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Sample records for 3d porous scaffolds

  1. Highly porous 3D nanofiber scaffold using an electrospinning technique.

    PubMed

    Kim, Geunhyung; Kim, WanDoo

    2007-04-01

    A successful 3D tissue-engineering scaffold must have a highly porous structure and good mechanical stability. High porosity and optimally designed pore size provide structural space for cell accommodation and migration and enable the exchange of nutrients between the scaffold and environment. Poly(epsilon-carprolactone) fibers were electrospun using an auxiliary electrode and chemical blowing agent (BA), and characterized according to porosity, pore size, and their mechanical properties. We also investigated the effect of the BA on the electrospinning processability. The growth characteristic of human dermal fibroblasts cells cultured in the webs showed the good adhesion with the blown web relative to a normal electrospun mat. The blown nanofiber web had good tensile properties and high porosity compared to a typical electrospun nanofiber scaffold. PMID:16924612

  2. Development of an indirect solid freeform fabrication process based on microstereolithography for 3D porous scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hyun-Wook; Seol, Young-Joon; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2009-01-01

    Scaffold fabrication using solid freeform fabrication (SFF) technology is a hot topic in tissue engineering. Here, we present a new indirect SFF technology based on microstereolithography (MSTL), which has the highest resolution of all SFF methods, to construct a three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffold by combining SFF with molding technology. To realize this indirect method, we investigated and modified a water-soluble photopolymer. We used MSTL technology to fabricate a high-resolution 3D porous mold composed of the modified polymer. The mold can be removed using an appropriate solvent. We tested two materials, polycaprolactone and calcium sulfate hemihydrate, using the molding process, and developed a lost-mold shape forming process by dissolving the mold. This procedure demonstrated that the proposed method can yield scaffold pore sizes as small as 60-70 µm. In addition, cytotoxicity test results indicated that the proposed process is feasible for producing 3D porous scaffolds.

  3. Thermoforming techniques for manufacturing porous scaffolds for application in 3D cell cultivation.

    PubMed

    Borowiec, Justyna; Hampl, Jörg; Gebinoga, Michael; Elsarnagawy, Tarek; Elnakady, Yasser A; Fouad, Hassan; Almajhadi, Fahd; Fernekorn, Uta; Weise, Frank; Singh, Sukhdeep; Elsarnagawy, Dief; Schober, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Within the scientific community, there is an increasing demand to apply advanced cell cultivation substrates with increased physiological functionalities for studying spatially defined cellular interactions. Porous polymeric scaffolds are utilized for mimicking an organ-like structure or engineering complex tissues and have become a key element for three-dimensional (3D) cell cultivation in the meantime. As a consequence, efficient 3D scaffold fabrication methods play an important role in modern biotechnology. Here, we present a novel thermoforming procedure for manufacturing porous 3D scaffolds from permeable materials. We address the issue of precise thermoforming of porous polymer foils by using multilayer polymer thermoforming technology. This technology offers a new method for structuring porous polymer foils that are otherwise available for non-porous polymers only. We successfully manufactured 3D scaffolds from solvent casted and phase separated polylactic acid (PLA) foils and investigated their biocompatibility and basic cellular performance. The HepG2 cell culture in PLA scaffold has shown enhanced albumin secretion rate in comparison to a previously reported polycarbonate based scaffold with similar geometry. PMID:25686978

  4. Mechanical properties and shape memory effect of 3D-printed PLA-based porous scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Senatov, F S; Niaza, K V; Zadorozhnyy, M Yu; Maksimkin, A V; Kaloshkin, S D; Estrin, Y Z

    2016-04-01

    In the present work polylactide (PLA)/15wt% hydroxyapatite (HA) porous scaffolds with pre-modeled structure were obtained by 3D-printing by fused filament fabrication. Composite filament was obtained by extrusion. Mechanical properties, structural characteristics and shape memory effect (SME) were studied. Direct heating was used for activation of SME. The average pore size and porosity of the scaffolds were 700μm and 30vol%, respectively. Dispersed particles of HA acted as nucleation centers during the ordering of PLA molecular chains and formed an additional rigid fixed phase that reduced molecular mobility, which led to a shift of the onset of recovery stress growth from 53 to 57°C. A more rapid development of stresses was observed for PLA/HA composites with the maximum recovery stress of 3.0MPa at 70°C. Ceramic particles inhibited the growth of cracks during compression-heating-compression cycles when porous PLA/HA 3D-scaffolds recovered their initial shape. Shape recovery at the last cycle was about 96%. SME during heating may have resulted in "self-healing" of scaffold by narrowing the cracks. PLA/HA 3D-scaffolds were found to withstand up to three compression-heating-compression cycles without delamination. It was shown that PLA/15%HA porous scaffolds obtained by 3D-printing with shape recovery of 98% may be used as self-fitting implant for small bone defect replacement owing to SME. PMID:26710259

  5. Preparation and Evaluation of Gelatin-Chitosan-Nanobioglass 3D Porous Scaffold for Bone Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Maji, Kanchan; Dasgupta, Sudip; Pramanik, Krishna; Bissoyi, Akalabya

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to prepare and characterize bioglass-natural biopolymer based composite scaffold and evaluate its bone regeneration ability. Bioactive glass nanoparticles (58S) in the size range of 20–30 nm were synthesized using sol-gel method. Porous scaffolds with varying bioglass composition from 10 to 30 wt% in chitosan, gelatin matrix were fabricated using the method of freeze drying of its slurry at 40 wt% solids loading. Samples were cross-linked with glutaraldehyde to obtain interconnected porous 3D microstructure with improved mechanical strength. The prepared scaffolds exhibited >80% porosity with a mean pore size range between 100 and 300 microns. Scaffold containing 30 wt% bioglass (GCB 30) showed a maximum compressive strength of 2.2 ± 0.1 MPa. Swelling and degradation studies showed that the scaffold had excellent properties of hydrophilicity and biodegradability. GCB 30 scaffold was shown to be noncytotoxic and supported mesenchymal stem cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation as indicated by MTT assay and RUNX-2 expression. Higher cellular activity was observed in GCB 30 scaffold as compared to GCB 0 scaffold suggesting the fact that 58S bioglass nanoparticles addition into the scaffold promoted better cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. Thus, the study showed that the developed composite scaffolds are potential candidates for regenerating damaged bone tissue. PMID:26884764

  6. Primary human osteoblast culture on 3D porous collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Jones, Gemma L; Walton, Robin; Czernuszka, Jan; Griffiths, Sarah L; El Haj, Alicia J; Cartmell, Sarah H

    2010-09-15

    There is a need in tissue-engineering for 3D scaffolds that mimic the natural extracellular matrix of bone to enhance cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. The scaffold is also required to be degradable. A highly porous scaffold has been developed to incorporate two of the extracellular components found in bone-collagen and hydroxyapatite (HA). The scaffold's collagen component is an afibrillar monomeric type I atelocollagen extracted from foetal calf's skin. This provided a novel environment for the inclusion of HA powder. Five hundred thousand primary human osteoblasts were seeded onto 4 mm cubed scaffolds that varied in ratio of HA to collagen. Weight ratios of 1:99, 25:75, 50:50, and 75:25 hydroxyapatite:collagen (HA:Collagen) were analysed. The scaffolds plus cells were cultured for 21 days. DNA assays and live/dead viability staining demonstrated that all of the scaffolds supported cell proliferation and viability. An alkaline phosphatase assay showed similar osteoblast phenotype maintenance on all of the 3D scaffolds analysed at 21 days. MicroCT analysis demonstrated an increase in total sample volume (correlating to increase in unmineralised matrix production). An even distribution of HA throughout the collagen matrix was observed using this technique. Also at 3 weeks, reductions in the percentage of the mineralised phase of the constructs were seen. These results indicate that each of the ratios of HA/collagen scaffolds have great potential for bone tissue engineering. PMID:20694991

  7. Bottom-up topography assembly into 3D porous scaffold to mediate cell activities.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Delin; Hou, Jie; Hao, Lijing; Cao, Xiaodong; Gao, Huichang; Fu, Xiaoling; Wang, Yingjun

    2016-08-01

    Native cells live in a three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix (ECM) capable of regulating cell activities through various physical and chemical factors. Designed topographies have been well proven to trigger significant difference in cell behaviours. However, present topographies are almost all constructed on two-dimensional (2D) substrates like discs and films, which are far from features like 3D and porosity required in application like bone repair. Here we bottom-up assembled poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/calcium carbonate (PLGA/CC) microspheres with superficial porous topography intactly into a 3D porous scaffold. Because the scaffold was obtained through a mild technique, the bioactivity of released BMP-2 was well retained. Mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (mMSCs) were cultured on produced scaffolds having different 3D topographies. It turned out that osteogenic differentiation of mMSCs did respond to the 3D topographies, while proliferation didn't. Gene expression of αv and β1 integrins revealed that adhesion was supposed to be the underlying mechanism for osteogenic response. The study provides insight into enhancing function of practical scaffolds by elaborate topography design. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 1056-1063, 2016. PMID:26013977

  8. Evaluation of 3D nano-macro porous bioactive glass scaffold for hard tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Falk, M M; Rashad, A; Saad, M M; Marques, A C; Almeida, R M; Marei, M K; Jain, H

    2011-05-01

    Recently, nano-macro dual-porous, three-dimensional (3D) glass structures were developed for use as bioscaffolds for hard tissue regeneration, but there have been concerns regarding the interconnectivity and homogeneity of nanopores in the scaffolds, as well as the cytotoxicity of the environment deep inside due to limited fluid access. Therefore, mercury porosimetry, nitrogen absorption, and TEM have been used to characterize nanopore network of the scaffolds. In parallel, viability of MG 63 human osteosarcoma cells seeded on scaffold surface was investigated by fluorescence, confocal and electron microscopy methods. The results show that cells attach, migrate and penetrate inside the glass scaffold with high proliferation and viability rate. Additionally, scaffolds were implanted under the skin of a male New Zealand rabbit for in vivo animal test. Initial observations show the formation of new tissue with blood vessels and collagen fibers deep inside the implanted scaffolds with no obvious inflammatory reaction. Thus, the new nano-macro dual-porous glass structure could be a promising bioscaffold for use in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering for bone regeneration. PMID:21445655

  9. 3D printing of porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds intended for use in bone tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Cox, Sophie C; Thornby, John A; Gibbons, Gregory J; Williams, Mark A; Mallick, Kajal K

    2015-02-01

    A systematic characterisation of bone tissue scaffolds fabricated via 3D printing from hydroxyapatite (HA) and poly(vinyl)alcohol (PVOH) composite powders is presented. Flowability of HA:PVOH precursor materials was observed to affect mechanical stability, microstructure and porosity of 3D printed scaffolds. Anisotropic behaviour of constructs and part failure at the boundaries of interlayer bonds was highlighted by compressive strength testing. A trade-off between the ability to facilitate removal of PVOH thermal degradation products during sintering and the compressive strength of green parts was revealed. The ultimate compressive strength of 55% porous green scaffolds printed along the Y-axis and dried in a vacuum oven for 6h was 0.88 ± 0.02 MPa. Critically, the pores of 3D printed constructs could be user designed, ensuring bulk interconnectivity, and the imperfect packing of powder particles created an inherent surface roughness and non-designed porosity within the scaffold. These features are considered promising since they are known to facilitate osteoconduction and osteointegration in-vivo. Characterisation techniques utilised in this study include two funnel flow tests, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), compressive strength testing and computed tomography (CT). PMID:25492194

  10. Osteogenic effect of controlled released rhBMP-2 in 3D printed porous hydroxyapatite scaffold.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai; Wu, Gui; Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Kui; Yin, Bo; Su, Xinlin; Qiu, Guixing; Yang, Guang; Zhang, Xianglin; Zhou, Gang; Wu, Zhihong

    2016-05-01

    Recently, 3D printing as effective technology has been highlighted in the biomedical field. Previously, a porous hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffold with the biocompatibility and osteoconductivity has been developed by this method. However, its osteoinductivity is limited. The main purpose of this study was to improve it by the introduction of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). This scaffold was developed by coating rhBMP-2-delivery microspheres with collagen. These synthesized scaffolds were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), a delivery test in vitro, cell culture, and the experiments in vivo by a Micro-computed tomography (μCT) scan and histological evaluation of VanGieson staining. SEM results indicated the surface of scaffolds were more fit for the adhesion of hMSCs to coat collagen/rhBMP-2 microspheres. Biphasic release of rhBMP-2 could continue for more than 21 days, and keep its osteoinductivity to induce osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs in vitro. In addition, the experiments in vivo showed that the scaffold had a good bone regeneration capacity. These findings demonstrate that the HA/Collagen/Chitosan Microspheres system can simultaneously achieve localized long-term controlled release of rhBMP-2 and bone regeneration, which provides a promising route for improving the treatment of bone defects. PMID:26896655

  11. 3D Printing Bioceramic Porous Scaffolds with Good Mechanical Property and Cell Affinity

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chih-Hao; Lin, Chih-Yang; Liu, Fwu-Hsing; Chen, Mark Hung-Chih; Lin, Chun-Pin; Ho, Hong-Nerng; Liao, Yunn-Shiuan

    2015-01-01

    Artificial bone grafting is widely used in current orthopedic surgery for bone defect problems. Unfortunately, surgeons remain unsatisfied with the current commercially available products. One of the major complaints is that these products cannot provide sufficient mechanical strength to support the human skeletal structure. In this study, we aimed to develop a bone scaffold with better mechanical property and good cell affinity by 3D printing (3DP) techniques. A self-developed 3D printer with laser-aided gelling (LAG) process was used to fabricate bioceramic scaffolds with inter-porous structures. To improve the mechanical property of the bioceramic parts after heating, CaCO3 was added to the silica ceramic slurry. CaCO3 was blended into a homogenous SiO2-sol dispersion at weight ratios varying from 0/100 to 5/95 to 9/91 (w/w). Bi-component CaCO3/SiO2-sol was prepared as a biocomposite for the 3DP scaffold. The well-mixed biocomposite was used to fabricate the bioceramic green part using the LAG method. The varied scaffolds were sintered at different temperatures ranging from 900 to 1500°C, and the mechanical property was subsequently analyzed. The scaffolds showed good property with the composite ratio of 5:95 CaCO3:SiO2 at a sintering temperature of 1300°C. The compressive strength was 47 MPa, and the porosity was 34%. The topography of the sintered 3DP bioceramic scaffold was examined by SEM, EDS and XRD. The silica bioceramic presented no cytotoxicity and good MG-63 osteoblast-like cell affinity, demonstrating good biocompatibility. Therefore, the new silica biocomposite is viable for fabricating 3DP bone bioceramics with improved mechanical property and good cell affinity. PMID:26618362

  12. 3D Printing Bioceramic Porous Scaffolds with Good Mechanical Property and Cell Affinity.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Hao; Lin, Chih-Yang; Liu, Fwu-Hsing; Chen, Mark Hung-Chih; Lin, Chun-Pin; Ho, Hong-Nerng; Liao, Yunn-Shiuan

    2015-01-01

    Artificial bone grafting is widely used in current orthopedic surgery for bone defect problems. Unfortunately, surgeons remain unsatisfied with the current commercially available products. One of the major complaints is that these products cannot provide sufficient mechanical strength to support the human skeletal structure. In this study, we aimed to develop a bone scaffold with better mechanical property and good cell affinity by 3D printing (3DP) techniques. A self-developed 3D printer with laser-aided gelling (LAG) process was used to fabricate bioceramic scaffolds with inter-porous structures. To improve the mechanical property of the bioceramic parts after heating, CaCO3 was added to the silica ceramic slurry. CaCO3 was blended into a homogenous SiO2-sol dispersion at weight ratios varying from 0/100 to 5/95 to 9/91 (w/w). Bi-component CaCO3/SiO2-sol was prepared as a biocomposite for the 3DP scaffold. The well-mixed biocomposite was used to fabricate the bioceramic green part using the LAG method. The varied scaffolds were sintered at different temperatures ranging from 900 to 1500°C, and the mechanical property was subsequently analyzed. The scaffolds showed good property with the composite ratio of 5:95 CaCO3:SiO2 at a sintering temperature of 1300°C. The compressive strength was 47 MPa, and the porosity was 34%. The topography of the sintered 3DP bioceramic scaffold was examined by SEM, EDS and XRD. The silica bioceramic presented no cytotoxicity and good MG-63 osteoblast-like cell affinity, demonstrating good biocompatibility. Therefore, the new silica biocomposite is viable for fabricating 3DP bone bioceramics with improved mechanical property and good cell affinity. PMID:26618362

  13. Laser 3D printing with sub-microscale resolution of porous elastomeric scaffolds for supporting human bone stem cells.

    PubMed

    Petrochenko, Peter E; Torgersen, Jan; Gruber, Peter; Hicks, Lucas A; Zheng, Jiwen; Kumar, Girish; Narayan, Roger J; Goering, Peter L; Liska, Robert; Stampfl, Jürgen; Ovsianikov, Aleksandr

    2015-04-01

    A reproducible method is needed to fabricate 3D scaffold constructs that results in periodic and uniform structures with precise control at sub-micrometer and micrometer length scales. In this study, fabrication of scaffolds by two-photon polymerization (2PP) of a biodegradable urethane and acrylate-based photoelastomer is demonstrated. This material supports 2PP processing with sub-micrometer spatial resolution. The high photoreactivity of the biophotoelastomer permits 2PP processing at a scanning speed of 1000 mm s(-1), facilitating rapid fabrication of relatively large structures (>5 mm(3)). These structures are custom printed for in vitro assay screening in 96-well plates and are sufficiently flexible to enable facile handling and transplantation. These results indicate that stable scaffolds with porosities of greater than 60% can be produced using 2PP. Human bone marrow stromal cells grown on 3D scaffolds exhibit increased growth and proliferation compared to smooth 2D scaffold controls. 3D scaffolds adsorb larger amounts of protein than smooth 2D scaffolds due to their larger surface area; the scaffolds also allow cells to attach in multiple planes and to completely infiltrate the porous scaffolds. The flexible photoelastomer material is biocompatible in vitro and is associated with facile handling, making it a viable candidate for further study of complex 3D-printed scaffolds. PMID:25522214

  14. Microfabrication of complex porous tissue engineering scaffolds using 3D projection stereolithography

    PubMed Central

    Gauvin, Robert; Chen, Ying-Chieh; Lee, Jin Woo; Soman, Pranav; Zorlutuna, Pinar; Nichol, Jason W.; Bae, Hojae; Chen, Shaochen; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2013-01-01

    The success of tissue engineering will rely on the ability to generate complex, cell seeded three-dimensional (3D) structures. Therefore, methods that can be used to precisely engineer the architecture and topography of scaffolding materials will represent a critical aspect of functional tissue engineering. Previous approaches for 3D scaffold fabrication based on top-down and process driven methods are often not adequate to produce complex structures due to the lack of control on scaffold architecture, porosity, and cellular interactions. The proposed projection stereolithography (PSL) platform can be used to design intricate 3D tissue scaffolds that can be engineered to mimic the microarchitecture of tissues, based on computer aided design (CAD). The PSL system was developed, programmed and optimized to fabricate 3D scaffolds using gelatin methacrylate (GelMA). Variation of the structure and prepolymer concentration enabled tailoring the mechanical properties of the scaffolds. A dynamic cell seeding method was utilized to improve the coverage of the scaffold throughout its thickness. The results demonstrated that the interconnectivity of pores allowed for uniform human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) distribution and proliferation in the scaffolds, leading to high cell density and confluency at the end of the culture period. Moreover, immunohistochemistry results showed that cells seeded on the scaffold maintained their endothelial phenotype, demonstrating the biological functionality of the microfabricated GelMA scaffolds. PMID:22365811

  15. Microfabrication of complex porous tissue engineering scaffolds using 3D projection stereolithography.

    PubMed

    Gauvin, Robert; Chen, Ying-Chieh; Lee, Jin Woo; Soman, Pranav; Zorlutuna, Pinar; Nichol, Jason W; Bae, Hojae; Chen, Shaochen; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2012-05-01

    The success of tissue engineering will rely on the ability to generate complex, cell seeded three-dimensional (3D) structures. Therefore, methods that can be used to precisely engineer the architecture and topography of scaffolding materials will represent a critical aspect of functional tissue engineering. Previous approaches for 3D scaffold fabrication based on top-down and process driven methods are often not adequate to produce complex structures due to the lack of control on scaffold architecture, porosity, and cellular interactions. The proposed projection stereolithography (PSL) platform can be used to design intricate 3D tissue scaffolds that can be engineered to mimic the microarchitecture of tissues, based on computer aided design (CAD). The PSL system was developed, programmed and optimized to fabricate 3D scaffolds using gelatin methacrylate (GelMA). Variation of the structure and prepolymer concentration enabled tailoring the mechanical properties of the scaffolds. A dynamic cell seeding method was utilized to improve the coverage of the scaffold throughout its thickness. The results demonstrated that the interconnectivity of pores allowed for uniform human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) distribution and proliferation in the scaffolds, leading to high cell density and confluency at the end of the culture period. Moreover, immunohistochemistry results showed that cells seeded on the scaffold maintained their endothelial phenotype, demonstrating the biological functionality of the microfabricated GelMA scaffolds. PMID:22365811

  16. Urethral reconstruction with a 3D porous bacterial cellulose scaffold seeded with lingual keratinocytes in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian-Wen; Lv, Xiang-Guo; Li, Zhe; Song, Lu-Jie; Feng, Chao; Xie, Min-Kai; Li, Chao; Li, Hong-Bin; Wang, Ji-Hong; Zhu, Wei-Dong; Chen, Shi-Yan; Wang, Hua-Ping; Xu, Yue-Min

    2015-09-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of urethral reconstruction with a three-dimensional (3D) porous bacterial cellulose (BC) scaffold seeded with lingual keratinocytes in a rabbit model. A novel 3D porous BC scaffold was prepared by gelatin sponge interfering in the BC fermentation process. Rabbit lingual keratinocytes were isolated, expanded, and seeded onto 3D porous BC. BC alone (group 1, N  =  10), 3D porous BC alone (group 2, N  =  10), and 3D porous BC seeded with lingual keratinocytes (group 3, N  =  10) were used to repair rabbit ventral urethral defects (2.0   ×   0.8 cm). Scanning electron microscopy revealed that BC consisted of a compact laminate while 3D porous BC was composed of a porous sheet buttressed by a dense outer layer. The average pore diameter and porosity of the 3D porous BC were 4.23   ±   1.14 μm and 67.00   ±   6.80%, respectively. At 3 months postoperatively, macroscopic examinations and retrograde urethrograms of urethras revealed that all urethras maintained wide calibers in group 3. Strictures were found in all rabbits in groups 1 and 2. Histologically, at 1 month postoperatively, intact epithelium occurred in group 3, and discontinued epithelium was found in groups 1 and 2. However, groups 2 and 3 exhibited similar epithelial regeneration, which was superior to that of group 1 at 3 months (p  <  0.05). Comparisons of smooth muscle content and endothelia density among the three groups revealed a significant increase at each time point (p  <  0.05). Our results demonstrated that 3D porous BC seeded with lingual keratinocytes enhanced urethral tissue regeneration. 3D porous BC could potentially be used as an optimized scaffold for urethral reconstruction. PMID:26358641

  17. Collagen-poly(dialdehyde) guar gum based porous 3D scaffolds immobilized with growth factor for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Ragothaman, Murali; Palanisamy, Thanikaivelan; Kalirajan, Cheirmadurai

    2014-12-19

    Here we report the preparation of collagen-poly(dialdehyde) guar gum based hybrid functionalized scaffolds covalently immobilized with platelet derived growth factor - BB for tissue engineering applications. Poly(dialdehyde) guar gum was synthesized from selective oxidation of guar gum using sodium periodate. The synthesized poly(dialdehyde) guar gum not only promotes crosslinking of collagen but also immobilizes the platelet derived growth factor through imine bonds. The covalent crosslinking formed in collagen improves thermal, swelling and biodegradation properties of the hybrid scaffolds. The prepared hybrid scaffolds show 3D interconnected honeycomb porous structure when viewed under a microscope. The release of immobilized platelet derived growth factor was seen up to 13th day of incubation thereby proving its sustained delivery. The developed hybrid scaffold leads to a quantum increase in NIH 3T3 fibroblast cell density and proliferation thereby demonstrating its potential for tissue engineering applications. PMID:25263907

  18. Development and characterization of novel porous 3D alginate-cockle shell powder nanobiocomposite bone scaffold.

    PubMed

    Bharatham, B Hemabarathy; Abu Bakar, Md Zuki; Perimal, Enoch Kumar; Yusof, Loqman Mohamed; Hamid, Muhajir

    2014-01-01

    A novel porous three-dimensional bone scaffold was developed using a natural polymer (alginate/Alg) in combination with a naturally obtained biomineral (nano cockle shell powder/nCP) through lyophilization techniques. The scaffold was developed in varying composition mixture of Alg-nCP and characterized using various evaluation techniques as well as preliminary in vitro studies on MG63 human osteoblast cells. Morphological observations using SEM revealed variations in structures with the use of different Alg-nCP composition ratios. All the developed scaffolds showed a porous structure with pore sizes ideal for facilitating new bone growth; however, not all combination mixtures showed subsequent favorable characteristics to be used for biological applications. Scaffolds produced using the combination mixture of 40% Alg and 60% nCP produced significantly promising results in terms of mechanical strength, degradation rate, and increased cell proliferation rates making it potentially the optimum composition mixture of Alg-nCP with future application prospects. PMID:25110655

  19. Development and Characterization of Novel Porous 3D Alginate-Cockle Shell Powder Nanobiocomposite Bone Scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Bharatham, B. Hemabarathy; Abu Bakar, Md. Zuki; Perimal, Enoch Kumar; Yusof, Loqman Mohamed; Hamid, Muhajir

    2014-01-01

    A novel porous three-dimensional bone scaffold was developed using a natural polymer (alginate/Alg) in combination with a naturally obtained biomineral (nano cockle shell powder/nCP) through lyophilization techniques. The scaffold was developed in varying composition mixture of Alg-nCP and characterized using various evaluation techniques as well as preliminary in vitro studies on MG63 human osteoblast cells. Morphological observations using SEM revealed variations in structures with the use of different Alg-nCP composition ratios. All the developed scaffolds showed a porous structure with pore sizes ideal for facilitating new bone growth; however, not all combination mixtures showed subsequent favorable characteristics to be used for biological applications. Scaffolds produced using the combination mixture of 40% Alg and 60% nCP produced significantly promising results in terms of mechanical strength, degradation rate, and increased cell proliferation rates making it potentially the optimum composition mixture of Alg-nCP with future application prospects. PMID:25110655

  20. Characterization of Silk Fibroin/Chitosan 3D Porous Scaffold and In Vitro Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Shuguang; Liu, Lei; Shi, Yong; Qiu, Junqi; Fang, Wei; Rong, Mingdeng; Guo, Zehong; Gao, Wenfeng

    2015-01-01

    Bone tissue engineering is a powerful tool to treat bone defects caused by trauma, infection, tumors and other factors. Both silk fibroin (SF) and chitosan (CS) are non-toxic and have good biocompatibility, but are poor biological scaffolds when used alone. In this study, the microscopic structure and related properties of SF/CS composite scaffolds with different component ratios were examined. The scaffold material most suitable for osteoblast growth was determined, and these results offer an experimental basis for the future reconstruction of bone defects. First, via freeze-drying and chemical crosslinking methods, SF/CS composites with different component ratios were prepared and their structure was characterized. Changes in the internal structure of the SF and CS mixture were observed, confirming that the mutual modification between the two components was complete and stable. The internal structure of the composite material was porous and three-dimensional with a porosity above 90%. We next studied the pore size, swelling ratio, water absorption ratio, degradation and in vitro cell proliferation. For the 40% SF-60% CS group, the pore size of the scaffold was suitable for the growth of osteoblasts, and the rate of degradation was steady. This favors the early adhesion, growth and proliferation of MG-63 cells. In addition to good biocompatibility and satisfactory cell affinity, this material promotes the secretion of extracellular matrix materials by osteoblasts. Thus, 40% SF-60% CS is a good material for bone tissue engineering. PMID:26083846

  1. Peptide-incorporated 3D porous alginate scaffolds with enhanced osteogenesis for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zuyuan; Yang, Yue; Deng, Yi; Sun, Yuhua; Yang, Hongtao; Wei, Shicheng

    2016-07-01

    Good bioactivity and osteogenesis of three-dimensional porous alginate scaffolds (PAS) are critical for bone tissue engineering. In this work, alginate and bone-forming peptide-1 (BFP-1), derived from bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7), have been combined together (without carbodiimide chemistry treatment) to develop peptide-incorporated PAS (p-PAS) for promoting bone repairing ability. The mechanical properties and SEM images show no difference between pure PAS and p-PAS. The release kinetics of the labeled peptide with 6-carboxy tetramethyl rhodamine from the PAS matrix suggests that the peptide is released in a relatively sustained manner. In the cell experiment, p-PAS show higher cell adhesion, spreading, proliferation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity than the pristine PAS group, indicating that the BFP-1 released from p-PAS could significantly promote the aggregation and differentiation of osteoblasts, especially at 10μg/mL of trapped peptide concentration (p-PAS-10). Furthermore, p-PAS-10 was implanted into Beagle calvarial defects and bone regeneration was analyzed after 4 weeks. New bone formation was assessed by calcein and Masson's trichrome staining. The data reveal that p-PAS group exhibits significantly enhanced oseto-regenerative capability in vivo. The peptide-modified PAS with promoted bioactivity and osteogenic differentiation in vitro as well as bone formation ability in vivo could be promising tissue engineering materials for repairing and regeneration of bone defects. PMID:27022863

  2. Fabrication of 3D porous SF/β-TCP hybrid scaffolds for bone tissue reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Jung; Min, Kyung Dan; Lee, Min Chae; Kim, Soo Hyeon; Lee, Ok Joo; Ju, Hyung Woo; Moon, Bo Mi; Lee, Jung Min; Park, Ye Ri; Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Ju Yeon; Park, Chan Hum

    2016-07-01

    Bio-ceramic is a biomaterial actively studied in the field of bone tissue engineering. But, only certain ceramic materials can resolve the corrosion problem and possess the biological affinity of conventional metal biomaterials. Therefore, the recent development of composites of hybrid composites and polymers has been widely studied. In this study, we aimed to select the best scaffold of silk fibroin and β-TCP hybrid for bone tissue engineering. We fabricated three groups of scaffold such as SF (silk fibroin scaffold), GS (silk fibroin/small granule size of β-TCP scaffold) and GM (silk fibroin/medium granule size of β-TCP scaffold), and we compared the characteristics of each group. During characterization of the scaffold, we used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for structural analysis. We compared the physiological properties of the scaffold regarding the swelling ratio, water uptake and porosity. To evaluate the mechanical properties, we examined the compressive strength of the scaffold. During in vitro testing, we evaluated cell attachment and cell proliferation (CCK-8). Finally, we confirmed in vivo new bone regeneration from the implanted scaffolds using histological staining and micro-CT. From these evaluations, the fabricated scaffold demonstrated high porosity with good inter-pore connectivity, showed good biocompatibility and high compressive strength and modulus. In particular, the present study indicates that the GM scaffold using β-TCP accelerates new bone regeneration of implanted scaffolds. Accordingly, our scaffold is expected to act a useful application in the field of bone tissue engineering. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1779-1787, 2016. PMID:26999521

  3. In vitro and in vivo evaluations of 3D porous TCP-coated and non-coated alumina scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Hee; Anirban, Jyoti M; Song, Ho-Yeon; Seo, Hyung-Seok; Lee, Byong-Taek

    2011-02-01

    Both tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and alumina have been extensively studied and shown to have high biocompatibility. Tricalcium phosphate has improved biodegradability and a higher solubility than hydroxyapatite. In contrast, alumina (Al(2)O(3)) is almost completely inert at physiological conditions and has been used as a biomaterial due to its wear resistance, high surface finish, and excellent hardness. Thus, the combination of these two implants would result in greater biocompatibility and phenotype maintenance. A polyurethane (PU) foam replica method was employed in this study to coat TCP on an alumina scaffold. The TCP-coated alumina scaffold was then sintered to generate a porous surface morphology. The pore sizes obtained using this approach ranged between 100-600 µm, which is ideal for cellular proliferation. The cytotoxicity, cellular proliferation, differentiation, and ECM deposition on the coated scaffold resulted in longer-term viability of osteogenic markers compared to the non-coated scaffold. Moreover, the osteogenic properties of porous TCP-coated Al(2)O(3) scaffolds were reported in this study using rabbit models. The TCP/Al(2)O( 3) scaffold and control Al(2)O(3) scaffolds were implanted in the rabbit femur. The bone tissue response was analyzed with micro-computed tomography (micro CT) at 12 and 24 weeks after implantation. The porous scaffolds exhibited favorable hard and soft tissue responses at both time points. At 24 weeks, a three-fold increase in bone tissue ingrowth was observed in defects containing TCP-coated Al(2)O(3) scaffolds compared to control Al(2)O(3) scaffolds. PMID:20207781

  4. Hybrid Macro-Porous Titanium Ornamented by Degradable 3D Gel/nHA Micro-Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Bo; Ma, Pei; Chen, Jun; Wang, Hai; Wu, Gui; Li, Bo; Li, Qiang; Huang, Zhifeng; Qiu, Guixing; Wu, Zhihong

    2016-01-01

    Porous titanium is a kind of promising material for bone substitution, while its bio-inert property results in demand of modifications to improve the osteointegration capacity. In this study, gelatin (Gel) and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) were used to construct 3D micro-scaffolds in the pores of porous titanium in the ratios of Gel:nHA = 1:0, Gel:nHA = 1:1, and Gel:nHA = 1:3, respectively. Cell attachment and proliferation, and gene and protein expression levels of osteogenic markers were evaluated in MC3T3-E1 cells, followed by bone regeneration assessment in a rabbit radius defect model. All hybrid scaffolds with different composition ratio were found to have significant promotional effects in cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation, in which the group with Gel:nHA = 1:1 showed the best performance in vitro, as well as the most bone regeneration volume in vivo. This 3D micro-scaffolds modification may be an innovative method for porous titanium ornamentation and shows potential application values in clinic. PMID:27092492

  5. 3D Porous Chitosan-Alginate Scaffolds as an In Vitro Model for Evaluating Nanoparticle-Mediated Tumor Targeting and Gene Delivery to Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kui; Kievit, Forrest M; Florczyk, Stephen J; Stephen, Zachary R; Zhang, Miqin

    2015-10-12

    Cationic nanoparticles (NPs) for targeted gene delivery are conventionally evaluated using 2D in vitro cultures. However, this does not translate well to corresponding in vivo studies because of the marked difference in NP behavior in the presence of the tumor microenvironment. In this study, we investigated whether prostate cancer (PCa) cells cultured in three-dimensional (3D) chitosan-alginate (CA) porous scaffolds could model cationic NP-mediated gene targeted delivery to tumors in vitro. We assessed in vitro tumor cell proliferation, formation of tumor spheroids, and expression of marker genes that promote tumor malignancy in CA scaffolds. The efficacy of NP-targeted gene delivery was evaluated in PCa cells in 2D cultures, PCa tumor spheroids grown in CA scaffolds, and PCa tumors in a mouse TRAMP-C2 flank tumor model. PCa cells cultured in CA scaffolds grew into tumor spheroids and displayed characteristics of higher malignancy as compared to those in 2D cultures. Significantly, targeted gene delivery was only observed in cells cultured in CA scaffolds, whereas cells cultured on 2D plates showed no difference in gene delivery between targeted and nontarget control NPs. In vivo NP evaluation confirmed targeted gene delivery, indicating that only CA scaffolds correctly modeled NP-mediated targeted delivery in vivo. These findings suggest that CA scaffolds serve as a better in vitro platform than 2D cultures for evaluation of NP-mediated targeted gene delivery to PCa. PMID:26347946

  6. Pore size and LbL chitosan coating influence mesenchymal stem cell in vitro fibrosis and biomineralization in 3D porous poly(epsilon-caprolactone) scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Mehr, Nima Ghavidel; Li, Xian; Chen, Gaoping; Favis, Basil D; Hoemann, Caroline D

    2015-07-01

    Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) is a hydrophobic bioplastic under development for bone tissue engineering applications. Limited information is available on the role of internal geometry and cell-surface attachment on osseous integration potential. We tested the hypothesis that human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) deposit more mineral inside porous 3D PCL scaffolds with fully interconnected 84 or 141 µm pores, when the surfaces are coated with chitosan via Layer-by-Layer (LbL)-deposited polyelectrolytes. Freshly trypsinized MSCs were seeded on PCL 3D cylinders using a novel static cold seeding method in 2% serum to optimally populate all depths of the scaffold discs, followed by 10 days of culture in proliferation medium and 21 additional days in osteogenic medium. MSCs were observed by SEM and histology to spread faster and to proliferate more on chitosan-coated pore surfaces. Most pores, with or without chitosan, became filled by collagen networks sparsely populated with fibroblast-like cells. After 21 days of culture in osteogenic medium, sporadic matrix mineralization was detected histologically and by micro-CT in highly cellular surface layers that enveloped all scaffolds and in cell aggregates in 141 µm pores near the edges. LbL-chitosan promoted punctate mineral deposition on the surfaces of 84 µm pores (p < 0.05 vs. PCL-only) but not the 141 µm pores. This study revealed that LbL-chitosan coatings are sufficient to promote MSC attachment to PCL but only enhance mineral formation in 84 µm pores, suggesting a potential inhibitory role for MSC-derived fibroblasts in osteoblast terminal differentiation. PMID:25504184

  7. Influence of the laser assisted fabricated 3D porous scaffolds from bioceramoplasts of micron and nano sizes on culture of MMSC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishkovsky, I.; Volchkov, S.

