its surrounding area in 3D with photogrammetric techniques. UAV and terrestrial images were acquired to completely digitize the temple, produce DEM, orthoimages and maps at 1:100 and 1:1000 scale. The results of the project are now employed by the local government organizations to manage the heritage area and plan new policies for the conservation and preservation of the UNESCO site. In order to help data management and policy makers, a web-based information system of the heritage area was also built to visualize and easily access all the data and achieved 3D results.
Discrete Method of Images for 3D Radio Propagation Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Novak, Roman
2016-09-01
Discretization by rasterization is introduced into the method of images (MI) in the context of 3D deterministic radio propagation modeling as a way to exploit spatial coherence of electromagnetic propagation for fine-grained parallelism. Traditional algebraic treatment of bounding regions and surfaces is replaced by computer graphics rendering of 3D reflections and double refractions while building the image tree. The visibility of reception points and surfaces is also resolved by shader programs. The proposed rasterization is shown to be of comparable run time to that of the fundamentally parallel shooting and bouncing rays. The rasterization does not affect the signal evaluation backtracking step, thus preserving its advantage over the brute force ray-tracing methods in terms of accuracy. Moreover, the rendering resolution may be scaled back for a given level of scenario detail with only marginal impact on the image tree size. This allows selection of scene optimized execution parameters for faster execution, giving the method a competitive edge. The proposed variant of MI can be run on any GPU that supports real-time 3D graphics.
3D Building Evacuation Route Modelling and Visualization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chan, W.; Armenakis, C.
2014-11-01
The most common building evacuation approach currently applied is to have evacuation routes planned prior to these emergency events. These routes are usually the shortest and most practical path from each building room to the closest exit. The problem with this approach is that it is not adaptive. It is not responsively configurable relative to the type, intensity, or location of the emergency risk. Moreover, it does not provide any information to the affected persons or to the emergency responders while not allowing for the review of simulated hazard scenarios and alternative evacuation routes. In this paper we address two main tasks. The first is the modelling of the spatial risk caused by a hazardous event leading to choosing the optimal evacuation route for a set of options. The second is to generate a 3D visual representation of the model output. A multicriteria decision making (MCDM) approach is used to model the risk aiming at finding the optimal evacuation route. This is achieved by using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) on the criteria describing the different alternative evacuation routes. The best route is then chosen to be the alternative with the least cost. The 3D visual representation of the model displays the building, the surrounding environment, the evacuee's location, the hazard location, the risk areas and the optimal evacuation pathway to the target safety location. The work has been performed using ESRI's ArcGIS. Using the developed models, the user can input the location of the hazard and the location of the evacuee. The system then determines the optimum evacuation route and displays it in 3D.
Implementation of Advanced Two Equation Turbulence Models in the USM3D Unstructured Flow Solver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Qun-Zhen; Massey, Steven J.; Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.
2000-01-01
USM3D is a widely-used unstructured flow solver for simulating inviscid and viscous flows over complex geometries. The current version (version 5.0) of USM3D, however, does not have advanced turbulence models to accurately simulate complicated flow. We have implemented two modified versions of the original Jones and Launder k-epsilon "two-equation" turbulence model and the Girimaji algebraic Reynolds stress model in USM3D. Tests have been conducted for three flat plate boundary layer cases, a RAE2822 airfoil and an ONERA M6 wing. The results are compared with those from direct numerical simulation, empirical formulae, theoretical results, and the existing Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model.
Grinberg, L; Cheever, E; Anor, T; Madsen, J R; Karniadakis, G E
2011-01-01
We compare results from numerical simulations of pulsatile blood flow in two patient-specific intracranial arterial networks using one-dimensional (1D) and three-dimensional (3D) models. Specifically, we focus on the pressure and flowrate distribution at different segments of the network computed by the two models. Results obtained with 1D and 3D models with rigid walls show good agreement in massflow distribution at tens of arterial junctions and also in pressure drop along the arteries. The 3D simulations with the rigid walls predict higher amplitude of the flowrate and pressure temporal oscillations than the 1D simulations with compliant walls at various segments even for small time-variations in the arterial cross-sectional areas. Sensitivity of the flow and pressure with respect to variation in the elasticity parameters is investigated with the 1D model. PMID:20661645
Model studies of blood flow in basilar artery with 3D laser Doppler anemometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frolov, S. V.; Sindeev, S. V.; Liepsch, D.; Balasso, A.; Proskurin, S. G.; Potlov, A. Y.
2015-03-01
It is proposed an integrated approach to the study of basilar artery blood flow using 3D laser Doppler anemometer for identifying the causes of the formation and development of cerebral aneurysms. Feature of the work is the combined usage of both mathematical modeling and experimental methods. Described the experimental setup and the method of measurement of basilar artery blood flow, carried out in an interdisciplinary laboratory of Hospital Rechts der Isar of Technical University of Munich. The experimental setup used to simulate the blood flow in the basilar artery and to measure blood flow characteristics using 3D laser Doppler anemometer (3D LDA). Described a method of numerical studies carried out in Tambov State Technical University and the Bakoulev Center for Cardiovascular Surgery. Proposed an approach for sharing experimental and numerical methods of research to identify the causes of the basilar artery aneurysms.
A numerical solution of 3D inviscid rotational flow in turbines and ducts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oktay, Erdal; Akmandor, Sinan; Üçer, Ahmet
1998-04-01
The numerical solutions of inviscid rotational (Euler) flows were obtained using an explicit hexahedral unstructured cell vertex finite volume method. A second-order-accurate, one-step Lax-Wendroff scheme was used to solve the unsteady governing equations discretized in conservative form. The transonic circular bump, in which the location and the strength of the captured shock are well predicted, was used as the first test case. The nozzle guide vanes of the VKI low-speed turbine facility were used to validate the Euler code in highly 3D environment. Despite the high turning and the secondary flows which develop, close agreements have been obtained with experimental and numerical results associated with these test cases.
Semi-automatic registration of 3D orthodontics models from photographs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Destrez, Raphaël.; Treuillet, Sylvie; Lucas, Yves; Albouy-Kissi, Benjamin
2013-03-01
In orthodontics, a common practice used to diagnose and plan the treatment is the dental cast. After digitization by a CT-scan or a laser scanner, the obtained 3D surface models can feed orthodontics numerical tools for computer-aided diagnosis and treatment planning. One of the pre-processing critical steps is the 3D registration of dental arches to obtain the occlusion of these numerical models. For this task, we propose a vision based method to automatically compute the registration based on photos of patient mouth. From a set of matched singular points between two photos and the dental 3D models, the rigid transformation to apply to the mandible to be in contact with the maxillary may be computed by minimizing the reprojection errors. During a precedent study, we established the feasibility of this visual registration approach with a manual selection of singular points. This paper addresses the issue of automatic point detection. Based on a priori knowledge, histogram thresholding and edge detection are used to extract specific points in 2D images. Concurrently, curvatures information detects 3D corresponding points. To improve the quality of the final registration, we also introduce a combined optimization of the projection matrix with the 2D/3D point positions. These new developments are evaluated on real data by considering the reprojection errors and the deviation angles after registration in respect to the manual reference occlusion realized by a specialist.
Mathematical structure of the three-dimensional (3D) Ising model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Zhi-Dong
2013-03-01
An overview of the mathematical structure of the three-dimensional (3D) Ising model is given from the points of view of topology, algebra, and geometry. By analyzing the relationships among transfer matrices of the 3D Ising model, Reidemeister moves in the knot theory, Yang-Baxter and tetrahedron equations, the following facts are illustrated for the 3D Ising model. 1) The complex quaternion basis constructed for the 3D Ising model naturally represents the rotation in a (3+1)-dimensional space-time as a relativistic quantum statistical mechanics model, which is consistent with the 4-fold integrand of the partition function obtained by taking the time average. 2) A unitary transformation with a matrix that is a spin representation in 2n·l·o-space corresponds to a rotation in 2n·l·o-space, which serves to smooth all the crossings in the transfer matrices and contributes the non-trivial topological part of the partition function of the 3D Ising model. 3) A tetrahedron relationship would ensure the commutativity of the transfer matrices and the integrability of the 3D Ising model, and its existence is guaranteed by the Jordan algebra and the Jordan-von Neumann-Wigner procedures. 4) The unitary transformation for smoothing the crossings in the transfer matrices changes the wave functions by complex phases varphix, varphiy, and varphiz. The relationship with quantum field and gauge theories and the physical significance of the weight factors are discussed in detail. The conjectured exact solution is compared with numerical results, and the singularities at/near infinite temperature are inspected. The analyticity in β = 1/(kBT) of both the hard-core and the Ising models has been proved only for β > 0, not for β = 0. Thus the high-temperature series cannot serve as a standard for judging a putative exact solution of the 3D Ising model.
Modeling the GFR with RELAP5-3D
Cliff B. Davis; Theron D. Marshall; K. D. Weaver
2005-09-01
Significant improvements have been made to the RELAP5-3D computer code for analysis of the Gas Fast Reactor (GFR). These improvements consisted of adding carbon dioxide as a working fluid, improving the turbine component, developing a compressor model, and adding the Gnielinski heat transfer correlation. The code improvements were validated, generally through comparisons with independent design calculations. A model of the power conversion unit of the GFR was developed. The model of the power conversion unit was coupled to a reactor model to develop a complete model of the GFR system. The RELAP5 model of the GFR was used to simulate two transients, one initiated by a reactor trip and the other initiated by a loss of load.
Testing Mercury Porosimetry with 3D Printed Porosity Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hasiuk, F.; Ewing, R. P.; Hu, Q.
2014-12-01
Mercury intrusion porosimetry is one of the most widely used techniques to study the porous nature of a geological and man-made materials. In the geosciences, it is commonly used to describe petroleum reservoir and seal rocks as well as to grade aggregates for the design of asphalt and portland cement concretes. It's wide utility stems from its ability to characterize a wide range of pore throat sizes (from nanometers to around a millimeter). The fundamental physical model underlying mercury intrusion porosimetry, the Washburn Equation, is based on the assumption that rock porosity can be described as a bundle of cylindrical tubes. 3D printing technology, also known as rapid prototyping, allows the construction of intricate and accurate models, exactly what is required to build models of rock porosity. We evaluate the applicability of the Washburn Equation by comparing properties (like porosity, pore and pore throat size distribution, and surface area) computed on digital porosity models (built from CT data, CAD designs, or periodic geometries) to properties measured via mercury intrusion porosimetry on 3D printed versions of the same digital porosity models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Wei; Kang, Hai-gui; Chen, Bing; Xie, Yu; Wang, Yin
2016-03-01
Vertical axis tidal current turbine is a promising device to extract energy from ocean current. One of the important components of the turbine is the connecting arm, which can bring about a significant effect on the pressure distribution along the span of the turbine blade, herein we call it 3D effect. However, so far the effect is rarely reported in the research, moreover, in numerical simulation. In the present study, a 3D numerical model of the turbine with the connecting arm was developed by using FLUENT software compiling the UDF (User Defined Function) command. The simulation results show that the pressure distribution along the span of blade with the connecting arm model is significantly different from those without the connecting arm. To facilitate the validation of numerical model, the laboratory experiment has been carried out by using three different types of NACA aerofoil connecting arm and circle section connecting arm. And results show that the turbine with NACA0012 connecting arm has the best start-up performance which is 0.346 m/s and the peak point of power conversion coefficient is around 0.33. A further study has been performed and a conclusion is drawn that the aerofoil and thickness of connecting arm are the most important factors on the power conversion coefficient of the vertical axis tidal current turbine.