    2013-11-01

    The objective of the investigation was to test the biocompatibility of 3D porous biopolymer matrices (tissue-cellular scaffolds), made of biocompatible and bioresorbable polymers (polycarbonate, polyetheretherketone /PEEK/, polycaprolactone), including the materials with biocompatible oxide ceramics additive (TiO2, Al2O3, ZrO2 and hydroxyapatite) of micron and nano sizes, for tissue-engineering purposes. The porous samples were prepared via a layer-by-layer SLS method. The surface microstructures and their roughness were analyzed by the optical microscopy equipped with the cell analysis software. The cellular morphology, proliferative activity and adhesion of the polymeric and ceramopolymeric matrices were the subjects for comparison. The study showed that all the tested materials posessed biocompatible properties. The experimentally estimated cell duplication speed per day turned out to be maximal for polycarbonate (0.279 duplications per day) and for PEEK + Al2O3 = 3:1 group (0.30 dupl/day) against 0.387 dupl/day for the reference sample and 0.270 dupl/day for the group of cells placed close to the pure titanium samples.

  8. In situ controlled release of rhBMP-2 in gelatin-coated 3D porous poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffolds for homogeneous bone tissue formation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingchun; Tan, Ke; Zhang, Yan; Ye, Zhaoyang; Tan, Wen-Song; Lang, Meidong

    2014-01-13

    In tissue engineering, incorporation of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) into biomaterial scaffolds is an attractive strategy to stimulate bone repair. However, suboptimal release of BMP-2 remains a great concern, which may cause unfavorable bone formation as well as severe inflammation. In this study, genipin-cross-linked gelatin entrapped with recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) was exploited to decorate the interior surface of three-dimensional porous poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds. With gelatin-coating, PCL scaffolds demonstrated enhanced water uptake and improved compressive moduli. Intriguingly, a unique release profile of rhBMP-2 composed of a transient burst release followed by a sustained release was achieved in coated scaffolds. These coated scaffolds well supported growth and osteogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in vitro, indicating the retaining of rhBMP-2 bioactivity. When hMSCs-seeded scaffolds were implanted subcutaneously in nude mice for 4 weeks, better bone formation was observed in gelatin/rhBMP-2-coated scaffolds. Specifically, the spatial distribution of newly formed bone was more uniform in gelatin-coated scaffolds than in uncoated scaffolds, which displayed preferential bone formation at the periphery. These results collectively demonstrated that gelatin-coating of porous PCL scaffolds is a promising approach for delivering rhBMP-2 to stimulate improved bone regeneration. PMID:24266740

  9. 3D Porous Calcium-Alginate Scaffolds Cell Culture System Improved Human Osteoblast Cell Clusters for Cell Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ching-Yun; Ke, Cherng-Jyh; Yen, Ko-Chung; Hsieh, Hui-Chen; Sun, Jui-Sheng; Lin, Feng-Huei

    2015-01-01

    Age-related orthopedic disorders and bone defects have become a critical public health issue, and cell-based therapy is potentially a novel solution for issues surrounding bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Long-term cultures of primary bone cells exhibit phenotypic and functional degeneration; therefore, culturing cells or tissues suitable for clinical use remain a challenge. A platform consisting of human osteoblasts (hOBs), calcium-alginate (Ca-Alginate) scaffolds, and a self-made bioreactor system was established for autologous transplantation of human osteoblast cell clusters. The Ca-Alginate scaffold facilitated the growth and differentiation of human bone cell clusters, and the functionally-closed process bioreactor system supplied the soluble nutrients and osteogenic signals required to maintain the cell viability. This system preserved the proliferative ability of cells and cell viability and up-regulated bone-related gene expression and biological apatite crystals formation. The bone-like tissue generated could be extracted by removal of calcium ions via ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) chelation, and exhibited a size suitable for injection. The described strategy could be used in therapeutic application and opens new avenues for surgical interventions to correct skeletal defects. PMID:25825603

  10. 3D printed PLA-based scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Tiziano; Mateos-Timoneda, Miguel A; Planell, Josep A; Navarro, Melba

    2013-01-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP), also known as additive manufacturing (AM), has been well received and adopted in the biomedical field. The capacity of this family of techniques to fabricate customized 3D structures with complex geometries and excellent reproducibility has revolutionized implantology and regenerative medicine. In particular, nozzle-based systems allow the fabrication of high-resolution polylactic acid (PLA) structures that are of interest in regenerative medicine. These 3D structures find interesting applications in the regenerative medicine field where promising applications including biodegradable templates for tissue regeneration purposes, 3D in vitro platforms for studying cell response to different scaffolds conditions and for drug screening are considered among others. Scaffolds functionality depends not only on the fabrication technique, but also on the material used to build the 3D structure, the geometry and inner architecture of the structure, and the final surface properties. All being crucial parameters affecting scaffolds success. This Commentary emphasizes the importance of these parameters in scaffolds’ fabrication and also draws the attention toward the versatility of these PLA scaffolds as a potential tool in regenerative medicine and other medical fields. PMID:23959206

  11. 3D interconnected porous HA scaffolds with SiO2 additions: effect of SiO2 content and macropore size on the viability of human osteoblast cells.

    PubMed

    Nikom, Jaru; Charoonpatrapong-Panyayong, Kanokwan; Kedjarune-Leggat, Ureporn; Stevens, Ron; Kosachan, Nudthakarn; Jaroenworaluck, Angkhana

    2013-08-01

    3D interconnected porous scaffolds of HA and HA with various additions of SiO2 were fabricated using a polymeric template technique, to make bioceramic scaffolds consisting of macrostructures of the interconnected macropores. Three different sizes of the polyurethane template were used in the fabrication process to form different size interconnected macropores, to study the effect of pore size on human osteoblast cell viability. The template used allowed fabrication of scaffolds with pore sizes of 45, 60, and 75 ppi, respectively. Scanning microscopy was used extensively to observe the microstructure of the sintered samples and the characteristics of cells growing on the HA surfaces of the interconnected macropores. It has been clearly demonstrated that the SiO2 addition has influenced both the phase transformation of HA to TCP (β-TCP and α-TCP) and also affected the human osteoblast cell viability grown on these scaffolds. PMID:23355495

  12. 3D printing of novel osteochondral scaffolds with graded microstructure.

    PubMed

    Nowicki, Margaret A; Castro, Nathan J; Plesniak, Michael W; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-10-14

    Osteochondral tissue has a complex graded structure where biological, physiological, and mechanical properties vary significantly over the full thickness spanning from the subchondral bone region beneath the joint surface to the hyaline cartilage region at the joint surface. This presents a significant challenge for tissue-engineered structures addressing osteochondral defects. Fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D bioprinters present a unique solution to this problem. The objective of this study is to use FDM-based 3D bioprinting and nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite for improved bone marrow human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) adhesion, growth, and osteochondral differentiation. FDM printing parameters can be tuned through computer aided design and computer numerical control software to manipulate scaffold geometries in ways that are beneficial to mechanical performance without hindering cellular behavior. Additionally, the ability to fine-tune 3D printed scaffolds increases further through our investment casting procedure which facilitates the inclusion of nanoparticles with biochemical factors to further elicit desired hMSC differentiation. For this study, FDM was used to print investment-casting molds innovatively designed with varied pore distribution over the full thickness of the scaffold. The mechanical and biological impacts of the varied pore distributions were compared and evaluated to determine the benefits of this physical manipulation. The results indicate that both mechanical properties and cell performance improve in the graded pore structures when compared to homogeneously distributed porous and non-porous structures. Differentiation results indicated successful osteogenic and chondrogenic manipulation in engineered scaffolds. PMID:27606933

  13. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of porous PCL-PLLA 3D polymer scaffolds fabricated via salt leaching method for bone tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Sadiasa, Alexander; Nguyen, Thi Hiep; Lee, Byong-Taek

    2014-01-01

    Three dimensional porous scaffolds composed of various ratios of polycaprolactone and poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) were prepared using salt leaching method for bone regeneration applications. Surfaces of the scaffolds were visualized using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the combination of the polymers was confirmed by FT-IR. Addition of PLLA increased the porosity and pore sizes of the scaffolds and also the scaffolds' compressive strength initially. Osteoblast-like cells were used and it was found that the samples' cell biocompatibility was further promoted with the increase in PLLA content as observed via cell proliferation assays using MTT, gene expression with RT-PCR, and micrographs from SEM and confocal microscopy. Samples were then implanted into male rabbits for 2 months, and histological staining and micro-CT histomorphometry show that new bone formations were detected in the site containing the implants of the scaffolds and that bone regeneration was further promoted with the increased concentration of PLLA in the scaffold. PMID:24138179

  14. Cell colonization in degradable 3D porous matrices

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Benjamin J

    2008-01-01

    Cell colonization is an important in a wide variety of biological processes and applications including vascularization, wound healing, tissue engineering, stem cell differentiation and biosensors. During colonization porous 3D structures are used to support and guide the ingrowth of cells into the matrix. In this review, we summarize our understanding of various factors affecting cell colonization in three-dimensional environment. The structural, biological and degradation properties of the matrix all play key roles during colonization. Further, specific scaffold properties such as porosity, pore size, fiber thickness, topography and scaffold stiffness as well as important cell material interactions such as cell adhesion and mechanotransduction also influence colonization. PMID:19262124

  15. Enhancement of neurite outgrowth in neuron cancer stem cells by growth on 3-D collagen scaffolds

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chih-Hao; Kuo, Shyh Ming; Liu, Guei-Sheung; Chen, Wan-Nan U.; Chuang, Chin-Wen; Liu, Li-Feng

    2012-11-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Neuron cancer stem cells (NCSCs) behave high multiply of growth on collagen scaffold. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhancement of NCSCs neurite outgrowth on porous collagen scaffold. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 3-D collagen culture of NCSCs shows an advance differentiation than 2-D culture. -- Abstract: Collagen is one component of the extracellular matrix that has been widely used for constructive remodeling to facilitate cell growth and differentiation. The 3-D distribution and growth of cells within the porous scaffold suggest a clinical significance for nerve tissue engineering. In the current study, we investigated proliferation and differentiation of neuron cancer stem cells (NCSCs) on a 3-D porous collagen scaffold that mimics the natural extracellular matrix. We first generated green fluorescence protein (GFP) expressing NCSCs using a lentiviral system to instantly monitor the transitions of morphological changes during growth on the 3-D scaffold. We found that proliferation of GFP-NCSCs increased, and a single cell mass rapidly grew with unrestricted expansion between days 3 and 9 in culture. Moreover, immunostaining with neuronal nuclei (NeuN) revealed that NCSCs grown on the 3-D collagen scaffold significantly enhanced neurite outgrowth. Our findings confirmed that the 80 {mu}m porous collagen scaffold could enhance attachment, viability and differentiation of the cancer neural stem cells. This result could provide a new application for nerve tissue engineering and nerve regeneration.

  16. Characterisation of the surface structure of 3D printed scaffolds for cell infiltration and surgical suturing.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Cantu, Laura; Gleadall, Andrew; Faris, Callum; Segal, Joel; Shakesheff, Kevin; Yang, Jing

    2016-03-01

    3D printing is of great interest for tissue engineering scaffolds due to the ability to form complex geometries and control internal structures, including porosity and pore size. The porous structure of scaffolds plays an important role in cell ingrowth and nutrition infusion. Although the internal porosity and pore size of 3D printed scaffolds have been frequently studied, the surface porosity and pore size, which are critical for cell infiltration and mass transport, have not been investigated. The surface geometry can differ considerably from the internal scaffold structure depending on the 3D printing process. It is vital to be able to control the surface geometry of scaffolds as well as the internal structure to fabricate optimal architectures. This work presents a method to control the surface porosity and pore size of 3D printed scaffolds. Six scaffold designs have been printed with surface porosities ranging from 3% to 21%. We have characterised the overall scaffold porosity and surface porosity using optical microscopy and microCT. It has been found that surface porosity has a significant impact on cell infiltration and proliferation. In addition, the porosity of the surface has been found to have an effect on mechanical properties and on the forces required to penetrate the scaffold with a surgical suturing needle. To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the surface geometry of extrusion-based 3D printed scaffolds and demonstrates the importance of surface geometry in cell infiltration and clinical manipulation. PMID:26930179

  17. Preparation of bioactive porous HA/PCL composite scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J.; Guo, L. Y.; Yang, X. B.; Weng, J.

    2008-12-01

    Porous hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramic scaffold has been widely attracted the attention to act as a three-dimensional (3D) template for cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation and thus promoting bone and cartilage regeneration because of its osteoinduction. However, the porous bioceramic scaffold is fragile so that it is not suitable to be applied in clinic for bone repair or replacement. Therefore, it is significant to improve the mechanical property of porous HA bioceramics while the interconnected structure is maintained for tissue ingrowth in vivo. In the present research, a porous composite scaffold composed of HA scaffold and polycaprolactone (PCL) lining was fabricated by the method of polymer impregnating to produce HA scaffold coated with PCL lining. Subsequently, the composite scaffolds were deposited with biomimetic coating for improving the bioactivity. The HA/PCL composite scaffolds with improved mechanical property and bioactivity is expected to be a promising bone substitute in tissue engineering applications.

  18. 3D braid scaffolds for regeneration of articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hyunchul; Kim, Kyoung Ju; Park, Sook Young; Huh, Jeong Eun; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Yu, Woong-Ryeol

    2014-06-01

    Regenerating articular cartilage in vivo from cultured chondrocytes requires that the cells be cultured and implanted within a biocompatible, biodegradable scaffold. Such scaffolds must be mechanically stable; otherwise chondrocytes would not be supported and patients would experience severe pain. Here we report a new 3D braid scaffold that matches the anisotropic (gradient) mechanical properties of natural articular cartilage and is permissive to cell cultivation. To design an optimal structure, the scaffold unit cell was mathematically modeled and imported into finite element analysis. Based on this analysis, a 3D braid structure with gradient axial yarn distribution was designed and manufactured using a custom-built braiding machine. The mechanical properties of the 3D braid scaffold were evaluated and compared with simulated results, demonstrating that a multi-scale approach consisting of unit cell modeling and continuum analysis facilitates design of scaffolds that meet the requirements for mechanical compatibility with tissues. PMID:24556323

  19. Sphere-shaped nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan/gelatin 3D porous scaffolds increase proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells from gingival fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jun; Tong, Xin; Huang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Tiancong; Lin, Zitong; Cao, Yazhou; Zhang, Junfeng; Dong, Lei; Qin, Haiyan; Hu, Qingang

    2015-08-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is an important component of human bone and bone tissue engineering scaffolds. A plethora of bone tissue engineering scaffolds have been synthesized so far, including nano-HA/chitosan/gelatin (nHA/CG) scaffolds; and for seeding cells, stem cells, especially induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), have been a promising cell source for bone tissue engineering recently. However, the influence of different HA nano-particle morphologies on the osteogenic differentiation of human iPSCs (hiPSCs) from human gingival fibroblasts (hGFs) is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the osteogenic differentiation of hiPSCs from hGFs seeded on nHA/CG scaffolds with 2 shapes (rod and sphere) of nHA particles. Firstly, hGFs isolated from discarded normal gingival tissues were reprogrammed into hiPSCs. Secondly, hiPSCs were seeded on rod-like nHA/CG (rod-nHA/CG) and sphere-shaped nHA/CG (sphere-nHA/CG) scaffolds respectively and then cell/scaffold complexes were cultured in vitro. Scanning electron microscope, hematoxyline and eosin (HE) staining, Masson's staining, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction techniques were used to examine hiPSC morphology, proliferation, and differentiation on rod-nHA/CG and sphere-nHA/CG scaffolds. Finally, hiPSCs composited with 2 kinds of nHA/CG were transplanted in vivo in a subcutaneous implantation model for 12 weeks; pure scaffolds were also transplanted as a blank control. HE, Masson's, and immunohistochemistry staining were applied to detect new bone regeneration ability. The results showed that sphere-nHA/CG significantly increased hiPSCs from hGF proliferation and osteogenic differentiation in vitro. hiPSCs and sphere-nHA/CG composities generated large bone, whereas hiPSCs and rod-nHA/CG composities produced tiny bone in vivo. Moreover, pure scaffolds without cells almost produced no bone. In conclusion, our work provided a potential innovative bone tissue engineering approach using

  20. Porous ceramic scaffolds with complex architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Saiz, Eduardo; Munch, Etienne; Franco, Jaime; Deville, Sylvain; Hunger, Phillip; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2008-03-15

    This work compares two novel techniques for the fabrication of ceramic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering with complex porosity: robocasting and freeze casting. Both techniques are based on the preparation of concentrated ceramic suspensions with suitable properties for the process. In robocasting, the computer-guided deposition of the suspensions is used to build porous materials with designed three dimensional (3-D) geometries and microstructures. Freeze casting uses ice crystals as a template to form porous lamellar ceramic materials. Preliminary results on the compressive strengths of the materials are also reported.

  1. Nano/macro porous bioactive glass scaffold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shaojie

    Bioactive glass (BG) and ceramics have been widely studied and developed as implants to replace hard tissues of the musculo-skeletal system, such as bones and teeth. Recently, instead of using bulk materials, which usually do not degrade rapidly enough and may remain in the human body for a long time, the idea of bioscaffold for tissue regeneration has generated much interest. An ideal bioscaffold is a porous material that would not only provide a three-dimensional structure for the regeneration of natural tissue, but also degrade gradually and, eventually be replaced by the natural tissue completely. Among various material choices the nano-macro dual porous BG appears as the most promising candidate for bioscaffold applications. Here macropores facilitate tissue growth while nanopores control degradation and enhance cell response. The surface area, which controls the degradation of scaffold can also be tuned by changing the nanopore size. However, fabrication of such 3D structure with desirable nano and macro pores has remained challenging. In this dissertation, sol-gel process combined with spinodal decomposition or polymer sponge replication method has been developed to fabricate the nano-macro porous BG scaffolds. Macropores up to 100microm are created by freezing polymer induced spinodal structure through sol-gel transition, while larger macropores (>200um) of predetermined size are obtained by the polymer sponge replication technique. The size of nanopores, which are inherent to the sol-gel method of glass fabrication, has been tailored using several approaches: Before gel point, small nanopores are generated using acid catalyst that leads to weakly-branched polymer-like network. On the other hand, larger nanopores are created with the base-catalyzed gel with highly-branched cluster-like structure. After the gel point, the nanostructure can be further modified by manipulating the sintering temperature and/or the ammonia concentration used in the solvent

  2. 3D Microperiodic Hydrogel Scaffolds for Robust Neuronal Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Hanson Shepherd, Jennifer N.; Parker, Sara T.; Shepherd, Robert F.; Gillette, Martha U.; Lewis, Jennifer A.; Nuzzo, Ralph G.

    2011-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) microperiodic scaffolds of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) have been fabricated by direct-write assembly of a photopolymerizable hydrogel ink. The ink is initially composed of physically entangled pHEMA chains dissolved in a solution of HEMA monomer, comonomer, photoinitiator and water. Upon printing 3D scaffolds of varying architecture, the ink filaments are exposed to UV light, where they are transformed into an interpenetrating hydrogel network of chemically cross-linked and physically entangled pHEMA chains. These 3D microperiodic scaffolds are rendered growth compliant for primary rat hippocampal neurons by absorption of polylysine. Neuronal cells thrive on these scaffolds, forming differentiated, intricately branched networks. Confocal laser scanning microscopy reveals that both cell distribution and extent of neuronal process alignment depend upon scaffold architecture. This work provides an important step forward in the creation of suitable platforms for in vitro study of sensitive cell types. PMID:21709750

  3. Effect of sterilization on structural and material properties of 3-D silk fibroin scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Sandra; Stok, Kathryn S; Kohler, Thomas; Meinel, Anne J; Müller, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    The development of porous scaffolds for tissue engineering applications requires the careful choice of properties, as these influence cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. Sterilization of scaffolds is a prerequisite for in vitro culture as well as for subsequent in vivo implantation. The variety of methods used to provide sterility is as diverse as the possible effects they can have on the structural and material properties of the three-dimensional (3-D) porous structure, especially in polymeric or proteinous scaffold materials. Silk fibroin (SF) has previously been demonstrated to offer exceptional benefits over conventional synthetic and natural biomaterials in generating scaffolds for tissue replacements. This study sought to determine the effect of sterilization methods, such as autoclaving, heat-, ethylene oxide-, ethanol- or antibiotic-antimycotic treatment, on porous 3-D SF scaffolds. In terms of scaffold morphology, topography, crystallinity and short-term cell viability, the different sterilization methods showed only few effects. Nevertheless, mechanical properties were significantly decreased by a factor of two by all methods except for dry autoclaving, which seemed not to affect mechanical properties compared to the native control group. These data suggest that SF scaffolds are in general highly resistant to various sterilization treatments. Nevertheless, care should be taken if initial mechanical properties are of interest. PMID:24013025

  4. Design, construction and mechanical testing of digital 3D anatomical data-based PCL-HA bone tissue engineering scaffold.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qingqiang; Wei, Bo; Guo, Yang; Jin, Chengzhe; Du, Xiaotao; Yan, Chao; Yan, Junwei; Hu, Wenhao; Xu, Yan; Zhou, Zhi; Wang, Yijin; Wang, Liming

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to investigate the techniques of design and construction of CT 3D reconstructional data-based polycaprolactone (PCL)-hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffold. Femoral and lumbar spinal specimens of eight male New Zealand white rabbits were performed CT and laser scanning data-based 3D printing scaffold processing using PCL-HA powder. Each group was performed eight scaffolds. The CAD-based 3D printed porous cylindrical stents were 16 piece × 3 groups, including the orthogonal scaffold, the Pozi-hole scaffold and the triangular hole scaffold. The gross forms, fiber scaffold diameters and porosities of the scaffolds were measured, and the mechanical testing was performed towards eight pieces of the three kinds of cylindrical scaffolds, respectively. The loading force, deformation, maximum-affordable pressure and deformation value were recorded. The pore-connection rate of each scaffold was 100 % within each group, there was no significant difference in the gross parameters and micro-structural parameters of each scaffold when compared with the design values (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference in the loading force, deformation and deformation value under the maximum-affordable pressure of the three different cylinder scaffolds when the load was above 320 N. The combination of CT and CAD reverse technology could accomplish the design and manufacturing of complex bone tissue engineering scaffolds, with no significant difference in the impacts of the microstructures towards the physical properties of different porous scaffolds under large load. PMID:25596860

  5. Electrospun nanofibrous 3D scaffold for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Eap, Sandy; Ferrand, Alice; Palomares, Carlos Mendoza; Hébraud, Anne; Stoltz, Jean-François; Mainard, Didier; Schlatter, Guy; Benkirane-Jessel, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    Tissue engineering aims at developing functional substitutes for damaged tissues by mimicking natural tissues. In particular, tissue engineering for bone regeneration enables healing of some bone diseases. Thus, several methods have been developed in order to produce implantable biomaterial structures that imitate the constitution of bone. Electrospinning is one of these methods. This technique produces nonwoven scaffolds made of nanofibers which size and organization match those of the extracellular matrix. Until now, seldom electrospun scaffolds were produced with thickness exceeding one millimeter. This article introduces a new kind of electrospun membrane called 3D scaffold of thickness easily exceeding one centimeter. The manufacturing involves a solution of poly(ε-caprolactone) in DMF/DCM system. The aim is to establish parameters for electrospinning in order to characterize these 3D scaffolds and, establish whether such scaffolds are potentially interesting for bone regeneration. PMID:22766712

  6. 3D Printed Silicone-Hydrogel Scaffold with Enhanced Physicochemical Properties.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Soumyaranjan; Alm, Martin; Hemmingsen, Mette; Dolatshahi-Pirouz, Alireza; Trifol, Jon; Thomsen, Peter; Dufva, Martin; Wolff, Anders; Emnéus, Jenny

    2016-04-11

    Scaffolds with multiple functionalities have attracted widespread attention in the field of tissue engineering due to their ability to control cell behavior through various cues, including mechanical, chemical, and electrical. Fabrication of such scaffolds from clinically approved materials is currently a huge challenge. The goal of this work was to fabricate a tissue engineering scaffold from clinically approved materials with the capability of delivering biomolecules and direct cell fate. We have used a simple 3D printing approach, that combines polymer casting with supercritical fluid technology to produce 3D interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) scaffold of silicone-poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-co-poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate (pHEMA-co-PEGMEA). The pHEMA-co-PEGMEA IPN materials were employed to support growth of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC), resulting in high cell viability and metabolic activity over a 3 weeks period. In addition, the IPN scaffolds support 3D tissue formation inside the porous scaffold with well spread cell morphology on the surface of the scaffold. As a proof of concept, sustained doxycycline (DOX) release from pHEMA-co-PEGMEA IPN was demonstrated and the biological activity of released drug from IPN was confirmed using a DOX regulated green fluorescent reporter (GFP) gene expression assay with HeLa cells. Given its unique mechanical and drug releasing characteristics, IPN scaffolds may be used for directing stem cell differentiation by releasing various chemicals from its hydrogel network. PMID:26902925

  7. 3D Printing of Scaffolds for Tissue Regeneration Applications

    PubMed Central

    Do, Anh-Vu; Khorsand, Behnoush; Geary, Sean M.; Salem, Aliasger K.

    2015-01-01

    The current need for organ and tissue replacement, repair and regeneration for patients is continually growing such that supply is not meeting the high demand primarily due to a paucity of donors as well as biocompatibility issues that lead to immune rejection of the transplant. In an effort to overcome these drawbacks, scientists working in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have investigated the use of scaffolds as an alternative to transplantation. These scaffolds are designed to mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM) by providing structural support as well as promoting attachment, proliferation, and differentiation with the ultimate goal of yielding functional tissues or organs. Initial attempts at developing scaffolds were problematic and subsequently inspired a growing interest in 3D printing as a mode for generating scaffolds. Utilizing three-dimensional printing (3DP) technologies, ECM-like scaffolds can be produced with a high degree of complexity and precision, where fine details can be included at a micron level. In this review, we discuss the criteria for printing viable and functional scaffolds, scaffolding materials, and 3DP technologies used to print scaffolds for tissue engineering. A hybrid approach, employing both natural and synthetic materials, as well as multiple printing processes may be the key to yielding an ECM-like scaffold with high mechanical strength, porosity, interconnectivity, biocompatibility, biodegradability, and high processability. Creating such biofunctional scaffolds could potentially help to meet the demand by patients for tissues and organs without having to wait or rely on donors for transplantation. PMID:26097108

  8. 3D Printing of Scaffolds for Tissue Regeneration Applications.

    PubMed

    Do, Anh-Vu; Khorsand, Behnoush; Geary, Sean M; Salem, Aliasger K

    2015-08-26

    The current need for organ and tissue replacement, repair, and regeneration for patients is continually growing such that supply is not meeting demand primarily due to a paucity of donors as well as biocompatibility issues leading to immune rejection of the transplant. In order to overcome these drawbacks, scientists have investigated the use of scaffolds as an alternative to transplantation. These scaffolds are designed to mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM) by providing structural support as well as promoting attachment, proliferation, and differentiation with the ultimate goal of yielding functional tissues or organs. Initial attempts at developing scaffolds were problematic and subsequently inspired an interest in 3D printing as a mode for generating scaffolds. Utilizing three-dimensional printing (3DP) technologies, ECM-like scaffolds can be produced with a high degree of complexity, where fine details can be included at a micrometer level. In this Review, the criteria for printing viable and functional scaffolds, scaffolding materials, and 3DP technologies used to print scaffolds for tissue engineering are discussed. Creating biofunctional scaffolds could potentially help to meet the demand by patients for tissues and organs without having to wait or rely on donors for transplantation. PMID:26097108

  9. 3D conductive nanocomposite scaffold for bone tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Shahini, Aref; Yazdimamaghani, Mostafa; Walker, Kenneth J; Eastman, Margaret A; Hatami-Marbini, Hamed; Smith, Brenda J; Ricci, John L; Madihally, Sundar V; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Tayebi, Lobat

    2014-01-01

    Bone healing can be significantly expedited by applying electrical stimuli in the injured region. Therefore, a three-dimensional (3D) ceramic conductive tissue engineering scaffold for large bone defects that can locally deliver the electrical stimuli is highly desired. In the present study, 3D conductive scaffolds were prepared by employing a biocompatible conductive polymer, ie, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(4-styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), in the optimized nanocomposite of gelatin and bioactive glass. For in vitro analysis, adult human mesenchymal stem cells were seeded in the scaffolds. Material characterizations using hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance, in vitro degradation, as well as thermal and mechanical analysis showed that incorporation of PEDOT:PSS increased the physiochemical stability of the composite, resulting in improved mechanical properties and biodegradation resistance. The outcomes indicate that PEDOT:PSS and polypeptide chains have close interaction, most likely by forming salt bridges between arginine side chains and sulfonate groups. The morphology of the scaffolds and cultured human mesenchymal stem cells were observed and analyzed via scanning electron microscope, micro-computed tomography, and confocal fluorescent microscope. Increasing the concentration of the conductive polymer in the scaffold enhanced the cell viability, indicating the improved microstructure of the scaffolds or boosted electrical signaling among cells. These results show that these conductive scaffolds are not only structurally more favorable for bone tissue engineering, but also can be a step forward in combining the tissue engineering techniques with the method of enhancing the bone healing by electrical stimuli. PMID:24399874

  10. 3D conductive nanocomposite scaffold for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Shahini, Aref; Yazdimamaghani, Mostafa; Walker, Kenneth J; Eastman, Margaret A; Hatami-Marbini, Hamed; Smith, Brenda J; Ricci, John L; Madihally, Sundar V; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Tayebi, Lobat

    2014-01-01

    Bone healing can be significantly expedited by applying electrical stimuli in the injured region. Therefore, a three-dimensional (3D) ceramic conductive tissue engineering scaffold for large bone defects that can locally deliver the electrical stimuli is highly desired. In the present study, 3D conductive scaffolds were prepared by employing a biocompatible conductive polymer, ie, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(4-styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), in the optimized nanocomposite of gelatin and bioactive glass. For in vitro analysis, adult human mesenchymal stem cells were seeded in the scaffolds. Material characterizations using hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance, in vitro degradation, as well as thermal and mechanical analysis showed that incorporation of PEDOT:PSS increased the physiochemical stability of the composite, resulting in improved mechanical properties and biodegradation resistance. The outcomes indicate that PEDOT:PSS and polypeptide chains have close interaction, most likely by forming salt bridges between arginine side chains and sulfonate groups. The morphology of the scaffolds and cultured human mesenchymal stem cells were observed and analyzed via scanning electron microscope, micro-computed tomography, and confocal fluorescent microscope. Increasing the concentration of the conductive polymer in the scaffold enhanced the cell viability, indicating the improved microstructure of the scaffolds or boosted electrical signaling among cells. These results show that these conductive scaffolds are not only structurally more favorable for bone tissue engineering, but also can be a step forward in combining the tissue engineering techniques with the method of enhancing the bone healing by electrical stimuli. PMID:24399874

  11. Bioactive polymeric-ceramic hybrid 3D scaffold for application in bone tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Torres, A L; Gaspar, V M; Serra, I R; Diogo, G S; Fradique, R; Silva, A P; Correia, I J

    2013-10-01

    The regeneration of large bone defects remains a challenging scenario from a therapeutic point of view. In fact, the currently available bone substitutes are often limited by poor tissue integration and severe host inflammatory responses, which eventually lead to surgical removal. In an attempt to address these issues, herein we evaluated the importance of alginate incorporation in the production of improved and tunable β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HA) three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffolds to be used as temporary templates for bone regeneration. Different bioceramic combinations were tested in order to investigate optimal scaffold architectures. Additionally, 3D β-TCP/HA vacuum-coated with alginate, presented improved compressive strength, fracture toughness and Young's modulus, to values similar to those of native bone. The hybrid 3D polymeric-bioceramic scaffolds also supported osteoblast adhesion, maturation and proliferation, as demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that a 3D scaffold produced with this combination of biomaterials is described. Altogether, our results emphasize that this hybrid scaffold presents promising characteristics for its future application in bone regeneration. PMID:23910366

  12. Mesoporous bioactive glass nanolayer-functionalized 3D-printed scaffolds for accelerating osteogenesis and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yali; Xia, Lunguo; Zhai, Dong; Shi, Mengchao; Luo, Yongxiang; Feng, Chun; Fang, Bing; Yin, Jingbo; Chang, Jiang; Wu, Chengtie