3D model tools for architecture and archaeology reconstruction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vlad, Ioan; Herban, Ioan Sorin; Stoian, Mircea; Vilceanu, Clara-Beatrice
2016-06-01
The main objective of architectural and patrimonial survey is to provide a precise documentation of the status quo of the surveyed objects (monuments, buildings, archaeological object and sites) for preservation and protection, for scientific studies and restoration purposes, for the presentation to the general public. Cultural heritage documentation includes an interdisciplinary approach having as purpose an overall understanding of the object itself and an integration of the information which characterize it. The accuracy and the precision of the model are directly influenced by the quality of the measurements realized on field and by the quality of the software. The software is in the process of continuous development, which brings many improvements. On the other side, compared to aerial photogrammetry, close range photogrammetry and particularly architectural photogrammetry is not limited to vertical photographs with special cameras. The methodology of terrestrial photogrammetry has changed significantly and various photographic acquisitions are widely in use. In this context, the present paper brings forward a comparative study of TLS (Terrestrial Laser Scanner) and digital photogrammetry for 3D modeling. The authors take into account the accuracy of the 3D models obtained, the overall costs involved for each technology and method and the 4th dimension - time. The paper proves its applicability as photogrammetric technologies are nowadays used at a large scale for obtaining the 3D model of cultural heritage objects, efficacious in their assessment and monitoring, thus contributing to historic conservation. Its importance also lies in highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of each method used - very important issue for both the industrial and scientific segment when facing decisions such as in which technology to invest more research and funds.
Exploiting Textured 3D Models for Developing Serious Games
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kontogianni, G.; Georgopoulos, A.
2015-08-01
Digital technologies have affected significantly many fields of computer graphics such as Games and especially the field of the Serious Games. These games are usually used for educational proposes in many fields such as Health Care, Military applications, Education, Government etc. Especially Digital Cultural Heritage is a scientific area that Serious Games are applied and lately many applications appear in the related literature. Realistic 3D textured models which have been produced using different photogrammetric methods could be a useful tool for the creation of Serious Game applications in order to make the final result more realistic and close to the reality. The basic goal of this paper is how 3D textured models which are produced by photogrammetric methods can be useful for developing a more realistic environment of a Serious Game. The application of this project aims at the creation of an educational game for the Ancient Agora of Athens. The 3D models used vary not only as far as their production methods (i.e. Time of Flight laser scanner, Structure from Motion, Virtual historical reconstruction etc.) is concerned, but also as far as their era as some of them illustrated according to their existing situation and some others according to how these monuments looked like in the past. The Unity 3D® game developing environment was used for creating this application, in which all these models were inserted in the same file format. For the application two diachronic virtual tours of the Athenian Agora were produced. The first one illustrates the Agora as it is today and the second one at the 2nd century A.D. Finally the future perspective for the evolution of this game is presented which includes the addition of some questions that the user will be able to answer. Finally an evaluation is scheduled to be performed at the end of the project.
A Numerical Study on the Thermal Conductivity of 3D Woven C/C Composites at High Temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shigang, Ai; Rujie, He; Yongmao, Pei
2015-12-01
Experimental data for Carbon/Carbon (C/C) constituent materials are combined with a three dimensional steady state heat transfer finite element analysis to demonstrate the average in-plane and out-of-plane thermal conductivities (TCs) of C/C composites. The finite element analysis is carried out at two distinct length scales: (a) a micro scale comparable with the diameter of carbon fibres and (b) a meso scale comparable with the carbon fibre yarns. Micro-scale model calculate the TCs at the fibre yarn scale in the three orthogonal directions ( x, y and z). The output results from the micro-scale model are then incorporated in the meso-scale model to obtain the global TCs of the 3D C/C composite. The simulation results are quite consistent with the theoretical and experimental counterparts reported in references. Based on the numerical approach, TCs of the 3D C/C composite are calculated from 300 to 2500 K. Particular attention is given in elucidating the variations of the TCs with temperature. The multi-scale models provide an efficient approach to predict the TCs of 3D textile materials, which is helpful for the thermodynamic property analysis and structure design of the C/C composites.
3D Hydrodynamical and Radiative Transfer Modeling of Eta Carinae's Colliding Winds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Madura, Thomas Ignatius; Clementel, Nicola; Gull, Theodore R.; Kruip, Chael J. H.; Paardekooper, Jan-Pieter; Icke, Vincent
2015-08-01
We present the results of full 3D hydrodynamical and radiative transfer simulations of the colliding stellar winds in the massive binary system Eta Carinae (Clementel, Madura, et al. 2014, MNRAS, 443, 2475 and Clementel, Madura, et al. 2015, MNRAS, 447, 2445). We accomplish this by applying the SimpleX algorithm for 3D radiative transfer on an unstructured Voronoi-Delaunay grid to 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of the binary colliding winds. We use SimpleX to obtain detailed ionization fractions of hydrogen and helium in 3D. We investigate several computational domain sizes and Luminous Blue Variable primary-star mass-loss rates. We show how the SimpleX simulations can be used to generate synthetic spectral data cubes for comparison to data obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph as part of a multi-cycle program to map changes in Eta Carinae's spatially extended interacting wind structures across one binary cycle. Comparison of the HST observations to the SimpleX models can help lead to more accurate constraints on the orbital, stellar, and wind parameters of the Eta Carinae system, such as the LBV primary's mass-loss rate and the companion star's temperature and luminosity. We furthermore present new methods of visualizing and interacting with output from complex 3D numerical simulations, including 3D interactive graphics and 3D printing (Madura et al. 2015, arXiv:1503.00716). While we initially focus specifically on Eta Carinae, the methods employed can be applied to numerous other colliding wind (WR 140, WR 137, WR 19) and dusty ‘pinwheel’ (WR 112, WR 104, WR 98a) binary systems. Coupled with 3D hydrodynamical simulations, SimpleX simulations have the potential to help determine the regions where dust can form and survive in these unique objects.
Recent progress in modelling 3D lithospheric deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaus, B. J. P.; Popov, A.; May, D. A.
2012-04-01
Modelling 3D lithospheric deformation remains a challenging task, predominantly because the variations in rock types, as well as nonlinearities due to for example plastic deformation result in sharp and very large jumps in effective viscosity contrast. As a result, there are only a limited number of 3D codes available, most of which are using direct solvers which are computationally and memory-wise very demanding. As a result, the resolutions for typical model runs are quite modest, despite the use of hundreds of processors (and using much larger computers is unlikely to bring much improvement in this situation). For this reason we recently developed a new 3D deformation code,called LaMEM: Lithosphere and Mantle Evolution Model. LaMEM is written on top of PETSc, and as a result it runs on massive parallel machines and we have a large number of iterative solvers available (including geometric and algebraic multigrid methods). As it remains unclear which solver combinations work best under which conditions, we have implemented most currently suggested methods (such as schur complement reduction or Fully coupled iterations). In addition, we can use either a finite element discretization (with Q1P0, stabilized Q1Q1 or Q2P-1 elements) or a staggered finite difference discretization for the same input geometry, which is based on a marker and cell technique). This gives us he flexibility to test various solver methodologies on the same model setup, in terms of accuracy, speed, memory usage etc. Here, we will report on some features of LaMEM, on recent code additions, as well as on some lessons we learned which are important for modelling 3D lithospheric deformation. Specifically we will discuss: 1) How we combine a particle-and-cell method to make it work with both a finite difference and a (lagrangian, eulerian or ALE) finite element formulation, with only minor code modifications code 2) How finite difference and finite element discretizations compare in terms of
3-D Modeling of a Nearshore Dye Release
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maxwell, A. R.; Hibler, L. F.; Miller, L. M.
2006-12-01
The usage of computer modeling software in predicting the behavior of a plume discharged into deep water is well established. Nearfield plume spreading in coastal areas with complex bathymetry is less commonly studied; in addition to geometry, some of the difficulties of this environment include: tidal exchange, temperature, and salinity gradients. Although some researchers have applied complex hydrodynamic models to this problem, nearfield regions are typically modeled by calibration of an empirical or expert system model. In the present study, the 3D hydrodynamic model Delft3D-FLOW was used to predict the advective transport from a point release in Sequim Bay, Washington. A nested model approach was used, wherein a coarse model using a mesh extending to nearby tide gages (cell sizes up to 1 km) was run over several tidal cycles in order to provide boundary conditions to a smaller area. The nested mesh (cell sizes up to 30 m) was forced on two open boundaries using the water surface elevation derived from the coarse model. Initial experiments with the uncalibrated model were conducted in order to predict plume propagation based on the best available field data. Field experiments were subsequently carried out by releasing rhodamine dye into the bay at near-peak flood tidal current and near high slack tidal conditions. Surface and submerged releases were carried out from an anchored vessel. Concurrently collected data from the experiment include temperature, salinity, dye concentration, and hyperspectral imagery, collected from boats and aircraft. A REMUS autonomous underwater vehicle was used to measure current velocity and dye concentration at varying depths, as well as to acquire additional bathymetric information. Preliminary results indicate that the 3D hydrodynamic model offers a reasonable prediction of plume propagation speed and shape. A sensitivity analysis is underway to determine the significant factors in effectively using the model as a predictive tool
Discussion of Source Reconstruction Models Using 3D MCG Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Melis, Massimo De; Uchikawa, Yoshinori
In this study we performed the source reconstruction of magnetocardiographic signals generated by the human heart activity to localize the site of origin of the heart activation. The localizations were performed in a four compartment model of the human volume conductor. The analyses were conducted on normal subjects and on a subject affected by the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Different models of the source activation were used to evaluate whether a general model of the current source can be applied in the study of the cardiac inverse problem. The data analyses were repeated using normal and vector component data of the MCG. The results show that a distributed source model has the better accuracy in performing the source reconstructions, and that 3D MCG data allow finding smaller differences between the different source models.