    2015-12-01

    The hierarchical microstructure, surface and interface of biomaterials are important factors influencing their bioactivity. Porous bioceramic scaffolds have been widely used for bone tissue engineering by optimizing their chemical composition and large-pore structure. However, the surface and interface of struts in bioceramic scaffolds are often ignored. The aim of this study is to incorporate hierarchical pores and bioactive components into the bioceramic scaffolds by constructing nanopores and bioactive elements on the struts of scaffolds and further improve their bone-forming activity. Mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) modified β-tricalcium phosphate (MBG-β-TCP) scaffolds with a hierarchical pore structure and a functional strut surface (∼100 nm of MBG nanolayer) were successfully prepared via 3D printing and spin coating. The compressive strength and apatite-mineralization ability of MBG-β-TCP scaffolds were significantly enhanced as compared to β-TCP scaffolds without the MBG nanolayer. The attachment, viability, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteogenic gene expression (Runx2, BMP2, OPN and Col I) and protein expression (OPN, Col I, VEGF, HIF-1α) of rabbit bone marrow stromal cells (rBMSCs) as well as the attachment, viability and angiogenic gene expression (VEGF and HIF-1α) of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in MBG-β-TCP scaffolds were significantly upregulated compared with conventional bioactive glass (BG)-modified β-TCP (BG-β-TCP) and pure β-TCP scaffolds. Furthermore, MBG-β-TCP scaffolds significantly enhanced the formation of new bone in vivo as compared to BG-β-TCP and β-TCP scaffolds. The results suggest that application of the MBG nanolayer to modify 3D-printed bioceramic scaffolds offers a new strategy to construct hierarchically porous scaffolds with significantly improved physicochemical and biological properties, such as mechanical properties, osteogenesis, angiogenesis and protein expression for bone tissue

  13. Mesoporous bioactive glass nanolayer-functionalized 3D-printed scaffolds for accelerating osteogenesis and angiogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yali; Xia, Lunguo; Zhai, Dong; Shi, Mengchao; Luo, Yongxiang; Feng, Chun; Fang, Bing; Yin, Jingbo; Chang, Jiang; Wu, Chengtie

    2015-11-01

    The hierarchical microstructure, surface and interface of biomaterials are important factors influencing their bioactivity. Porous bioceramic scaffolds have been widely used for bone tissue engineering by optimizing their chemical composition and large-pore structure. However, the surface and interface of struts in bioceramic scaffolds are often ignored. The aim of this study is to incorporate hierarchical pores and bioactive components into the bioceramic scaffolds by constructing nanopores and bioactive elements on the struts of scaffolds and further improve their bone-forming activity. Mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) modified β-tricalcium phosphate (MBG-β-TCP) scaffolds with a hierarchical pore structure and a functional strut surface (~100 nm of MBG nanolayer) were successfully prepared via 3D printing and spin coating. The compressive strength and apatite-mineralization ability of MBG-β-TCP scaffolds were significantly enhanced as compared to β-TCP scaffolds without the MBG nanolayer. The attachment, viability, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteogenic gene expression (Runx2, BMP2, OPN and Col I) and protein expression (OPN, Col I, VEGF, HIF-1α) of rabbit bone marrow stromal cells (rBMSCs) as well as the attachment, viability and angiogenic gene expression (VEGF and HIF-1α) of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in MBG-β-TCP scaffolds were significantly upregulated compared with conventional bioactive glass (BG)-modified β-TCP (BG-β-TCP) and pure β-TCP scaffolds. Furthermore, MBG-β-TCP scaffolds significantly enhanced the formation of new bone in vivo as compared to BG-β-TCP and β-TCP scaffolds. The results suggest that application of the MBG nanolayer to modify 3D-printed bioceramic scaffolds offers a new strategy to construct hierarchically porous scaffolds with significantly improved physicochemical and biological properties, such as mechanical properties, osteogenesis, angiogenesis and protein expression for bone tissue

  14. Porous three-dimensional carbon nanotube scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Lalwani, Gaurav; Gopalan, Anu; D'Agati, Michael; Sankaran, Jeyantt Srinivas; Judex, Stefan; Qin, Yi-Xian; Sitharaman, Balaji

    2015-10-01

    Assembly of carbon nanomaterials into three-dimensional (3D) architectures is necessary to harness their unique physiochemical properties for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. Herein, we report the fabrication and comprehensive cytocompatibility assessment of 3D chemically crosslinked macrosized (5-8 mm height and 4-6 mm diameter) porous carbon nanotube (CNT) scaffolds. Scaffolds prepared via radical initiated thermal crosslinking of single- or multiwalled CNTs (SWCNTs and MWCNTs) possess high porosity (>80%), and nano-, micro-, and macroscale interconnected pores. MC3T3 preosteoblast cells on MWCNT and SWCNT scaffolds showed good cell viability comparable to poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) scaffolds after 5 days. Confocal live cell and immunofluorescence imaging showed that MC3T3 cells were metabolically active and could attach, proliferate, and infiltrate MWCNT and SWCNT scaffolds. SEM imaging corroborated cell attachment and spreading and suggested that cell morphology is governed by scaffold surface roughness. MC3T3 cells were elongated on scaffolds with high surface roughness (MWCNTs) and rounded on scaffolds with low surface roughness (SWCNTs). The surface roughness of scaffolds may be exploited to control cellular morphology and, in turn, govern cell fate. These results indicate that crosslinked MWCNTs and SWCNTs scaffolds are cytocompatible, and open avenues toward development of multifunctional all-carbon scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. PMID:25788440

  15. Evaluating 3D Printed Biomaterials as Scaffolds for Vascularized Bone Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Martha O.; Vorwald, Charlotte E.; Dreher, Maureen L.; Mott, Eric J.; Cheng, Ming-Huei; Cinar, Ali; Mehdizadeh, Hamidreza; Somo, Sami; Dean, David; Brey, Eric M.; Fisher, John P.

    2015-01-01

    The recent proliferation of three dimensional (3D) printing technologies has allowed the exploration of increasing complex designs, and, furthermore, the consideration of 3D printed constructs for biological applications. However, there is an unmet need for a consistent set of tools for the design and evaluation of these biological 3D printed constructs, particularly as they relate to engineered tissues. For example, identifying the most advantageous construct parameters for the rapid vascularization of an engineered tissue - a critical parameter in regenerative medicine - is difficult without a common group of measures. We demonstrate here a toolbox to design, characterize, and evaluate 3D printed scaffolds for vascularized tissue regenerative medicine. Our toolbox (1) identifies the range of design specifications using a modular design, (2) nondestructively compares the 3D printed scaffolds to the design, (3) evaluates biocompatibility and mechanical properties, and (4) predicts host vessel integration. As a case study, we designed, fabricated, and evaluated polymer scaffolds using a poly(propylene fumarate) based resin. Our work highlights the potential for these tools to be combined as a consistent methodology for the evaluation of porous 3D printed constructs for regenerative medicine. PMID:25387454

  16. Improved resolution of 3D printed scaffolds by shrinking.

    PubMed

    Chia, Helena N; Wu, Benjamin M

    2015-10-01

    Three-dimensional printing (3DP) uses inkjet printheads to selectively deposit liquid binder to adjoin powder particles in a layer-by-layer fashion to create a computer-modeled 3D object. Two general approaches for 3DP have been described for biomedical applications (direct and indirect 3DP). The two approaches offer competing advantages, and both are limited by print resolution. This study describes a materials processing strategy to enhance 3DP resolution by controlled shrinking net-shape scaffolds. Briefly, porogen preforms are printed and infused with the desired monomer or polymer solution. After solidification or polymerization, the porogen is leached and the polymer is allowed to shrink by controlled drying. Heat treatment is performed to retain the dimensions against swelling forces. The main objective of this study is to determine the effects of polymer content and post-processing on dimension, microstructure, and thermomechanical properties of the scaffold. For polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEG-DA), reducing polymer content corresponded with greater shrinkage with maximum shrinkage of ∼80 vol% at 20% vol% PEG-DA. The secondary heat treatment retains the microarchitecture and new dimensions of the scaffolds, even when the heat-treated scaffolds are immersed into water. To demonstrate shrinkage predictability, 3D components with interlocking positive and negative features were printed, processed, and fitted. This material processing strategy provides an alternative method to enhance the resolution of 3D scaffolds, for a wide range of polymers, without optimizing the binder-powder interaction physics to print each material combination. PMID:25404276

  17. 3D scaffold alters cellular response to graphene in a polymer composite for orthopedic applications.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sachin; Azam, Dilkash; Raj, Shammy; Kolanthai, Elayaraja; Vasu, K S; Sood, A K; Chatterjee, Kaushik

    2016-05-01

    Graphene-based polymer nanocomposites are being studied for biomedical applications. Polymer nanocomposites can be processed differently to generate planar two-dimensional (2D) substrates and porous three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds. The objective of this work was to investigate potential differences in biological response to graphene in polymer composites in the form of 2D substrates and 3D scaffolds. Polycaprolactone (PCL) nanocomposites were prepared by incorporating 1% of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO). GO increased modulus and strength of PCL by 44 and 22% respectively, whereas RGO increased modulus and strength by 22 and 16%, respectively. RGO increased the water contact angle of PCL from 81° to 87° whereas GO decreased it to 77°. In 2D, osteoblast proliferated 15% more on GO composites than on PCL whereas RGO composite showed 17% decrease in cell proliferation, which may be attributed to differences in water wettability. In 3D, initial cell proliferation was markedly retarded in both GO (36% lower) and RGO (55% lower) composites owing to increased roughness due to the presence of the protruding nanoparticles. Cells organized into aggregates in 3D in contrast to spread and randomly distributed cells on 2D discs due to the macro-porous architecture of the scaffolds. Increased cell-cell contact and altered cellular morphology led to significantly higher mineralization in 3D. This study demonstrates that the cellular response to nanoparticles in composites can change markedly by varying the processing route and has implications for designing orthopedic implants such as resorbable fracture fixation devices and tissue scaffolds using such nanocomposites. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 732-749, 2016. PMID:26482196

  18. Living Bacterial Sacrificial Porogens to Engineer Decellularized Porous Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Feng; Sridharan, BanuPriya; Durmus, Naside Gozde; Wang, ShuQi; Yavuz, Ahmet Sinan; Gurkan, Umut Atakan; Demirci, Utkan

    2011-01-01

    Decellularization and cellularization of organs have emerged as disruptive methods in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Porous hydrogel scaffolds have widespread applications in tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and drug discovery as viable tissue mimics. However, the existing hydrogel fabrication techniques suffer from limited control over pore interconnectivity, density and size, which leads to inefficient nutrient and oxygen transport to cells embedded in the scaffolds. Here, we demonstrated an innovative approach to develop a new platform for tissue engineered constructs using live bacteria as sacrificial porogens. E.coli were patterned and cultured in an interconnected three-dimensional (3D) hydrogel network. The growing bacteria created interconnected micropores and microchannels. Then, the scafold was decellularized, and bacteria were eliminated from the scaffold through lysing and washing steps. This 3D porous network method combined with bioprinting has the potential to be broadly applicable and compatible with tissue specific applications allowing seeding of stem cells and other cell types. PMID:21552485

  19. Acrylic-acid-functionalized PolyHIPE scaffolds for use in 3D cell culture.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Adam S; Sano, Naoko; Przyborski, Stefan A; Cameron, Neil R

    2013-12-01

    This study describes the development of a functional porous polymer for use as a scaffold to support 3D hepatocyte culture. A high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) is prepared containing the monomers styrene (STY), divinylbenzene (DVB), and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) in the external oil phase and the monomer acrylic acid (Aa) in the internal aqueous phase. Upon thermal polymerization with azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN), the resulting porous polymer (polyHIPE) is found to have an open-cell morphology and a porosity of 89%, both suitable characteristics for 3D cell scaffold applications. X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy reveals that the polyHIPE surface contained 7.5% carboxylic acid functionality, providing a useful substrate for subsequent surface modifications and bio-conjugations. Initial bio-compatibility assessments with human hepatocytes show that the acid functionality does not have any detrimental effect on cell adhesion. It is therefore believed that this material can be a useful precursor scaffold towards 3D substrates that offer tailored surface functionality for enhanced cell adhesion. PMID:24243821

  20. In vivo bone response to 3D periodic hydroxyapatite scaffolds assembled by direct ink writing.

    PubMed

    Simon, Joshua L; Michna, Sarah; Lewis, Jennifer A; Rekow, E Dianne; Thompson, Van P; Smay, James E; Yampolsky, Andrew; Parsons, J Russell; Ricci, John L

    2007-12-01

    The in vivo bone response of 3D periodic hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds is investigated. Two groups of HA scaffolds (11 mm diameter x 3.5 mm thick) are fabricated by direct-write assembly of a concentrated HA ink. The scaffolds consist of cylindrical rods periodically arranged into four quadrants with varying separation distances between rods. In the first group, HA rods (250 microm in diameter) are patterned to create pore channels, whose areal dimensions are 250 x 250 microm(2) in quadrant 1, 250 x 500 microm(2) in quadrants 2 and 4, and 500 x 500 microm(2) in quadrant 3. In the second group, HA rods (400 microm in diameter) are patterned to create pore channels, whose areal dimensions of 500 x 500 microm(2) in quadrant 1, 500 x 750 microm(2) in quadrants 2 and 4, and 750 x 750 microm(2) in quadrant 3. Each group of scaffolds is partially densified by sintering at 1200 degrees C prior to being implanted bilaterally in trephine defects of skeletally mature New Zealand White rabbits. Their tissue response is evaluated at 8 and 16 weeks using micro-computed tomography, histology, and scanning electron microscopy. New trabecular bone is conducted rapidly and efficiently across substantial distances within these patterned 3D HA scaffolds. Our observations suggest that HA rods are first coated with a layer of new bone followed by subsequent scaffold infilling via outward and inward radial growth of the coated regions. Direct-write assembly of 3D periodic scaffolds composed of micro-porous HA rods arrayed to produce macro-pores that are size-matched to trabecular bone may represent an optimal strategy for bone repair and replacement structures. PMID:17559109

  1. 3D Printing Facilitated Scaffold-free Tissue Unit Fabrication

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yu; Richards, Dylan J.; Trusk, Thomas C.; Visconti, Richard P.; Yost, Michael J.; Kindy, Mark S.; Drake, Christopher J.; Argraves, William Scott; Markwald, Roger R.; Mei, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Tissue spheroids hold great potential in tissue engineering as building blocks to assemble into functional tissues. To date, agarose molds have been extensively used to facilitate fusion process of tissue spheroids. As a molding material, agarose typically requires low temperature plates for gelation and/or heated dispenser units. Here, we proposed and developed an alginate-based, direct 3D mold-printing technology: 3D printing micro-droplets of alginate solution into biocompatible, bio-inert alginate hydrogel molds for the fabrication of scaffold-free tissue engineering constructs. Specifically, we developed a 3D printing technology to deposit micro-droplets of alginate solution on calcium containing substrates in a layer-by-layer fashion to prepare ring-shaped 3D hydrogel molds. Tissue spheroids composed of 50% endothelial cells and 50% smooth muscle cells were robotically placed into the 3D printed alginate molds using a 3D printer, and were found to rapidly fuse into toroid-shaped tissue units. Histological and immunofluorescence analysis indicated that the cells secreted collagen type I playing a critical role in promoting cell-cell adhesion, tissue formation and maturation. PMID:24717646

  2. 3D printing facilitated scaffold-free tissue unit fabrication.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yu; Richards, Dylan J; Trusk, Thomas C; Visconti, Richard P; Yost, Michael J; Kindy, Mark S; Drake, Christopher J; Argraves, William Scott; Markwald, Roger R; Mei, Ying

    2014-06-01

    Tissue spheroids hold great potential in tissue engineering as building blocks to assemble into functional tissues. To date, agarose molds have been extensively used to facilitate fusion process of tissue spheroids. As a molding material, agarose typically requires low temperature plates for gelation and/or heated dispenser units. Here, we proposed and developed an alginate-based, direct 3D mold-printing technology: 3D printing microdroplets of alginate solution into biocompatible, bio-inert alginate hydrogel molds for the fabrication of scaffold-free tissue engineering constructs. Specifically, we developed a 3D printing technology to deposit microdroplets of alginate solution on calcium containing substrates in a layer-by-layer fashion to prepare ring-shaped 3D hydrogel molds. Tissue spheroids composed of 50% endothelial cells and 50% smooth muscle cells were robotically placed into the 3D printed alginate molds using a 3D printer, and were found to rapidly fuse into toroid-shaped tissue units. Histological and immunofluorescence analysis indicated that the cells secreted collagen type I playing a critical role in promoting cell-cell adhesion, tissue formation and maturation. PMID:24717646

  3. 3D PLLA/ibuprofen composite scaffolds obtained by a supercritical fluids assisted process.

    PubMed

    Cardea, S; Baldino, L; Scognamiglio, M; Reverchon, E

    2014-04-01

    The emerging next generation of engineered tissues is based on the development of loaded scaffolds containing bioactive molecules in order to control the cellular function or to interact on the surrounding tissues. Indeed, implantation of engineered biomaterials might cause local inflammation because of the host's immune response; thereby, the use of anti-inflammatory agents, whether steroidal or nonsteroidal is required. One of the most important stages of tissue engineering is the design and the generation of a porous 3D structure, with high porosity, high interconnectivity and homogenous morphology. Various techniques have been reported in the literature for the fabrication of biodegradable scaffolds, but they suffer several limitations. In this study, for the first time, the possibility of generating 3D polymeric scaffolds loaded with an active compound by supercritical freeze extraction process is evaluated; this innovative process combines the advantages of the thermally induced phase separation process and of the supercritical carbon dioxide drying. Poly-L-lactid acid/ibuprofen composite scaffolds characterized by a 3D geometry, micrometric cellular structures and wrinkled pores walls have been obtained; moreover, homogeneous drug distribution and controlled release of the active principle have been assured. PMID:24366467

  4. Microwave Sintered 3D Printed Tricalcium Phosphate Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Tarafder, Solaiman; Balla, Vamsi Krishna; Davies, Neal M.; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Bose, Susmita

    2014-01-01

    We report here the fabrication of three dimensional (3D) interconnected macro porous tricalcium phosphate (TCP) scaffolds with controlled internal architecture by direct 3D printing (3DP), and high mechanical strength by microwave sintering. TCP scaffolds with 27%, 35% and 41% designed macro porosity having pore sizes of 500 μm, 750 μm, and 1000 μm, respectively, have been fabricated via direct 3DP. These scaffolds are then sintered at 1150 °C and 1250 °C in conventional electric muffle furnace as well as microwave furnace. Total open porosity between 42% and 63% is obtained in the sintered scaffolds due to the presence of intrinsic micro pores along with the designed pores. A significant increase in compressive strength, between 46% and 69%, is achieved by microwave sintering as compared to conventional sintering as a result of efficient densification. A maximum compressive strength of 10.95 ± 1.28 MPa and 6.62 ± 0.67 MPa is achieved for scaffolds with 500 μm designed pores (~400 μm after sintering) sintered in microwave and conventional furnaces, respectively. An increase in cell density with a decrease in macro pore size is observed during in vitro cell-material interactions using human osteoblast cells. Histomorphological analysis reveals that the presence of both micro and macro pores facilitated osteoid like new bone formation when tested in the femoral defect on Sprague-Dawley rats. Our results show that bioresorbable 3D printed TCP scaffolds have great potential in tissue engineering applications for bone tissue repair and regeneration. PMID:22396130

  5. Combinatorial screening of osteoblast response to 3D calcium phosphate/poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffolds using gradients and arrays

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Kaushik; Sun, Limin; Chow, Laurence C.; Young, Marian F.; Simon, Carl G.

    2012-01-01

    There is a need for combinatorial and high-throughput methods for screening cell–biomaterial interactions to maximize tissue generation in scaffolds. Current methods employ a flat two-dimensional (2D) format even though three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds are more representative of the tissue environment in vivo and cells are responsive to topographical differences of 2D substrates and 3D scaffolds. Thus, combinatorial libraries of 3D porous scaffolds were developed and used to screen the effect of nano-amorphous calcium phosphate (nACP) particles on osteoblast response. Increasing nACP content in poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds promoted osteoblast adhesion and proliferation. The nACP-containing scaffolds released calcium and phosphate ions which are known to activate osteoblast function. Scaffold libraries were fabricated in two formats, gradients and arrays, and the magnitude of the effect of nACP on osteoblast proliferation was greater for arrays than gradients. The enhanced response in arrays can be explained by differences in cell culture designs, diffusional effects and differences in the ratio of “scaffold mass to culture medium”. These results introduce a gradient library approach for screening large pore 3D scaffolds and demonstrate that inclusion of the nACP particles enhances osteoblast proliferation in 3D scaffolds. Further, comparison of gradients and arrays suggests that gradients were more sensitive for detecting effects of scaffold composition on cell adhesion (short time points, 1 day) whereas arrays were more sensitive at detecting effects on cell proliferation (longer time points, 14 day). PMID:21074846

  6. Improved Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Osteogenesis in 3D Bioprinted Tissue Scaffolds with Low Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xuan; Castro, Nathan J.; Zhu, Wei; Cui, Haitao; Aliabouzar, Mitra; Sarkar, Kausik; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-01-01

    3D printing and ultrasound techniques are showing great promise in the evolution of human musculoskeletal tissue repair and regeneration medicine. The uniqueness of the present study was to combine low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and advanced 3D printing techniques to synergistically improve growth and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Specifically, polyethylene glycol diacrylate bioinks containing cell adhesive Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic acid-Serene (RGDS) peptide and/or nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (nHA) were used to fabricate 3D scaffolds with different geometric patterns via novel table-top stereolithography 3D printer. The resultant scaffolds provide a highly porous and interconnected 3D environment to support cell proliferation. Scaffolds with small square pores were determined to be the optimal geometric pattern for MSC attachment and growth. The optimal LIPUS working parameters were determined to be 1.5 MHz, 20% duty cycle with 150 mW/cm2 intensity. Results demonstrated that RGDS peptide and nHA containing 3D printed scaffolds under LIPUS treatment can greatly promote MSC proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, calcium deposition and total protein content. These results illustrate the effectiveness of the combination of LIPUS and biomimetic 3D printing scaffolds as a valuable combinatorial tool for improved MSC function, thus make them promising for future clinical and various regenerative medicine application. PMID:27597635

  7. Improved Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Osteogenesis in 3D Bioprinted Tissue Scaffolds with Low Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuan; Castro, Nathan J; Zhu, Wei; Cui, Haitao; Aliabouzar, Mitra; Sarkar, Kausik; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-01-01

    3D printing and ultrasound techniques are showing great promise in the evolution of human musculoskeletal tissue repair and regeneration medicine. The uniqueness of the present study was to combine low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and advanced 3D printing techniques to synergistically improve growth and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Specifically, polyethylene glycol diacrylate bioinks containing cell adhesive Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic acid-Serene (RGDS) peptide and/or nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (nHA) were used to fabricate 3D scaffolds with different geometric patterns via novel table-top stereolithography 3D printer. The resultant scaffolds provide a highly porous and interconnected 3D environment to support cell proliferation. Scaffolds with small square pores were determined to be the optimal geometric pattern for MSC attachment and growth. The optimal LIPUS working parameters were determined to be 1.5 MHz, 20% duty cycle with 150 mW/cm(2) intensity. Results demonstrated that RGDS peptide and nHA containing 3D printed scaffolds under LIPUS treatment can greatly promote MSC proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, calcium deposition and total protein content. These results illustrate the effectiveness of the combination of LIPUS and biomimetic 3D printing scaffolds as a valuable combinatorial tool for improved MSC function, thus make them promising for future clinical and various regenerative medicine application. PMID:27597635

  8. Carboxy-Methyl-Cellulose (CMC) hydrogel-filled 3-D scaffold: Preliminary study through a 3-D antiproliferative activity of Centella asiatica extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizad, Syazwan; Yahaya, Badrul Hisham; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan

    2015-09-01

    This study focuses on the effects of using the water extract from Centella asiatica on the mortality of human lung cancer cells (A549) with the use of novel 3-D scaffolds infused with CMC hydrogel. A biodegradable polymer, poly (hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) was used in this study as 3-D scaffolds, with some modifications made by introducing the gel structure on its pore, which provides a great biomimetic microenvironment for cells to grow apart from increasing the interaction between the cells and cell-bioactive extracts. The CMC showed a good hydrophilic characteristic with mean contact angle of 24.30 ± 22.03°. To ensure the CMC gel had good attachments with the scaffolds, a surface treatment was made before the CMC gel was infused into the scaffolds. The results showed that these modified scaffolds contained 42.41 ± 0.14% w/w of CMC gel, which indicated that the gel had already filled up the entire pore of 3-D scaffolds. Besides, the infused hydrogel scaffolds took only 24 hours to be saturated when absorbing the water. The viability of cancer cells by MTS assay after being treated with Centella asiatica showed that the scaffolds infused with CMC hydrogel had the cell viability of 46.89 ± 1.20% followed by porous 3-D model with 57.30 ± 1.60% of cell viability, and the 2-D model with 67.10 ± 1.10% of cell viability. The inhibitory activity in cell viability between 2-D and 3-D models did not differ significantly (p>0.05) due to the limitation of time in incubating the extract with the cell in the 3-D model microenvironment. In conclusion, with the application of 3-D scaffolds infused with CMC hydrogel, the extracts of Centella asiatica has been proven to have the ability to kill cancer cells and have a great potential to become one of the alternative methods in treating cancer patients.

  9. Integrating biologically inspired nanomaterials and table-top stereolithography for 3D printed biomimetic osteochondral scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Castro, Nathan J; O'Brien, Joseph; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2015-09-01

    The osteochondral interface of an arthritic joint is notoriously difficult to regenerate due to its extremely poor regenerative capacity and complex stratified architecture. Native osteochondral tissue extracellular matrix is composed of numerous nanoscale organic and inorganic constituents. Although various tissue engineering strategies exist in addressing osteochondral defects, limitations persist with regards to tissue scaffolding which exhibit biomimetic cues at the nano to micro scale. In an effort to address this, the current work focused on 3D printing biomimetic nanocomposite scaffolds for improved osteochondral tissue regeneration. For this purpose, two biologically-inspired nanomaterials have been synthesized consisting of (1) osteoconductive nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (nHA) (primary inorganic component of bone) and (2) core-shell poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanospheres encapsulated with chondrogenic transforming growth-factor β1 (TGF-β1) for sustained delivery. Then, a novel table-top stereolithography 3D printer and the nano-ink (i.e., nHA + nanosphere + hydrogel) were employed to fabricate a porous and highly interconnected osteochondral scaffold with hierarchical nano-to-micro structure and spatiotemporal bioactive factor gradients. Our results showed that human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell adhesion, proliferation, and osteochondral differentiation were greatly improved in the biomimetic graded 3D printed osteochondral construct in vitro. The current work served to illustrate the efficacy of the nano-ink and current 3D printing technology for efficient fabrication of a novel nanocomposite hydrogel scaffold. In addition, tissue-specific growth factors illustrated a synergistic effect leading to increased cell adhesion and directed stem cell differentiation. PMID:26234364

  10. Integrating biologically inspired nanomaterials and table-top stereolithography for 3D printed biomimetic osteochondral scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Nathan J.; O'Brien, Joseph; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2015-08-01

    The osteochondral interface of an arthritic joint is notoriously difficult to regenerate due to its extremely poor regenerative capacity and complex stratified architecture. Native osteochondral tissue extracellular matrix is composed of numerous nanoscale organic and inorganic constituents. Although various tissue engineering strategies exist in addressing osteochondral defects, limitations persist with regards to tissue scaffolding which exhibit biomimetic cues at the nano to micro scale. In an effort to address this, the current work focused on 3D printing biomimetic nanocomposite scaffolds for improved osteochondral tissue regeneration. For this purpose, two biologically-inspired nanomaterials have been synthesized consisting of (1) osteoconductive nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (nHA) (primary inorganic component of bone) and (2) core-shell poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanospheres encapsulated with chondrogenic transforming growth-factor β1 (TGF-β1) for sustained delivery. Then, a novel table-top stereolithography 3D printer and the nano-ink (i.e., nHA + nanosphere + hydrogel) were employed to fabricate a porous and highly interconnected osteochondral scaffold with hierarchical nano-to-micro structure and spatiotemporal bioactive factor gradients. Our results showed that human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell adhesion, proliferation, and osteochondral differentiation were greatly improved in the biomimetic graded 3D printed osteochondral construct in vitro. The current work served to illustrate the efficacy of the nano-ink and current 3D printing technology for efficient fabrication of a novel nanocomposite hydrogel scaffold. In addition, tissue-specific growth factors illustrated a synergistic effect leading to increased cell adhesion and directed stem cell differentiation.

  11. Biodegradable porous polyurethane scaffolds for tissue repair and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Gorna, Katarzyna; Gogolewski, Sylwester

    2006-10-01

    Critical-size bone defects usually require the insertion of autogenous bone graft to heal. Harvesting of bone is traumatic and results in high morbidity at the donor site. A potential alternative to bone graft may be a bone substitute with adequate biocompatibility and biological properties produced from ceramics or bioresorbable/biodegradable polymers. In the present study, new elastomeric biodegradable polyurethanes with an enhanced affinity toward cells and tissues were synthesized using aliphatic diisocyanate, poly(epsilon-caprolactone) diol, and biologically active 1,4:3,6-dianhydro-D-sorbitol (isosorbide diol) as chain extender. The polymers were processed into 3D porous scaffolds by applying a combined salt leaching-phase inverse process. The critical parameters controlling pore size and geometry were the solvents and nonsolvents used for scaffold preparation and the sizes of the solid porogen crystals. Scaffolds prepared from the polymer solution in solvents such as dimethylsulfoxide or methyl-2-pyrrolidone did not have a homogenous pore structure. Many pores were interconnected, but numerous pores were closed. Irrespective of the high pore-to-volume ratio (75%), the scaffolds showed poor water permeability. The best solvent for the preparation of scaffolds from the polyurethane used in the study was dimethylformamide (DMF). The type of nonsolvent admixed to the polymer solution in DMF strongly affected the scaffolds' pore structure. The elastomeric polyurethane scaffold prepared from the optimal solvent-nonsolvent mixture had regular interconnected pores, high water permeability, and a pore-to-volume ratio of 90%. The osteoconductive properties of the 3D porous polyurethane scaffolds can be additionally promoted by loading them with calcium phosphate salts such as hydroxyapatite or tricalcium phosphate, thus making them promising candidates for bone graft substitutes. PMID:16779769

  12. 3D printed tricalcium phosphate scaffolds: Effect of SrO and MgO doping on in vivo osteogenesis in a rat distal femoral defect model

    PubMed Central

    Tarafder, Solaiman; Davies, Neal M.; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Bose, Susmita

    2013-01-01

    The presence of interconnected macro pores is important in tissue engineering scaffolds for guided tissue regeneration. This study reports in vivo biological performance of interconnected macro porous tricalcium phosphate (TCP) scaffolds due to the addition of SrO and MgO as dopants in TCP. We have used direct three dimensional printing (3DP) technology for scaffold fabrication followed by microwave sintering. Mechanical strength was evaluated by scaffolds with 500 µm, 750 µm, and 1000 µm interconnected designed pore sizes. Maximum compressive strength of 12.01 ± 1.56 MPa was achieved for 500 µm interconnected designed pore size Sr-Mg doped scaffold. In vivo biological performance of the microwave sintered pure TCP and Sr-Mg doped TCP scaffolds was assessed by implanting 350 µm designed interconnected macro porous scaffolds in rat distal femoral defect. Sintered pore size of these 3D printed scaffolds were 311 ± 5.9 µm and 245 ± 7.5 µm for pure and SrO-MgO doped TCP scaffolds, respectively. These 3D printed scaffolds possessed multiscale porosity, i.e., 3D interconnected designed macro pores along with intrinsic micro pores. Histomorphology and histomorphometric analysis revealed a significant increase in osteoid like new bone formation, and accelerated mineralization inside SrO and MgO doped 3D printed TCP scaffolds as compared to pure TCP scaffolds. An increase in osteocalcin and type I collagen level was also observed in rat blood serum with SrO and MgO doped TCP scaffolds compared to pure TCP scaffolds. Our results show that these 3D printed SrO and MgO doped TCP scaffolds with multiscale porosity contributed to early healing through accelerated osteogenesis. PMID:24729867

  13. Bioinspired Strong and Highly Porous Glass Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2011-01-01

    The quest for more efficient energy-related technologies is driving the development of porous and high-performance structural materials with exceptional mechanical strength. Natural materials achieve their strength through complex hierarchical designs and anisotropic structures that are extremely difficult to replicate synthetically. We emulate nature’s design by direct-ink-write assembling of glass scaffolds with a periodic pattern, and controlled sintering of the filaments into anisotropic constructs similar to biological materials. The final product is a porous glass scaffold with a compressive strength (136 MPa) comparable to that of cortical bone and a porosity (60%) comparable to that of trabecular bone. The strength of this porous glass scaffold is ~100 times that of polymer scaffolds and 4–5 times that of ceramic and glass scaffolds with comparable porosities reported elsewhere. The ability to create both porous and strong structures opens a new avenue for fabricating scaffolds for a broad array of applications, including tissue engineering, filtration, lightweight composites, and catalyst support. PMID:21544222

  14. Rapid prototyping for tissue-engineered bone scaffold by 3D printing and biocompatibility study

    PubMed Central

    He, Hui-Yu; Zhang, Jia-Yu; Mi, Xue; Hu, Yang; Gu, Xiao-Yu

    2015-01-01

    The prototyping of tissue-engineered bone scaffold (calcined goat spongy bone-biphasic ceramic composite/PVA gel) by 3D printing was performed, and the biocompatibility of the fabricated bone scaffold was studied. Pre-designed STL file was imported into the GXYZ303010-XYLE 3D printing system, and the tissue-engineered bone scaffold was fabricated by 3D printing using gel extrusion. Rabbit bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were cultured in vitro and then inoculated to the sterilized bone scaffold obtained by 3D printing. The growth of rabbit BMSCs on the bone scaffold was observed under the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The effect of the tissue-engineered bone scaffold on the proliferation and differentiation of rabbit BMSCs using MTT assay. Universal testing machine was adopted to test the tensile strength of the bone scaffold. The leachate of the bone scaffold was prepared and injected into the New Zealand rabbits. Cytotoxicity test, acute toxicity test, pyrogenic test and intracutaneous stimulation test were performed to assess the biocompatibility of the bone scaffold. Bone scaffold manufactured by 3D printing had uniform pore size with the porosity of about 68.3%. The pores were well interconnected, and the bone scaffold showed excellent mechanical property. Rabbit BMSCs grew and proliferated on the surface of the bone scaffold after adherence. MTT assay indicated that the proliferation and differentiation of rabbit BMSCs on the bone scaffold did not differ significantly from that of the cells in the control. In vivo experiments proved that the bone scaffold fabricated by 3D printing had no acute toxicity, pyrogenic reaction or stimulation. Bone scaffold manufactured by 3D printing allows the rabbit BMSCs to adhere, grow and proliferate and exhibits excellent biomechanical property and high biocompatibility. 3D printing has a good application prospect in the prototyping of tissue-engineered bone scaffold. PMID:26380018

  15. Formation of Neural Networks in 3D Scaffolds Fabricated by Means of Laser Microstereolithography.

    PubMed

    Vedunova, M V; Timashev, P S; Mishchenko, T A; Mitroshina, E V; Koroleva, A V; Chichkov, B N; Panchenko, V Ya; Bagratashvili, V N; Mukhina, I V

    2016-08-01

    We developed and tested new 3D scaffolds for neurotransplantation. Scaffolds of predetermined architectonic were prepared using microstereolithography technique. Scaffolds were highly biocompatible with the nervous tissue cells. In vitro studies showed that the material of fabricated scaffolds is not toxic for dissociated brain cells and promotes the formation of functional neural networks in the matrix. These results demonstrate the possibility of fabrication of tissue-engineering constructs for neurotransplantation based on created scaffolds. PMID:27595153

  16. Nano-hydroxyapatite/poly epsilon-caprolactone composite 3D scaffolds for mastoid obliteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. E.; Yun, H. S.; Hyun, Y. T.; Shin, J. W.; Song, J. J.