Modeling moving systems with RELAP5-3D
Mesina, G. L.; Aumiller, David L.; Buschman, Francis X.; Kyle, Matt R.
2015-12-04
RELAP5-3D is typically used to model stationary, land-based reactors. However, it can also model reactors in other inertial and accelerating frames of reference. By changing the magnitude of the gravitational vector through user input, RELAP5-3D can model reactors on a space station or the moon. The field equations have also been modified to model reactors in a non-inertial frame, such as occur in land-based reactors during earthquakes or onboard spacecraft. Transient body forces affect fluid flow in thermal-fluid machinery aboard accelerating crafts during rotational and translational accelerations. It is useful to express the equations of fluid motion in the acceleratingmore » frame of reference attached to the moving craft. However, careful treatment of the rotational and translational kinematics is required to accurately capture the physics of the fluid motion. Correlations for flow at angles between horizontal and vertical are generated via interpolation where no experimental studies or data exist. The equations for three-dimensional fluid motion in a non-inertial frame of reference are developed. As a result, two different systems for describing rotational motion are presented, user input is discussed, and an example is given.« less
Modeling moving systems with RELAP5-3D
Mesina, G. L.; Aumiller, David L.; Buschman, Francis X.; Kyle, Matt R.
2015-12-04
RELAP5-3D is typically used to model stationary, land-based reactors. However, it can also model reactors in other inertial and accelerating frames of reference. By changing the magnitude of the gravitational vector through user input, RELAP5-3D can model reactors on a space station or the moon. The field equations have also been modified to model reactors in a non-inertial frame, such as occur in land-based reactors during earthquakes or onboard spacecraft. Transient body forces affect fluid flow in thermal-fluid machinery aboard accelerating crafts during rotational and translational accelerations. It is useful to express the equations of fluid motion in the accelerating frame of reference attached to the moving craft. However, careful treatment of the rotational and translational kinematics is required to accurately capture the physics of the fluid motion. Correlations for flow at angles between horizontal and vertical are generated via interpolation where no experimental studies or data exist. The equations for three-dimensional fluid motion in a non-inertial frame of reference are developed. As a result, two different systems for describing rotational motion are presented, user input is discussed, and an example is given.
Reassessing Geophysical Models of the Bushveld Complex in 3D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cole, J.; Webb, S. J.; Finn, C.
2012-12-01
Conceptual geophysical models of the Bushveld Igneous Complex show three possible geometries for its mafic component: 1) Separate intrusions with vertical feeders for the eastern and western lobes (Cousins, 1959) 2) Separate dipping sheets for the two lobes (Du Plessis and Kleywegt, 1987) 3) A single saucer-shaped unit connected at depth in the central part between the two lobes (Cawthorn et al, 1998) Model three incorporates isostatic adjustment of the crust in response to the weight of the dense mafic material. The model was corroborated by results of a broadband seismic array over southern Africa, known as the Southern African Seismic Experiment (SASE) (Nguuri, et al, 2001; Webb et al, 2004). This new information about the crustal thickness only became available in the last decade and could not be considered in the earlier models. Nevertheless, there is still on-going debate as to which model is correct. All of the models published up to now have been done in 2 or 2.5 dimensions. This is not well suited to modelling the complex geometry of the Bushveld intrusion. 3D modelling takes into account effects of variations in geometry and geophysical properties of lithologies in a full three dimensional sense and therefore affects the shape and amplitude of calculated fields. The main question is how the new knowledge of the increased crustal thickness, as well as the complexity of the Bushveld Complex, will impact on the gravity fields calculated for the existing conceptual models, when modelling in 3D. The three published geophysical models were remodelled using full 3Dl potential field modelling software, and including crustal thickness obtained from the SASE. The aim was not to construct very detailed models, but to test the existing conceptual models in an equally conceptual way. Firstly a specific 2D model was recreated in 3D, without crustal thickening, to establish the difference between 2D and 3D results. Then the thicker crust was added. Including the less
3D simulation of the Cluster-Cluster Aggregation model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Chao; Xiong, Hailing
2014-12-01
We write a program to implement the Cluster-Cluster Aggregation (CCA) model with java programming language. By using the simulation program, the fractal aggregation growth process can be displayed dynamically in the form of a three-dimensional (3D) figure. Meanwhile, the related kinetics data of aggregation simulation can be also recorded dynamically. Compared to the traditional programs, the program has better real-time performance and is more helpful to observe the fractal growth process, which contributes to the scientific study in fractal aggregation. Besides, because of adopting java programming language, the program has very good cross-platform performance.
A generic 3D kinetic model of gene expression
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhdanov, Vladimir P.
2012-04-01
Recent experiments show that mRNAs and proteins can be localized both in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. To describe such situations, I present a 3D mean-field kinetic model aimed primarily at gene expression in prokaryotic cells, including the formation of mRNA, its translation into protein, and slow diffusion of these species. Under steady-state conditions, the mRNA and protein spatial distribution is described by simple exponential functions. The protein concentration near the gene transcribed into mRNA is shown to depend on the protein and mRNA diffusion coefficients and degradation rate constants.
Unstructured 3D grid toolbox for modeling and simulation
George, D.
1997-11-01
Computable 3D grids that accurately represent complex multimaterial geometries are essential for both static and time-dependent modeling and simulation. LaGriT, the grid toolbox developed at Los Alamos provides a sophisticated set of initial grid generation, grid maintenance and grid optimization tools. We present example grids that demonstrate the flexibility of the grid generator. Additionally, we present the results of an electrostatic calculation and a grain growth problem that illustrate the grid optimization features and the utility of the grid server architecture.
Meshless deformable models for 3D cardiac motion and strain analysis from tagged MRI.
Wang, Xiaoxu; Chen, Ting; Zhang, Shaoting; Schaerer, Joël; Qian, Zhen; Huh, Suejung; Metaxas, Dimitris; Axel, Leon
2015-01-01
Tagged magnetic resonance imaging (TMRI) provides a direct and noninvasive way to visualize the in-wall deformation of the myocardium. Due to the through-plane motion, the tracking of 3D trajectories of the material points and the computation of 3D strain field call for the necessity of building 3D cardiac deformable models. The intersections of three stacks of orthogonal tagging planes are material points in the myocardium. With these intersections as control points, 3D motion can be reconstructed with a novel meshless deformable model (MDM). Volumetric MDMs describe an object as point cloud inside the object boundary and the coordinate of each point can be written in parametric functions. A generic heart mesh is registered on the TMRI with polar decomposition. A 3D MDM is generated and deformed with MR image tagging lines. Volumetric MDMs are deformed by calculating the dynamics function and minimizing the local Laplacian coordinates. The similarity transformation of each point is computed by assuming its neighboring points are making the same transformation. The deformation is computed iteratively until the control points match the target positions in the consecutive image frame. The 3D strain field is computed from the 3D displacement field with moving least squares. We demonstrate that MDMs outperformed the finite element method and the spline method with a numerical phantom. Meshless deformable models can track the trajectory of any material point in the myocardium and compute the 3D strain field of any particular area. The experimental results on in vivo healthy and patient heart MRI show that the MDM can fully recover the myocardium motion in three dimensions. PMID:25157446
Meshless deformable models for 3D cardiac motion and strain analysis from tagged MRI
Wang, Xiaoxu; Chen, Ting; Zhang, Shaoting; Schaerer, Joël; Qian, Zhen; Huh, Suejung; Metaxas, Dimitris; Axel, Leon
2016-01-01
Tagged magnetic resonance imaging (TMRI) provides a direct and noninvasive way to visualize the in-wall deformation of the myocardium. Due to the through-plane motion, the tracking of 3D trajectories of the material points and the computation of 3D strain field call for the necessity of building 3D cardiac deformable models. The intersections of three stacks of orthogonal tagging planes are material points in the myocardium. With these intersections as control points, 3D motion can be reconstructed with a novel meshless deformable model (MDM). Volumetric MDMs describe an object as point cloud inside the object boundary and the coordinate of each point can be written in parametric functions. A generic heart mesh is registered on the TMRI with polar decomposition. A 3D MDM is generated and deformed with MR image tagging lines. Volumetric MDMs are deformed by calculating the dynamics function and minimizing the local Laplacian coordinates. The similarity transformation of each point is computed by assuming its neighboring points are making the same transformation. The deformation is computed iteratively until the control points match the target positions in the consecutive image frame. The 3D strain field is computed from the 3D displacement field with moving least squares. We demonstrate that MDMs outperformed the finite element method and the spline method with a numerical phantom. Meshless deformable models can track the trajectory of any material point in the myocardium and compute the 3D strain field of any particular area. The experimental results on in vivo healthy and patient heart MRI show that the MDM can fully recover the myocardium motion in three dimensions. PMID:25157446
Simulation of 3D Global Wave Propagation Through Geodynamic Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schuberth, B.; Piazzoni, A.; Bunge, H.; Igel, H.; Steinle-Neumann, G.
2005-12-01
This project aims at a better understanding of the forward problem of global 3D wave propagation. We use the spectral element program "SPECFEM3D" (Komatitsch and Tromp, 2002a,b) with varying input models of seismic velocities derived from mantle convection simulations (Bunge et al., 2002). The purpose of this approach is to obtain seismic velocity models independently from seismological studies. In this way one can test the effects of varying parameters of the mantle convection models on the seismic wave field. In order to obtain the seismic velocities from the temperature field of the geodynamical simulations we follow a mineral physics approach. Assuming a certain mantle composition (e.g. pyrolite with CMASF composition) we compute the stable phases for each depth (i.e. pressure) and temperature by system Gibbs free energy minimization. Elastic moduli and density are calculated from the equations of state of the stable mineral phases. For this we use a mineral physics database derived from calorimetric experiments (enthalphy and entropy of formation, heat capacity) and EOS parameters.
3D Model of Melt Distribution in Partially Molten Dunite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garapic, G.; Faul, U.; Brisson, E.