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of our nano-HA/PCL composite 3D scaffolds as graft materials for mastoid cavity obliteration in an animal model. Nano-HA particles were synthesized by chemical precipitation technique and mixed them with PCL solution to make composite paste. 3D scaffolds were fabricated by a paste extruding deposition process. The nano-HA/PCL 3D scaffolds showed good in vivo bone regeneration behaviour in a rabbit model after 4 and 8 week implantation. To characterize the 3D scaffolds as a grafting material for mastoid obliteration, mastoid cavities were introduced in rats and implanted the scaffolds. After two week implantation, histological examination showed good tissue ingrowth and new bone formation behaviour. It can be argued that our nano-HA/PCL composite 3D scaffold is a promising alternative material for mastoid obliteration.

  17. Optimization of composition, structure and mechanical strength of bioactive 3-D glass-ceramic scaffolds for bone substitution.

    PubMed

    Baino, Francesco; Ferraris, Monica; Bretcanu, Oana; Verné, Enrica; Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara

    2013-03-01

    Fabrication of 3-D highly porous, bioactive, and mechanically competent scaffolds represents a significant challenge of bone tissue engineering. In this work, Bioglass®-derived glass-ceramic scaffolds actually fulfilling this complex set of requirements were successfully produced through the sponge replication method. Scaffold processing parameters and sintering treatment were carefully designed in order to obtain final porous bodies with pore content (porosity above 70 %vol), trabecular architecture and mechanical properties (compressive strength up to 3 MPa) analogous to those of the cancellous bone. Influence of the Bioglass® particles size on the structural and mechanical features of the sintered scaffolds was considered and discussed. Relationship between porosity and mechanical strength was investigated and modeled. Three-dimensional architecture, porosity, mechanical strength and in vitro bioactivity of the optimized Bioglass®-derived scaffolds were also compared to those of CEL2-based glass-ceramic scaffolds (CEL2 is an experimental bioactive glass originally developed by the authors at Politecnico di Torino) fabricated by the same processing technique, in an attempt at understanding the role of different bioactive glass composition on the major features of scaffolds prepared by the same method. PMID:22207602

  18. A study on improving mechanical properties of porous HA tissue engineering scaffolds by hot isostatic pressing.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Xiao, Suguang; Lu, Xiong; Wang, Jianxin; Weng, Jie

    2006-12-01

    Various interconnected porous hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramic scaffolds are universally used to induct the tissue growth for bone repair and replacement, and serve to support the adhesion, transfer, proliferation and differentiation of cells. Impregnation of polyurethane sponges with a ceramic slurry is adopted to produce highly porous HA ceramic scaffolds with a 3D interconnected structure. However, high porosity always accompanies a decrease in the strength of the HA ceramic scaffolds. Therefore, it is significant to improve the strength of the HA ceramic scaffolds with highly interconnected porosity so that they are more suitable in clinical applications. In this work, highly porous HA ceramic scaffolds are first produced by the polymer impregnation approach, and subsequently further sintered by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). The phase composition, macro- and micro-porous structure, sintering and mechanical properties of the porous HA scaffolds are investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nanoindentation analysis and compressive test. The experimental results show that the nanohardness and compressive strength of HIP-sintered porous HA ceramics are higher than those of commonly sintered HA scaffolds. The HIP technique can effectively improve the sintering property and densification of porous HA ceramic scaffolds, so inducing an increase in the compression strength. PMID:18458404

  19. Proliferation and enrichment of CD133+ glioblastoma cancer stem cells on 3D chitosan-alginate scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Kievit, Forrest M.; Florczyk, Stephen J.; Leung, Matthew C.; Wang, Kui; Wu, Jennifer D.; Silber, John R.; Ellenbogen, Richard G.; Lee, Jerry S.H.; Zhang, Miqin

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence implicates cancer stem cells (CSCs) as primary determinants of the clinical behavior of human cancers, representing an ideal target for next-generation anticancer therapies. However CSCs are difficult to propagate in vitro, severely limiting the study of CSC biology and drug development. Here we report that growing cells from glioblastoma (GBM) cell lines on three dimensional (3D) porous chitosan-alginate (CA) scaffolds dramatically promotes the proliferation and enrichment of cells possessing the hallmarks of CSCs. CA scaffold-grown cells were found more tumorigenic in nude mouse xenografts than cells grown from monolayers. Growing in CA scaffolds rapidly promoted expression of genes involved in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition that has been implicated in the genesis of CSCs. Our results indicate that CA scaffolds have utility as a simple and inexpensive means to cultivate CSCs in vitro in support of studies to understand CSC biology and develop more effective anti-cancer therapies. PMID:25109438

  20. Chondroitin sulphate-based 3D scaffolds containing MWCNTs for nervous tissue repair.

    PubMed

    Serrano, María C; Nardecchia, Stefania; García-Rama, Concepción; Ferrer, María L; Collazos-Castro, Jorge E; del Monte, Francisco; Gutiérrez, María C

    2014-02-01

    Nervous tissue lesions are an important social concern due to their increasing prevalence and their high sanitary costs. Their treatment still remains a challenge because of the reduced ability of nervous tissue to regenerate, its intrinsic structural and functional complexity and the rapid formation of fibroglial scars inhibiting neural repair. Herein, we show that 3D porous scaffolds made of chondroitin sulphate (CS), a major regulatory component of the nervous tissue, and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are selective substrates for the formation of a viable and neuron-enriched network with a transitory low glial content. Scaffolds have been fabricated by using the ice segregation-induced self-assembly technique and cultured with embryonic neural progenitor cells. Cell adhesion, morphology, viability, neuron/glial differentiation, calcium signaling dynamics, and mitochondrial activity have been studied over time on the scaffolds and compared to appropriate 2D control substrates. Our results indicate the formation of viable cultures enriched in neuron cells for up to 20 days, with ability to display calcium transients and active mitochondria, even in the absence of poly-D-lysine coating. A synergistic neural-permissive signaling from both the scaffold structure and its components (i.e., MWCNTs and CS) is suggested as the major responsible factor for these findings. We anticipate that these scaffolds may serve nerve regeneration if implanted in the acute phase after injury, as it is during the first stages of graft implantation when the most critical sequence of phenomena takes place to drive either nervous regeneration or fibroglial scar formation. The temporary glial inhibition found may be, indeed, beneficial for promoting the formation of neuron-enriched circuits at early phases while guaranteeing posterior glial integration to support longer-term neuron survival and activity. PMID:24290440

  1. Preliminary study of surface modification of 3D Poly (ɛ - caprolactone) scaffolds by ultrashort laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daskalova, A.; Bliznakova, I.; Iordanova, E.; Yankov, G.; Grozeva, M.; Ostrowska, B.

    2016-02-01

    Three - dimensional poly (e- caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds as suitable biocompatible material for manufacturing tissue replacements are utilized for tissue engineering purposes. The porous structures are fabricated by rapid prototyping method (Bioscaffolder) based on hypodermic dispensing process. The consecution of experiments demonstrated the possibility on creation of surface micro formations, applying different laser fluences, at 1 kHz repetition rate for fixed time of exposure 1 sec at 800 nm central wavelength. The combination of both methods offers possibilities for successful production of 3D matrices with modified surfaces. The obtained results of laser - induced surface modifications of PCL demonstrate the potential of the method to microprocess this kind of material for possible applications in regenerative medicine.

  2. Investigation of 2D and 3D electrospun scaffolds intended for tendon repair.

    PubMed

    Bosworth, L A; Alam, N; Wong, J K; Downes, S

    2013-06-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) electrospun fibre mats have been investigated as fibrous sheets intended as biomaterials scaffolds for tissue repair. It is recognised that tissues are three-dimensional (3D) structures and that optimisation of the fabrication process should include both 2D and 3D scaffolds. Understanding the relative merits of the architecture of 2D and 3D scaffolds for tendon repair is required. This study investigated three different electrospun scaffolds based on poly(ε-caprolactone) fibres intended for repair of injured tendons, referred to as; 2D random sheet, 2D aligned sheet and 3D bundles. 2D aligned fibres and 3D bundles mimicked the parallel arrangement of collagen fibres in natural tendon and 3D bundles further replicated the tertiary layer of a tendon's hierarchical configuration. 3D bundles demonstrated greatest tensile properties, being significantly stronger and stiffer than 2D aligned and 2D random fibres. All scaffolds supported adhesion and proliferation of tendon fibroblasts. Furthermore, 2D aligned sheets and 3D bundles allowed guidance of the cells into a parallel, longitudinal arrangement, which is similar to tendon cells in the native tissue. With their superior physical properties and ability to better replicate tendon tissue, the 3D electrospun scaffolds warrant greater investigation as synthetic grafts in tendon repair. PMID:23504088

  3. Superelastic, superabsorbent and 3D nanofiber-assembled scaffold for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiming; Ma, Jun; Zhu, Lei; Morsi, Yosry; Ei-Hamshary, Hany; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Mo, Xiumei

    2016-06-01

    Fabrication of 3D scaffold to mimic the nanofibrous structure of the nature extracellular matrix (ECM) with appropriate mechanical properties and excellent biocompatibility, remain an important technical challenge in tissue engineering. The present study reports the strategy to fabricate a 3D nanofibrous scaffold with similar structure to collagen in ECM by combining electrospinning and freeze-drying technique. With the technique reported here, a nanofibrous structure scaffold with hydrophilic and superabsorbent properties can be readily prepared by Gelatin and Polylactic acid (PLA). In wet state the scaffold also shows a super-elastic property, which could bear a compressive strain as high as 80% and recovers its original shape afterwards. Moreover, after 6 days of culture, L-929 cells grow, proliferate and infiltrated into the scaffold. The results suggest that this 3D nanofibrous scaffold would be promising for varied field of tissue engineering application. PMID:26954082

  4. Porous scaffold architecture guides tissue formation.

    PubMed

    Cipitria, Amaia; Lange, Claudia; Schell, Hanna; Wagermaier, Wolfgang; Reichert, Johannes C; Hutmacher, Dietmar W; Fratzl, Peter; Duda, Georg N

    2012-06-01

    Critical-sized bone defect regeneration is a remaining clinical concern. Numerous scaffold-based strategies are currently being investigated to enable in vivo bone defect healing. However, a deeper understanding of how a scaffold influences the tissue formation process and how this compares to endogenous bone formation or to regular fracture healing is missing. It is hypothesized that the porous scaffold architecture can serve as a guiding substrate to enable the formation of a structured fibrous network as a prerequirement for later bone formation. An ovine, tibial, 30-mm critical-sized defect is used as a model system to better understand the effect of the scaffold architecture on cell organization, fibrous tissue, and mineralized tissue formation mechanisms in vivo. Tissue regeneration patterns within two geometrically distinct macroscopic regions of a specific scaffold design, the scaffold wall and the endosteal cavity, are compared with tissue formation in an empty defect (negative control) and with cortical bone (positive control). Histology, backscattered electron imaging, scanning small-angle X-ray scattering, and nanoindentation are used to assess the morphology of fibrous and mineralized tissue, to measure the average mineral particle thickness and the degree of alignment, and to map the local elastic indentation modulus. The scaffold proves to function as a guiding substrate to the tissue formation process. It enables the arrangement of a structured fibrous tissue across the entire defect, which acts as a secondary supporting network for cells. Mineralization can then initiate along the fibrous network, resulting in bone ingrowth into a critical-sized defect, although not in complete bridging of the defect. The fibrous network morphology, which in turn is guided by the scaffold architecture, influences the microstructure of the newly formed bone. These results allow a deeper understanding of the mode of mineral tissue formation and the way this is

  5. Cell Proliferation on Macro/Nano Surface Structure and Collagen Immobilization of 3D Polycaprolactone Scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Ouk; Myung, Sung-Woon; Kook, Min-Suk; Jung, Sang-Chul; Kim, Byung-Hoon

    2016-02-01

    In this study, 3D polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds were fabricated by 3D printing technique. The macro/nano morphology of, 3D PCL scaffolds surface was etched with oxygen plasma. Acrylic acid (AA) plasma-polymerization was performed to functionalize the macro/nano surface with carboxyl groups and then collagen was immobilized with plasma-polymerized 3D PCL scaffolds. After O2 plasma and AA plasma-polymerization, contact angles were decreased. The FE-SEM and AFM results showed that O2 plasma is increased the surface roughness. The MTT assay results showed that proliferation of the M3CT3-E1 cells increased on the oxygen plasma treated and collagen immobilized 3D PCL scaffolds. PMID:27433597

  6. A Simple Approach for an Eggshell-Based 3D-Printed Osteoinductive Multiphasic Calcium Phosphate Scaffold.

    PubMed

    Dadhich, Prabhash; Das, Bodhisatwa; Pal, Pallabi; Srivas, Pavan K; Dutta, Joy; Ray, Sabyasachi; Dhara, Santanu

    2016-05-18

    Natural origin bioceramics are widely used for bone grafts. In the present study, an eggshell-derived bioceramic scaffold is fabricated by 3D printing as a potential bone-graft analogue. The eggshell, a biological waste material, was mixed with a specific ratio of phosphoric acid and chitosan to form a precursor toward the fabrication of an osteoinductive multiphasic calcium phosphate scaffold via a coagulation-assisted extrusion and sintering for a multiscalar hierarchical porous structure with improved mechanical properties. Physicochemical characterization of the formed scaffolds was carried out for phase analysis, surface morphology, and mechanical properties. A similar scaffold was prepared using a chemically synthesized calcium phosphate powder that was compared with the natural origin one. The higher surface area associated with the interconnected porosity along with multiple phases of the natural origin scaffold facilitated higher cell adhesion and proliferation compared to the chemically synthesized one. Further, the natural origin scaffold displayed relatively higher cell differentiation activity, as is evident by protein and gene expression studies. On subcutaneous implantation for 30 days, promising vascular tissue in-growth was observed, circumventing a major foreign body response. Collagen-rich vascular extracellular matrix deposition and osteocalcin secretion indicated bonelike tissue formation. Finally, the eggshell-derived multiphasic calcium phosphate scaffold displayed improvement in the mechanical properties with higher porosity and osteoinductivity compared to the chemically derived apatite and unveiled a new paradigm for utilization of biological wastes in bone-graft application. PMID:26853051

  7. Ornamenting 3D printed scaffolds with cell-laid extracellular matrix for bone tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Pati, Falguni; Song, Tae-Ha; Rijal, Girdhari; Jang, Jinah; Kim, Sung Won; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2015-01-01

    3D printing technique is the most sophisticated technique to produce scaffolds with tailorable physical properties. But, these scaffolds often suffer from limited biological functionality as they are typically made from synthetic materials. Cell-laid mineralized ECM was shown to be potential for improving the cellular responses and drive osteogenesis of stem cells. Here, we intend to improve the biological functionality of 3D-printed synthetic scaffolds by ornamenting them with cell-laid mineralized extracellular matrix (ECM) that mimics a bony microenvironment. We developed bone graft substitutes by using 3D printed scaffolds made from a composite of polycaprolactone (PCL), poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and mineralized ECM laid by human nasal inferior turbinate tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hTMSCs). A rotary flask bioreactor was used to culture hTMSCs on the scaffolds to foster formation of mineralized ECM. A freeze/thaw cycle in hypotonic buffer was used to efficiently decellularize (97% DNA reduction) the ECM-ornamented scaffolds while preserving its main organic and inorganic components. The ECM-ornamented 3D printed scaffolds supported osteoblastic differentiation of newly-seeded hTMSCs by upregulating four typical osteoblastic genes (4-fold higher RUNX2; 3-fold higher ALP; 4-fold higher osteocalcin; and 4-fold higher osteopontin) and increasing calcium deposition compared to bare 3D printed scaffolds. In vivo, in ectopic and orthotopic models in rats, ECM-ornamented scaffolds induced greater bone formation than that of bare scaffolds. These results suggest a valuable method to produce ECM-ornamented 3D printed scaffolds as off-the-shelf bone graft substitutes that combine tunable physical properties with physiological presentation of biological signals. PMID:25453953

  8. Electrospinning of small diameter 3-D nanofibrous tubular scaffolds with controllable nanofiber orientations for vascular grafts.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huijun; Fan, Jintu; Chu, Chih-Chang; Wu, Jun

    2010-12-01

    The control of nanofiber orientation in nanofibrous tubular scaffolds can benefit the cell responses along specific directions. For small diameter tubular scaffolds, however, it becomes difficult to engineer nanofiber orientation. This paper reports a novel electrospinning technique for the fabrication of 3-D nanofibrous tubular scaffolds with controllable nanofiber orientations. Synthetic absorbable poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) was used as the model biomaterial to demonstrate this new electrospinning technique. Electrospun 3-D PCL nanofibrous tubular scaffolds of 4.5 mm in diameter with different nanofiber orientations (viz. circumferential, axial, and combinations of circumferential and axial directions) were successfully fabricated. The degree of nanofiber alignment in the electrospun 3-D tubular scaffolds was quantified by using the fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis. The results indicated that excellent circumferential nanofiber alignment could be achieved in the 3-D nanofibrous PCL tubular scaffolds. The nanofibrous tubular scaffolds with oriented nanofibers had not only directional mechanical property but also could facilitate the orientation of the endothelial cell attachment on the fibers. Multiple layers of aligned nanofibers in different orientations can produce 3-D nanofibrous tubular scaffolds of different macroscopic properties. PMID:20890639

  9. 3D-printed hierarchical scaffold for localized isoniazid/rifampin drug delivery and osteoarticular tuberculosis therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Min; Li, Kun; Zhu, Yufang; Zhang, Jianhua; Ye, Xiaojian

    2015-04-01

    After surgical treatment of osteoarticular tuberculosis (TB), it is necessary to fill the surgical defect with an implant, which combines the merits of osseous regeneration and local multi-drug therapy so as to avoid drug resistance and side effects. In this study, a 3D-printed macro/meso-porous composite scaffold is fabricated. High dosages of isoniazid (INH)/rifampin (RFP) anti-TB drugs are loaded into chemically modified mesoporous bioactive ceramics in advance, which are then bound with poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx) through a 3D printing procedure. The composite scaffolds show greatly prolonged drug release time compared to commercial calcium phosphate scaffolds either in vitro or in vivo. In addition, the drug concentrations on the periphery tissues of defect are maintained above INH/RFP minimal inhibitory concentrations even up to 12 weeks post-surgery, while they are extremely low in blood. Examinations of certain serum enzymes suggest no harm to hepatic or renal functions. Micro-CT evaluations and histology results also indicate partly degradation of the composite scaffolds and new bone growth in the cavity. These results suggest promising applications of our hierarchical composite scaffold in bone regeneration and local anti-TB therapy after osteoarticular TB debridement surgery. PMID:25653217

  10. An approach to architecture 3D scaffold with interconnective microchannel networks inducing angiogenesis for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiaoxia; Wang, Yuanliang; Qian, Zhiyong; Hu, Chenbo

    2011-11-01

    The angiogenesis of 3D scaffold is one of the major current limitations in clinical practice tissue engineering. The new strategy of construction 3D scaffold with microchannel circulation network may improve angiogenesis. In this study, 3D poly(D: ,L: -lactic acid) scaffolds with controllable microchannel structures were fabricated using sacrificial sugar structures. Melt drawing sugar-fiber network produced by a modified filament spiral winding method was used to form the microchannel with adjustable diameters and porosity. This fabrication process was rapid, inexpensive, and highly scalable. The porosity, microchannel diameter, interconnectivity and surface topographies of the scaffold were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Mechanical properties were evaluated by compression tests. The mean porosity values of the scaffolds were in the 65-78% and the scaffold exhibited microchannel structure with diameter in the 100-200 μm range. The results showed that the scaffolds exhibited an adequate porosity, interconnective microchannel network, and mechanical properties. The cell culture studies with endothelial cells (ECs) demonstrated that the scaffold allowed cells to proliferate and penetrate into the volume of the entire scaffold. Overall, these findings suggest that the fabrication process offers significant advantages and flexibility in generating a variety of non-cytotoxic tissue engineering scaffolds with controllable distributions of porosity and physical properties that could provide the necessary physical cues for ECs and further improve angiogenesis for tissue engineering. PMID:21861076

  11. [Preparation of porous ceramic macro-tubes scaffold].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wei

    2011-05-01

    In this study, a porous hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) macro-tubes scaffold was fabricated, so that the PU (Polyurethane) can be coated onto the scaffold in order to increase the compressive strength. PMID:21954576

  12. Combination therapy with BMP-2 and BMSCs enhances bone healing efficacy of PCL scaffold fabricated using the 3D plotting system in a large segmental defect model.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sun-Woong; Bae, Ji-Hoon; Park, Su-A; Kim, Wan-Doo; Park, Mi-Su; Ko, You-Jin; Jang, Hyon-Seok; Park, Jung-Ho

    2012-07-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) plotting system is a rapidly-developing scaffold fabrication method for bone tissue engineering. It yields a highly porous and inter-connective structure without the use of cytotoxic solvents. However, the therapeutic effects of a scaffold fabricated using the 3D plotting system in a large segmental defect model have not yet been demonstrated. We have tested two hypotheses: whether the bone healing efficacy of scaffold fabricated using the 3D plotting system would be enhanced by bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) transplantation; and whether the combination of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) administration and BMSC transplantation onto the scaffold would act synergistically to enhance bone regeneration in a large segmental defect model. The use of the combined therapy did increase bone regeneration further as compared to that with monotherapy in large segmental bone defects. PMID:22447098

  13. 3D fibre deposition and stereolithography techniques for the design of multifunctional nanocomposite magnetic scaffolds.

    PubMed

    De Santis, Roberto; D'Amora, Ugo; Russo, Teresa; Ronca, Alfredo; Gloria, Antonio; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2015-10-01

    Magnetic nanocomposite scaffolds based on poly(ε-caprolactone) and poly(ethylene glycol) were fabricated by 3D fibre deposition modelling (FDM) and stereolithography techniques. In addition, hybrid coaxial and bilayer magnetic scaffolds were produced by combining such techniques. The aim of the current research was to analyse some structural and functional features of 3D magnetic scaffolds obtained by the 3D fibre deposition technique and by stereolithography as well as features of multimaterial scaffolds in the form of coaxial and bilayer structures obtained by the proper integration of such methods. The compressive mechanical behaviour of these scaffolds was investigated in a wet environment at 37 °C, and the morphological features were analysed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray micro-computed tomography. The capability of a magnetic scaffold to absorb magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in water solution was also assessed. confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to assess the in vitro biological behaviour of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) seeded on 3D structures. Results showed that a wide range of mechanical properties, covering those spanning hard and soft tissues, can be obtained by 3D FDM and stereolithography techniques. 3D virtual reconstruction and SEM showed the precision with which the scaffolds were fabricated, and a good-quality interface between poly(ε-caprolactone) and poly(ethylene glycol) based scaffolds was observed for bilayer and coaxial scaffolds. Magnetised scaffolds are capable of absorbing water solution of MNPs, and a preliminary information on cell adhesion and spreading of hMSCs was obtained without the application of an external magnetic field. PMID:26420041

  14. Three-Dimensional Porous Biodegradable Polymeric Scaffolds Fabricated with Biodegradable Hydrogel Porogens

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinku; Yaszemski, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a new fabrication technique to create three-dimensional (3D) porous poly(ε-caprolactone fumarate) (PCLF) scaffolds using hydrogel microparticle porogens, as an alternative to overcome certain limitations of traditional scaffold fabrication techniques such as a salt leaching method. Both natural hydrogel, gelatin, and synthetic hydrogel, poly(ethylene glycol) sebacic acid diacrylate, were used as porogens to fabricate 3D porous PCLF scaffolds. Hydrogel microparticles were prepared by a single emulsion technique with the particle size in the range of 100–500 μm after equilibrium in water. The pore size distribution, porosity, pore interconnectivity, and spatial pore heterogeneity of the 3D PCLF scaffolds were assessed using micro-computed tomography and imaging analysis. Scaffolds fabricated with the hydrogel porogens had higher porosity and pore interconnectivity as well as more homogeneous spatial pore distribution, compared to the scaffolds made from the salt leaching process. Compressive moduli of the scaffolds were also measured and showed that lower porosity yielded greater modulus of the scaffolds. Overall, the new fabrication technology using hydrogel porogens may be beneficial for certain tissue engineering applications. PMID:19216632

  15. 3D Scaffolded Nickel-Tin Li-Ion Anodes with Enhanced Cyclability.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huigang; Shi, Tan; Wetzel, David J; Nuzzo, Ralph G; Braun, Paul V

    2016-01-27

    A 3D mechanically stable scaffold is shown to accommodate the volume change of a high-specific-capacity nickel-tin nanocomposite during operation as a Li-ion battery anode. The nickel-tin anode is supported by an electrochemically inactive conductive scaffold with an engineered free volume and controlled characteristic dimensions, which engender the electrode with significantly improved cyclability. PMID:26618617

  16. Effects of simple and complex motion patterns on gene expression of chondrocytes seeded in 3D scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Grad, Sibylle; Gogolewski, Sylwester; Alini, Mauro; Wimmer, Markus A

    2006-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of unidirectional and multidirectional motion patterns on gene expression and molecule release of chondrocyte-seeded 3D scaffolds. Resorbable porous polyurethane scaffolds were seeded with bovine articular chondrocytes and exposed to dynamic compression, applied with a ceramic hip ball, alone (group 1), with superimposed rotation of the scaffold around its cylindrical axis (group 2), oscillation of the ball over the scaffold surface (group 3), or oscillation of ball and scaffold in phase difference (group 4). Compared with group 1, the proteoglycan 4 (PRG4) and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) mRNA expression levels were markedly increased by ball oscillation (groups 3 and 4). Furthermore, the collagen type II mRNA expression was enhanced in the groups 3 and 4, while the aggrecan and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP-3) mRNA expression levels were upregulated by multidirectional articular motion (group 4). Ball oscillation (groups 3 and 4) also increased the release of PRG4, COMP, and hyaluronan (HA) into the culture media. This indicates that the applied stimuli can contribute to the maintenance of the chondrocytic phenotype of the cells. The mechanical effects causing cell stimulation by applied surface motion might be related to fluid film buildup and/or frictional shear at the scaffold-ball interface. It is suggested that the oscillating ball drags the fluid into the joint space, thereby causing biophysical effects similar to those of fluid flow. PMID:17518631

  17. Histological evaluation of osteogenesis of 3D-printed poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) scaffolds in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zigang; Tian, Xianfeng; Heng, Boon Chin; Fan, Victor; Yeo, Jin Fei; Cao, Tong

    2009-04-01

    Utilizing a suitable combination of lactide and glycolide in a copolymer would optimize the degradation rate of a scaffold upon implantation in situ. Moreover, 3D printing technology enables customizing the shape of the scaffold to biometric data from CT and MRI scans. A previous in vitro study has shown that novel 3D-printed poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) scaffolds had good biocompatibility and mechanical properties comparable with human cancellous bone, while they could support proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of osteoblasts. Based on the previous study, this study evaluated PLGA scaffolds for bone regeneration within a rabbit model. The scaffolds were implanted at two sites on the same animal, within the periosteum and within bi-cortical bone defects on the iliac crest. Subsequently, the efficacy of bone regeneration within the implanted scaffolds was evaluated at 4, 12 and 24 weeks post-surgery through histological analysis. In both the intra-periosteum and iliac bone defect models, the implanted scaffolds facilitated new bone tissue formation and maturation over the time course of 24 weeks, even though there was initially observed to be little tissue ingrowth within the scaffolds at 4 weeks post-surgery. Hence, the 3D-printed porous PLGA scaffolds investigated in this study displayed good biocompatibility and are osteoconductive in both the intra-periosteum and iliac bone defect models. PMID:19208943

  18. 3D Differentiation of Neural Stem Cells in Macroporous Photopolymerizable Hydrogel Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hang; Wijekoon, Asanka; Leipzig, Nic D.

    2012-01-01

    Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) are the stem cell of the adult central nervous system (CNS). These cells are able to differentiate into the major cell types found in the CNS (neurons, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes), thus NSPCs are the mechanism by which the adult CNS could potentially regenerate after injury or disorder. Microenviromental factors are critical for guiding NSPC differentiation and are thus important for neural tissue engineering. In this study, D-mannitol crystals were mixed with photocrosslinkable methacrylamide chitosan (MAC) as a porogen to enhance pore size during hydrogel formation. D-mannitol was admixed to MAC at 5, 10 and 20 wt% D-mannitol per total initial hydrogel weight. D-mannitol crystals were observed to dissolve and leave the scaffold within 1 hr. Quantification of resulting average pore sizes showed that D-mannitol addition resulted in larger average pore size (5 wt%, 4060±160 µm2, 10 wt%, 6330±1160 µm2, 20 wt%, 7600±1550 µm2) compared with controls (0 wt%, 3150±220 µm2). Oxygen diffusion studies demonstrated that larger average pore area resulted in enhanced oxygen diffusion through scaffolds. Finally, the differentiation responses of NSPCs to phenotypic differentiation conditions were studied for neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in hydrogels of varied porosity over 14 d. Quantification of total cell numbers at day 7 and 14, showed that cell numbers decreased with increased porosity and over the length of the culture. At day 14 immunohistochemistry quantification for primary cell types demonstrated significant differentiation to the desired cells types, and that total percentages of each cell type was greatest when scaffolds were more porous. These results suggest that larger pore sizes in MAC hydrogels effectively promote NSPC 3D differentiation. PMID:23144988

  19. Porous titanium scaffolds fabricated using a rapid prototyping and powder metallurgy technique.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Garrett E; Pandit, Abhay S; Apatsidis, Dimitrios P

    2008-09-01

    One of the main issues in orthopaedic implant design is the fabrication of scaffolds that closely mimic the biomechanical properties of the surrounding bone. This research reports on a multi-stage rapid prototyping technique that was successfully developed to produce porous titanium scaffolds with fully interconnected pore networks and reproducible porosity and pore size. The scaffolds' porous characteristics were governed by a sacrificial wax template, fabricated using a commercial 3D-printer. Powder metallurgy processes were employed to generate the titanium scaffolds by filling around the wax template with titanium slurry. In the attempt to optimise the powder metallurgy technique, variations in slurry concentration, compaction pressure and sintering temperature were investigated. By altering the wax design template, pore sizes ranging from 200 to 400 microm were achieved. Scaffolds with porosities of 66.8 +/- 3.6% revealed compression strengths of 104.4+/-22.5 MPa in the axial direction and 23.5 +/- 9.6 MPa in the transverse direction demonstrating their anisotropic nature. Scaffold topography was characterised using scanning electron microscopy and microcomputed tomography. Three-dimensional reconstruction enabled the main architectural parameters such as pore size, interconnecting porosity, level of anisotropy and level of structural disorder to be determined. The titanium scaffolds were compared to their intended designs, as governed by their sacrificial wax templates. Although discrepancies in architectural parameters existed between the intended and the actual scaffolds, overall the results indicate that the porous titanium scaffolds have the properties to be potentially employed in orthopaedic applications. PMID:18556060

  20. Mechanical Improvements to Reinforced Porous Silk Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Eun Seok; Kluge, Jonathan A.; Rockwood, Danielle N.; Rajkhowa, Rangam; Wang, Lijing; Wang, Xungai; Kaplan, David L

    2012-01-01

    Load bearing porous biodegradable scaffolds are required to engineer functional tissues such as bone. Mechanical improvements to porogen leached scaffolds prepared from silk proteins were systematically studied through the addition of silk particles in combination with silk solution concentration, exploiting interfacial compatibility between the two components. Solvent solutions of silk up to 32 w/v% were successfully prepared in hexafluoroisopropanaol (HFIP) for the study. The mechanical properties of the reinforced silk scaffolds correlated to the material density and matched by a power law relationship, independent of the ratio of silk particles to matrix. These results were similar to the relationships previously shown for cancellous bone. The mechanism behind the increased mechanical properties was a densification effect, and not the effect of including stiffer silk particles into the softer silk continuous matrix. A continuous interface between the silk matrix and the silk particles, as well as homogeneous distribution of the silk particles within the matrix were observed. Furthermore, we note that the roughness of the pore walls was controllable by varying the ratio of particles matrix, providing a route to control topography. The rate of proteolytic hydrolysis of the scaffolds decreased with increase in mass of silk used in the matrix and with increasing silk particle content. PMID:21793193

  1. Hierarchical porous polymer scaffolds from block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Sai, Hiroaki; Tan, Kwan Wee; Hur, Kahyun; Asenath-Smith, Emily; Hovden, Robert; Jiang, Yi; Riccio, Mark; Muller, David A; Elser, Veit; Estroff, Lara A; Gruner, Sol M; Wiesner, Ulrich

    2013-08-01

    Hierarchical porous polymer materials are of increasing importance because of their potential application in catalysis, separation technology, or bioengineering. Examples for their synthesis exist, but there is a need for a facile yet versatile conceptual approach to such hierarchical scaffolds and quantitative characterization of their nonperiodic pore systems. Here, we introduce a synthesis method combining well-established concepts of macroscale spinodal decomposition and nanoscale block copolymer self-assembly with porosity formation on both length scales via rinsing with protic solvents. We used scanning electron microscopy, small-angle x-ray scattering, transmission electron tomography, and nanoscale x-ray computed tomography for quantitative pore-structure characterization. The method was demonstrated for AB- and ABC-type block copolymers, and resulting materials were used as scaffolds for calcite crystal growth. PMID:23908232

  2. Osteogenic cell response to 3-D hydroxyapatite scaffolds developed via replication of natural marine sponges.

    PubMed

    Clarke, S A; Choi, S Y; McKechnie, Melanie; Burke, G; Dunne, N; Walker, G; Cunningham, E; Buchanan, F

    2016-02-01

    Bone tissue engineering may provide an alternative to autograft, however scaffold optimisation is required to maximize bone ingrowth. In designing scaffolds, pore architecture is important and there is evidence that cells prefer a degree of non-uniformity. The aim of this study was to compare scaffolds derived from a natural porous marine sponge (Spongia agaricina) with unique architecture to those derived from a synthetic polyurethane foam. Hydroxyapatite scaffolds of 1 cm(3) were prepared via ceramic infiltration of a marine sponge and a polyurethane (PU) foam. Human foetal osteoblasts (hFOB) were seeded at 1 × 10(5) cells/scaffold for up to 14 days. Cytotoxicity, cell number, morphology and differentiation were investigated. PU-derived scaffolds had 84-91% porosity and 99.99% pore interconnectivity. In comparison marine sponge-derived scaffolds had 56-61% porosity and 99.9% pore interconnectivity. hFOB studies showed that a greater number of cells were found on marine sponge-derived scaffolds at than on the PU scaffold but there was no significant difference in cell differentiation. X-ray diffraction and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry showed that Si ions were released from the marine-derived scaffold. In summary, three dimensional porous constructs have been manufactured that support cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation but significantly more cells were seen on marine-derived scaffolds. This could be due both to the chemistry and pore architecture of the scaffolds with an additional biological stimulus from presence of Si ions. Further in vivo tests in orthotopic models are required but this marine-derived scaffold shows promise for applications in bone tissue engineering. PMID:26704539

  3. From 2D to 3D: novel nanostructured scaffolds to investigate signalling in reconstructed neuronal networks.

    PubMed

    Bosi, Susanna; Rauti, Rossana; Laishram, Jummi; Turco, Antonio; Lonardoni, Davide; Nieus, Thierry; Prato, Maurizio; Scaini, Denis; Ballerini, Laura

    2015-01-01

    To recreate in vitro 3D neuronal circuits will ultimately increase the relevance of results from cultured to whole-brain networks and will promote enabling technologies for neuro-engineering applications. Here we fabricate novel elastomeric scaffolds able to instruct 3D growth of living primary neurons. Such systems allow investigating the emerging activity, in terms of calcium signals, of small clusters of neurons as a function of the interplay between the 2D or 3D architectures and network dynamics. We report the ability of 3D geometry to improve functional organization and synchronization in small neuronal assemblies. We propose a mathematical modelling of network dynamics that supports such a result. Entrapping carbon nanotubes in the scaffolds remarkably boosted synaptic activity, thus allowing for the first time to exploit nanomaterial/cell interfacing in 3D growth support. Our 3D system represents a simple and reliable construct, able to improve the complexity of current tissue culture models. PMID:25910072

  4. Concentrated hydroxyapatite inks for direct-write assembly of 3-D periodic scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Michna, Sarah; Wu, Willie; Lewis, Jennifer A

    2005-10-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds with a 3-D periodic architecture and multiscale porosity have been fabricated by direct-write assembly. Concentrated HA inks with tailored viscoelastic properties were developed to enable the construction of complex 3-D architectures comprised of self-supporting cylindrical rods in a layer-by-layer patterning sequence. By controlling their lattice constant and sintering conditions, 3-D periodic HA scaffolds were produced with a bimodal pore size distribution. Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) was used to determine the characteristic pore size and volume associated with the interconnected pore channels between HA rods and the finer pores within the partially sintered HA rods. PMID:15878368

  5. Gold Nanoparticle Synthesis by 3D Integrated Micro-solution Plasma in a 3D Printed Artificial Porous Dielectric Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotoda, Naoya; Tanaka, Kenji; Shirafuji, Tatsuru

    2015-09-01

    Plasma in contact with HAuCl4 aqueous solution can promote the synthesis of gold nanoparticles. To scale up this process, we have developed 3D integrated micro-solution plasma (3D IMSP). It can generate a large number of argon microplasmas in contact with the aqueous solution flowing in a porous dielectric material. The porous dielectric material in our prototype 3D IMSP reactor, however, consists of non-regularly arranged random-sized pores. These pore parameters may be the parameters for controlling the size and dispersion of synthesized gold nanoparticles. We have hence fabricated a 3D IMSP reactor with an artificial porous dielectric material that has regularly arranged same-sized pores by using a 3D printer. We have applied the reactor to the gold- nanoparticle synthesis. We have confirmed the synthesis of gold nanoparticles through the observation of a plasmon resonance absorption peak at 550 nm in the HAuCl4 aqueous solution treated with 3D IMSP. The size and distribution of the synthesized gold nanoparticles are under investigation. We expect that these characteristics of the gold nanoparticles can be manipulated by changing pore size and their distribution in the porous dielectric material.