2010-12-01
The currently existing model of grain-scale melt geometry in the Earth’s upper mantle is derived from theoretical considerations that stem from material science research, combined with relatively low-resolution observations of polished two-dimensional surfaces. This model predicts a simple, interconnected network of melt along three-grain edges in static surface energy equilibrium. However, due to a continuous rearrangements of neighboring grains caused by grain growth, melt forms complex shapes among the grains. As a result, it is impossible to construct a 3D image of the pore space from 2D surfaces, which makes it particularly challenging to resolve the current controversy on whether all two-grain boundaries are wetted or melt-free. We present a new method for reconstruction of the 3D pore space in partially molten rocks. The method consists of serial sectioning and high resolution imaging (Field Emission SEM) of polished surfaces, followed by image alignment and rendering. The ablation rate during serial sectioning is determined by measuring the depth of a laser hole by interferometry. We removed a total of 25 layers with a spacing of of 1.3.microns between layers. Each layer consists of a mosaic of images approximately 300 x 320 microns in size. Melt regions are identified within each layer by hand-digitizing SEM images. We obtain a 3D model by stacking the slices, registering each slice, and using alpha shapes as a surface reconstruction technique. The sample we investigated is a partially molten dunite consisting of Fo90 olivine with a mean grain size of 33 microns and 4% melt. It was run in a piston cylinder at 1350°C and 1 GPa for 432 hours to achieve steady state grain growth. Rendering of the 3D pore space shows that the larger melt pockets at multi-grain junctions change within only a few microns in depth, whereas thin inclusions along two-grain boundaries persist over the entire depth of the imaged volume, which is similar to the mean grain size
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rowe, Jeremy; Razdan, Anshuman
The Partnership for Research in Spatial Modeling (PRISM) project at Arizona State University (ASU) developed modeling and analytic tools to respond to the limitations of two-dimensional (2D) data representations perceived by affiliated discipline scientists, and to take advantage of the enhanced capabilities of three-dimensional (3D) data that…
Integration of geostatistical techniques and intuitive geology in the 3-D modeling process
Heine, C.J.; Cooper, D.H.
1995-08-01
The development of 3-D geologic models for reservoir description and simulation has traditionally relied on the computer derived interpolation of well data in a geocelluar stratigraphic framework. The quality of the interpolation has been directly dependent on the nature of the interpolation method, and ability of the interpolation scheme to accurately predict the value of geologic attributes away from the well. Typically, interpolation methods employ deterministic or geostatistical algorithms which offer limited capacity for integrating data derived from secondary analyses. These secondary analyses, which might include the results from 3-D seismic inversion, borehole imagery studies, or deductive reasoning, introduce a subjective component into what would otherwise be restricted to a purely mathematical treatment of geologic data. At Saudi ARAMCO an increased emphasis is being placed on the role of the reservoir geologist in the development of 3-D geologic models. Quantitative results, based on numerical computations, are being enhanced with intuitive geology, derived from years of cumulative professional experience and expertise. Techniques such as template modeling and modified conditional simulation, are yielding 3-D geologic models, which not only more accurately reflect the geology of the reservoir, but also preserve geologic detail throughout the simulation process. This incorporation of secondary data sources and qualitative analysis has been successfully demonstrated in a clastic reservoir environment in Central Saudi Arabia, and serves as a prototype for future 3-D geologic model development.
Integration of geostatistical techniques and intuitive geology in the 3-D modeling process
Heine, C.J.; Cooper, D.H. )
1996-01-01
The development of 3-D geologic models for reservoir description and simulation has traditionally relied on the computer derived interpolation of well data in a geocelluar stratigraphic framework. The quality of the interpolation has been directly dependent on the nature of the interpolation method, and ability of the Interpolation scheme to accurately predict the value of geologic attributes away from the well. Typically, interpolation methods employ deterministic or geostatistical algorithms which offer limited capacity for Integrating data derived from secondary analyses. These secondary analyses, which might include the results from 3-D seismic inversion, borehole imagery studies, or deductive reasoning, introduce a subjective component into what would otherwise be restricted to a purely mathematical treatment of geologic data. At Saudi ARAMCO an increased emphases is being placed on the role of the reservoir geologist in the development of 3-D geologic models. Quantitative results, based on numerical computations, are being enhanced with intuitive geology, derived from years of cumulative professional experience and expertise. Techniques such as template modeling and modified conditional simulation, are yielding 3-D geologic models, which not only more accurately reflect the geology of the reservoir, but also preserve geologic detail throughout the simulation process. This incorporation of secondary data sources and qualitative analysis has been successfully demonstrated in a clastic reservoir environment in Central Saudi Arabia, and serves as a prototype for future 3-D geologic model development.
Integration of geostatistical techniques and intuitive geology in the 3-D modeling process
Heine, C.J.; Cooper, D.H.
1996-12-31
The development of 3-D geologic models for reservoir description and simulation has traditionally relied on the computer derived interpolation of well data in a geocelluar stratigraphic framework. The quality of the interpolation has been directly dependent on the nature of the interpolation method, and ability of the Interpolation scheme to accurately predict the value of geologic attributes away from the well. Typically, interpolation methods employ deterministic or geostatistical algorithms which offer limited capacity for Integrating data derived from secondary analyses. These secondary analyses, which might include the results from 3-D seismic inversion, borehole imagery studies, or deductive reasoning, introduce a subjective component into what would otherwise be restricted to a purely mathematical treatment of geologic data. At Saudi ARAMCO an increased emphases is being placed on the role of the reservoir geologist in the development of 3-D geologic models. Quantitative results, based on numerical computations, are being enhanced with intuitive geology, derived from years of cumulative professional experience and expertise. Techniques such as template modeling and modified conditional simulation, are yielding 3-D geologic models, which not only more accurately reflect the geology of the reservoir, but also preserve geologic detail throughout the simulation process. This incorporation of secondary data sources and qualitative analysis has been successfully demonstrated in a clastic reservoir environment in Central Saudi Arabia, and serves as a prototype for future 3-D geologic model development.
Canada in 3D - Toward a Sustainable 3D Model for Canadian Geology from Diverse Data Sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brodaric, B.; Pilkington, M.; Snyder, D. B.; St-Onge, M. R.; Russell, H.
2015-12-01
Many big science issues span large areas and require data from multiple heterogeneous sources, for example climate change, resource management, and hazard mitigation. Solutions to these issues can significantly benefit from access to a consistent and integrated geological model that would serve as a framework. However, such a model is absent for most large countries including Canada, due to the size of the landmass and the fragmentation of the source data into institutional and disciplinary silos. To overcome these barriers, the "Canada in 3D" (C3D) pilot project was recently launched by the Geological Survey of Canada. C3D is designed to be evergreen, multi-resolution, and inter-disciplinary: (a) it is to be updated regularly upon acquisition of new data; (b) portions vary in resolution and will initially consist of four layers (surficial, sedimentary, crystalline, and mantle) with intermediary patches of higher-resolution fill; and (c) a variety of independently managed data sources are providing inputs, such as geophysical, 3D and 2D geological models, drill logs, and others. Notably, scalability concerns dictate a decentralized and interoperable approach, such that only key control objects, denoting anchors for the modeling process, are imported into the C3D database while retaining provenance links to original sources. The resultant model is managed in the database, contains full modeling provenance as well as links to detailed information on rock units, and is to be visualized in desktop and online environments. It is anticipated that C3D will become the authoritative state of knowledge for the geology of Canada at a national scale.
Full-Waveform Validation of a 3D Seismic Model for Western US
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maceira, M.; Larmat, C. S.; Ammon, C. J.; Chai, C.; Herrmann, R. B.
2014-12-01
Since the initiation of tomographic studies in the 1970s, geoscientists have advanced the art of inferring 3D variations in the subsurface using collections of geophysical (primarily seismic) observables recorded at or near Earth's surface. Advances have come from improvement and enhancement of the available data and from research on theoretical and computational improvements to tomographic and generalized inverse methods. In the last decade, utilizing dense array datasets, these efforts have led to unprecedented 3D images of the subsurface. Understandably, less effort has been expended on model validation to provide an absolute assessment of model uncertainty. Generally models constructed with different data sets and independent computational codes are assessed with geological reasonability and compared other models to gain confidence. The question of "How good is a particular 3D geophysical model at representing the Earth's true nature?" remains largely unaddressed at a time when 3D Earth models are used for both societal and energy security. In the last few years, opportunities have arisen in earth-structure imaging, including the advent of new methods in computational seismology and statistical sciences. We use the unique and extensive High Performance Computing resources available at Los Alamos National Laboratory to explore approaches to realistic model validation. We present results from a study focused on validating a 3D model for the western United States generated using a joint inversion simultaneously fitting interpolated teleseismic P-wave receiver functions, Rayleigh-wave group-velocity estimates between 7 and 250 s period, and high-wavenumber filtered Bouguer gravity observations. Validation of the obtained model is performed through systematic comparison of observed and predicted seismograms generated using the Spectral Element Method, which is a direct numerical solution for full waveform modeling in 3D models, with accuracy of spectral methods.
Terascale direct numerical simulations of turbulent combustion using S3D.
Sankaran, Ramanan; Mellor-Crummy, J.; DeVries, M.; Yoo, Chun Sang; Ma, K. L.; Podhorski, N.; Liao, W. K.; Klasky, S.; de Supinski, B.; Choudhary, A.; Hawkes, Evatt R.; Chen, Jacqueline H.; Shende, Sameer
2008-08-01
Computational science is paramount to the understanding of underlying processes in internal combustion engines of the future that will utilize non-petroleum-based alternative fuels, including carbon-neutral biofuels, and burn in new combustion regimes that will attain high efficiency while minimizing emissions of particulates and nitrogen oxides. Next-generation engines will likely operate at higher pressures, with greater amounts of dilution and utilize alternative fuels that exhibit a wide range of chemical and physical properties. Therefore, there is a significant role for high-fidelity simulations, direct numerical simulations (DNS), specifically designed to capture key turbulence-chemistry interactions in these relatively uncharted combustion regimes, and in particular, that can discriminate the effects of differences in fuel properties. In DNS, all of the relevant turbulence and flame scales are resolved numerically using high-order accurate numerical algorithms. As a consequence terascale DNS are computationally intensive, require massive amounts of computing power and generate tens of terabytes of data. Recent results from terascale DNS of turbulent flames are presented here, illustrating its role in elucidating flame stabilization mechanisms in a lifted turbulent hydrogen/air jet flame in a hot air co-flow, and the flame structure of a fuel-lean turbulent premixed jet flame. Computing at this scale requires close collaborations between computer and combustion scientists to provide optimized scaleable algorithms and software for terascale simulations, efficient collective parallel I/O, tools for volume visualization of multiscale, multivariate data and automating the combustion workflow. The enabling computer science, applied to combustion science, is also required in many other terascale physics and engineering simulations. In particular, performance monitoring is used to identify the performance of key kernels in the DNS code, S3D and especially memory
Terascale direct numerical simulations of turbulent combustion using S3D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, J. H.; Choudhary, A.; de Supinski, B.; DeVries, M.; Hawkes, E. R.; Klasky, S.; Liao, W. K.; Ma, K. L.; Mellor-Crummey, J.; Podhorszki, N.; Sankaran, R.; Shende, S.; Yoo, C. S.