  6. 3D-Printed ABS and PLA Scaffolds for Cartilage and Nucleus Pulposus Tissue Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Rosenzweig, Derek H; Carelli, Eric; Steffen, Thomas; Jarzem, Peter; Haglund, Lisbet

    2015-01-01

    Painful degeneration of soft tissues accounts for high socioeconomic costs. Tissue engineering aims to provide biomimetics recapitulating native tissues. Biocompatible thermoplastics for 3D printing can generate high-resolution structures resembling tissue extracellular matrix. Large-pore 3D-printed acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and polylactic acid (PLA) scaffolds were compared for cell ingrowth, viability, and tissue generation. Primary articular chondrocytes and nucleus pulposus (NP) cells were cultured on ABS and PLA scaffolds for three weeks. Both cell types proliferated well, showed high viability, and produced ample amounts of proteoglycan and collagen type II on both scaffolds. NP generated more matrix than chondrocytes; however, no difference was observed between scaffold types. Mechanical testing revealed sustained scaffold stability. This study demonstrates that chondrocytes and NP cells can proliferate on both ABS and PLA scaffolds printed with a simplistic, inexpensive desktop 3D printer. Moreover, NP cells produced more proteoglycan than chondrocytes, irrespective of thermoplastic type, indicating that cells maintain individual phenotype over the three-week culture period. Future scaffold designs covering larger pore sizes and better mimicking native tissue structure combined with more flexible or resorbable materials may provide implantable constructs with the proper structure, function, and cellularity necessary for potential cartilage and disc tissue repair in vivo. PMID:26151846

  7. 3D-Printed ABS and PLA Scaffolds for Cartilage and Nucleus Pulposus Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Rosenzweig, Derek H.; Carelli, Eric; Steffen, Thomas; Jarzem, Peter; Haglund, Lisbet

    2015-01-01

    Painful degeneration of soft tissues accounts for high socioeconomic costs. Tissue engineering aims to provide biomimetics recapitulating native tissues. Biocompatible thermoplastics for 3D printing can generate high-resolution structures resembling tissue extracellular matrix. Large-pore 3D-printed acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and polylactic acid (PLA) scaffolds were compared for cell ingrowth, viability, and tissue generation. Primary articular chondrocytes and nucleus pulposus (NP) cells were cultured on ABS and PLA scaffolds for three weeks. Both cell types proliferated well, showed high viability, and produced ample amounts of proteoglycan and collagen type II on both scaffolds. NP generated more matrix than chondrocytes; however, no difference was observed between scaffold types. Mechanical testing revealed sustained scaffold stability. This study demonstrates that chondrocytes and NP cells can proliferate on both ABS and PLA scaffolds printed with a simplistic, inexpensive desktop 3D printer. Moreover, NP cells produced more proteoglycan than chondrocytes, irrespective of thermoplastic type, indicating that cells maintain individual phenotype over the three-week culture period. Future scaffold designs covering larger pore sizes and better mimicking native tissue structure combined with more flexible or resorbable materials may provide implantable constructs with the proper structure, function, and cellularity necessary for potential cartilage and disc tissue repair in vivo. PMID:26151846

  8. Construction of a 3D rGO-collagen hybrid scaffold for enhancement of the neural differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Weibo; Wang, Shu; Yu, Xin; Qiu, Jichuan; Li, Jianhua; Tang, Wei; Li, Zhou; Mou, Xiaoning; Liu, Hong; Wang, Zhonglin

    2016-01-01

    The cell-material interface is one of the most important considerations in designing a high-performance tissue engineering scaffold because the surface of the scaffold can determine the fate of stem cells. A conductive surface is required for a scaffold to direct stem cells toward neural differentiation. However, most conductive polymers are toxic and not amenable to biological degradation, which restricts the design of neural tissue engineering scaffolds. In this study, we used a bioactive three-dimensional (3D) porcine acellular dermal matrix (PADM), which is mainly composed of type I collagen, as a basic material and successfully assembled a layer of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets on the surface of the PADM channels to obtain a porous 3D, biodegradable, conductive and biocompatible PADM-rGO hybrid neural tissue engineering scaffold. Compared with the PADM scaffold, assembling the rGO into the scaffold did not induce a significant change in the microstructure but endowed the PADM-rGO hybrid scaffold with good conductivity. A comparison of the neural differentiation of rat bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) was performed by culturing the MSCs on PADM and PADM-rGO scaffolds in neuronal culture medium, followed by the determination of gene expression and immunofluorescence staining. The results of both the gene expression and protein level assessments suggest that the rGO-assembled PADM scaffold may promote the differentiation of MSCs into neuronal cells with higher protein and gene expression levels after 7 days under neural differentiation conditions. This study demonstrated that the PADM-rGO hybrid scaffold is a promising scaffold for neural tissue engineering; this scaffold can not only support the growth of MSCs at a high proliferation rate but also enhance the differentiation of MSCs into neural cells.The cell-material interface is one of the most important considerations in designing a high-performance tissue engineering scaffold

  9. Mechanical evaluation of gradient electrospun scaffolds with 3D printed ring reinforcements for tracheal defect repair.

    PubMed

    Ott, Lindsey M; Zabel, Taylor A; Walker, Natalie K; Farris, Ashley L; Chakroff, Jason T; Ohst, Devan G; Johnson, Jed K; Gehrke, Steven H; Weatherly, Robert A; Detamore, Michael S

    2016-04-01

    Tracheal stenosis can become a fatal condition, and current treatments include augmentation of the airway with autologous tissue. A tissue-engineered approach would not require a donor source, while providing an implant that meets both surgeons' and patients' needs. A fibrous, polymeric scaffold organized in gradient bilayers of polycaprolactone (PCL) and poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) with 3D printed structural ring supports, inspired by the native trachea rings, could meet this need. The purpose of the current study was to characterize the tracheal scaffolds with mechanical testing models to determine the design most suitable for maintaining a patent airway. Degradation over 12 weeks revealed that scaffolds with the 3D printed rings had superior properties in tensile and radial compression, with at least a three fold improvement and 8.5-fold improvement, respectively, relative to the other scaffold groups. The ringed scaffolds produced tensile moduli, radial compressive forces, and burst pressures similar to or exceeding physiological forces and native tissue data. Scaffolds with a thicker PCL component had better suture retention and tube flattening recovery properties, with the monolayer of PCL (PCL-only group) exhibiting a 2.3-fold increase in suture retention strength (SRS). Tracheal scaffolds with ring reinforcements have improved mechanical properties, while the fibrous component increased porosity and cell infiltration potential. These scaffolds may be used to treat various trachea defects (patch or circumferential) and have the potential to be employed in other tissue engineering applications. PMID:27097554

  10. Wound healing properties of a 3-D scaffold comprising soluble silkworm gland hydrolysate and human collagen.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyu-Oh; Lee, Youngjun; Hwang, Jung-Wook; Kim, Hojin; Kim, Sun Mi; Chang, Sung Woon; Lee, Heui Sam; Choi, Yong-Soo

    2014-04-01

    Biomaterials that serve as scaffolds for cell proliferation and differentiation are increasingly being used in wound repair. In this study, the potential regenerative properties of a 3-D scaffold containing soluble silkworm gland hydrolysate (SSGH) and human collagen were evaluated. The scaffold was generated by solid-liquid phase separation and a freeze-drying method using a homogeneous aqueous solution. The porosity, swelling behavior, protein release, cytotoxicity, and antioxidative properties of scaffolds containing various ratios of SSGH and collagen were evaluated. SSGH/collagen scaffolds had a high porosity of 61-81% and swelling behavior studies demonstrated a 50-75% increase in swelling, along with complete protein release in the presence of phosphate-buffered saline. Cytocompatibility of the SSGH/collagen scaffold was demonstrated using mesenchymal stem cells from human umbilical cord. Furthermore, SSGH/collagen efficiently attenuated oxidative stress-induced cell damage. In an in vivo mouse model of wound healing, the SSGH/collagen scaffold accelerated wound re-epithelialization over a 15-day period. Overall, the microporous SSGH/collagen 3-D scaffold maintained optimal hydration of the exposed tissues and decreased wound healing time. These results contribute to the generation of advanced wound healing materials and may have future therapeutic implications. PMID:24503353

  11. In-vivo behavior of Si-hydroxyapatite/polycaprolactone/DMB scaffolds fabricated by 3D printing.

    PubMed

    Meseguer-Olmo, Luis; Vicente-Ortega, Vicente; Alcaraz-Baños, Miguel; Calvo-Guirado, José Luis; Vallet-Regí, María; Arcos, Daniel; Baeza, Alejandro

    2013-07-01

    Scaffolds made of polycaprolactone and nanocrystalline silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite have been fabricated by 3D printing rapid prototyping technique. To asses that the scaffolds fulfill the requirements to be considered for bone grafting applications, they were implanted in New Zealand rabbits. Histological and radiological studies have demonstrated that the scaffolds implanted in bone exhibited an excellent osteointegration without the interposition of fibrous tissue between bone and implants and without immune response after 4 months of implantation. In addition, we have evaluated the possibility of improving the scaffolds efficiency by incorporating demineralized bone matrix during the preparation by 3D printing. When demineralized bone matrix (DBM) is incorporated, the efficacy of the scaffolds is enhanced, as new bone formation occurs not only in the peripheral portions of the scaffolds but also within its pores after 4 months of implantation. This enhanced performance can be explained in terms of the osteoinductive properties of the DBM in the scaffolds, which have been assessed through the new bone tissue formation when the scaffolds are ectopically implanted. PMID:23255259

  12. Porous allograft bone scaffolds: doping with strontium.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yantao; Guo, Dagang; Hou, Shuxun; Zhong, Hongbin; Yan, Jun; Zhang, Chunli; Zhou, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Strontium (Sr) can promote the process of bone formation. To improve bioactivity, porous allograft bone scaffolds (ABS) were doped with Sr and the mechanical strength and bioactivity of the scaffolds were evaluated. Sr-doped ABS were prepared using the ion exchange method. The density and distribution of Sr in bone scaffolds were investigated by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Controlled release of strontium ions was measured and mechanical strength was evaluated by a compressive strength test. The bioactivity of Sr-doped ABS was investigated by a simulated body fluid (SBF) assay, cytotoxicity testing, and an in vivo implantation experiment. The Sr molar concentration [Sr/(Sr+Ca)] in ABS surpassed 5% and Sr was distributed nearly evenly. XPS analyses suggest that Sr combined with oxygen and carbonate radicals. Released Sr ions were detected in the immersion solution at higher concentration than calcium ions until day 30. The compressive strength of the Sr-doped ABS did not change significantly. The bioactivity of Sr-doped material, as measured by the in vitro SBF immersion method, was superior to that of the Sr-free freeze-dried bone and the Sr-doped material did not show cytotoxicity compared with Sr-free culture medium. The rate of bone mineral deposition for Sr-doped ABS was faster than that of the control at 4 weeks (3.28 ± 0.23 µm/day vs. 2.60 ± 0.20 µm/day; p<0.05). Sr can be evenly doped into porous ABS at relevant concentrations to create highly active bone substitutes. PMID:23922703

  13. Porous Allograft Bone Scaffolds: Doping with Strontium

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yantao; Guo, Dagang; Hou, Shuxun; Zhong, Hongbin; Yan, Jun; Zhang, Chunli; Zhou, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Strontium (Sr) can promote the process of bone formation. To improve bioactivity, porous allograft bone scaffolds (ABS) were doped with Sr and the mechanical strength and bioactivity of the scaffolds were evaluated. Sr-doped ABS were prepared using the ion exchange method. The density and distribution of Sr in bone scaffolds were investigated by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Controlled release of strontium ions was measured and mechanical strength was evaluated by a compressive strength test. The bioactivity of Sr-doped ABS was investigated by a simulated body fluid (SBF) assay, cytotoxicity testing, and an in vivo implantation experiment. The Sr molar concentration [Sr/(Sr+Ca)] in ABS surpassed 5% and Sr was distributed nearly evenly. XPS analyses suggest that Sr combined with oxygen and carbonate radicals. Released Sr ions were detected in the immersion solution at higher concentration than calcium ions until day 30. The compressive strength of the Sr-doped ABS did not change significantly. The bioactivity of Sr-doped material, as measured by the in vitro SBF immersion method, was superior to that of the Sr-free freeze-dried bone and the Sr-doped material did not show cytotoxicity compared with Sr-free culture medium. The rate of bone mineral deposition for Sr-doped ABS was faster than that of the control at 4 weeks (3.28±0.23 µm/day vs. 2.60±0.20 µm/day; p<0.05). Sr can be evenly doped into porous ABS at relevant concentrations to create highly active bone substitutes. PMID:23922703

  14. Decellularized kidney in the presence of chondroitin sulfate as a natural 3D scaffold for stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Rafighdoust, Alireza; Shahri, Nasser Mahdavi; Baharara, Javad

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Use of biological scaffolds and automating the cells directing process with materials such as growth factors and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in a certain path may have beneficial effects in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine in future. In this research, chondroitin sulfate sodium was used for impregnation of the scaffolds. It is a critical component in extracellular matrix and plays an important role in signaling pathway; however, little is known about its role within mammalian development and cell linage specification. Materials and Methods: Due to its porous and appropriate structure and for putting cells in 3D space, the kidney of BALB/c mouse was selected and decellulalized using physical and chemical methods. After decellularization, the scaffold was impregnated in chondroitin sulfate solution (CS) for 24 hr. Then, 60×105 human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells were seeded on the scaffold to assess their behavior on day 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25. Results: After 48 hr, DAPI staining approved completed decellularized kidney by 1% SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate). Migration and establishment of a number of cells to the remaining area of the glomerulus was observed. In addition, cell accumulation on the scaffold surface as well as cells migration to the depth of kidney formed an epithelium-like structure. Up to the day 15, microscopic study of different days of seeding showed the gradual adhesion of large number of cells to the scaffold. Conclusion: Glycosaminoglycan could be a right option for impregnation. It is used for smartification and strengthening of natural scaffolds and induction of some behaviors in stem cells. PMID:26557968

  15. Construction of a 3D rGO-collagen hybrid scaffold for enhancement of the neural differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Weibo; Wang, Shu; Yu, Xin; Qiu, Jichuan; Li, Jianhua; Tang, Wei; Li, Zhou; Mou, Xiaoning; Liu, Hong; Wang, Zhonglin

    2016-01-28

    The cell-material interface is one of the most important considerations in designing a high-performance tissue engineering scaffold because the surface of the scaffold can determine the fate of stem cells. A conductive surface is required for a scaffold to direct stem cells toward neural differentiation. However, most conductive polymers are toxic and not amenable to biological degradation, which restricts the design of neural tissue engineering scaffolds. In this study, we used a bioactive three-dimensional (3D) porcine acellular dermal matrix (PADM), which is mainly composed of type I collagen, as a basic material and successfully assembled a layer of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets on the surface of the PADM channels to obtain a porous 3D, biodegradable, conductive and biocompatible PADM-rGO hybrid neural tissue engineering scaffold. Compared with the PADM scaffold, assembling the rGO into the scaffold did not induce a significant change in the microstructure but endowed the PADM-rGO hybrid scaffold with good conductivity. A comparison of the neural differentiation of rat bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) was performed by culturing the MSCs on PADM and PADM-rGO scaffolds in neuronal culture medium, followed by the determination of gene expression and immunofluorescence staining. The results of both the gene expression and protein level assessments suggest that the rGO-assembled PADM scaffold may promote the differentiation of MSCs into neuronal cells with higher protein and gene expression levels after 7 days under neural differentiation conditions. This study demonstrated that the PADM-rGO hybrid scaffold is a promising scaffold for neural tissue engineering; this scaffold can not only support the growth of MSCs at a high proliferation rate but also enhance the differentiation of MSCs into neural cells. PMID:26750302

  16. Development of melt electrohydrodynamic 3D printing for complex microscale poly (ε-caprolactone) scaffolds.

    PubMed

    He, Jiankang; Xia, Peng; Li, Dichen

    2016-01-01

    The replication of native hierarchical structures into synthetic scaffolds is important to direct cell growth and tissue regeneration. However, most of the existing scaffold strategies lack the capability to simultaneously realize the controlled fabrication of macroscopic geometries as well as microscale architectures with the scale similar to living cells. Here we developed a melt electrohydrodynamic printing platform and verified its feasibility to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) tissue-engineered scaffolds with complex curved geometries and microscale fibrous structures. Melting temperature was studied to stably print poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) filaments with the size of about 10 μm, which was precisely stacked into 3D straight walls with fine surface quality. By adjusting stage moving speed and directions, 3D PCL scaffolds with curved contours and predefined fiber orientations or spacing were successfully printed. Biological experiments showed that the printed microscale scaffolds had good biocompatibility and facilitated cellular proliferation and alignment in vitro. It is envisioned that the melt electrohydrodynamic printing can potentially provide an innovative tool to fabricate hierarchical scaffolds that mimic the native tissue architectures in a multiscale level. PMID:27490377

  17. Chitosan-based hydrogel tissue scaffolds made by 3D plotting promotes osteoblast proliferation and mineralization.

    PubMed

    Liu, I-Hsin; Chang, Shih-Hsin; Lin, Hsin-Yi

    2015-06-01

    A 3D plotting system was used to make chitosan-based tissue scaffolds with interconnected pores using pure chitosan (C) and chitosan cross-linked with pectin (CP) and genipin (CG). A freeze-dried chitosan scaffold (CF/D) was made to compare with C, to observe the effects of structural differences. The fiber size, pore size, porosity, compression strength, swelling ratio, drug release efficacy, and cumulative weight loss of the scaffolds were measured. Osteoblasts were cultured on the scaffolds and their proliferation, type I collagen production, alkaline phosphatase activity, calcium deposition, and morphology were observed. C had a lower swelling ratio, degradation, porosity and drug release efficacy and a higher compressional stiffness and cell proliferation compared to CF/D (p < 0.05). Of the 3D-plotted samples, cells on CP exhibited the highest degree of mineralization after 21 d (p < 0.05). CP also had the highest swelling ratio and fastest drug release, followed by C and CG (p < 0.05). Both CP and CG were stiffer and degraded more slowly in saline solution than C (p < 0.05). In summary, 3D-plotted scaffolds were stronger, less likely to degrade and better promoted osteoblast cell proliferation in vitro compared to the freeze-dried scaffolds. C, CP and CG were structurally similar, and the different crosslinking caused significant changes in their physical and biological performances. PMID:25970802

  18. Composite lithium metal anode by melt infusion of lithium into a 3D conducting scaffold with lithiophilic coating.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zheng; Lin, Dingchang; Zhao, Jie; Lu, Zhenda; Liu, Yayuan; Liu, Chong; Lu, Yingying; Wang, Haotian; Yan, Kai; Tao, Xinyong; Cui, Yi

    2016-03-15

    Lithium metal-based battery is considered one of the best energy storage systems due to its high theoretical capacity and lowest anode potential of all. However, dendritic growth and virtually relative infinity volume change during long-term cycling often lead to severe safety hazards and catastrophic failure. Here, a stable lithium-scaffold composite electrode is developed by lithium melt infusion into a 3D porous carbon matrix with "lithiophilic" coating. Lithium is uniformly entrapped on the matrix surface and in the 3D structure. The resulting composite electrode possesses a high conductive surface area and excellent structural stability upon galvanostatic cycling. We showed stable cycling of this composite electrode with small Li plating/stripping overpotential (<90 mV) at a high current density of 3 mA/cm(2) over 80 cycles. PMID:26929378

  19. 3D printed PLA-based scaffolds: a versatile tool in regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Serra, Tiziano; Mateos-Timoneda, Miguel A; Planell, Josep A; Navarro, Melba

    2013-10-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP), also known as additive manufacturing (AM), has been well received and adopted in the biomedical field. The capacity of this family of techniques to fabricate customized 3D structures with complex geometries and excellent reproducibility has revolutionized implantology and regenerative medicine. In particular, nozzle-based systems allow the fabrication of high-resolution polylactic acid (PLA) structures that are of interest in regenerative medicine. These 3D structures find interesting applications in the regenerative medicine field where promising applications including biodegradable templates for tissue regeneration purposes, 3D in vitro platforms for studying cell response to different scaffolds conditions and for drug screening are considered among others. Scaffolds functionality depends not only on the fabrication technique, but also on the material used to build the 3D structure, the geometry and inner architecture of the structure, and the final surface properties. All being crucial parameters affecting scaffolds success. This Commentary emphasizes the importance of these parameters in scaffolds' fabrication and also draws the attention toward the versatility of these PLA scaffolds as a potential tool in regenerative medicine and other medical fields. PMID:23959206

  20. Development of a 3D polymer reinforced calcium phosphate cement scaffold for cranial bone tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alge, Daniel L.

    The repair of critical-sized cranial bone defects represents an important clinical challenge. The limitations of autografts and alloplastic materials make a bone tissue engineering strategy desirable, but success depends on the development of an appropriate scaffold. Key scaffold properties include biocompatibility, osteoconductivity, sufficient strength to maintain its structure, and resorbability. Furthermore, amenability to rapid prototyping fabrication methods is desirable, as these approaches offer precise control over scaffold architecture and have the potential for customization. While calcium phosphate cements meet many of these criteria due to their composition and their injectability, which can be leveraged for scaffold fabrication via indirect casting, their mechanical properties are a major limitation. Thus, the overall goal of this work was to develop a 3D polymer reinforced calcium phosphate cement scaffold for use in cranial bone tissue engineering. Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) setting cements are of particular interest because of their excellent resorbability. We demonstrated for the first time that DCPD cement can be prepared from monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM)/hydroxyapatite (HA) mixtures. However, subsequent characterization revealed that MCPM/HA cements rapidly convert to HA during degradation, which is undesirable and led us to choose a more conventional formulation for scaffold fabrication. In addition, we developed a novel method for calcium phosphate cement reinforcement that is based on infiltrating a pre-set cement structure with a polymer, and then crosslinking the polymer in situ. Unlike prior methods of cement reinforcement, this method can be applied to the reinforcement of 3D scaffolds fabricated by indirect casting. Using our novel method, composites of poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) reinforced DCPD were prepared and demonstrated as excellent candidate scaffold materials, as they had increased strength and ductility

  1. 3D Bioprinting Using a Templated Porous Bioink.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, James P K; Burke, Madeline; Carter, Benjamin M; Davis, Sean A; Perriman, Adam W

    2016-07-01

    3D tissue printing with adult stem cells is reported. A novel cell-containing multicomponent bioink is used in a two-step 3D printing process to engineer bone and cartilage architectures. PMID:27125336

  2. A multi-scale controlled tissue engineering scaffold prepared by 3D printing and NFES technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Feifei; Liu, Yuanyuan; Chen, Haiping; Zhang, Fuhua; Zheng, Lulu; Hu, Qingxi

    2014-03-01

    The current focus in the field of life science is the use of tissue engineering scaffolds to repair human organs, which has shown great potential in clinical applications. Extracellular matrix morphology and the performance and internal structure of natural organs are required to meet certain requirements. Therefore, integrating multiple processes can effectively overcome the limitations of the individual processes and can take into account the needs of scaffolds for the material, structure, mechanical properties and many other aspects. This study combined the biological 3D printing technology and the near-field electro-spinning (NFES) process to prepare a multi-scale controlled tissue engineering scaffold. While using 3D printing technology to directly prepare the macro-scaffold, the compositing NFES process to build tissue micro-morphology ultimately formed a tissue engineering scaffold which has the specific extracellular matrix structure. This scaffold not only takes into account the material, structure, performance and many other requirements, but also focuses on resolving the controllability problems in macro- and micro-forming which further aim to induce cell directed differentiation, reproduction and, ultimately, the formation of target tissue organs. It has in-depth immeasurable significance to build ideal scaffolds and further promote the application of tissue engineering.

  3. Relevance of PEG in PLA-based blends for tissue engineering 3D-printed scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Serra, Tiziano; Ortiz-Hernandez, Monica; Engel, Elisabeth; Planell, Josep A; Navarro, Melba

    2014-05-01

    Achieving high quality 3D-printed structures requires establishing the right printing conditions. Finding processing conditions that satisfy both the fabrication process and the final required scaffold properties is crucial. This work stresses the importance of studying the outcome of the plasticizing effect of PEG on PLA-based blends used for the fabrication of 3D-direct-printed scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. For this, PLA/PEG blends with 5, 10 and 20% (w/w) of PEG and PLA/PEG/bioactive CaP glass composites were processed in the form of 3D rapid prototyping scaffolds. Surface analysis and differential scanning calorimetry revealed a rearrangement of polymer chains and a topography, wettability and elastic modulus increase of the studied surfaces as PEG was incorporated. Moreover, addition of 10 and 20% PEG led to non-uniform 3D structures with lower mechanical properties. In vitro degradation studies showed that the inclusion of PEG significantly accelerated the degradation rate of the material. Results indicated that the presence of PEG not only improves PLA processing but also leads to relevant surface, geometrical and structural changes including modulation of the degradation rate of PLA-based 3D printed scaffolds. PMID:24656352

  4. Integration of 3D Printed and Micropatterned Polycaprolactone Scaffolds for Guidance of Oriented Collagenous Tissue Formation In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Pilipchuk, Sophia P; Monje, Alberto; Jiao, Yizu; Hao, Jie; Kruger, Laura; Flanagan, Colleen L; Hollister, Scott J; Giannobile, William V

    2016-03-01

    Scaffold design incorporating multiscale cues for clinically relevant, aligned tissue regeneration has potential to improve structural and functional integrity of multitissue interfaces. The objective of this preclinical study is to develop poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds with mesoscale and microscale architectural cues specific to human ligament progenitor cells and assess their ability to form aligned bone-ligament-cementum complexes in vivo. PCL scaffolds are designed to integrate a 3D printed bone region with a micropatterned PCL thin film consisting of grooved pillars. The patterned film region is seeded with human ligament cells, fibroblasts transduced with bone morphogenetic protein-7 genes seeded within the bone region, and a tooth dentin segment positioned on the ligament region prior to subcutaneous implantation into a murine model. Results indicate increased tissue alignment in vivo using micropatterned PCL films, compared to random-porous PCL. At week 6, 30 μm groove depth significantly enhances oriented collagen fiber thickness, overall cell alignment, and nuclear elongation relative to 10 μm groove depth. This study demonstrates for the first time that scaffolds with combined hierarchical mesoscale and microscale features can align cells in vivo for oral tissue repair with potential for improving the regenerative response of other bone-ligament complexes. PMID:26820240

  5. Biomimetic formation of apatite on the surface of porous gelatin/bioactive glass nanocomposite scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozafari, Masoud; Rabiee, Mohammad; Azami, Mahmoud; Maleknia, Saied

    2010-12-01

    There have been several attempts to combine bioactive glasses (BaGs) with biodegradable polymers to create a scaffold material with excellent biocompatibility, bioactivity, biodegradability and toughness. In the present study, the nanocomposite scaffolds with compositions based on gelatin (Gel) and BaG nanoparticles in the ternary SiO 2-CaO-P 2O 5 system were prepared. In vitro evaluations of the nanocomposite scaffolds were performed, and for investigating their bioactive capacity these scaffolds were soaked in a simulated body fluid (SBF) at different time intervals. The scaffolds showed significant enhancement in bioactivity within few days of immersion in SBF solution. The apatite formation at the surface of the nanocomposite samples confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analyses. In vitro experiments with osteoblast cells indicated an appropriate penetration of the cells into the scaffold's pores, and also the continuous increase in cell aggregation on the bioactive scaffolds with increase in the incubation time demonstrated the ability of the scaffolds to support cell growth. The SEM observations revealed that the prepared scaffolds were porous with three dimensional (3D) and interconnected microstructure, pore size was 200-500 μm and the porosity was 72-86%. The nanocomposite scaffold made from Gel and BaG nanoparticles could be considered as a highly bioactive and potential bone tissue engineering implant.

  6. Fabrication of computationally designed scaffolds by low temperature 3D printing.

    PubMed

    Castilho, Miguel; Dias, Marta; Gbureck, Uwe; Groll, Jürgen; Fernandes, Paulo; Pires, Inês; Gouveia, Barbara; Rodrigues, Jorge; Vorndran, Elke

    2013-09-01

    The development of artificial bone substitutes that mimic the properties of bone and simultaneously promote the desired tissue regeneration is a current issue in bone tissue engineering research. An approach to create scaffolds with such characteristics is based on the combination of novel design and additive manufacturing processes. The objective of this work is to characterize the microstructural and the mechanical properties of scaffolds developed by coupling both topology optimization and a low temperature 3D printing process. The scaffold design was obtained using a topology optimization approach to maximize the permeability with constraints on the mechanical properties. This procedure was studied to be suitable for the fabrication of a cage prototype for tibial tuberosity advancement application, which is one of the most recent and promising techniques to treat cruciate ligament rupture in dogs. The microstructural and mechanical properties of the scaffolds manufactured by reacting α/β-tricalcium phosphate with diluted phosphoric acid were then assessed experimentally and the scaffolds strength reliability was determined. The results demonstrate that the low temperature 3D printing process is a reliable option to create synthetic scaffolds with tailored properties, and when coupled with topology optimization design it can be a powerful tool for the fabrication of patient-specific bone implants. PMID:23887064

  7. Bioactive fish collagen/polycaprolactone composite nanofibrous scaffolds fabricated by electrospinning for 3D cell culture.

    PubMed

    Choi, Da Jeong; Choi, Seung Mi; Kang, Hae Yeong; Min, Hye-Jin; Lee, Rira; Ikram, Muhammad; Subhan, Fazli; Jin, Song Wan; Jeong, Young Hun; Kwak, Jong-Young; Yoon, Sik

    2015-07-10

    One of the most challenging objectives of 3D cell culture is the development of scaffolding materials with outstanding biocompatibility and favorable mechanical strength. In this study, we fabricated a novel nanofibrous scaffold composed of fish collagen (FC) and polycaprolactone (PCL) blends by using the electrospinning method. Nanofibrous scaffolds were characterized using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and it was revealed that the diameter of nanofibers decreased as FC content was increased in the FC/PCL composite nanofibers. The cytocompatibility of the FC/PCL scaffolds was evaluated by SEM, WST-1 assay, confocal microscopy, western blot, and RT-PCR. It was found that the scaffolds not only facilitated the adhesion, spreading, protrusions, and proliferation of thymic epithelial cells (TECs), but also stimulated the expression of genes and proteins involved in cell adhesion and T-cell development. Thus, these results suggest that the FC/PCL composite nanofibrous scaffolds will be a useful model of 3D cell culture for TECs and may have wide applicability in the future for engineering tissues or organs. PMID:25617682

  8. Preparation of 3D fibrin scaffolds for stem cell culture applications.

    PubMed

    Kolehmainen, Kathleen; Willerth, Stephanie M

    2012-01-01

    Stem cells are found in naturally occurring 3D microenvironments in vivo, which are often referred to as the stem cell niche. Culturing stem cells inside of 3D biomaterial scaffolds provides a way to accurately mimic these microenvironments, providing an advantage over traditional 2D culture methods using polystyrene as well as a method for engineering replacement tissues. While 2D tissue culture polystrene has been used for the majority of cell culture experiments, 3D biomaterial scaffolds can more closely replicate the microenvironments found in vivo by enabling more accurate establishment of cell polarity in the environment and possessing biochemical and mechanical properties similar to soft tissue. A variety of naturally derived and synthetic biomaterial scaffolds have been investigated as 3D environments for supporting stem cell growth. While synthetic scaffolds can be synthesized to have a greater range of mechanical and chemical properties and often have greater reproducibility, natural biomaterials are often composed of proteins and polysaccharides found in the extracelluar matrix and as a result contain binding sites for cell adhesion and readily support cell culture. Fibrin scaffolds, produced by polymerizing the protein fibrinogen obtained from plasma, have been widely investigated for a variety of tissue engineering applications both in vitro and in vivo. Such scaffolds can be modified using a variety of methods to incorporate controlled release systems for delivering therapeutic factors. Previous work has shown that such scaffolds can be used to successfully culture embryonic stem cells and this scaffold-based culture system can be used to screen the effects of various growth factors on the differentiation of the stem cells seeded inside. This protocol details the process of polymerizing fibrin scaffolds from fibrinogen solutions using the enzymatic activity of thrombin. The process takes 2 days to complete, including an overnight dialysis step for the

  9. Preparation of 3D Fibrin Scaffolds for Stem Cell Culture Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kolehmainen, Kathleen; Willerth, Stephanie M.