2009-01-01
Computational science is paramount to the understanding of underlying processes in internal combustion engines of the future that will utilize non-petroleum-based alternative fuels, including carbon-neutral biofuels, and burn in new combustion regimes that will attain high efficiency while minimizing emissions of particulates and nitrogen oxides. Next-generation engines will likely operate at higher pressures, with greater amounts of dilution and utilize alternative fuels that exhibit a wide range of chemical and physical properties. Therefore, there is a significant role for high-fidelity simulations, direct numerical simulations (DNS), specifically designed to capture key turbulence-chemistry interactions in these relatively uncharted combustion regimes, and in particular, that can discriminate the effects of differences in fuel properties. In DNS, all of the relevant turbulence and flame scales are resolved numerically using high-order accurate numerical algorithms. As a consequence terascale DNS are computationally intensive, require massive amounts of computing power and generate tens of terabytes of data. Recent results from terascale DNS of turbulent flames are presented here, illustrating its role in elucidating flame stabilization mechanisms in a lifted turbulent hydrogen/air jet flame in a hot air coflow, and the flame structure of a fuel-lean turbulent premixed jet flame. Computing at this scale requires close collaborations between computer and combustion scientists to provide optimized scaleable algorithms and software for terascale simulations, efficient collective parallel I/O, tools for volume visualization of multiscale, multivariate data and automating the combustion workflow. The enabling computer science, applied to combustion science, is also required in many other terascale physics and engineering simulations. In particular, performance monitoring is used to identify the performance of key kernels in the DNS code, S3D and especially memory
Comparative 3-D Modeling of tmRNA
Burks, Jody; Zwieb, Christian; Müller, Florian; Wower, Iwona; Wower, Jacek
2005-01-01
Background Trans-translation releases stalled ribosomes from truncated mRNAs and tags defective proteins for proteolytic degradation using transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA). This small stable RNA represents a hybrid of tRNA- and mRNA-like domains connected by a variable number of pseudoknots. Comparative sequence analysis of tmRNAs found in bacteria, plastids, and mitochondria provides considerable insights into their secondary structures. Progress toward understanding the molecular mechanism of template switching, which constitutes an essential step in trans-translation, is hampered by our limited knowledge about the three-dimensional folding of tmRNA. Results To facilitate experimental testing of the molecular intricacies of trans-translation, which often require appropriately modified tmRNA derivatives, we developed a procedure for building three-dimensional models of tmRNA. Using comparative sequence analysis, phylogenetically-supported 2-D structures were obtained to serve as input for the program ERNA-3D. Motifs containing loops and turns were extracted from the known structures of other RNAs and used to improve the tmRNA models. Biologically feasible 3-D models for the entire tmRNA molecule could be obtained. The models were characterized by a functionally significant close proximity between the tRNA-like domain and the resume codon. Potential conformational changes which might lead to a more open structure of tmRNA upon binding to the ribosome are discussed. The method, described in detail for the tmRNAs of Escherichia coli, Bacillus anthracis, and Caulobacter crescentus, is applicable to every tmRNA. Conclusion Improved molecular models of biological significance were obtained. These models will guide in the design of experiments and provide a better understanding of trans-translation. The comparative procedure described here for tmRNA is easily adopted for the modeling the members of other RNA families. PMID:15958166
3D electromagnetic modelling of a TTI medium and TTI effects in inversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaysaval, Piyoosh; Shantsev, Daniil; de la Kethulle de Ryhove, Sébastien
2016-04-01
We present a numerical algorithm for 3D electromagnetic (EM) forward modelling in conducting media with general electric anisotropy. The algorithm is based on the finite-difference discretization of frequency-domain Maxwell's equations on a Lebedev grid, in which all components of the electric field are collocated but half a spatial step staggered with respect to the magnetic field components, which also are collocated. This leads to a system of linear equations that is solved using a stabilized biconjugate gradient method with a multigrid preconditioner. We validate the accuracy of the numerical results for layered and 3D tilted transverse isotropic (TTI) earth models representing typical scenarios used in the marine controlled-source EM method. It is then demonstrated that not taking into account the full anisotropy of the conductivity tensor can lead to misleading inversion results. For simulation data corresponding to a 3D model with a TTI anticlinal structure, a standard vertical transverse isotropic inversion is not able to image a resistor, while for a 3D model with a TTI synclinal structure the inversion produces a false resistive anomaly. If inversion uses the proposed forward solver that can handle TTI anisotropy, it produces resistivity images consistent with the true models.
SEARCHBreast Workshop Proceedings: 3D Modelling of Breast Cancer.
Morrissey, Bethny; Blyth, Karen; Carter, Phil; Chelala, Claude; Holen, Ingunn; Jones, Louise; Speirs, Valerie
2015-12-01
SEARCHBreast, a UK initiative supported by the NC3Rs, organised a workshop entitled 3D Modelling of Breast Cancer. The workshop focused on providing researchers with solutions to overcome some of the perceived barriers to working with human-derived tumour cells, cell lines and tissues, namely: a) the limited access to human-derived material; and b) the difficulty in working with these samples. The workshop presentations provided constructive advice and information on how to best prepare human cells or tissues for further downstream applications. Techniques in developing primary cultures from patient samples, and considerations when preserving tissue slices, were discussed. A common theme throughout the workshop was the importance of ensuring that the cells are grown in conditions as similar to the in vivo microenvironment as possible. Comparisons of the advantages of several in vitro options, such as primary cell cultures, cell line cultures, explants or tissue slices, suggest that all offer great potential applications for breast cancer research, and highlight that it need not be a case of choosing one over the other. The workshop also offered cutting-edge examples of on-chip technologies and 3-D tumour modelling by using virtual pathology, which can contribute to clinically relevant studies and provide insights into breast cancer metastatic mechanisms. PMID:26753939
Dynamic deformable models for 3D MRI heart segmentation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhukov, Leonid; Bao, Zhaosheng; Gusikov, Igor; Wood, John; Breen, David E.
2002-05-01
Automated or semiautomated segmentation of medical images decreases interstudy variation, observer bias, and postprocessing time as well as providing clincally-relevant quantitative data. In this paper we present a new dynamic deformable modeling approach to 3D segmentation. It utilizes recently developed dynamic remeshing techniques and curvature estimation methods to produce high-quality meshes. The approach has been implemented in an interactive environment that allows a user to specify an initial model and identify key features in the data. These features act as hard constraints that the model must not pass through as it deforms. We have employed the method to perform semi-automatic segmentation of heart structures from cine MRI data.
Stochastic Modeling of Calcium in 3D Geometry
Mazel, Tomáš; Raymond, Rebecca; Raymond-Stintz, Mary; Jett, Stephen; Wilson, Bridget S.
2009-01-01
Release of inflammatory mediators by mast cells in type 1 immediate-hypersensitivity allergic reactions relies on antigen-dependent increases in cytosolic calcium. Here, we used a series of electron microscopy images to build a 3D reconstruction representing a slice through a rat tumor mast cell, which then served as a basis for stochastic modeling of inositol-trisphosphate-mediated calcium responses. The stochastic approach was verified by reaction-diffusion modeling within the same geometry. Local proximity of the endoplasmic reticulum to either the plasma membrane or mitochondria is predicted to differentially impact local inositol trisphosphate receptor transport. The explicit consideration of organelle spatial relationships represents an important step toward building a comprehensive, realistic model of cellular calcium dynamics. PMID:19254531
Ruh, Dominic; Tränkle, Benjamin; Rohrbach, Alexander
2011-10-24
Multi-dimensional, correlated particle tracking is a key technology to reveal dynamic processes in living and synthetic soft matter systems. In this paper we present a new method for tracking micron-sized beads in parallel and in all three dimensions - faster and more precise than existing techniques. Using an acousto-optic deflector and two quadrant-photo-diodes, we can track numerous optically trapped beads at up to tens of kHz with a precision of a few nanometers by back-focal plane interferometry. By time-multiplexing the laser focus, we can calibrate individually all traps and all tracking signals in a few seconds and in 3D. We show 3D histograms and calibration constants for nine beads in a quadratic arrangement, although trapping and tracking is easily possible for more beads also in arbitrary 2D arrangements. As an application, we investigate the hydrodynamic coupling and diffusion anomalies of spheres trapped in a 3 × 3 arrangement. PMID:22109012
Topological order in an exactly solvable 3D spin model
Bravyi, Sergey; Leemhuis, Bernhard; Terhal, Barbara M.
2011-04-15
Research highlights: RHtriangle We study exactly solvable spin model with six-qubit nearest neighbor interactions on a 3D face centered cubic lattice. RHtriangle The ground space of the model exhibits topological quantum order. RHtriangle Elementary excitations can be geometrically described as the corners of rectangular-shaped membranes. RHtriangle The ground space can encode 4g qubits where g is the greatest common divisor of the lattice dimensions. RHtriangle Logical operators acting on the encoded qubits are described in terms of closed strings and closed membranes. - Abstract: We study a 3D generalization of the toric code model introduced recently by Chamon. This is an exactly solvable spin model with six-qubit nearest-neighbor interactions on an FCC lattice whose ground space exhibits topological quantum order. The elementary excitations of this model which we call monopoles can be geometrically described as the corners of rectangular-shaped membranes. We prove that the creation of an isolated monopole separated from other monopoles by a distance R requires an operator acting on {Omega}(R{sup 2}) qubits. Composite particles that consist of two monopoles (dipoles) and four monopoles (quadrupoles) can be described as end-points of strings. The peculiar feature of the model is that dipole-type strings are rigid, that is, such strings must be aligned with face-diagonals of the lattice. For periodic boundary conditions the ground space can encode 4g qubits where g is the greatest common divisor of the lattice dimensions. We describe a complete set of logical operators acting on the encoded qubits in terms of closed strings and closed membranes.
Development of an aquifer management model AQMAN3D
Puig, Juan Carlos; Rolon-Collazo, L. I.; Pagan-Trinidad, Ishmael
1990-01-01
A computer code that enables the use of the USGS Modular groundwater flow model for aquifermanagement modeling has been developed. Aquifermanagement techniques integrate groundwater flow modeling with linear quadratic optimization methods for the solution of various aquifer management problems. The model AQMAN3D, is a modified version of a previously developed two-dimensional AQMAN model. The idea of coupling the AQMAN model with the MODULAR model arose because actual groundwater flow systems behave in a three dimensional manner, therefore requiring treatment as such, and due to the widespread use of MODULAR. The use of the AQMAN3D model permits the implementation of the technique known as aquifer managementmodeling. A generalized approach to obtain an optimal solution to an aquifer management problem is proposed, and a sample test problem is presented to illustrate the use of the model. Even though the model provides the hydrologist with a new and powerful investigative tool, its applicability is limited to confined or quasiconfined systems.