    2012-01-01

    Stem cells are found in naturally occurring 3D microenvironments in vivo, which are often referred to as the stem cell niche 1. Culturing stem cells inside of 3D biomaterial scaffolds provides a way to accurately mimic these microenvironments, providing an advantage over traditional 2D culture methods using polystyrene as well as a method for engineering replacement tissues 2. While 2D tissue culture polystrene has been used for the majority of cell culture experiments, 3D biomaterial scaffolds can more closely replicate the microenvironments found in vivo by enabling more accurate establishment of cell polarity in the environment and possessing biochemical and mechanical properties similar to soft tissue.3 A variety of naturally derived and synthetic biomaterial scaffolds have been investigated as 3D environments for supporting stem cell growth. While synthetic scaffolds can be synthesized to have a greater range of mechanical and chemical properties and often have greater reproducibility, natural biomaterials are often composed of proteins and polysaccharides found in the extracelluar matrix and as a result contain binding sites for cell adhesion and readily support cell culture. Fibrin scaffolds, produced by polymerizing the protein fibrinogen obtained from plasma, have been widely investigated for a variety of tissue engineering applications both in vitro and in vivo4. Such scaffolds can be modified using a variety of methods to incorporate controlled release systems for delivering therapeutic factors 5. Previous work has shown that such scaffolds can be used to successfully culture embryonic stem cells and this scaffold-based culture system can be used to screen the effects of various growth factors on the differentiation of the stem cells seeded inside 6,7. This protocol details the process of polymerizing fibrin scaffolds from fibrinogen solutions using the enzymatic activity of thrombin. The process takes 2 days to complete, including an overnight dialysis

  10. Engineering EMT using 3D micro-scaffold to promote hepatic functions for drug hepatotoxicity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyu; Chen, Fengling; Liu, Longwei; Qi, Chunxiao; Wang, Bingjie; Yan, Xiaojun; Huang, Chenyu; Hou, Wei; Zhang, Michael Q; Chen, Yang; Du, Yanan

    2016-06-01

    Accompanied by decreased hepatic functions, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was observed in two dimensional (2D) cultured hepatocytes with elongated morphology, loss of polarity and weakened cell-cell interaction, while upgrading to 3D culture has been considered as significant improvement of its 2D counterpart for hepatocyte maintenance. Here we hypothesize that 3D culture enhances hepatic functions through regulating the EMT status. Biomaterial-engineered EMT was achieved by culturing HepaRG as 3D spheroids (SP-3D) or 3D stretched cells (ST-3D) in non-adherent and adherent micro-scaffold respectively. In SP-3D, constrained EMT of HepaRG, a hepatic stem cell line, as represented by increased epithelial markers and decreased mesenchymal markers, was echoed by improved hepatic functions. To investigate the relationship between EMT status and hepatic functions, time-series RNA-Seq and gene network analysis were used for comparing different cell culture models, which identified histone deacetylases (HDACs) as key mediating factors. Protein analysis confirmed that high HDAC activity was correlated with high expression of Cadherin-1 (CDH1) and hepatic function genes, which were decreased upon HDAC inhibitor treatment in SP-3D, suggesting HDACs may play positive role in regulating EMT and hepatic functions. To illustrate the application of 3D micro-scaffold culture in drug safety evaluation, hepatotoxicity and metabolism assays of two hepatotoxins (i.e. N-acetyl-p-aminophenol and Doxorubicin) were performed and SP-3D showed more biomimetic toxicity response, indicating regulation of EMT as a vital consideration in designing 3D hepatocyte culture configuration. PMID:26994875

  11. Neuronal-glial populations form functional networks in a biocompatible 3D scaffold.

    PubMed

    Smith, Imogen; Haag, Marcus; Ugbode, Christopher; Tams, Daniel; Rattray, Marcus; Przyborski, Stefan; Bithell, Angela; Whalley, Benjamin J

    2015-11-16

    Monolayers of neurons and glia have been employed for decades as tools for the study of cellular physiology and as the basis for a variety of standard toxicological assays. A variety of three dimensional (3D) culture techniques have been developed with the aim to produce cultures that recapitulate desirable features of intact. In this study, we investigated the effect of preparing primary mouse mixed neuron and glial cultures in the inert 3D scaffold, Alvetex. Using planar multielectrode arrays, we compared the spontaneous bioelectrical activity exhibited by neuroglial networks grown in the scaffold with that seen in the same cells prepared as conventional monolayer cultures. Two dimensional (monolayer; 2D) cultures exhibited a significantly higher spike firing rate than that seen in 3D cultures although no difference was seen in total signal power (<50Hz) while pharmacological responsiveness of each culture type to antagonism of GABAAR, NMDAR and AMPAR was highly comparable. Interestingly, correlation of burst events, spike firing and total signal power (<50Hz) revealed that local field potential events were associated with action potential driven bursts as was the case for 2D cultures. Moreover, glial morphology was more physiologically normal in 3D cultures. These results show that 3D culture in inert scaffolds represents a more physiologically normal preparation which has advantages for physiological, pharmacological, toxicological and drug development studies, particularly given the extensive use of such preparations in high throughput and high content systems. PMID:26493605

  12. 3D-Printed Scaffolds and Biomaterials: Review of Alveolar Bone Augmentation and Periodontal Regeneration Applications

    PubMed Central

    Asa'ad, Farah; Giannì, Aldo Bruno; Giannobile, William V.; Rasperini, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    To ensure a successful dental implant therapy, the presence of adequate vertical and horizontal alveolar bone is fundamental. However, an insufficient amount of alveolar ridge in both dimensions is often encountered in dental practice due to the consequences of oral diseases and tooth loss. Although postextraction socket preservation has been adopted to lessen the need for such invasive approaches, it utilizes bone grafting materials, which have limitations that could negatively affect the quality of bone formation. To overcome the drawbacks of routinely employed grafting materials, bone graft substitutes such as 3D scaffolds have been recently investigated in the dental field. In this review, we highlight different biomaterials suitable for 3D scaffold fabrication, with a focus on “3D-printed” ones as bone graft substitutes that might be convenient for various applications related to implant therapy. We also briefly discuss their possible adoption for periodontal regeneration. PMID:27366149

  13. 3D Scaffolds with Different Stiffness but the Same Microstructure for Bone Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guobao; Dong, Chanjuan; Yang, Li; Lv, Yonggang

    2015-07-29

    A growing body of evidence has shown that extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness can modulate stem cell adhesion, proliferation, migration, differentiation, and signaling. Stem cells can feel and respond sensitively to the mechanical microenvironment of the ECM. However, most studies have focused on classical two-dimensional (2D) or quasi-three-dimensional environments, which cannot represent the real situation in vivo. Furthermore, most of the current methods used to generate different mechanical properties invariably change the fundamental structural properties of the scaffolds (such as morphology, porosity, pore size, and pore interconnectivity). In this study, we have developed novel three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds with different degrees of stiffness but the same 3D microstructure that was maintained by using decellularized cancellous bone. Mixtures of collagen and hydroxyapatite [HA: Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] with different proportions were coated on decellularized cancellous bone to vary the stiffness (local stiffness, 13.00 ± 5.55 kPa, 13.87 ± 1.51 kPa, and 37.7 ± 19.6 kPa; bulk stiffness, 6.74 ± 1.16 kPa, 8.82 ± 2.12 kPa, and 23.61 ± 8.06 kPa). Microcomputed tomography (μ-CT) assay proved that there was no statistically significant difference in the architecture of the scaffolds before or after coating. Cell viability, osteogenic differentiation, cell recruitment, and angiogenesis were determined to characterize the scaffolds and evaluate their biological responses in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro results indicate that the scaffolds developed in this study could sustain adhesion and growth of rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and promote their osteogenic differentiation. The in vivo results further demonstrated that these scaffolds could help to recruit MSCs from subcutaneous tissue, induce them to differentiate into osteoblasts, and provide the 3D environment for angiogenesis. These findings showed that the method we developed can build scaffolds with

  14. Porous Biodegradable Metals for Hard Tissue Scaffolds: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Yusop, A. H.; Bakir, A. A.; Shaharom, N. A.; Abdul Kadir, M. R.; Hermawan, H.

    2012-01-01

    Scaffolds have been utilized in tissue regeneration to facilitate the formation and maturation of new tissues or organs where a balance between temporary mechanical support and mass transport (degradation and cell growth) is ideally achieved. Polymers have been widely chosen as tissue scaffolding material having a good combination of biodegradability, biocompatibility, and porous structure. Metals that can degrade in physiological environment, namely, biodegradable metals, are proposed as potential materials for hard tissue scaffolding where biodegradable polymers are often considered as having poor mechanical properties. Biodegradable metal scaffolds have showed interesting mechanical property that was close to that of human bone with tailored degradation behaviour. The current promising fabrication technique for making scaffolds, such as computation-aided solid free-form method, can be easily applied to metals. With further optimization in topologically ordered porosity design exploiting material property and fabrication technique, porous biodegradable metals could be the potential materials for making hard tissue scaffolds. PMID:22919393

  15. Microporous polymeric 3D scaffolds templated by the layer-by-layer self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Paulraj, Thomas; Feoktistova, Natalia; Velk, Natalia; Uhlig, Katja; Duschl, Claus; Volodkin, Dmitry

    2014-08-01

    Polymeric scaffolds serve as valuable supports for biological cells since they offer essential features for guiding cellular organization and tissue development. The main challenges for scaffold fabrication are i) to tune an internal structure and ii) to load bio-molecules such as growth factors and control their local concentration and distribution. Here, a new approach for the design of hollow polymeric scaffolds using porous CaCO3 particles (cores) as templates is presented. The cores packed into a microfluidic channel are coated with polymers employing the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique. Subsequent core elimination at mild conditions results in formation of the scaffold composed of interconnected hollow polymer microspheres. The size of the cores determines the feature dimensions and, as a consequence, governs cellular adhesion: for 3T3 fibroblasts an optimal microsphere size is 12 μm. By making use of the carrier properties of the porous CaCO3 cores, the microspheres are loaded with BSA as a model protein. The scaffolds developed here may also be well suited for the localized release of bio-molecules using external triggers such as IR-light. PMID:25042776

  16. Nanoindentation on porous bioceramic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, S; Thomas, Vinoy; Dean, Derrick; Catledge, Shane A; Vohra, Yogesh K

    2005-11-01

    We report nanoindentation mechanical properties measurements on porous ceramic scaffolds made for tissue engineering applications. The scaffolds have been made from tricalcium phosphate (TCP), hydroxyapatite (HA) nanopowder and mixed powders of HA (50 wt%) and TCP (50 wt%) using the polyurethane sponge method, which produces open porous ceramic scaffolds through replication of a porous polymer template. The scaffolds prepared by this method have a controllable pore size and interconnected pore structure. The crystal structures and morphology of porous scaffolds were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) respectively. Nanoindentation measurements to a depth of 600 nm showed a Young's modulus value of 10.3 GPa for HA+TCP composite scaffolds and 1.5 GPa for TCP scaffolds. The hardness values were 240 MPa for HA+TCP composites and 21 MPa for TCP sample respectively. The results showed that the mechanical properties of the biodegradable scaffolds can be considerably enhanced with the addition of HA while maintaining the interconnected open pores and pore geometry desirable for bone tissue engineering. PMID:16433415

  17. 3D Printing of Composite Calcium Phosphate and Collagen Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Inzana, Jason A.; Olvera, Diana; Fuller, Seth M.; Kelly, James P.; Graeve, Olivia A.; Schwarz, Edward M.; Kates, Stephen L.; Awad, Hani A.

    2014-01-01

    Low temperature 3D printing of calcium phosphate scaffolds holds great promise for fabricating synthetic bone graft substitutes with enhanced performance over traditional techniques. Many design parameters, such as the binder solution properties, have yet to be optimized to ensure maximal biocompatibility and osteoconductivity with sufficient mechanical properties. This study tailored the phosphoric acid-based binder solution concentration to 8.75 wt% to maximize cytocompatibility and mechanical strength, with a supplementation of Tween 80 to improve printing. To further enhance the formulation, collagen was dissolved into the binder solution to fabricate collagen-calcium phosphate composites. Reducing the viscosity and surface tension through a physiologic heat treatment and Tween 80, respectively, enabled reliable thermal inkjet printing of the collagen solutions. Supplementing the binder solution with 1–2 wt% collagen significantly improved maximum flexural strength and cell viability. To assess the bone healing performance, we implanted 3D printed scaffolds into a critically sized murine femoral defect for 9 weeks. The implants were confirmed to be osteoconductive, with new bone growth incorporating the degrading scaffold materials. In conclusion, this study demonstrates optimization of material parameters for 3D printed calcium phosphate scaffolds and enhancement of material properties by volumetric collagen incorporation via inkjet printing. PMID:24529628

  18. Cartilage Tissue Engineering: Preventing Tissue Scaffold Contraction Using a 3D-Printed Polymeric Cage.

    PubMed

    Visscher, Dafydd O; Bos, Ernst J; Peeters, Mirte; Kuzmin, Nikolay V; Groot, Marie Louise; Helder, Marco N; van Zuijlen, Paul P M

    2016-06-01

    Scaffold contraction is a common but underestimated problem in the field of tissue engineering. It becomes particularly problematic when creating anatomically complex shapes such as the ear. The aim of this study was to develop a contraction-free biocompatible scaffold construct for ear cartilage tissue engineering. To address this aim, we used three constructs: (i) a fibrin/hyaluronic acid (FB/HA) hydrogel, (ii) a FB/HA hydrogel combined with a collagen I/III scaffold, and (iii) a cage construct containing (ii) surrounded by a 3D-printed poly-ɛ-caprolactone mold. A wide range of different cell types were tested within these constructs, including chondrocytes, perichondrocytes, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells, and their combinations. After in vitro culturing for 1, 14, and 28 days, all constructs were analyzed. Macroscopic observation showed severe contraction of the cell-seeded hydrogel (i). This could be prevented, in part, by combining the hydrogel with the collagen scaffold (ii) and prevented in total using the 3D-printed cage construct (iii). (Immuno)histological analysis, multiphoton laser scanning microscopy, and biomechanical analysis showed extracellular matrix deposition and increased Young's modulus and thereby the feasibility of ear cartilage engineering. These results demonstrated that the 3D-printed cage construct is an adequate model for contraction-free ear cartilage engineering using a range of cell combinations. PMID:27089896

  19. Processing of polycaprolactone and polycaprolactone-based copolymers into 3D scaffolds, and their cellular responses.

    PubMed

    Hoque, Md Enamul; San, Wong Yoke; Wei, Feng; Li, Suming; Huang, Ming-Hsi; Vert, Michel; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2009-10-01

    Synthetic polymers have attracted much attention in tissue engineering due to their ability to modulate biomechanical properties. This study investigated the feasibility of processing poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) homopolymer, PCL-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) diblock, and PCL-PEG-PCL triblock copolymers into three-dimensional porous scaffolds. Properties of the various polymers were investigated by dynamic thermal analysis. The scaffolds were manufactured using the desktop robot-based rapid prototyping technique. Gross morphology and internal three-dimensional structure of scaffolds were identified by scanning electron microscopy and micro-computed tomography, which showed excellent fusion at the filament junctions, high uniformity, and complete interconnectivity of pore networks. The influences of process parameters on scaffolds' morphological and mechanical characteristics were studied. Data confirmed that the process parameters directly influenced the pore size, porosity, and, consequently, the mechanical properties of the scaffolds. The in vitro cell culture study was performed to investigate the influence of polymer nature and scaffold architecture on the adhesion of the cells onto the scaffolds using rabbit smooth muscle cells. Light, scanning electron, and confocal laser microscopy showed cell adhesion, proliferation, and extracellular matrix formation on the surface as well as inside the structure of both scaffold groups. The completely interconnected and highly regular honeycomb-like pore morphology supported bridging of the pores via cell-to-cell contact as well as production of extracellular matrix at later time points. The results indicated that the incorporation of hydrophilic PEG into hydrophobic PCL enhanced the overall hydrophilicity and cell culture performance of PCL-PEG copolymer. However, the scaffold architecture did not significantly influence the cell culture performance in this study. PMID:19331580

  20. A 3D Fibrous Scaffold Inducing Tumoroids: A Platform for Anticancer Drug Development

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Yvonne K.; Wang, Chunyan; Ravi, Sowndharya; Howell, Mark C.; Mallela, Jaya; Alibrahim, Mahmoud; Green, Ryan; Hellermann, Gary; Mohapatra, Shyam S.; Mohapatra, Subhra

    2013-01-01

    The development of a suitable three dimensional (3D) culture system for anticancer drug development remains an unmet need. Despite progress, a simple, rapid, scalable and inexpensive 3D-tumor model that recapitulates in vivo tumorigenesis is lacking. Herein, we report on the development and characterization of a 3D nanofibrous scaffold produced by electrospinning a mixture of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and a block copolymer of polylactic acid (PLA) and mono-methoxypolyethylene glycol (mPEG) designated as 3P. Cancer cells cultured on the 3P scaffold formed tight irregular aggregates similar to in vivo tumors, referred to as tumoroids that depended on the topography and net charge of the scaffold. 3P scaffolds induced tumor cells to undergo the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as demonstrated by up-regulation of vimentin and loss of E-cadherin expression. 3P tumoroids showed higher resistance to anticancer drugs than the same tumor cells grown as monolayers. Inhibition of ERK and PI3K signal pathways prevented EMT and reduced tumoroid formation, diameter and number. Fine needle aspirates, collected from tumor cells implanted in mice when cultured on 3P scaffolds formed tumoroids, but showed decreased sensitivity to anticancer drugs, compared to tumoroids formed by direct seeding. These results show that 3P scaffolds provide an excellent platform for producing tumoroids from tumor cell lines and from biopsies and that the platform can be used to culture patient biopsies, test for anticancer compounds and tailor a personalized cancer treatment. PMID:24146752

  1. SrO- and MgO-doped microwave sintered 3D printed tricalcium phosphate scaffolds: mechanical properties and in vivo osteogenesis in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Tarafder, Solaiman; Dernell, William S; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Bose, Susmita

    2015-04-01

    The presence of interconnected macro pores allows guided tissue regeneration in tissue engineering scaffolds. However, highly porous scaffolds suffer from having poor mechanical strength. Previously, we showed that microwave sintering could successfully be used to improve mechanical strength of macro porous tricalcium phosphate (TCP) scaffolds. This study reports the presence of SrO and MgO as dopants in TCP scaffolds improves mechanical and in vivo biological performance. We have used direct three dimensional printing (3DP) technology for scaffold fabrication. These 3DP scaffolds possessed multiscale porosity, that is, 3D interconnected designed macro pores along with intrinsic micro pores. A significant increase in mechanical strength, between 37 and 41%, was achieved due to SrO and MgO doping in TCP as compared with pure TCP. Maximum compressive strengths of 9.38 ± 1.86 MPa and 12.01 ± 1.56 MPa were achieved by conventional and microwave sintering, respectively, for SrO-MgO-doped 3DP scaffolds with 500 μm designed pores. Histomorphological and histomorphometric analysis revealed a significantly higher osteoid, bone and haversian canal formation induced by the presence of SrO and MgO dopants in 3DP TCP as compared with pure TCP scaffolds when tested in rabbit femoral condyle defect model. Increased osteon and thus enhanced network of blood vessel formation, and osteocalcin expression were observed in the doped TCP scaffolds. Our results show that these 3DP SrO-MgO-doped TCP scaffolds have the potential for early wound healing through accelerated osteogenesis and vasculogenesis. PMID:25045131

  2. 3-D Intestinal Scaffolds for Evaluating the Therapeutic Potential of Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Biomimetic in vitro intestinal models are becoming useful tools for studying host–microbial interactions. In the past, these models have typically been limited to simple cultures on 2-D scaffolds or Transwell inserts, but it is widely understood that epithelial cells cultured in 3-D environments exhibit different phenotypes that are more reflective of native tissue, and that different microbial species will preferentially adhere to select locations along the intestinal villi. We used a synthetic 3-D tissue scaffold with villous features that could support the coculture of epithelial cell types with select bacterial populations. Our end goal was to establish microbial niches along the crypt–villus axis in order to mimic the natural microenvironment of the small intestine, which could potentially provide new insights into microbe-induced intestinal disorders, as well as enabling targeted probiotic therapies. We recreated the surface topography of the small intestine by fabricating a biodegradable and biocompatible villous scaffold using poly lactic-glycolic acid to enable the culture of Caco-2 with differentiation along the crypt–villus axis in a similar manner to native intestines. This was then used as a platform to mimic the adhesion and invasion profiles of both Salmonella and Pseudomonas, and assess the therapeutic potential of Lactobacillus and commensal Escherichia coli in a 3-D setting. We found that, in a 3-D environment, Lactobacillus is more successful at displacing pathogens, whereas Nissle is more effective at inhibiting pathogen adhesion. PMID:24798584

  3. 3-D intestinal scaffolds for evaluating the therapeutic potential of probiotics.

    PubMed

    Costello, Cait M; Sorna, Rachel M; Goh, Yih-Lin; Cengic, Ivana; Jain, Nina K; March, John C

    2014-07-01

    Biomimetic in vitro intestinal models are becoming useful tools for studying host-microbial interactions. In the past, these models have typically been limited to simple cultures on 2-D scaffolds or Transwell inserts, but it is widely understood that epithelial cells cultured in 3-D environments exhibit different phenotypes that are more reflective of native tissue, and that different microbial species will preferentially adhere to select locations along the intestinal villi. We used a synthetic 3-D tissue scaffold with villous features that could support the coculture of epithelial cell types with select bacterial populations. Our end goal was to establish microbial niches along the crypt-villus axis in order to mimic the natural microenvironment of the small intestine, which could potentially provide new insights into microbe-induced intestinal disorders, as well as enabling targeted probiotic therapies. We recreated the surface topography of the small intestine by fabricating a biodegradable and biocompatible villous scaffold using poly lactic-glycolic acid to enable the culture of Caco-2 with differentiation along the crypt-villus axis in a similar manner to native intestines. This was then used as a platform to mimic the adhesion and invasion profiles of both Salmonella and Pseudomonas, and assess the therapeutic potential of Lactobacillus and commensal Escherichia coli in a 3-D setting. We found that, in a 3-D environment, Lactobacillus is more successful at displacing pathogens, whereas Nissle is more effective at inhibiting pathogen adhesion. PMID:24798584

  4. The Potential of Encapsulating “Raw Materials” in 3D Osteochondral Gradient Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Neethu; Gupta, Vineet; Sridharan, BanuPriya; Sutherland, Amanda; Detamore, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Scaffolds with continuous gradients in material composition and bioactive signals enable a smooth transition of properties at the interface. Components like chondroitin sulfate (CS) and bioactive glass (BG) in 3D scaffolds may serve as “raw materials” for synthesis of new extracellular matrix (ECM), and may have the potential to completely or partially replace expensive growth factors. We hypothesized that scaffolds with gradients of ECM components would enable superior performance of engineered constructs. Raw material encapsulation altered the appearance, structure, porosity, and degradation of the scaffolds. They allowed the scaffolds to better retain their 3D structure during culture and provided a buffering effect to the cells in culture. Following seeding of rat mesenchymal stem cells, there were several instances where glycosaminoglycan (GAG), collagen, or calcium contents were higher with the scaffolds containing raw materials (CS or BG) than with those containing transforming growth factor (TGF)-β3 or bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2. It was also noteworthy that a combination of both CS and TGF-β3 increased the secretion of collagen type II. Moreover, cells seeded in scaffolds containing opposing gradients of CS/TGF-β3 and BG/BMP-2 produced clear regional variations in the secretion of tissue-specific ECM. The study demonstrated raw materials have the potential to create a favorable microenvironment for cells; they can significantly enhance the synthesis of certain extracellular matrix (ECM) components when compared to expensive growth factors; either alone or in combination with growth factors they can enhance the secretion of tissue specific matrix proteins. Raw materials are promising candidates that can be used to either replace or be used in combination with growth factors. Success with raw materials in lieu of growth factors could have profound implications in terms of lower cost and faster regulatory approval for more rapid translation of

  5. Development of polycaprolactone/chitosan blend porous scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Wan, Ying; Xiao, Bo; Dalai, Siqin; Cao, Xiaoying; Wu, Quan

    2009-03-01

    Polycaprolactone (PCL) and chitosan were blended to fabricate porous scaffolds for tissue-engineering applications by employing a concentrated acetic acid solution as solvent and salt particles as porogen. These scaffolds showed well-controlled and interconnected porous structures. The pore size and porosity of the scaffolds could be effectively modulated by selecting appropriate amounts and sizes of porogen. The results obtained from compressive mechanical measurements indicated that PCL/chitosan could basically retain their strength in their dry state compared to individual components. In a hydrated state, their compressive stress and modulus could be still well maintained even though the weight ratio of chitosan reached around 50 wt%. PMID:18987952

  6. Fabrication of scalable and structured tissue engineering scaffolds using water dissolvable sacrificial 3D printed moulds.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Soumyaranjan; Larsen, Layla Bashir; Trifol, Jon; Szabo, Peter; Burri, Harsha Vardhan Reddy; Canali, Chiara; Dufva, Marin; Emnéus, Jenny; Wolff, Anders

    2015-10-01

    One of the major challenges in producing large scale engineered tissue is the lack of ability to create large highly perfused scaffolds in which cells can grow at a high cell density and viability. Here, we explore 3D printed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a sacrificial mould in a polymer casting process. The PVA mould network defines the channels and is dissolved after curing the polymer casted around it. The printing parameters determined the PVA filament density in the sacrificial structure and this density resulted in different stiffness of the corresponding elastomer replica. It was possible to achieve 80% porosity corresponding to about 150 cm(2)/cm(3) surface to volume ratio. The process is easily scalable as demonstrated by fabricating a 75 cm(3) scaffold with about 16,000 interconnected channels (about 1m(2) surface area) and with a channel to channel distance of only 78 μm. To our knowledge this is the largest scaffold ever to be produced with such small feature sizes and with so many structured channels. The fabricated scaffolds were applied for in-vitro culturing of hepatocytes over a 12-day culture period. Smaller scaffolds (6×4 mm) were tested for cell culturing and could support homogeneous cell growth throughout the scaffold. Presumably, the diffusion of oxygen and nutrient throughout the channel network is rapid enough to support cell growth. In conclusion, the described process is scalable, compatible with cell culture, rapid, and inexpensive. PMID:26117791

  7. 3D polycarprolactone (PCL) scaffold with hierarchical structure fabricated by a piezoelectric transducer (PZT)-assisted bioplotter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Geun Hyung; Son, Joon Gon

    2009-03-01

    The 3D bioplotter, which is one of the rapid-prototyping systems, enables us to produce the design-based scaffolds which could control good mechanical properties and pore structures for mimicking human organs. Although the plotting system has several advantages to fabricate a variety of designed scaffolds, the main disadvantage of scaffolds fabricated by the system is that the strand surfaces are too smooth and tend to discourage initial cell attachment within the scaffolds. To overcome the problem, we suggest a new 3D plotting method supplemented by piezoelectric vibration system for fabricating scaffolds that have hierarchical surface structures, which increase the surface roughness of the scaffold without any additional chemical process. The surface-modified 3D scaffold exhibited various positive qualities including enhanced compressive modulus and improved initial cell attachment and proliferation. Cell culturing results demonstrated that the interactions between chondrocytes and the scaffold were much more favorable than those between the cells and conventionally plotted 3D scaffolds. This process provides a feasible new technique for fabricating high-quality 3D scaffolds for tissue engineering applications.

  8. Engineered porous scaffolds for periprosthetic infection prevention.

    PubMed

    Iviglia, Giorgio; Cassinelli, Clara; Bollati, Daniele; Baino, Francesco; Torre, Elisa; Morra, Marco; Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara

    2016-11-01

    Periprosthetic infection is a consequence of implant insertion procedures and strategies for its prevention involve either an increase in the rate of new bone formation or the release of antibiotics such as vancomycin. In this work we combined both strategies and developed a novel, multifunctional three-dimensional porous scaffold that was produced using hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), coupled with a pectin (PEC)-chitosan (CHIT) polyelectrolyte (PEI), and loaded with vancomycin (VCA). By this approach, a controlled vancomycin release was achieved and serial bacterial dilution test demonstrated that, after 1week, the engineered construct still inhibits the bacterial growth. Degradation tests show an excellent behavior in a physiological and acidic environment (<10% of mass loss). Furthermore, the PEI coating shows an anti-inflammatory response, and good cell proliferation and migration were demonstrated in vitro using osteoblast SAOS-2 cell line. This new engineered construct exhibits excellent properties both as an antibacterial material and as a stimulator of bone formation, which makes it a good candidate to contrast periprosthetic infection. PMID:27524071

  9. Modulating mechanical behaviour of 3D-printed cartilage-mimetic PCL scaffolds: influence of molecular weight and pore geometry.

    PubMed

    Olubamiji, Adeola D; Izadifar, Zohreh; Si, Jennifer L; Cooper, David M L; Eames, B Frank; Chen, Daniel X B

    2016-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D)-printed poly(ε)-caprolactone (PCL)-based scaffolds are increasingly being explored for cartilage tissue engineering (CTE) applications. However, ensuring that the mechanical properties of these PCL-based constructs are comparable to that of articular cartilage that they are meant to regenerate is an area that has been under-explored. This paper presents the effects of PCL's molecular weight (MW) and scaffold's pore geometric configurations; strand size (SZ), strand spacing (SS), and strand orientation (SO), on mechanical properties of 3D-printed PCL scaffolds. The results illustrate that MW has significant effect on compressive moduli and yield strength of 3D-printed PCL scaffolds. Specifically, PCL with MW of 45 K was a more feasible choice for fabrication of visco-elastic, flexible and load-bearing PCL scaffolds. Furthermore, pore geometric configurations; SZ, SS, and SO, all significantly affect on tensile moduli of scaffolds. However, only SZ and SS have statistically significant effects on compressive moduli and porosity of these scaffolds. That said, inverse linear relationship was observed between porosity and mechanical properties of 3D-printed PCL scaffolds in Pearson's correlation test. Altogether, this study illustrates that modulating MW of PCL and pore geometrical configurations of the scaffolds enabled design and fabrication of PCL scaffolds with mechanical and biomimetic properties that better mimic mechanical behaviour of human articular cartilage. Thus, the modulated PCL scaffold proposed in this study is a framework that offers great potentials for CTE applications. PMID:27328736

  10. 3D Chemical Similarity Networks for Structure-Based Target Prediction and Scaffold Hopping.

    PubMed

    Lo, Yu-Chen; Senese, Silvia; Damoiseaux, Robert; Torres, Jorge Z

    2016-08-19

    Target identification remains a major challenge for modern drug discovery programs aimed at understanding the molecular mechanisms of drugs. Computational target prediction approaches like 2D chemical similarity searches have been widely used but are limited to structures sharing high chemical similarity. Here, we present a new computational approach called chemical similarity network analysis pull-down 3D (CSNAP3D) that combines 3D chemical similarity metrics and network algorithms for structure-based drug target profiling, ligand deorphanization, and automated identification of scaffold hopping compounds. In conjunction with 2D chemical similarity fingerprints, CSNAP3D achieved a >95% success rate in correctly predicting the drug targets of 206 known drugs. Significant improvement in target prediction was observed for HIV reverse transcriptase (HIVRT) compounds, which consist of diverse scaffold hopping compounds targeting the nucleotidyltransferase binding site. CSNAP3D was further applied to a set of antimitotic compounds identified in a cell-based chemical screen and identified novel small molecules that share a pharmacophore with Taxol and display a Taxol-like mechanism of action, which were validated experimentally using in vitro microtubule polymerization assays and cell-based assays. PMID:27285961

  11. Impact of 3-D printed PLA- and chitosan-based scaffolds on human monocyte/macrophage responses: unraveling the effect of 3-D structures on inflammation.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Catarina R; Serra, Tiziano; Oliveira, Marta I; Planell, Josep A; Barbosa, Mário A; Navarro, Melba

    2014-02-01

    Recent studies have pointed towards a decisive role of inflammation in triggering tissue repair and regeneration, while at the same time it is accepted that an exacerbated inflammatory response may lead to rejection of an implant. Within this context, understanding and having the capacity to regulate the inflammatory response elicited by 3-D scaffolds aimed for tissue regeneration is crucial. This work reports on the analysis of the cytokine profile of human monocytes/macrophages in contact with biodegradable 3-D scaffolds with different surface properties, architecture and controlled pore geometry, fabricated by 3-D printing technology. Fabrication processes were optimized to create four different 3-D platforms based on polylactic acid (PLA), PLA/calcium phosphate glass or chitosan. Cytokine secretion and cell morphology of human peripheral blood monocytes allowed to differentiate on the different matrices were analyzed. While all scaffolds supported monocyte/macrophage adhesion and stimulated cytokine production, striking differences between PLA-based and chitosan scaffolds were found, with chitosan eliciting increased secretion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, while PLA-based scaffolds induced higher production of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12/23 and IL-10. Even though the material itself induced the biggest differences, the scaffold geometry also impacted on TNF-α and IL-12/23 production, with chitosan scaffolds having larger pores and wider angles leading to a higher secretion of these pro-inflammatory cytokines. These findings strengthen the appropriateness of these 3-D platforms to study modulation of macrophage responses by specific parameters (chemistry, topography, scaffold architecture). PMID:24211731

  12. 3D finite element analysis of porous Ti-based alloy prostheses.