3D Numerical Simulation on the Sloshing Waves Excited by the Seismic Shacking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Lin; Wu, Tso-Ren
2016-04-01
In the event of 2015 Nepal earthquake, a video clip broadcasted worldwide showed a violent water spilling in a hotel swimming pool. This sloshing phenomenon indicates a potential water loss in the sensitive facilities, e.g. the spent fuel pools in nuclear power plant, has to be taken into account carefully under the consideration of seismic-induced ground acceleration. In the previous studies, the simulation of sloshing mainly focused on the pressure force on the structure by using a simplified Spring-Mass Method developed in the field of solid mechanics. However, restricted by the assumptions of plane water surface and limited wave height, significant error will be made in evaluating the amount of water loss in the tank. In this paper, the computational fluid dynamical model, Splash3D, was adopted for studying the sloshing problem accurately. Splash3D solved 3D Navier-Stokes Equation directly with Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) turbulent closure. The Volume-of-fluid (VOF) method with piecewise linear interface calculation (PLIC) was used to track the complex breaking water surface. The time series acceleration of a design seismic was loaded to excite the water. With few restrictions from the assumptions, the accuracy of the simulation results were improved dramatically. A series model validations were conducted by compared to a 2D theoretical solution, and a 3D experimental data. Good comparisons can be seen. After the validation, we performed the simulation for considering a sloshing case in a rectangular water tank with a dimension of 12 m long, 8 m wide, 8 m deep, which contained water with 7 m in depth. The seismic movement was imported by considering time-series acceleration in three dimensions, which were about 0.5 g to 1.2 g in the horizontal directions, and 0.3 g to 1 g in the vertical direction. We focused the discussions on the kinematics of the water surface, wave breaking, velocity field, pressure field, water force on the side walls, and, most
Quality control of 3D Geological Models using an Attention Model based on Gaze
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Busschers, Freek S.; van Maanen, Peter-Paul; Brouwer, Anne-Marie
2014-05-01
The Geological Survey of the Netherlands (GSN) produces 3D stochastic geological models of the upper 50 meters of the Dutch subsurface. The voxel models are regarded essential in answering subsurface questions on, for example, aggregate resources, groundwater flow, land subsidence studies and the planning of large-scale infrastructural works such as tunnels. GeoTOP is the most recent and detailed generation of 3D voxel models. This model describes 3D lithological variability up to a depth of 50 m using voxels of 100*100*0.5m. Due to the expected increase in data-flow, model output and user demands, the development of (semi-)automated quality control systems is getting more important in the near future. Besides numerical control systems, capturing model errors as seen from the expert geologist viewpoint is of increasing interest. We envision the use of eye gaze to support and speed up detection of errors in the geological voxel models. As a first step in this direction we explore gaze behavior of 12 geological experts from the GSN during quality control of part of the GeoTOP 3D geological model using an eye-tracker. Gaze is used as input of an attention model that results in 'attended areas' for each individual examined image of the GeoTOP model and each individual expert. We compared these attended areas to errors as marked by the experts using a mouse. Results show that: 1) attended areas as determined from experts' gaze data largely match with GeoTOP errors as indicated by the experts using a mouse, and 2) a substantial part of the match can be reached using only gaze data from the first few seconds of the time geologists spend to search for errors. These results open up the possibility of faster GeoTOP model control using gaze if geologists accept a small decrease of error detection accuracy. Attention data may also be used to make independent comparisons between different geologists varying in focus and expertise. This would facilitate a more effective use of
Compilation of 3D global conductivity model of the Earth for space weather applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alekseev, Dmitry; Kuvshinov, Alexey; Palshin, Nikolay
2015-07-01
We have compiled a global three-dimensional (3D) conductivity model of the Earth with an ultimate goal to be used for realistic simulation of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC), posing a potential threat to man-made electric systems. Bearing in mind the intrinsic frequency range of the most intense disturbances (magnetospheric substorms) with typical periods ranging from a few minutes to a few hours, the compiled 3D model represents the structure in depth range of 0-100 km, including seawater, sediments, earth crust, and partly the lithosphere/asthenosphere. More explicitly, the model consists of a series of spherical layers, whose vertical and lateral boundaries are established based on available data. To compile a model, global maps of bathymetry, sediment thickness, and upper and lower crust thicknesses as well as lithosphere thickness are utilized. All maps are re-interpolated on a common grid of 0.25×0.25 degree lateral spacing. Once the geometry of different structures is specified, each element of the structure is assigned either a certain conductivity value or conductivity versus depth distribution, according to available laboratory data and conversion laws. A numerical formalism developed for compilation of the model, allows for its further refinement by incorporation of regional 3D conductivity distributions inferred from the real electromagnetic data. So far we included into our model four regional conductivity models, available from recent publications, namely, surface conductance model of Russia, and 3D conductivity models of Fennoscandia, Australia, and northwest of the United States.
Bailey, Ryan T.; Morway, Eric D.; Niswonger, Richard G.; Gates, Timothy K.
2013-01-01
A numerical model was developed that is capable of simulating multispecies reactive solute transport in variably saturated porous media. This model consists of a modified version of the reactive transport model RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3 Dimensions) that is linked to the Unsaturated-Zone Flow (UZF1) package and MODFLOW. Referred to as UZF-RT3D, the model is tested against published analytical benchmarks as well as other published contaminant transport models, including HYDRUS-1D, VS2DT, and SUTRA, and the coupled flow and transport modeling system of CATHY and TRAN3D. Comparisons in one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and three-dimensional variably saturated systems are explored. While several test cases are included to verify the correct implementation of variably saturated transport in UZF-RT3D, other cases are included to demonstrate the usefulness of the code in terms of model run-time and handling the reaction kinetics of multiple interacting species in variably saturated subsurface systems. As UZF1 relies on a kinematic-wave approximation for unsaturated flow that neglects the diffusive terms in Richards equation, UZF-RT3D can be used for large-scale aquifer systems for which the UZF1 formulation is reasonable, that is, capillary-pressure gradients can be neglected and soil parameters can be treated as homogeneous. Decreased model run-time and the ability to include site-specific chemical species and chemical reactions make UZF-RT3D an attractive model for efficient simulation of multispecies reactive transport in variably saturated large-scale subsurface systems.
Bailey, Ryan T; Morway, Eric D; Niswonger, Richard G; Gates, Timothy K
2013-01-01
A numerical model was developed that is capable of simulating multispecies reactive solute transport in variably saturated porous media. This model consists of a modified version of the reactive transport model RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3 Dimensions) that is linked to the Unsaturated-Zone Flow (UZF1) package and MODFLOW. Referred to as UZF-RT3D, the model is tested against published analytical benchmarks as well as other published contaminant transport models, including HYDRUS-1D, VS2DT, and SUTRA, and the coupled flow and transport modeling system of CATHY and TRAN3D. Comparisons in one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and three-dimensional variably saturated systems are explored. While several test cases are included to verify the correct implementation of variably saturated transport in UZF-RT3D, other cases are included to demonstrate the usefulness of the code in terms of model run-time and handling the reaction kinetics of multiple interacting species in variably saturated subsurface systems. As UZF1 relies on a kinematic-wave approximation for unsaturated flow that neglects the diffusive terms in Richards equation, UZF-RT3D can be used for large-scale aquifer systems for which the UZF1 formulation is reasonable, that is, capillary-pressure gradients can be neglected and soil parameters can be treated as homogeneous. Decreased model run-time and the ability to include site-specific chemical species and chemical reactions make UZF-RT3D an attractive model for efficient simulation of multispecies reactive transport in variably saturated large-scale subsurface systems. PMID:23131109
Active Exploration of Large 3D Model Repositories.
Gao, Lin; Cao, Yan-Pei; Lai, Yu-Kun; Huang, Hao-Zhi; Kobbelt, Leif; Hu, Shi-Min
2015-12-01
With broader availability of large-scale 3D model repositories, the need for efficient and effective exploration becomes more and more urgent. Existing model retrieval techniques do not scale well with the size of the database since often a large number of very similar objects are returned for a query, and the possibilities to refine the search are quite limited. We propose an interactive approach where the user feeds an active learning procedure by labeling either entire models or parts of them as "like" or "dislike" such that the system can automatically update an active set of recommended models. To provide an intuitive user interface, candidate models are presented based on their estimated relevance for the current query. From the methodological point of view, our main contribution is to exploit not only the similarity between a query and the database models but also the similarities among the database models themselves. We achieve this by an offline pre-processing stage, where global and local shape descriptors are computed for each model and a sparse distance metric is derived that can be evaluated efficiently even for very large databases. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method by interactively exploring a repository containing over 100 K models. PMID:26529460
Modeling tree crown dynamics with 3D partial differential equations.
Beyer, Robert; Letort, Véronique; Cournède, Paul-Henry
2014-01-01
We characterize a tree's spatial foliage distribution by the local leaf area density. Considering this spatially continuous variable allows to describe the spatiotemporal evolution of the tree crown by means of 3D partial differential equations. These offer a framework to rigorously take locally and adaptively acting effects into account, notably the growth toward light. Biomass production through photosynthesis and the allocation to foliage and wood are readily included in this model framework. The system of equations stands out due to its inherent dynamic property of self-organization and spontaneous adaptation, generating complex behavior from even only a few parameters. The density-based approach yields spatially structured tree crowns without relying on detailed geometry. We present the methodological fundamentals of such a modeling approach and discuss further prospects and applications. PMID:25101095
3D Model of the Eta Carinae Little Homunculus Nebula
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steffen, Wolfgang; Teodoro, Mairan; Madura, Thomas; Groh, Jose H.; Gull, Theodore R.; Corcoran, Michael F.; Damineli, Augusto; Hamaguchi, Kenji
2015-01-01
We extend our morpho-kinematic 3D modeling of the Homunculus nebula (Steffen et al., 2014) to the interior nested Little Homunculus. The model is based on spectroscopic observations from HST/STIS. We find that the structure of the interior Little Homunculus is rather flat in the polar regions and interacts with the main Homunculus nebula only on one side, towards the periastron direction of the binary orbit. Furthermore, the two lobes of the LH are misaligned, also towards the periastron direction. As an explanation for the misalignment we propose that, in both cases, shortly after the eruptions that created the bipolar nebulae from the primary star, the off-center wind of the secondary has pushed the ejecta towards the periastron directions, since the secondary is most of the time near the apastron. Future hydrodynamic simulations are warranted to confirm this scenario.
3D in vitro modeling of the central nervous system
Hopkins, Amy M.; DeSimone, Elise; Chwalek, Karolina; Kaplan, David L.
2015-01-01
There are currently more than 600 diseases characterized as affecting the central nervous system (CNS) which inflict neural damage. Unfortunately, few of these conditions have effective treatments available. Although significant efforts have been put into developing new therapeutics, drugs which were promising in the developmental phase have high attrition rates in late stage clinical trials. These failures could be circumvented if current 2D in vitro and in vivo models were improved. 3D, tissue-engineered in vitro systems can address this need and enhance clinical translation through two approaches: (1) bottom-up, and (2) top-down (developmental/regenerative) strategies to reproduce the structure and function of human tissues. Critical challenges remain including biomaterials capable of matching the mechanical properties and extracellular matrix (ECM) composition of neural tissues, compartmentalized scaffolds that support heterogeneous tissue architectures reflective of brain organization and structure, and robust functional assays for in vitro tissue validation. The unique design parameters defined by the complex physiology of the CNS for construction and validation of 3D in vitro neural systems are reviewed here. PMID:25461688
Polygonal Shapes Detection in 3d Models of Complex Architectures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benciolini, G. B.; Vitti, A.
2015-02-01
A sequential application of two global models defined on a variational framework is proposed for the detection of polygonal shapes in 3D models of complex architectures. As a first step, the procedure involves the use of the Mumford and Shah (1989) 1st-order variational model in dimension two (gridded height data are processed). In the Mumford-Shah model an auxiliary function detects the sharp changes, i.e., the discontinuities, of a piecewise smooth approximation of the data. The Mumford-Shah model requires the global minimization of a specific functional to simultaneously produce both the smooth approximation and its discontinuities. In the proposed procedure, the edges of the smooth approximation derived by a specific processing of the auxiliary function are then processed using the Blake and Zisserman (1987) 2nd-order variational model in dimension one (edges are processed in the plane). This second step permits to describe the edges of an object by means of piecewise almost-linear approximation of the input edges themselves and to detects sharp changes of the first-derivative of the edges so to detect corners. The Mumford-Shah variational model is used in two dimensions accepting the original data as primary input. The Blake-Zisserman variational model is used in one dimension for the refinement of the description of the edges. The selection among all the boundaries detected by the Mumford-Shah model of those that present a shape close to a polygon is performed by considering only those boundaries for which the Blake-Zisserman model identified discontinuities in their first derivative. The output of the procedure are hence shapes, coming from 3D geometric data, that can be considered as polygons. The application of the procedure is suitable for, but not limited to, the detection of objects such as foot-print of polygonal buildings, building facade boundaries or windows contours. v The procedure is applied to a height model of the building of the Engineering
Advanced prior modeling for 3D bright field electron tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sreehari, Suhas; Venkatakrishnan, S. V.; Drummy, Lawrence F.; Simmons, Jeffrey P.; Bouman, Charles A.
2015-03-01
Many important imaging problems in material science involve reconstruction of images containing repetitive non-local structures. Model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) could in principle exploit such redundancies through the selection of a log prior probability term. However, in practice, determining such a log prior term that accounts for the similarity between distant structures in the image is quite challenging. Much progress has been made in the development of denoising algorithms like non-local means and BM3D, and these are known to successfully capture non-local redundancies in images. But the fact that these denoising operations are not explicitly formulated as cost functions makes it unclear as to how to incorporate them in the MBIR framework. In this paper, we formulate a solution to bright field electron tomography by augmenting the existing bright field MBIR method to incorporate any non-local denoising operator as a prior model. We accomplish this using a framework we call plug-and-play priors that decouples the log likelihood and the log prior probability terms in the MBIR cost function. We specifically use 3D non-local means (NLM) as the prior model in the plug-and-play framework, and showcase high quality tomographic reconstructions of a simulated aluminum spheres dataset, and two real datasets of aluminum spheres and ferritin structures. We observe that streak and smear artifacts are visibly suppressed, and that edges are preserved. Also, we report lower RMSE values compared to the conventional MBIR reconstruction using qGGMRF as the prior model.
Ma, Nina K L; Lim, Jia Kai; Leong, Meng Fatt; Sandanaraj, Edwin; Ang, Beng Ti; Tang, Carol; Wan, Andrew C A
2016-02-01
A hierarchy of cellular stemness exists in certain cancers, and any successful strategy to treat such cancers would have to eliminate the self-renewing tumor-initiating cells at the apex of the hierarchy. The cellular microenvironment, in particular the extracellular matrix (ECM), is believed to have a role in regulating stemness. In this work, U251 glioblastoma cells are cultured on electrospun polystyrene (ESPS) scaffolds coated with an array of 7 laminin isoforms to provide a 3D model for stem cell-related genes and proteins expression studies. We observed collaboration between 3D context and laminins in promoting glioma stemness. Depending on the laminin isoform presented, U251 cells cultured on ESPS scaffolds (3D) exhibited increased expression of stemness markers compared to those cultured on tissue culture polystyrene (2D). Our results indicate the influence of 3D (versus 2D) context on integrin expression, specifically, the upregulation of the laminin-binding integrins alpha 6 and beta 4. By a colony forming assay, we showed enhanced clonogenicity of cells grown on ESPS scaffolds in collaboration with laminins 411, 421, 511 and 521. Evaluation of patient glioma databases demonstrated significant enrichment of integrin and ECM pathway networks in tumors of worse prognosis, consistent with our observations. The present results demonstrate how 3D versus 2D context profoundly affects ECM signaling, leading to stemness. PMID:26684838
3D unsteady computer modeling of industrial scale Ky and Cz sapphire crystal growth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Demina, S. E.; Kalaev, V. V.
2011-04-01
In the present work, 3D features of melt convection during sapphire growth of 100 mm diameter Cz and of 200 mm diameter Ky crystals are studied. The approach accounting for radiative heat exchange with absorption and a specular reflection in the crystal, which we applied in 2D modeling [1-3], has been extended to 3D computational domains and coupled to 3D heat transfer in the melt, crystal, and crucible. 3D melt unsteady convection together with crystallization front formation are taken into account within the Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) approach. Results of 3D modeling are discussed in detail and quantitatively compared to the previously reported data of 2D modeling and experiments [2,3]. It has been found that the features of unsteady melt convection during the "before seeding", "seeding", and "shouldering" growth stages are quite different from each other, which necessitates a flexible control of the radial and vertical temperature gradients in the crucible to provide optimal conditions for stable growth of high quality sapphire crystals.
3D density model of the Central Andes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prezzi, Claudia B.; Götze, Hans-Jürgen; Schmidt, Sabine
2009-12-01
We developed a 3D density model of the continental crust, the subducted plate and the upper mantle of the Central Andes between 20-29°S and 74-61°W through the forward modelling of Bouguer anomaly. The goal of this contribution is to gain insight on the lithospheric structure integrating the available information (geophysical, geologic, petrologic, and geochemical) in a single model. The geometry of our model is defined and constrained by hypocentre location, reflection and refraction on and offshore seismic lines, travel time and attenuation tomography, receiver function analysis, magnetotelluric studies, thermal models and balanced structural cross-sections. The densities allocated to the different bodies are calculated considering petrologic and geochemical data and pressure and temperature conditions. The model consists of 31 parallel E-W vertical planes, where the continental crust comprises distinct bodies, which represent the different morphotectonic units of the Central Andes. We include a partial melting zone at midcrustal depths under the Altiplano-Puna (low-velocity zone) and consider the presence of a rheologically strong block beneath the Salar de Atacama basin, according to recent seismic studies. Contour maps of the depth of the continental Moho, the thickness of the lower crust and the depth to the bottom of the lithosphere below South America are produced. The possible percentage of partial melt in the Central Andes low-velocity zone is estimated. The residual anomaly is calculated by subtracting from the Bouguer anomaly the gravimetric effect of the modelled subducted slab and of the modelled Moho. Isostatic anomalies are calculated from regional and local isostatic Mohos calculated with and without internal loads, derived from our gravity model, which are then compared to the modelled continental Moho. This study contributes to a more detailed knowledge of the lithospheric structure of this region of the Andes and provides an integrated 3D
Faceless identification: a model for person identification using the 3D shape and 3D motion as cues
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klasen, Lena M.; Li, Haibo
1999-02-01
Person identification by using biometric methods based on image sequences, or still images, often requires a controllable and cooperative environment during the image capturing stage. In the forensic case the situation is more likely to be the opposite. In this work we propose a method that makes use of the anthropometry of the human body and human actions as cues for identification. Image sequences from surveillance systems are used, which can be seen as monocular image sequences. A 3D deformable wireframe body model is used as a platform to handle the non-rigid information of the 3D shape and 3D motion of the human body from the image sequence. A recursive method for estimating global motion and local shape variations is presented, using two recursive feedback systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kerschke, Dorit; Schilling, Maik; Simon, Andreas; Wächter, Joachim
2014-05-01
The Energiewende and the increasing scarcity of raw materials will lead to an intensified utilization of the subsurface in Germany. Within this context, geological 3D modeling is a fundamental approach for integrated decision and planning processes. Initiated by the development of the European Geospatial Infrastructure INSPIRE, the German State Geological Offices started digitizing their predominantly analog archive inventory. Until now, a comprehensive 3D subsurface model of Brandenburg did not exist. Therefore the project B3D strived to develop a new 3D model as well as a subsequent infrastructure node to integrate all geological and spatial data within the Geodaten-Infrastruktur Brandenburg (Geospatial Infrastructure, GDI-BB) and provide it to the public through an interactive 2D/3D web application. The functionality of the web application is based on a client-server architecture. Server-sided, all available spatial data is published through GeoServer. GeoServer is designed for interoperability and acts as the reference implementation of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Feature Service (WFS) standard that provides the interface that allows requests for geographical features. In addition, GeoServer implements, among others, the high performance certified compliant Web Map Service (WMS) that serves geo-referenced map images. For publishing 3D data, the OGC Web 3D Service (W3DS), a portrayal service for three-dimensional geo-data, is used. The W3DS displays elements representing the geometry, appearance, and behavior of geographic objects. On the client side, the web application is solely based on Free and Open Source Software and leans on the JavaScript API WebGL that allows the interactive rendering of 2D and 3D graphics by means of GPU accelerated usage of physics and image processing as part of the web page canvas without the use of plug-ins. WebGL is supported by most web browsers (e.g., Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Safari, and Opera). The web
The USGS 3D Seismic Velocity Model for Northern California
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brocher, T. M.; Aagaard, B.; Simpson, R. W.; Jachens, R. C.