    PubMed

    Mircheski, Ile; Gradišar, Marko

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, novel designs of porous acetabular cups are created and tested with 3D finite element analysis (FEA). The aim is to develop a porous acetabular cup with low effective radial stiffness of the structure, which will be near to the architectural and mechanical behavior of the natural bone. For the realization of this research, a 3D-scanner technology was used for obtaining a 3D-CAD model of the pelvis bone, a 3D-CAD software for creating a porous acetabular cup, and a 3D-FEA software for virtual testing of a novel design of the porous acetabular cup. The results obtained from this research reveal that a porous acetabular cup from Ti-based alloys with 60 ± 5% porosity has the mechanical behavior and effective radial stiffness (Young's modulus in radial direction) that meet and exceed the required properties of the natural bone. The virtual testing with 3D-FEA of a novel design with porous structure during the very early stage of the design and the development of orthopedic implants, enables obtaining a new or improved biomedical implant for a relatively short time and reduced price. PMID:27015664

  13. Chitosan-g-lactide copolymers for fabrication of 3D scaffolds for tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demina, T. S.; Zaytseva-Zotova, D. S.; Timashev, P. S.; Bagratashvili, V. N.; Bardakova, K. N.; Sevrin, Ch; Svidchenko, E. A.; Surin, N. M.; Markvicheva, E. A.; Grandfils, Ch; Akopova, T. A.

    2015-07-01

    Chitosan-g-oligo (L, D-lactide) copolymers were synthesized and assessed to fabricate a number of 3D scaffolds using a variety of technologies such as oil/water emulsion evaporation technique, freeze-drying and two-photon photopolymerization. Solid-state copolymerization method allowed us to graft up to 160 wt-% of oligolactide onto chitosan backbone via chitosan amino group acetylation with substitution degree reaching up to 0.41. Grafting of hydrophobic oligolactide side chains with polymerization degree up to 10 results in chitosan amphiphilic properties. The synthesized chitosan-g-lactide copolymers were used to design 3D scaffolds for tissue engineering such as spherical microparticles and macroporous hydrogels.

  14. Prolonged presence of VEGF promotes vascularization in 3D bioprinted scaffolds with defined architecture.

    PubMed

    Poldervaart, Michelle T; Gremmels, Hendrik; van Deventer, Kelly; Fledderus, Joost O; Oner, F Cumhur; Verhaar, Marianne C; Dhert, Wouter J A; Alblas, Jacqueline

    2014-06-28

    Timely vascularization is essential for optimal performance of bone regenerative constructs. Vascularization is efficiently stimulated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a substance with a short half-life time. This study investigates the controlled release of VEGF from gelatin microparticles (GMPs) as a means to prolong VEGF activity at the preferred location within 3D bioprinted scaffolds, and the effects on subsequent vascularization. The release of VEGF from GMPs was continuous for 3 weeks during in vitro studies, and bioactivity was confirmed using human endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in migration assays. Traditional and real-time migration assays showed immediate and efficient EPC migration in the presence of GMP-released VEGF, indistinguishable from VEGF-solution that was added to the medium. Matrigel scaffolds containing EPCs and VEGF, which was released either in a fast or sustained fashion by application of GMPs, were investigated for their in vivo vasculogenic capacity. Implantation in subcutaneous pockets in nude mice for one week demonstrated that vessel formation was significantly higher in the VEGF sustained-release group compared to the fast release group. In addition, regional differences with respect to VEGF release were introduced in 3D bioprinted EPC-laden scaffolds and their influence on vasculogenesis was investigated in vivo. The different regions were retained and vessel formation occurred analogous with the results seen in the Matrigel plugs. We conclude that GMPs are suitable to generate sustained release profiles of bioactive VEGF, and that they can be used to create defined differentiation regions in 3D bioprinted heterogeneous constructs, allowing a new generation of smart scaffold design. The prolonged presence of VEGF led to a significant increase in scaffold vascularization when applied in vivo. PMID:24727077

  15. Elastic properties of model 3-D porous ceramics and foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Anthony; Garboczi, Edward

    2000-03-01

    The novel properties of many new porous materials are related to their interesting internal microstructure. Apart from simple cases, there exist no theoretical means of predicting the bulk properties of these materials. This limits our ability to guide microstructure optimization for a particular purpose. We use a large scale finite element method to demonstrate the complex relationship between microstructure and the effective properties of realistic three-dimensional model porous ceramics and foams. We find that pore-shape and interconnectivity strongly influence the properties of sintered ceramics. For porous foams we have studied the role of coordination number, random disorder, and strut shape on the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. We find that that Voronoi tesselations, commonly used to model solid foams, show unphysical behavior, in particular they are incompressible (rubber-like) at low densities. Deletion of just 10% of the bonds in the model reduces the bulk modulus by 75%, more in line with experimental evidence. The FEM results are generally in good agreement with experimental data for ceramics and foams, and can be used as both a predictive and interpretative tool by experimentalists.

  16. hiPS-MSCs differentiation towards fibroblasts on a 3D ECM mimicking scaffold.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ruodan; Taskin, Mehmet Berat; Rubert, Marina; Seliktar, Dror; Besenbacher, Flemming; Chen, Menglin

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblasts are ubiquitous cells that constitute the stroma of virtually all tissues and play vital roles in homeostasis. The poor innate healing capacity of fibroblastic tissues is attributed to the scarcity of fibroblasts as collagen-producing cells. In this study, we have developed a functional ECM mimicking scaffold that is capable to supply spatial allocation of stem cells as well as anchorage and storage of growth factors (GFs) to direct stem cells differentiate towards fibroblasts. Electrospun PCL fibers were embedded in a PEG-fibrinogen (PF) hydrogel, which was infiltrated with connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) to form the 3D nanocomposite PFP-C. The human induced pluripotent stem cells derived mesenchymal stem cells (hiPS-MSCs) with an advance in growth over adult MSCs were applied to validate the fibrogenic capacity of the 3D nanocomposite scaffold. The PFP-C scaffold was found not only biocompatible with the hiPS-MSCs, but also presented intriguingly strong fibroblastic commitments, to an extent comparable to the positive control, tissue culture plastic surfaces (TCP) timely refreshed with 100% CTGF. The novel scaffold presented not only biomimetic ECM nanostructures for homing stem cells, but also sufficient cell-approachable bio-signaling cues, which may synergistically facilitate the control of stem cell fates for regenerative therapies. PMID:25684543

  17. hiPS-MSCs differentiation towards fibroblasts on a 3D ECM mimicking scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ruodan; Taskin, Mehmet Berat; Rubert, Marina; Seliktar, Dror; Besenbacher, Flemming; Chen, Menglin

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblasts are ubiquitous cells that constitute the stroma of virtually all tissues and play vital roles in homeostasis. The poor innate healing capacity of fibroblastic tissues is attributed to the scarcity of fibroblasts as collagen-producing cells. In this study, we have developed a functional ECM mimicking scaffold that is capable to supply spatial allocation of stem cells as well as anchorage and storage of growth factors (GFs) to direct stem cells differentiate towards fibroblasts. Electrospun PCL fibers were embedded in a PEG-fibrinogen (PF) hydrogel, which was infiltrated with connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) to form the 3D nanocomposite PFP-C. The human induced pluripotent stem cells derived mesenchymal stem cells (hiPS-MSCs) with an advance in growth over adult MSCs were applied to validate the fibrogenic capacity of the 3D nanocomposite scaffold. The PFP-C scaffold was found not only biocompatible with the hiPS-MSCs, but also presented intriguingly strong fibroblastic commitments, to an extent comparable to the positive control, tissue culture plastic surfaces (TCP) timely refreshed with 100% CTGF. The novel scaffold presented not only biomimetic ECM nanostructures for homing stem cells, but also sufficient cell-approachable bio-signaling cues, which may synergistically facilitate the control of stem cell fates for regenerative therapies. PMID:25684543

  18. Chemical Dealloying Derived 3D Porous Current Collector for Li Metal Anodes.

    PubMed

    Yun, Qinbai; He, Yan-Bing; Lv, Wei; Zhao, Yan; Li, Baohua; Kang, Feiyu; Yang, Quan-Hong

    2016-08-01

    A 3D porous Cu current collector is fabricated through chemical dealloying from a commerial Cu-Zn alloy tape. The interlinked porous framework naturally integrated can accommodate Li deposition, suppressing dendrite growth and alleviating the huge volume change during cycling. The Li metal anode combined with such a porous Cu collector demonstrates excellent performance and commerial potentials in Li-based secondary batteries. PMID:27219349

  19. 3D Hierarchical Porous Mo2 C for Efficient Hydrogen Evolution.

    PubMed

    Ang, Huixiang; Wang, Huanwen; Li, Bing; Zong, Yun; Wang, Xuefeng; Yan, Qingyu

    2016-06-01

    Porous electrocatalyst for hydrogen production. 3D hierarchical porous molybdenum carbide provides a low operating potential (97 mV at 10 mA cm(-2) ). These beneficial textures of large specific surface area (302 m(2) g(-1) ) and hierarchical porous architecture containing dominant pore size distribution peak at 11 Å in width can provide large surface active sites and facilitate proton mass transport. PMID:27076208

  20. Tailored Surface Treatment of 3D Printed Porous Ti6Al4V by Microarc Oxidation for Enhanced Osseointegration via Optimized Bone In-Growth Patterns and Interlocked Bone/Implant Interface.

    PubMed

    Xiu, Peng; Jia, Zhaojun; Lv, Jia; Yin, Chuan; Cheng, Yan; Zhang, Ke; Song, Chunli; Leng, Huijie; Zheng, Yufeng; Cai, Hong; Liu, Zhongjun

    2016-07-20

    3D printed porous titanium (Ti) holds enormous potential for load-bearing orthopedic applications. Although the 3D printing technique has good control over the macro-sturctures of porous Ti, the surface properties that affect tissue response are beyond its control, adding the need for tailored surface treatment to improve its osseointegration capacity. Here, the one step microarc oxidation (MAO) process was applied to a 3D printed porous Ti6Al4V (Ti64) scaffold to endow the scaffold with a homogeneous layer of microporous TiO2 and significant amounts of amorphous calcium-phosphate. Following the treatment, the porous Ti64 scaffolds exhibited a drastically improved apatite forming ability, cyto-compatibility, and alkaline phosphatase activity. In vivo test in a rabbit model showed that the bone in-growth at the untreated scaffold was in a pattern of distance osteogenesis by which bone formed only at the periphery of the scaffold. In contrast, the bone in-growth at the MAO-treated scaffold exhibited a pattern of contact osteogenesis by which bone formed in situ on the entire surface of the scaffold. This pattern of bone in-growth significantly increased bone formation both in and around the scaffold possibly through enhancement of bone formation and disruption of bone remodeling. Moreover, the implant surface of the MAO-treated scaffold interlocked with the bone tissues through the fabricated microporous topographies to generate a stronger bone/implant interface. The increased osteoinetegration strength was further proven by a push out test. MAO exhibits a high efficiency in the enhancement of osteointegration of porous Ti64 via optimizing the patterns of bone in-growth and bone/implant interlocking. Therefore, post-treatment of 3D printed porous Ti64 with MAO technology might open up several possibilities for the development of bioactive customized implants in orthopedic applications. PMID:27341499

  1. Injectable 3D hydrogel scaffold with tailorable porosity post-implantation.

    PubMed

    Al-Abboodi, Aswan; Fu, Jing; Doran, Pauline M; Tan, Timothy T Y; Chan, Peggy P Y

    2014-05-01

    Since rates of tissue growth vary significantly between tissue types, and also between individuals due to differences in age, dietary intake, and lifestyle-related factors, engineering a scaffold system that is appropriate for personalized tissue engineering remains a significant challenge. In this study, a gelatin-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid/carboxylmethylcellulose-tyramine (Gtn-HPA/CMC-Tyr) porous hydrogel system that allows the pore structure of scaffolds to be altered in vivo after implantation is developed. Cross-linking of Gtn-HPA/CMC-Tyr hydrogels via horseradish peroxidase oxidative coupling is examined both in vitro and in vivo. Post-implantation, further alteration of the hydrogel structure is achieved by injecting cellulase enzyme to digest the CMC component of the scaffold; this treatment yields a structure with larger pores and higher porosity than hydrogels without cellulase injection. Using this approach, the pore sizes of scaffolds are altered in vivo from 32-87 μm to 74-181 μm in a user-controled manner. The hydrogel is biocompatible to COS-7 cells and has mechanical properties similar to those of soft tissues. The new hydrogel system developed in this work provides clinicians with the ability to tailor the structure of scaffolds post-implantation depending on the growth rate of a tissue or an individual's recovery rate, and could thus be ideal for personalized tissue engineering. PMID:24151286

  2. Novel Biodegradable Porous Scaffold Applied to Skin Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui-Min; Chou, Yi-Ting; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Zhao-Ren; Chen, Chun-Hong; Ho, Mei-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Skin wound healing is an important lifesaving issue for massive lesions. A novel porous scaffold with collagen, hyaluronic acid and gelatin was developed for skin wound repair. The swelling ratio of this developed scaffold was assayed by water absorption capacity and showed a value of over 20 g water/g dried scaffold. The scaffold was then degraded in time- and dose-dependent manners by three enzymes: lysozyme, hyaluronidase and collagenase I. The average pore diameter of the scaffold was 132.5±8.4 µm measured from SEM images. With human skin cells growing for 7 days, the SEM images showed surface fractures on the scaffold due to enzymatic digestion, indicating the biodegradable properties of this scaffold. To simulate skin distribution, the human epidermal keratinocytes, melanocytes and dermal fibroblasts were seeded on the porous scaffold and the cross-section immunofluorescent staining demonstrated normal human skin layer distributions. The collagen amount was also quantified after skin cells seeding and presented an amount 50% higher than those seeded on culture wells. The in vivo histological results showed that the scaffold ameliorated wound healing, including decreasing neutrophil infiltrates and thickening newly generated skin compared to the group without treatments. PMID:23762223

  3. Biomimetic interconnected porous keratin-fibrin-gelatin 3D sponge for tissue engineering application.

    PubMed

    Singaravelu, Sivakumar; Ramanathan, Giriprasath; Raja, M D; Nagiah, Naveen; Padmapriya, P; Kaveri, Krishnasamy; Sivagnanam, Uma Tiruchirapalli

    2016-05-01

    The medicated wound dressing material with highly interconnected pores, mimicking the function of the extracellular matrix was fabricated for the promotion of cell growth. In this study, keratin (K), fibrin (F) and gelatin (G) composite scaffold (KFG-SPG) was fabricated by freeze drying technique and the mupirocin (D) drug was successfully incorporated with KFG-SPG (KFG-SPG-D) intended for tissue engineering applications. The fabrication of scaffold was performed without the use of any strong chemical solvents, and the solid sponge scaffold was obtained with well interconnected pores. The porous morphology of the scaffold was confirmed by SEM analysis and exhibited competent mechanical properties. KFG-SPG and KFG-SPG-D possess high level of biocompatibility, cell proliferation and cell adhesion of NIH 3T3 fibroblast and human keratinocytes (HaCaT) cell lines thereby indicating the scaffolds potential as a suitable medicated dressing for wound healing. PMID:26875534

  4. Biomimetic Concealing of PLGA Microspheres in a 3D Scaffold to Prevent Macrophage Uptake.

    PubMed

    Minardi, Silvia; Corradetti, Bruna; Taraballi, Francesca; Sandri, Monica; Martinez, Jonathan O; Powell, Sebastian T; Tampieri, Anna; Weiner, Bradley K; Tasciotti, Ennio

    2016-03-01

    Scaffolds functionalized with delivery systems for the release of growth factors is a robust strategy to enhance tissue regeneration. However, after implantation, macrophages infiltrate the scaffold, eventually initiating the degradation and clearance of the delivery systems. Herein, it is hypothesized that fully embedding the poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide acid) microspheres (MS) in a highly structured collagen-based scaffold (concealing) can prevent their detection, preserving the integrity of the payload. Confocal laser microscopy reveals that non-embedded MS are easily internalized; when concealed, J774 and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) cannot detect them. This is further demonstrated by flow cytometry, as a tenfold decrease is found in the number of MS engulfed by the cells, suggesting that collagen can cloak the MS. This correlates with the amount of nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-α produced by J774 and BMDM in response to the concealed MS, comparable to that found for non-functionalized collagen scaffolds. Finally, the release kinetics of a reporter protein is preserved in the presence of macrophages, only when MS are concealed. The data provide detailed strategies for fabricating three dimensional (3D) biomimetic scaffolds able to conceal delivery systems and preserve the therapeutic molecules for release. PMID:26797709

  5. Interfacing polymeric scaffolds with primary pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells to develop 3D cancer models

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Claudio; Mota, Carlos; Moscato, Stefania; D’Alessandro, Delfo; Ugel, Stefano; Sartoris, Silvia; Bronte, Vincenzo; Boggi, Ugo; Campani, Daniela; Funel, Niccola; Moroni, Lorenzo; Danti, Serena

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the interactions between human primary cells from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and polymeric scaffolds to develop 3D cancer models useful for mimicking the biology of this tumor. Three scaffold types based on two biocompatible polymeric formulations, such as poly(vinyl alcohol)/gelatin (PVA/G) mixture and poly(ethylene oxide terephthalate)/poly(butylene terephthalate) (PEOT/PBT) copolymer, were obtained via different techniques, namely, emulsion and freeze-drying, compression molding followed by salt leaching, and electrospinning. In this way, primary PDAC cells interfaced with different pore topographies, such as sponge-like pores of different shape and size or nanofiber interspaces. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence played by the scaffold architecture over cancerous cell growth and function. In all scaffolds, primary PDAC cells showed good viability and synthesized tumor-specific metalloproteinases (MMPs) such as MMP-2, and MMP-9. However, only sponge-like pores, obtained via emulsion-based and salt leaching-based techniques allowed for an organized cellular aggregation very similar to the native PDAC morphological structure. Differently, these cell clusters were not observed on PEOT/PBT electrospun scaffolds. MMP-2 and MMP-9, as active enzymes, resulted to be increased in PVA/G and PEOT/PBT sponges, respectively. These findings suggested that spongy scaffolds supported the generation of pancreatic tumor models with enhanced aggressiveness. In conclusion, primary PDAC cells showed diverse behaviors while interacting with different scaffold types that can be potentially exploited to create stage-specific pancreatic cancer models likely to provide new knowledge on the modulation and drug susceptibility of MMPs. PMID:25482337

  6. Hierarchical bioceramic scaffolds with 3D-plotted macropores and mussel-inspired surface nanolayers for stimulating osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mengchi; Zhai, Dong; Xia, Lunguo; Li, Hong; Chen, Shiyi; Fang, Bing; Chang, Jiang; Wu, Chengtie

    2016-07-14

    The hierarchical structure of biomaterials plays an important role in the process of tissue reconstruction and regeneration. 3D-plotted scaffolds have been widely used for bone tissue engineering due to their controlled macropore structure and mechanical properties. However, the lack of micro- or nano-structures on the strut surface of 3D-plotted scaffolds, especially for bioceramic scaffolds, limits their biological activity. Inspired by the adhesive versatility of mussels and the active ion-chelating capacity of polydopamine, we set out to prepare a hierarchical bioceramic scaffold with controlled macropores and mussel-inspired surface nanolayers by combining the 3D-plotting technique with the polydopamine/apatite hybrid strategy in order to synergistically accelerate the osteogenesis and angiogenesis. β-Tricalcium phosphate (TCP) scaffolds were firstly 3D-plotted and then treated in dopamine-Tris/HCl and dopamine-SBF solutions to obtain TCP-DOPA-Tris and TCP-DOPA-SBF scaffolds, respectively. It was found that polydopamine/apatite hybrid nanolayers were formed on the surface of both TCP-DOPA-Tris and TCP-DOPA-SBF scaffolds and TCP-DOPA-SBF scaffolds induced apatite mineralization for the second time during the cell culture. As compared to TCP scaffolds, both TCP-DOPA-Tris and TCP-DOPA-SBF scaffolds significantly promoted the osteogenesis of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) as well as the angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and the TCP-DOPA-SBF group presented the highest in vitro osteogenic/angiogenic activity among the three groups. Furthermore, both TCP-DOPA-Tris and TCP-DOPA-SBF scaffolds significantly improved the formation of new bone in vivo as compared to TCP scaffolds without a nanostructured surface. Our results suggest that the utilization of a mussel-inspired Ca, P-chelated polydopamine nanolayer on 3D-plotted bioceramic scaffolds is a viable and effective strategy to construct a hierarchical structure for synergistically

  7. Functional 3-D cardiac co-culture model using bioactive chitosan nanofiber scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Ali; Collins, George; Yip, Derek; Cho, Cheul H

    2013-02-01

    The in vitro generation of a three-dimensional (3-D) myocardial tissue-like construct employing cells, biomaterials, and biomolecules is a promising strategy in cardiac tissue regeneration, drug testing, and tissue engineering applications. Despite significant progress in this field, current cardiac tissue models are not yet able to stably maintain functional characteristics of cardiomyocytes for long-term culture and therapeutic purposes. The objective of this study was to fabricate bioactive 3-D chitosan nanofiber scaffolds using an electrospinning technique and exploring its potential for long-term cardiac function in the 3-D co-culture model. Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide biomaterial that is biocompatible, biodegradable, non-toxic, and cost effective. Electrospun chitosan was utilized to provide structural scaffolding characterized by scale and architectural resemblance to the extracellular matrix (ECM) in vivo. The chitosan fibers were coated with fibronectin via adsorption in order to enhance cellular adhesion to the fibers and migration into the interfibrous milieu. Ventricular cardiomyocytes were harvested from neonatal rats and studied in various culture conditions (i.e., mono- and co-cultures) for their viability and function. Cellular morphology and functionality were examined using immunofluorescent staining for alpha-sarcomeric actin (SM-actin) and gap junction protein, Connexin-43 (Cx43). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light microscopy were used to investigate cellular morphology, spatial organization, and contractions. Calcium indicator was used to monitor calcium ion flux of beating cardiomyocytes. The results demonstrate that the chitosan nanofibers retained their cylindrical morphology in long-term cell cultures and exhibited good cellular attachment and spreading in the presence of adhesion molecule, fibronectin. Cardiomyocyte mono-cultures resulted in loss of cardiomyocyte polarity and islands of non-coherent contractions. However

  8. Vorticity and upscaled dispersion in 3D heterogeneous porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Dato, Mariaines; Chiogna, Gabriele; de Barros, Felipe; Bellin, Alberto; Fiori, Aldo

    2015-04-01

    Modeling flow in porous media is relevant for many environmental, energy and industrial applications. From an environmental perspective, the relevance of porous media flow becomes evident in subsurface hydrology. In general, flow in natural porous media is creeping, yet the large variability in the hydraulic conductivity values encountered in natural aquifers leads to highly heterogeneous flow fields. This natural variability in the conductivity field will affect both dilution rates of chemical species and reactive mixing. A physical consequence of this heterogeneity is also the presence of a various localized kinematical features such as straining, shearing and vorticity in aquifers, which will influence the shape of solute clouds and its fate and transport. This work aims in fundamentally characterizing the vorticity field in spatially heterogeneous flow fields as a function of their statistical properties in order to analyze the impact on transport processes. In our study, three-dimensional porous formations are constructed with an ensemble of N independent, non-overlapping spheroidal inclusions submerged into an homogeneous matrix, of conductivity K0. The inclusions are randomly located in a domain of volume W and are fully characterized by the geometry of spheroid (oblate or prolate), their conductivity K (random and drawn from a given probability density function fκ), the centroid location ¯x, the axes ratio e, the orientation of the rotational axis (α1,α2) and the volume w. Under the assumption of diluted medium, the flow problem is solved analitically by means of only two parameters: the conductivity contrast κ = K/K0 and the volume fraction n = Nw/W . Through the variation of these parameters of the problem, it is possible to approximate the structure of natural heterogeneous porous media. Using a random distribution of the orientation of the inclusions, we create media defined by the same global anisotropy f = Iz/Ix but different micro

  9. Fabrication of 3D Scaffolds with Nano-Hydroxyapatite for Improving the Preosteoblast Cell-Biological Performance.

    PubMed

    Roh, Hee-Sang; Myung, Sung-Woon; Jung, Sang-Chul; Kim, Byung-Hoon

    2015-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds fabricated by rapid prototyping techniques have many merits for tissue engineering applications, due to its controllable properties such as porosity, pore size and structural shape. Nonetheless, low cell seeding efficiency remains drawback. In this study, poly-caprolactone (PCL) composite 3D extruded scaffolds were modified with nano hydroxyapatite (n-HAp). PCL/n-HAp 3D scaffold surface was treated with oxygen plasma to improve the preosteoblast cell seeding efficiency and proliferation. The results indicate that oxygen plasma is useful technique to improve the cell affinity. PMID:26369121

  10. Digital micromirror device (DMD)-based 3D printing of poly(propylene fumarate) scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Mott, Eric J; Busso, Mallory; Luo, Xinyi; Dolder, Courtney; Wang, Martha O; Fisher, John P; Dean, David

    2016-04-01

    Our recent investigations into the 3D printing of poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF), a linear polyester, using a DMD-based system brought us to a resin that used titanium dioxide (TiO2) as an ultraviolet (UV) filter for controlling cure depth. However, this material hindered the 3D printing process due to undesirable lateral or "dark" curing (i.e., in areas not exposed to light from the DMD chip). Well known from its use in sunscreen, another UV filter, oxybenzone, has previously been used in conjunction with TiO2. In this study we hypothesize that combining these two UV filters will result in a synergistic effect that controls cure depth and avoids dark cure. A resin mixture (i.e., polymer, initiator, UV filters) was identified that worked well. The resin was then further characterized through mechanical testing, cure testing, and cytotoxicity testing to investigate its use as a material for bone tissue engineering scaffolds. Results show that the final resin eliminated dark cure as shown through image analysis. Mechanically the new scaffolds proved to be far weaker than those printed from previous resins, with compressive strengths of 7.8 ± 0.5 MPa vs. 36.5 ± 1.6 MPa, respectively. The new scaffolds showed a 90% reduction in elastic modulus and a 74% increase in max strain. These properties may be useful in tissue engineering applications where resorption is required. Initial cytotoxicity evaluation was negative. As hypothesized, the use of TiO2 and oxybenzone showed synergistic effects in the 3D printing of PPF tissue engineering scaffolds. PMID:26838854

  11. Additive manufactured polymeric 3D scaffolds with tailored surface topography influence mesenchymal stromal cells activity.

    PubMed

    Neves, Sara C; Mota, Carlos; Longoni, Alessia; Barrias, Cristina C; Granja, Pedro L; Moroni, Lorenzo

    2016-06-01

    Additive manufactured three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds with tailored surface topography constitute a clear advantage in tissue regeneration strategies to steer cell behavior. 3D fibrous scaffolds of poly(ethylene oxide terephthalate)/poly(butylene terephthalate) block copolymer presenting different fiber surface features were successfully fabricated by additive manufacturing combined with wet-spinning, in a single step, without any post-processing. The optimization of the processing parameters, mainly driven by different solvent/non-solvent combinations, led to four distinct scaffold types, with average surface roughness values ranging from 0.071 ± 0.012 μm to 1.950 ± 0.553 μm, average pore sizes in the x- and y-axis between 351.1 ± 33.6 μm and 396.1 ± 32.3 μm, in the z-axis between 36.5 ± 5.3 μm and 70.7 ± 8.8 μm, average fiber diameters between 69.4 ± 6.1 μm and 99.0 ± 9.4 μm, and porosity values ranging from 60.2 ± 0.8% to 71.7 ± 2.6%. Human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) cultured on these scaffolds adhered, proliferated, and produced endogenous extracellular matrix. The effect of surface roughness and topography on hMSCs differentiation was more evident for cells seeded at lower density, where the percentage of cells in direct contact with the surface was higher compared to more densely seeded scaffolds. Under osteogenic conditions, lower surface roughness values (0.227 ± 0.035 μm) had a synergistic effect on hMSCs behavior, while chondrogenesis was favored on rougher surfaces (1.950 ± 0.553 μm). PMID:27219645

  12. Electrical and Neurotrophin Enhancement of Neurite Outgrowth within a 3D Collagen Scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Robert D.; Rendell, Sara R.; Counts, Lauren R.; Papke, Jason B.; Willits, Rebecca K.; Harkins, Amy B.

    2016-01-01

    Electrical and chemical stimulation have been studied as potent mechanisms of enhancing nerve regeneration and wound healing. However, it remains unclear how electrical stimuli affect nerve growth, particularly in the presence of neurotrophic factors. The objective of this study was to explore (1) the effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) supplementation to support neurite outgrowth in a 3D scaffold, and (2) the effect of brief, low voltage, electrical stimulation (ES) on neurite outgrowth prior to neurotrophin supplementation. Dissociated E11 chick dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were seeded within a 1.5 mg/mL type-I collagen scaffold. For neurotrophin treatments, scaffolds were incubated for 24 hrs in culture media containing nerve growth factor (NGF, 10 ng/mL) or BDNF (200 ng/mL), or both. For ES groups, scaffolds containing neurons were stimulated for 10 min at 8–10 V/m DC, then incubated for 24 hrs with neurotrophin. Fixed and labeled neurons were imaged to measure neurite growth and directionality. BDNF supplementation was not as effective as NGF at supporting DRG neurite outgrowth. ES prior to NGF supplementation improved DRG neurite outgrowth compared to NGF alone. This combination of brief ES with NGF treatment was the most effective treatment compared to NGF or BDNF alone. Brief ES had no impact on neurite directionality in the 3D scaffolds. These results demonstrate that ES improves neurite outgrowth in the presence of neurotrophins, and could provide a potential therapeutic approach to improve nerve regeneration when coupled with neurotrophin treatment. PMID:24710795

  13. Polycaprolactone-Coated 3D Printed Tricalcium Phosphate Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering: In Vitro Alendronate Release Behavior and Local Delivery Effect on In Vivo Osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of in vitro alendronate (AD) release behavior through polycaprolactone (PCL) coating on in vivo bone formation using PCL-coated 3D printed interconnected porous tricalcium phosphate (TCP) scaffolds. Higher AD and Ca2+ ion release was observed at lower pH (5.0) than that at higher pH (7.4). AD and Ca2+ release, surface morphology, and phase analysis after release indicated a matrix degradation dominated AD release caused by TCP dissolution. PCL coating showed its effectiveness for controlled and sustained AD release. Six different scaffold compositions, namely, (i) TCP (bare TCP), (ii) TCP + AD (AD-coated TCP), (iii) TCP + PCL (PCL-coated TCP), (iv) TCP + PCL + AD, (v) TCP + AD + PCL, and (vi) TCP + AD + PCL + AD were tested in the distal femoral defect of Sprague–Dawley rats for 6 and 10 weeks. An excellent bone formation inside the micro and macro pores of the scaffolds was observed from histomorphology. Histomorphometric analysis revealed maximum new bone formation in TCP + AD + PCL scaffolds after 6 weeks. No adverse effect of PCL on bioactivity of TCP and in vivo bone formation was observed. All scaffolds with AD showed higher bone formation and reduced TRAP (tartrate resistant acid phosphatase) positive cells activity compared to bare TCP and TCP coated with only PCL. Bare TCP scaffolds showed the highest TRAP positive cells activity followed by TCP + PCL scaffolds, whereas TCP + AD scaffolds showed the lowest TRAP activity. A higher TRAP positive cells activity was observed in TCP + AD + PCL compared to TCP + AD scaffolds after 6 weeks. Our results show that in vivo local AD delivery from PCL-coated 3DP TCP scaffolds could further induce increased early bone formation. PMID:24826838

  14. Generation and transplantation of reprogrammed human neurons in the brain using 3D microtopographic scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Aaron L.; Bennett, Neal K.; Francis, Nicola L.; Halikere, Apoorva; Clarke, Stephen; Moore, Jennifer C.; Hart, Ronald P.; Paradiso, Kenneth; Wernig, Marius; Kohn, Joachim; Pang, Zhiping P.; Moghe, Prabhas V.

    2016-01-01

    Cell replacement therapy with human pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons has the potential to ameliorate neurodegenerative dysfunction and central nervous system injuries, but reprogrammed neurons are dissociated and spatially disorganized during transplantation, rendering poor cell survival, functionality and engraftment in vivo. Here, we present the design of three-dimensional (3D) microtopographic scaffolds, using tunable electrospun microfibrous polymeric substrates that promote in situ stem cell neuronal reprogramming, neural network establishment and support neuronal engraftment into the brain. Scaffold-supported, reprogrammed neuronal networks were successfully grafted into organotypic hippocampal brain slices, showing an ∼3.5-fold improvement in neurite outgrowth and increased action potential firing relative to injected isolated cells. Transplantation of scaffold-supported neuronal networks into mouse brain striatum improved survival ∼38-fold at the injection site relative to injected isolated cells, and allowed delivery of multiple neuronal subtypes. Thus, 3D microscale biomaterials represent a promising platform for the transplantation of therapeutic human neurons with broad neuro-regenerative relevance. PMID:26983594

  15. Image-based analysis of the internal microstructure of bone replacement scaffolds fabricated by 3D printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irsen, Stephan H.; Leukers, Barbara; Bruckschen, Björn; Tille, Carsten; Seitz, Hermann; Beckmann, Felix; Müller, Bert

    2006-08-01

    Rapid Prototyping and especially the 3D printing, allows generating complex porous ceramic scaffolds directly from powders. Furthermore, these technologies allow manufacturing patient-specific implants of centimeter size with an internal pore network to mimic bony structures including vascularization. Besides the biocompatibility properties of the base material, a high degree of open, interconnected porosity is crucial for the success of the synthetic bone graft. Pores with diameters between 100 and 500 μm are the prerequisite for vascularization to supply the cells with nutrients and oxygen, because simple diffusion transport is ineffective. The quantification of porosity on the macro-, micro-, and nanometer scale using well-established techniques such as Hg-porosimetry and electron microscopy is restricted. Alternatively, we have applied synchrotron-radiation-based micro computed tomography (SRμCT) to determine the porosity with high precision and to validate the macroscopic internal structure of the scaffold. We report on the difficulties in intensity-based segmentation for nanoporous materials but we also elucidate the power of SRμCT in the quantitative analysis of the pores at the different length scales.