2006-12-01
We present a new regional 3D seismic velocity model for Northern California for use in strong motion simulations of the 1906 San Francisco and other earthquakes. The model includes compressional-wave velocity (Vp), shear-wave velocity (Vs), density, and intrinsic attenuation (Qp, Qs). These properties were assigned for each rock type in a 3D geologic model derived from surface outcrops, boreholes, gravity and magnetic data, and seismic reflection, refraction, and tomography studies. A detailed description of the model, USGS Bay Area Velocity Model 05.1.0, is available online [http://www.sf06simulation.org/geology/velocitymodel]. For ground motion simulations Vs and Qs are more important parameters than Vp and Qp because the strongest ground motions are generated chiefly by shear and surface wave arrivals. Because Vp data are more common than Vs data, however, we first developed Vp versus depth relations for each rock type and then converted these to Vs versus depth relations. For the most important rock types in Northern California we compiled measurements of Vp versus depth using borehole logs, laboratory measurements on hand samples, seismic refraction profiles, and tomography models. These rock types include Salinian and Sierran granitic rocks, metagraywackes and greenstones of the Franciscan Complex, Tertiary and Mesozoic sedimentary and volcanic rocks, and Quaternary and Holocene deposits (Brocher, USGS OFR 05-1317, 2005). Vp versus depth curves were converted to Vs versus depth curves using new empirical nonlinear relations between Vs and Vp (Brocher, BSSA, 2005). These relations, showing that Poisson's ratio is a nonlinear function of Vp, were similarly based on compilations of diverse Vs and Vp measurements on a large suite of rock types, mainly from California and the Pacific Northwest. The model is distributed in a discretized form with routines to query the model using C++, C, and Fortran 77 programming languages. The geologic model was discretized at
A 3D Bubble Merger Model for RTI Mixing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Baolian
2015-11-01
In this work we present a model for the merger processes of bubbles at the edge of an unstable acceleration driven mixing layer. Steady acceleration defines a self-similar mixing process, with a time-dependent inverse cascade of structures of increasing size. The time evolution is itself a renormalization group evolution. The model predicts the growth rate of a Rayleigh-Taylor chaotic fluid-mixing layer. The 3-D model differs from the 2-D merger model in several important ways. Beyond the extension of the model to three dimensions, the model contains one phenomenological parameter, the variance of the bubble radii at fixed time. The model also predicts several experimental numbers: the bubble mixing rate, the mean bubble radius, and the bubble height separation at the time of merger. From these we also obtain the bubble height to the radius aspect ratio, which is in good agreement with experiments. Applications to recent NIF and Omega experiments will be discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36.
3D model generation using an airborne swarm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clark, R. A.; Punzo, G.; Dobie, G.; MacLeod, C. N.; Summan, R.; Pierce, G.; Macdonald, M.; Bolton, G.
2015-03-01
Using an artificial kinematic field to provide co-ordination between multiple inspection UAVs, the authors herein demonstrate full 3D modelling capability based on a photogrammetric system. The operation of the system is demonstrated by generating a full 3D surface model of an intermediate level nuclear waste storage drum. Such drums require periodic inspection to ensure that drum distortion or corrosion is carefully monitored. Performing this inspection with multiple airborne platforms enables rapid inspection of structures that are inaccessible to on-surface remote vehicles and are in human-hazardous environments. A three-dimensional surface-meshed model of the target can then be constructed in post-processing through photogrammetry analysis of the visual inspection data. The inspection environment uses a tracking system to precisely monitor the position of each aerial vehicle within the enclosure. The vehicles used are commercially available Parrot AR. Drone quadcopters, controlled through a computer interface connected over an IEEE 802.11n (WiFi) network, implementing a distributed controller for each vehicle. This enables the autonomous and distributed elements of the control scheme to be retained, while alleviating the vehicles of the control algorithm's computational load. The control scheme relies on a kinematic field defined with the target at its centre. This field defines the trajectory for all the drones in the volume relative to the central target, enabling the drones to circle the target at a set radius while avoiding drone collisions. This function enables complete coverage along the height of the object, which is assured by transitioning to another inspection band only after completing circumferential coverage. Using a swarm of vehicles, the time until complete coverage can be significantly reduced.
3D model generation using an airborne swarm
Clark, R. A.; Punzo, G.; Macdonald, M.; Dobie, G.; MacLeod, C. N.; Summan, R.; Pierce, G.; Bolton, G.
2015-03-31
Using an artificial kinematic field to provide co-ordination between multiple inspection UAVs, the authors herein demonstrate full 3D modelling capability based on a photogrammetric system. The operation of the system is demonstrated by generating a full 3D surface model of an intermediate level nuclear waste storage drum. Such drums require periodic inspection to ensure that drum distortion or corrosion is carefully monitored. Performing this inspection with multiple airborne platforms enables rapid inspection of structures that are inaccessible to on-surface remote vehicles and are in human-hazardous environments. A three-dimensional surface-meshed model of the target can then be constructed in post-processing through photogrammetry analysis of the visual inspection data. The inspection environment uses a tracking system to precisely monitor the position of each aerial vehicle within the enclosure. The vehicles used are commercially available Parrot AR. Drone quadcopters, controlled through a computer interface connected over an IEEE 802.11n (WiFi) network, implementing a distributed controller for each vehicle. This enables the autonomous and distributed elements of the control scheme to be retained, while alleviating the vehicles of the control algorithm’s computational load. The control scheme relies on a kinematic field defined with the target at its centre. This field defines the trajectory for all the drones in the volume relative to the central target, enabling the drones to circle the target at a set radius while avoiding drone collisions. This function enables complete coverage along the height of the object, which is assured by transitioning to another inspection band only after completing circumferential coverage. Using a swarm of vehicles, the time until complete coverage can be significantly reduced.
Importance of a 3D forward modeling tool for surface wave analysis methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pageot, Damien; Le Feuvre, Mathieu; Donatienne, Leparoux; Philippe, Côte; Yann, Capdeville
2016-04-01
Since a few years, seismic surface waves analysis methods (SWM) have been widely developed and tested in the context of subsurface characterization and have demonstrated their effectiveness for sounding and monitoring purposes, e.g., high-resolution tomography of the principal geological units of California or real time monitoring of the Piton de la Fournaise volcano. Historically, these methods are mostly developed under the assumption of semi-infinite 1D layered medium without topography. The forward modeling is generally based on Thomson-Haskell matrix based modeling algorithm and the inversion is driven by Monte-Carlo sampling. Given their efficiency, SWM have been transfered to several scale of which civil engineering structures in order to, e.g., determine the so-called V s30 parameter or assess other critical constructional parameters in pavement engineering. However, at this scale, many structures may often exhibit 3D surface variations which drastically limit the efficiency of SWM application. Indeed, even in the case of an homogeneous structure, 3D geometry can bias the dispersion diagram of Rayleigh waves up to obtain discontinuous phase velocity curves which drastically impact the 1D mean velocity model obtained from dispersion inversion. Taking advantages of high-performance computing center accessibility and wave propagation modeling algorithm development, it is now possible to consider the use of a 3D elastic forward modeling algorithm instead of Thomson-Haskell method in the SWM inversion process. We use a parallelized 3D elastic modeling code based on the spectral element method which allows to obtain accurate synthetic data with very low numerical dispersion and a reasonable numerical cost. In this study, we choose dike embankments as an illustrative example. We first show that their longitudinal geometry may have a significant effect on dispersion diagrams of Rayleigh waves. Then, we demonstrate the necessity of 3D elastic modeling as a forward
3D Printed Molecules and Extended Solid Models for Teaching Symmetry and Point Groups
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Scalfani, Vincent F.; Vaid, Thomas P.
2014-01-01
Tangible models help students and researchers visualize chemical structures in three dimensions (3D). 3D printing offers a unique and straightforward approach to fabricate plastic 3D models of molecules and extended solids. In this article, we prepared a series of digital 3D design files of molecular structures that will be useful for teaching…
Energy flow in passive and active 3D cochlear model
Wang, Yanli; Steele, Charles; Puria, Sunil
2015-12-31
Energy flow in the cochlea is an important characteristic of the cochlear traveling wave, and many investigators, such as von Békésy and Lighthill, have discussed this phenomenon. Particularly after the discovery of the motility of the outer hair cells (OHCs), the nature of the power gain of the cochlea has been a fundamental research question. In the present work, direct three-dimensional (3D) calculations of the power on cross sections of the cochlea and on the basilar membrane are performed based on a box model of the mouse cochlea. The distributions of the fluid pressure and fluid velocity in the scala vestibuli are presented. The power output from the OHCs and the power loss due to fluid viscous damping are calculated along the length of the cochlea. This work provides a basis for theoretical calculations of the power gain of the OHCs from mechanical considerations.
Energy flow in passive and active 3D cochlear model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yanli; Puria, Sunil; Steele, Charles
2015-12-01
Energy flow in the cochlea is an important characteristic of the cochlear traveling wave, and many investigators, such as von Békésy and Lighthill, have discussed this phenomenon. Particularly after the discovery of the motility of the outer hair cells (OHCs), the nature of the power gain of the cochlea has been a fundamental research question. In the present work, direct three-dimensional (3D) calculations of the power on cross sections of the cochlea and on the basilar membrane are performed based on a box model of the mouse cochlea. The distributions of the fluid pressure and fluid velocity in the scala vestibuli are presented. The power output from the OHCs and the power loss due to fluid viscous damping are calculated along the length of the cochlea. This work provides a basis for theoretical calculations of the power gain of the OHCs from mechanical considerations.
3D Model of the San Emidio Geothermal Area
James E. Faulds
2013-12-31
The San Emidio geothermal system is characterized by a left-step in a west-dipping normal fault system that bounds the western side of the Lake Range. The 3D geologic model consists of 5 geologic units and 55 faults. Overlying Jurrassic-Triassic metasedimentary basement is a ~500 m-1000 m thick section of the Miocene lower Pyramid sequence, pre- syn-extensional Quaternary sedimentary rocks and post-extensional Quaternary rocks. 15-30º eastward dip of the stratigraphy is controlled by the predominant west-dipping fault set. Both geothermal production and injection are concentrated north of the step over in an area of closely spaced west dipping normal faults.
3D lithography modeling for ground rule development
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarma, Chandra; Bailey, Todd; Lyons, Adam; Shao, Dongbing
2011-04-01
The ability to incorporate the effect of patterned underlayers in a 3-dimensional physical resist model that truly mimics the process on real wafers could be used to formulate robust ground rules for design. We have shown as an example block level simulations, where the resist critical dimension is determined by the presence of STI (shallow trench isolation) and/or patterned gate level underneath & their relative spacing, as confirmed on wafer. We will demonstrate how the results of such study could be used for creating ground rules which are truly dependent on the interaction between the current layer resist & the patterned layers underneath. We have also developed a new way to visualize lithographic process variations in 3-D space that is useful for simulation analysis that can prove very helpful in ground rule development and process optimization. Such visualization capability in the dataprep flow to flag issues or dispose critical structures increases speed and efficiency in the mask tapeout process.