  16. Chondrogenic regeneration using bone marrow clots and a porous polycaprolactone-hydroxyapatite scaffold by three-dimensional printing.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qingqiang; Wei, Bo; Liu, Nancy; Li, Chenshuang; Guo, Yang; Shamie, Arya Nick; Chen, James; Tang, Cheng; Jin, Chengzhe; Xu, Yan; Bian, Xiuwu; Zhang, Xinli; Wang, Liming

    2015-04-01

    Scaffolds play an important role in directing three-dimensional (3D) cartilage regeneration. Our recent study reported the potential advantages of bone marrow clots (MC) in promoting extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffold chondrogenic regeneration. The aim of this study is to build a new scaffold for MC, with improved characteristics in mechanics, shaping, and biodegradability, compared to our previous study. To address this issue, this study prepared a 3D porous polycaprolactone (PCL)-hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffold combined with MC (Group A), while the control group (Group B) utilized a bone marrow stem cell seeded PCL-HA scaffold. The results of in vitro cultures and in vivo implantation demonstrated that although an initial obstruction of nutrient exchange caused by large amounts of fibrin and erythrocytes led to a decrease in the ratio of live cells in Group A, these scaffolds also showed significant improvements in cell adhesion, proliferation, and chondrogenic differentiation with porous recanalization in the later culture, compared to Group B. After 4 weeks of in vivo implantation, Group A scaffolds have a superior performance in DNA content, Sox9 and RunX2 expression, cartilage lacuna-like cell and ECM accumulation, when compared to Group B. Furthermore, Group A scaffold size and mechanics were stable during in vitro and in vivo experiments, unlike the scaffolds in our previous study. Our results suggest that the combination with MC proved to be a highly efficient, reliable, and simple new method that improves the biological performance of 3D PCL-HA scaffold. The MC-PCL-HA scaffold is a candidate for future cartilage regeneration studies. PMID:25530453

  17. Chondrogenic Regeneration Using Bone Marrow Clots and a Porous Polycaprolactone-Hydroxyapatite Scaffold by Three-Dimensional Printing

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Qingqiang; Wei, Bo; Liu, Nancy; Li, Chenshuang; Guo, Yang; Shamie, Arya Nick; Chen, James; Tang, Cheng; Jin, Chengzhe; Xu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Scaffolds play an important role in directing three-dimensional (3D) cartilage regeneration. Our recent study reported the potential advantages of bone marrow clots (MC) in promoting extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffold chondrogenic regeneration. The aim of this study is to build a new scaffold for MC, with improved characteristics in mechanics, shaping, and biodegradability, compared to our previous study. To address this issue, this study prepared a 3D porous polycaprolactone (PCL)-hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffold combined with MC (Group A), while the control group (Group B) utilized a bone marrow stem cell seeded PCL-HA scaffold. The results of in vitro cultures and in vivo implantation demonstrated that although an initial obstruction of nutrient exchange caused by large amounts of fibrin and erythrocytes led to a decrease in the ratio of live cells in Group A, these scaffolds also showed significant improvements in cell adhesion, proliferation, and chondrogenic differentiation with porous recanalization in the later culture, compared to Group B. After 4 weeks of in vivo implantation, Group A scaffolds have a superior performance in DNA content, Sox9 and RunX2 expression, cartilage lacuna-like cell and ECM accumulation, when compared to Group B. Furthermore, Group A scaffold size and mechanics were stable during in vitro and in vivo experiments, unlike the scaffolds in our previous study. Our results suggest that the combination with MC proved to be a highly efficient, reliable, and simple new method that improves the biological performance of 3D PCL-HA scaffold. The MC-PCL-HA scaffold is a candidate for future cartilage regeneration studies. PMID:25530453

  18. Effect of Layer Thickness and Printing Orientation on Mechanical Properties and Dimensional Accuracy of 3D Printed Porous Samples for Bone Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Farzadi, Arghavan; Solati-Hashjin, Mehran; Asadi-Eydivand, Mitra; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan

    2014-01-01

    Powder-based inkjet 3D printing method is one of the most attractive solid free form techniques. It involves a sequential layering process through which 3D porous scaffolds can be directly produced from computer-generated models. 3D printed products' quality are controlled by the optimal build parameters. In this study, Calcium Sulfate based powders were used for porous scaffolds fabrication. The printed scaffolds of 0.8 mm pore size, with different layer thickness and printing orientation, were subjected to the depowdering step. The effects of four layer thicknesses and printing orientations, (parallel to X, Y and Z), on the physical and mechanical properties of printed scaffolds were investigated. It was observed that the compressive strength, toughness and Young's modulus of samples with 0.1125 and 0.125 mm layer thickness were more than others. Furthermore, the results of SEM and μCT analyses showed that samples with 0.1125 mm layer thickness printed in X direction have more dimensional accuracy and significantly close to CAD software based designs with predefined pore size, porosity and pore interconnectivity. PMID:25233468

  19. 3D Hydrogel Scaffolds for Articular Chondrocyte Culture and Cartilage Generation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fan; Bhutani, Nidhi

    2015-01-01

    Human articular cartilage is highly susceptible to damage and has limited self-repair and regeneration potential. Cell-based strategies to engineer cartilage tissue offer a promising solution to repair articular cartilage. To select the optimal cell source for tissue repair, it is important to develop an appropriate culture platform to systematically examine the biological and biomechanical differences in the tissue-engineered cartilage by different cell sources. Here we applied a three-dimensional (3D) biomimetic hydrogel culture platform to systematically examine cartilage regeneration potential of juvenile, adult, and osteoarthritic (OA) chondrocytes. The 3D biomimetic hydrogel consisted of synthetic component poly(ethylene glycol) and bioactive component chondroitin sulfate, which provides a physiologically relevant microenvironment for in vitro culture of chondrocytes. In addition, the scaffold may be potentially used for cell delivery for cartilage repair in vivo. Cartilage tissue engineered in the scaffold can be evaluated using quantitative gene expression, immunofluorescence staining, biochemical assays, and mechanical testing. Utilizing these outcomes, we were able to characterize the differential regenerative potential of chondrocytes of varying age, both at the gene expression level and in the biochemical and biomechanical properties of the engineered cartilage tissue. The 3D culture model could be applied to investigate the molecular and functional differences among chondrocytes and progenitor cells from different stages of normal or aberrant development. PMID:26484414

  20. 3D Hydrogel Scaffolds for Articular Chondrocyte Culture and Cartilage Generation.

    PubMed

    Smeriglio, Piera; Lai, Janice H; Yang, Fan; Bhutani, Nidhi

    2015-01-01

    Human articular cartilage is highly susceptible to damage and has limited self-repair and regeneration potential. Cell-based strategies to engineer cartilage tissue offer a promising solution to repair articular cartilage. To select the optimal cell source for tissue repair, it is important to develop an appropriate culture platform to systematically examine the biological and biomechanical differences in the tissue-engineered cartilage by different cell sources. Here we applied a three-dimensional (3D) biomimetic hydrogel culture platform to systematically examine cartilage regeneration potential of juvenile, adult, and osteoarthritic (OA) chondrocytes. The 3D biomimetic hydrogel consisted of synthetic component poly(ethylene glycol) and bioactive component chondroitin sulfate, which provides a physiologically relevant microenvironment for in vitro culture of chondrocytes. In addition, the scaffold may be potentially used for cell delivery for cartilage repair in vivo. Cartilage tissue engineered in the scaffold can be evaluated using quantitative gene expression, immunofluorescence staining, biochemical assays, and mechanical testing. Utilizing these outcomes, we were able to characterize the differential regenerative potential of chondrocytes of varying age, both at the gene expression level and in the biochemical and biomechanical properties of the engineered cartilage tissue. The 3D culture model could be applied to investigate the molecular and functional differences among chondrocytes and progenitor cells from different stages of normal or aberrant development. PMID:26484414

  1. Use of stereolithography to manufacture critical-sized 3D biodegradable scaffolds for bone ingrowth.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Malcolm N; Fisher, John P; Dean, David; Rimnac, Clare; Mikos, Antonios G

    2003-02-15

    A novel approach to the manufacture of biodegradable polymeric scaffolds for tissue-engineering utilizing stereolithography (SLA) is presented. SLA is a three-dimensional (3D) printing method that uses an ultraviolet laser to photo-crosslink a liquid polymer substrate. The current generation of SLA devices provide a 3D printing resolution of 0.1 mm. The experiments utilized a biodegradable resin mixture of diethyl fumarate (DEF), poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF), and a photoinitiator, bisacylphosphine oxide (BAPO). The PPF is crosslinked with the use of the SLA's UV laser (325-nm wavelength). An SLA device was retrofitted with a custom fixture build tank enclosing an elevator-driven build table. A 3D prototype model testing the manufacturing control this device provides was created in a computer-aided-design package. The resulting geometric data were used to drive the SLA process, and a DEF/PPF prototype part was successfully manufactured. These scaffolds have application in the tissue engineering of bony substrates. PMID:12516080

  2. Modeling of porous scaffold deformation induced by medium perfusion.

    PubMed

    Podichetty, Jagdeep T; Madihally, Sundararajan V

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we tested the possibility of calculating permeability of porous scaffolds utilized in soft tissue engineering using pore size and shape. We validated the results using experimental measured pressure drop and simulations with the inclusion of structural deformation. We prepared Polycaprolactone (PCL) and Chitosan-Gelatin (CG) scaffolds by salt leaching and freeze drying technique, respectively. Micrographs were assessed for pore characteristics and mechanical properties. Porosity for both scaffolds was nearly same but the permeability varied 10-fold. Elastic moduli were 600 and 9 kPa for PCL and CG scaffolds, respectively, while Poisson's ratio was 0.3 for PCL scaffolds and ∼1.0 for CG scaffolds. A flow-through bioreactor accommodating a 10 cm diameter and 0.2 cm thick scaffold was used to determine the pressure-drop at various flow rates. Additionally, computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations were performed by coupling fluid flow, described by Brinkman equation, with structural mechanics using a dynamic mesh. The experimentally obtained pressure drop matched the simulation results of PCL scaffolds. Simulations were extended to a broad range of permeabilities (10(-10) m(2) to 10(-14) m(2) ), elastic moduli (10-100,000 kPa) and Poisson's ratio (0.1-0.49). The results showed significant deviation in pressure drop due to scaffold deformation compared to rigid scaffold at permeabilities near healthy tissues. Also, considering the scaffold as a nonrigid structure altered the shear stress profile. In summary, scaffold permeability can be calculated using scaffold pore characteristics and deformation could be predicted using CFD simulation. These relationships could potentially be used in monitoring tissue regeneration noninvasively via pressure drop. PMID:24259467

  3. 3-D loaded scaffolds obtained by supercritical CO2 assisted process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardea, S.; Reverchon, E.

    2014-08-01

    In this work, a supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) drying process for the formation of 3-D PVDF-HFP loaded scaffolds was tested. Experiments at pressures ranging between 150 and 250 bar and at temperatures ranging between 35 and 55°C were performed. The PVDF-HFP- acetone-ethanol solution at 15% w/w polymer was selected as the base case. The drug (amoxicillin) concentration was varied from 20 to 30% w/w with respect to PVDF-HFP. SC- CO2 drying process was confirmed to be a valid alternative to generate loaded structures; indeed, scaffolds characterized by nanometric networks (with mean pore diameter of about 300 nm) with a homogeneous drug distribution were obtained. Drug controlled release experiments were also performed and a quasi-zero order release kinetic was observed.

  4. Reinforcement of porous alginate scaffolds by incorporating electrospun fibres.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Shinji; Takagi, Yousuke; Yamada, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Tetsu; Kawakami, Koei

    2008-09-01

    The mechanical properties of scaffolds play a vital role in transmitting input mechanical signals to the cells within them. We aimed to modify mechanical properties of porous scaffolds by incorporating electrospun fibres into their frameworks. Porous constructs containing electrospun silicate fibres were prepared from Na-alginate aqueous solutions suspending the silicate fibres with (ASF) or without amino groups (NASF) via an all-aqueous method based on a freeze-drying technique. The repulsion forces of constructs containing ASF towards compression increased as the fibre content increased. In contrast, constructs containing NASF showed no such increases in repulsion forces. Cells seeded onto constructs containing ASF exhibited suppressed growth, similar to cells seeded onto alginate scaffolds without fibres. In contrast, cells seeded onto scaffolds containing NASF showed about two-fold faster growth than cells seeded onto scaffolds containing ASF. The differences in the mechanical properties and cell growth profiles between the scaffolds containing ASF and NASF can be explained by the formation and non-formation of electrostatic bonds between the fibres and alginate, respectively. The results obtained in the present study demonstrate the feasibility of incorporating electrospun fibres for reinforcement of alginate scaffolds and enhancement of cell growth. PMID:18689918

  5. Tissue Engineering: Biomimetic Concealing of PLGA Microspheres in a 3D Scaffold to Prevent Macrophage Uptake (Small 11/2016).

    PubMed

    Minardi, Silvia; Corradetti, Bruna; Taraballi, Francesca; Sandri, Monica; Martinez, Jonathan O; Powell, Sebastian T; Tampieri, Anna; Weiner, Bradley K; Tasciotti, Ennio

    2016-03-01

    Avoiding the clearance of drug delivery systems from 3D scaffolds is crucial to preserve the bioactivity of their therapeutic payload. This is accomplished on page 1479, by E. Tasciotti and co-workers, through a "concealing" strategy: cloaking PLGA microspheres with the type I collagen matrix of a biomimetic scaffold, which enables the control of the production of inflammatory mediators. PMID:26970527

  6. Coupling curvature-dependent and shear stress-stimulated neotissue growth in dynamic bioreactor cultures: a 3D computational model of a complete scaffold.

    PubMed

    Guyot, Y; Papantoniou, I; Luyten, F P; Geris, L

    2016-02-01

    The main challenge in tissue engineering consists in understanding and controlling the growth process of in vitro cultured neotissues toward obtaining functional tissues. Computational models can provide crucial information on appropriate bioreactor and scaffold design but also on the bioprocess environment and culture conditions. In this study, the development of a 3D model using the level set method to capture the growth of a microporous neotissue domain in a dynamic culture environment (perfusion bioreactor) was pursued. In our model, neotissue growth velocity was influenced by scaffold geometry as well as by flow- induced shear stresses. The neotissue was modeled as a homogenous porous medium with a given permeability, and the Brinkman equation was used to calculate the flow profile in both neotissue and void space. Neotissue growth was modeled until the scaffold void volume was filled, thus capturing already established experimental observations, in particular the differences between scaffold filling under different flow regimes. This tool is envisaged as a scaffold shape and bioprocess optimization tool with predictive capacities. It will allow controlling fluid flow during long-term culture, whereby neotissue growth alters flow patterns, in order to provide shear stress profiles and magnitudes across the whole scaffold volume influencing, in turn, the neotissue growth. PMID:26758425

  7. Engineering Human TMJ Discs with Protein-Releasing 3D-Printed Scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Legemate, K; Tarafder, S; Jun, Y; Lee, C H

    2016-07-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc is a heterogeneous fibrocartilaginous tissue positioned between the mandibular condyle and glenoid fossa of the temporal bone, with important roles in TMJ functions. Tissue engineering TMJ discs has emerged as an alternative approach to overcoming limitations of current treatments for TMJ disorders. However, the anisotropic collagen orientation and inhomogeneous fibrocartilaginous matrix distribution present challenges in the tissue engineering of functional TMJ discs. Here, we developed 3-dimensional (3D)-printed anatomically correct scaffolds with region-variant microstrand alignment, mimicking anisotropic collagen alignment in the TMJ disc and corresponding mechanical properties. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGFβ3) were then delivered in the scaffolds by spatially embedding CTGF- or TGFβ3-encapsulated microspheres (µS) to reconstruct the regionally variant fibrocartilaginous matrix in the native TMJ disc. When cultured with human mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs) for 6 wk, 3D-printed scaffolds with CTGF/TGFβ3-µS resulted in a heterogeneous fibrocartilaginous matrix with overall distribution of collagen-rich fibrous structure in the anterior/posterior (AP) bands and fibrocartilaginous matrix in the intermediate zone, reminiscent of the native TMJ disc. High dose of CTGF/TGFβ3-µS (100 mg µS/g of scaffold) showed significantly more collagen II and aggrecan in the intermediate zone than a low dose (50 mg µS/g of scaffold). Similarly, a high dose of CTGF/TGFβ3-µS yielded significantly higher collagen I expression in the AP bands compared with the low-dose and empty µS. From stress relaxation tests, the ratio of relaxation modulus to instantaneous modulus was significantly smaller with CTGF/TGFβ3-µS than empty µS. Similarly, a significantly higher coefficient of viscosity was achieved with the high dose of CTGF/TGFβ3-µS compared with the low-dose and empty

  8. A Tunable Scaffold of Microtubular Graphite for 3D Cell Growth.

    PubMed

    Lamprecht, Constanze; Taale, Mohammadreza; Paulowicz, Ingo; Westerhaus, Hannes; Grabosch, Carsten; Schuchardt, Arnim; Mecklenburg, Matthias; Böttner, Martina; Lucius, Ralph; Schulte, Karl; Adelung, Rainer; Selhuber-Unkel, Christine

    2016-06-22

    Aerographite (AG) is a novel carbon-based material that exists as a self-supportive 3D network of interconnected hollow microtubules. It can be synthesized in a variety of architectures tailored by the growth conditions. This flexibility in creating structures presents interesting bioengineering possibilities such as the generation of an artificial extracellular matrix. Here we have explored the feasibility and potential of AG as a scaffold for 3D cell growth employing cyclic RGD (cRGD) peptides coupled to poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) conjugated phospholipids for surface functionalization to promote specific adhesion of fibroblast cells. Successful growth and invasion of the bulk material was followed over a period of 4 days. PMID:27258400

  9. A Tunable Scaffold of Microtubular Graphite for 3D Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Aerographite (AG) is a novel carbon-based material that exists as a self-supportive 3D network of interconnected hollow microtubules. It can be synthesized in a variety of architectures tailored by the growth conditions. This flexibility in creating structures presents interesting bioengineering possibilities such as the generation of an artificial extracellular matrix. Here we have explored the feasibility and potential of AG as a scaffold for 3D cell growth employing cyclic RGD (cRGD) peptides coupled to poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) conjugated phospholipids for surface functionalization to promote specific adhesion of fibroblast cells. Successful growth and invasion of the bulk material was followed over a period of 4 days. PMID:27258400

  10. ECM Inspired Coating of Embroidered 3D Scaffolds Enhances Calvaria Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Rentsch, C.; Rentsch, B.; Heinemann, S.; Bernhardt, R.; Bischoff, B.; Förster, Y.; Scharnweber, D.; Rammelt, S.

    2014-01-01

    Resorbable polymeric implants and surface coatings are an emerging technology to treat bone defects and increase bone formation. This approach is of special interest in anatomical regions like the calvaria since adults lose the capacity to heal large calvarial defects. The present study assesses the potential of extracellular matrix inspired, embroidered polycaprolactone-co-lactide (PCL) scaffolds for the treatment of 13 mm full thickness calvarial bone defects in rabbits. Moreover the influence of a collagen/chondroitin sulfate (coll I/cs) coating of PCL scaffolds was evaluated. Defect areas filled with autologous bone and empty defects served as reference. The healing process was monitored over 6 months by combining a novel ultrasonographic method, radiographic imaging, biomechanical testing, and histology. The PCL coll I/cs treated group reached 68% new bone volume compared to the autologous group (100%) and the biomechanical stability of the defect area was similar to that of the gold standard. Histological investigations revealed a significantly more homogenous bone distribution over the whole defect area in the PCL coll I/cs group compared to the noncoated group. The bioactive, coll I/cs coated, highly porous, 3-dimensional PCL scaffold acted as a guide rail for new skull bone formation along and into the implant. PMID:25013767

  11. ECM inspired coating of embroidered 3D scaffolds enhances calvaria bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Rentsch, C; Rentsch, B; Heinemann, S; Bernhardt, R; Bischoff, B; Förster, Y; Scharnweber, D; Rammelt, S

    2014-01-01

    Resorbable polymeric implants and surface coatings are an emerging technology to treat bone defects and increase bone formation. This approach is of special interest in anatomical regions like the calvaria since adults lose the capacity to heal large calvarial defects. The present study assesses the potential of extracellular matrix inspired, embroidered polycaprolactone-co-lactide (PCL) scaffolds for the treatment of 13 mm full thickness calvarial bone defects in rabbits. Moreover the influence of a collagen/chondroitin sulfate (coll I/cs) coating of PCL scaffolds was evaluated. Defect areas filled with autologous bone and empty defects served as reference. The healing process was monitored over 6 months by combining a novel ultrasonographic method, radiographic imaging, biomechanical testing, and histology. The PCL coll I/cs treated group reached 68% new bone volume compared to the autologous group (100%) and the biomechanical stability of the defect area was similar to that of the gold standard. Histological investigations revealed a significantly more homogenous bone distribution over the whole defect area in the PCL coll I/cs group compared to the noncoated group. The bioactive, coll I/cs coated, highly porous, 3-dimensional PCL scaffold acted as a guide rail for new skull bone formation along and into the implant. PMID:25013767

  12. Controlled implant/soft tissue interaction by nanoscale surface modifications of 3D porous titanium implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieger, Elisabeth; Dupret-Bories, Agnès; Salou, Laetitia; Metz-Boutigue, Marie-Helene; Layrolle, Pierre; Debry, Christian; Lavalle, Philippe; Engin Vrana, Nihal

    2015-05-01

    Porous titanium implants are widely employed in the orthopaedics field to ensure good bone fixation. Recently, the use of porous titanium implants has also been investigated in artificial larynx development in a clinical setting. Such uses necessitate a better understanding of the interaction of soft tissues with porous titanium structures. Moreover, surface treatments of titanium have been generally evaluated in planar structures, while the porous titanium implants have complex 3 dimensional (3D) architectures. In this study, the determining factors for soft tissue integration of 3D porous titanium implants were investigated as a function of surface treatments via quantification of the interaction of serum proteins and cells with single titanium microbeads (300-500 μm in diameter). Samples were either acid etched or nanostructured by anodization. When the samples are used in 3D configuration (porous titanium discs of 2 mm thickness) in vivo (in subcutis of rats for 2 weeks), a better integration was observed for both anodized and acid etched samples compared to the non-treated implants. If the implants were also pre-treated with rat serum before implantation, the integration was further facilitated. In order to understand the underlying reasons for this effect, human fibroblast cell culture tests under several conditions (directly on beads, beads in suspension, beads encapsulated in gelatin hydrogels) were conducted to mimic the different interactions of cells with Ti implants in vivo. Physical characterization showed that surface treatments increased hydrophilicity, protein adsorption and roughness. Surface treatments also resulted in improved adsorption of serum albumin which in turn facilitated the adsorption of other proteins such as apolipoprotein as quantified by protein sequencing. The cellular response to the beads showed considerable difference with respect to the cell culture configuration. When the titanium microbeads were entrapped in cell

  13. Self-Assembled 3D Ordered Macroporous Structures for Tissue Engineering Scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juan, Wen-Tau; Chung, Kuo-Yuan; Mishra, Narayan; Lin, Keng-Hui

    2008-03-01

    A simple, inexpensive and fast microfluidic method to fabricate three-dimensional ordered macroporous gel is demonstrated using alginate as the scaffold material. The microfluidic device consists of two concentric micropipettes where one is nested inside the other. Nitrogen gas and aqueous alginate solution with Pluronic F127 are pumped through the inner and the outer channel respectively. Under appropriate conditions, bubbles of a uniform size are generated within the device at few thousand Hz. We show the control over bubble size by the gas pressure and quantitatively predict the size dependence from the geometry of fluidic device. Monodisperse bubbles are collected and self-assemble into crystal structures as wet foam. The alginate solution between bubbles is crosslinked by divalent calcium ions and turns into 3D ordered macroporous gel where the pores are highly interconnected. The pore size can be directly controlled by the bubble size which ranges from few tens microns to few millimeters. This technique promises a versatile and robust way to make 3D ordered tissue engineering scaffolds.

  14. Tuning Cell Differentiation into a 3D Scaffold Presenting a Pore Shape Gradient for Osteochondral Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Di Luca, Andrea; Lorenzo-Moldero, Ivan; Mota, Carlos; Lepedda, Antonio; Auhl, Dietmar; Van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Moroni, Lorenzo

    2016-07-01

    Osteochondral regeneration remains nowadays a major problem since the outcome of current techniques is not satisfactory in terms of functional tissue formation and development. A possible solution is the combination of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with additive manufacturing technologies to fabricate scaffolds with instructive properties. In this study, the differentiation of hMSCs within a scaffold presenting a gradient in pore shape is presented. The variation in pore shape is determined by varying the angle formed by the fibers of two consequent layers. The fiber deposition patterns are 0-90, which generate squared pores, 0-45, 0-30, and 0-15, that generate rhomboidal pores with an increasing major axis as the deposition angle decreases. Within the gradient construct, squared pores support a better chondrogenic differentiation whereas cells residing in the rhomboidal pores display a better osteogenic differentiation. When cultured under osteochondral conditions the trend in both osteogenic and chondrogenic markers is maintained. Engineering the pore shape, thus creating axial gradients in structural properties, seems to be an instructive strategy to fabricate functional 3D scaffolds that are able to influence hMSCs differentiation for osteochondral tissue regeneration. PMID:27109461

  15. Effect of particle size in a colloidal hydrogel scaffold for 3D cell culture.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jianjun; Zhao, Yening; Guan, Ying; Zhang, Yongjun

    2015-12-01

    The in situ-forming colloidal hydrogels from the thermal gelation of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) microgel dispersions have been exploited for 3D cell culture. The properties of the hydrogel scaffold need to be tuned to further improve its performance. In addition, cellular uptake of the microgel particles need to be reduced to avoid their potential undesired influence. For these purposes we systematically examined the effect of microgel particle size on the hydrogel scaffold. It was found that gel properties could be tuned via changing particle size. Increasing particle size reduces the gel strength and its syneresis degree, both of which are favorable for cell growth. Meanwhile increasing particle size could also reduce significantly the cellular uptake of the microgel particles. Microgel with a size of ~162 nm shows the highest cellular uptake, beyond which cellular uptake decreases with increasing particle size. Hydrogel scaffold from 300 nm microgel, with suitable physical properties and reduced cellular uptake, were successfully used for multicellular spheroid generation. PMID:26613865

  16. Dynamic perfusion bioreactor system for 3D culture of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on nanohydroxyapatite/polyamide 66 scaffold in vitro.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xu; Yuan, Fang; Zhimin, Zhu; Anchun, Mo

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the biocompatibility and osteogenic effectiveness of the porous nanohydroxyapatite/polyamide 66 (n-HA/PA66) scaffold material that was cultured with the rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs), under the static culture condition and the dynamic perfusion culture condition in vitro, and to investigate whether the 3D perfusion culture condition was better in provoking proliferation of rBMSCs than the 3D static culture condition. The Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay, Osteocalcin (OCN) assay and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to observe the proliferation and differentiation of rBMSCs. The samples were respectively harvested at 1st, 3rd, 7th, 14th, and 21st days and effect comparisons were made between the two of the culture conditions. The results showed that values of MTT, ALP, and OCN were increased continuously and revealed a significant difference between the two culture conditions (p < 0.05). On the 14th day, SEM revealed calcified nodules 2-8 μm in diameter in the lamellar structure. Under the static culture condition, the pores were covered with the cells looking like a piece of blanket, but under the perfusion culture condition the cells were observed to have a 3D lamellar structure. In conclusion, the porous n-HA/PA66 scaffold material can be used as a good candidate material for the bone scaffold construction in the tissue engineering because of its excellent 3D structure, which can greatly improve the proliferation and differentiation of rBMSCs and make them proliferate and osteogenesis even better under the perfusion culture condition. PMID:23362119

  17. Functionally graded porous scaffolds made of Ti-based agglomerates.

    PubMed

    Nazari, Keivan A; Hilditch, Tim; Dargusch, Matthew S; Nouri, Alireza

    2016-10-01

    Mono- and double-layer porous scaffolds were successfully fabricated using ball-milled agglomerates of Ti and Ti-10Nb-3Mo alloy. For selectively controlling the level of porosity and pore size, the agglomerates were sieved into two different size fractions of 100-300μm and 300-500μm. Compressive mechanical properties were measured on a series of cylindrical sintered compacts with different ratios of solid core diameter to porous layer width. The graded porous scaffolds exhibited stress-strain curves typical for metallic foams with a defined plateau region after yielding. The compressive strengths and elastic moduli ranged from 300 to 700MPa and 14 to 55GPa, respectively, depending on the core diameter and the material used. The obtained properties make these materials suitable for load-bearing implant applications. PMID:27389321

  18. Design Control for Clinical Translation of 3D Printed Modular Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Hollister, Scott J.; Flanagan, Colleen L.; Zopf, David A.; Morrison, Robert J.; Nasser, Hassan; Patel, Janki J.; Ebramzadeh, Edward; Sangiorgio, Sophia N.; Wheeler, Matthew B.; Green, Glenn E.

    2015-01-01

    founded on 3D printing for developing tissue engineering therapies and (2) illustrate the design control process for modular implementation of two scaffold based tissue engineering therapies: airway reconstruction and bone tissue engineering based spine fusion. PMID:25666115

  19. Design control for clinical translation of 3D printed modular scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Hollister, Scott J; Flanagan, Colleen L; Zopf, David A; Morrison, Robert J; Nasser, Hassan; Patel, Janki J; Ebramzadeh, Edward; Sangiorgio, Sophia N; Wheeler, Matthew B; Green, Glenn E

    2015-03-01

    founded on 3D printing for developing tissue engineering therapies and (2) illustrate the design control process for modular implementation of two scaffold based tissue engineering therapies: airway reconstruction and bone tissue engineering based spine fusion. PMID:25666115

  20. Condiment-Derived 3D Architecture Porous Carbon for Electrochemical Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Qian, Wenjing; Zhu, Jingyue; Zhang, Ye; Wu, Xiao; Yan, Feng

    2015-10-01

    The one-step synthesis of porous carbon nanoflakes possessing a 3D texture is achieved by cooking (carbonization) a mixture containing two condiments, sodium glutamate (SG) and sodium chloride, which are commonly used in kitchens. The prepared 3D porous carbons are composed of interconnected carbon nanoflakes and possess instinct heteroatom doping such as nitrogen and oxygen, which furnishes the electrochemical activity. The combination of micropores and mesopores with 3D configurations facilitates persistent and fast ion transport and shorten diffusion pathways for high-performance supercapacitor applications. Sodium glutamate carbonized at 800 °C exhibits high charge storage capacity with a specific capacitance of 320 F g(-1) in 6 m KOH at a current density of 1 A g(-1) and good stability over 10,000 cycles. PMID:26150228

  1. A 3-D constitutive model for pressure-dependent phase transformation of porous shape memory alloys.

    PubMed

    Ashrafi, M J; Arghavani, J; Naghdabadi, R; Sohrabpour, S

    2015-02-01

    Porous shape memory alloys (SMAs) exhibit the interesting characteristics of porous metals together with shape memory effect and pseudo-elasticity of SMAs that make them appropriate for biomedical applications. In this paper, a 3-D phenomenological constitutive model for the pseudo-elastic behavior and shape memory effect of porous SMAs is developed within the framework of irreversible thermodynamics. Comparing to micromechanical and computational models, the proposed model is computationally cost effective and predicts the behavior of porous SMAs under proportional and non-proportional multiaxial loadings. Considering the pressure dependency of phase transformation in porous SMAs, proper internal variables, free energy and limit functions are introduced. With the aim of numerical implementation, time discretization and solution algorithm for the proposed model are also presented. Due to lack of enough experimental data on multiaxial loadings of porous SMAs, we employ a computational simulation method (CSM) together with available experimental data to validate the proposed constitutive model. The method is based on a 3-D finite element model of a representative volume element (RVE) with random pores pattern. Good agreement between the numerical predictions of the model and CSM results is observed for elastic and phase transformation behaviors in various thermomechanical loadings. PMID:25528691

  2. Prostate cancer xenografts engineered from 3D precision-porous poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) hydrogels as models for tumorigenesis and dormancy escape

    PubMed Central

    Long, Thomas J.; Sprenger, Cynthia C.; Plymate, Stephen R.; Ratner, Buddy D.

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biomaterial scaffolds show promise for in vitro and in vivo 3D cancer models. Tumors engineered in biomaterial scaffolds have shown evidence of being more physiologically relevant than some traditional preclinical model systems, and synthetic biomaterials provide the added benefit of defined and consistent microenvironmental control. Here, we examine sphere-templated poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) scaffolds as the basis for engineering xenografts from multiple human prostate cancer cell lines. pHEMA scaffolds seeded and pre-cultured with tumorigenic M12 cells prior to implantation generated tumors in athymic nude mice, demonstrating the ability of the scaffolds to be used as a synthetic vehicle for xenograft generation. pHEMA scaffolds seeded with LNCaP C4-2 cells, which require Matrigel or stromal cell support for tumor formation, were poorly tumorigenic up to twelve weeks after implantation even when Matrigel was infused into the scaffold, demonstrating a lack of necessary pro-tumorigenic signaling within the scaffolds. Finally, M12mac25 cells, which are ordinarily rendered non-tumorigenic through the expression of the tumor suppressor insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 (IGFBP7), displayed a tumorigenic response when implanted within porous pHEMA scaffolds. These M12mac25 tumors showed a significantly higher macrophage infiltration within the scaffolds driven by the foreign body response to the materials. These findings show the potential for this biomaterials-based model system to be used in the study of prostate cancer tumorigenesis and dormancy escape. PMID:24942815

  3. Modeling the fluid-dynamics and oxygen consumption in a porous scaffold stimulated by cyclic squeeze pressure.

    PubMed

    Ferroni, Marco; Giusti, Serena; Nascimento, Diana; Silva, Ana; Boschetti, Federica; Ahluwalia, Arti

    2016-08-01

    The architecture and dynamic physical environment of tissues can be recreated in-vitro by combining 3D porous scaffolds and bioreactors able to apply controlled mechanical stimuli on cells. In such systems, the entity of the stimuli and the distribution of nutrients within the engineered construct depend on the micro-structure of the scaffolds. In this work, we present a new approach for optimizing computational fluid-dynamics (CFD) models for the investigation of fluid-induced forces generated by cyclic squeeze pressure within a porous construct, coupled with oxygen consumption of cardiomyocytes. A 2D axial symmetric macro-scaled model of a squeeze pressure bioreactor chamber was used as starting point for generating time dependent pressure profiles. Subsequently the fluid movement generated by the pressure fields was coupled with a complete 3D micro-scaled model of a porous protein cryogel. Oxygen transport and consumption inside the scaffold was evaluated considering a homogeneous distribution of cardiomyocytes throughout the structure, as confirmed by preliminary cell culture experiments. The results show that a 3D description of the system, coupling a porous geometry and time dependent pressure driven flow with fluid-structure-interaction provides an accurate and meaningful description of the microenvironment in terms of shear stress and oxygen distribution than simple stationary 2D models. PMID:27189671

  4. Solid state synthesis of chitosan and its unsaturated derivatives for laser microfabrication of 3D scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akopova, T. A.; Demina, T. S.; Bagratashvili, V. N.; Bardakova, K. N.; Novikov, M. M.; Selezneva, I. I.; Istomin, A. V.; Svidchenko, E. A.; Cherkaev, G. V.; Surin, N. M.; Timashev, P. S.

    2015-07-01

    Chitosans with various degrees of deacetylation and molecular weights and their allyl substituted derivatives were obtained through a solvent-free reaction under shear deformation in an extruder. Structure and physical-chemical analysis of the samples were carried out using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), ultraviolet (UV) and infrared radiation (IR) spectroscopy. Photosensitive materials based on the synthesized polymers were successfully used for microfabrication of 3D well-defined architectonic structures by laser stereolithography. Study on the metabolic activity of NCTC L929 cultured in the presence of the cured chitosan extracts indicates that the engineered biomaterials could support adhesion, spreading and growth of adherent-dependent cells, and thus could be considered as biocompatible scaffolds.

  5. Proton exchange membrane micro fuel cells on 3D porous silicon gas diffusion layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouassi, S.; Gautier, G.; Thery, J.; Desplobain, S.; Borella, M.; Ventura, L.; Laurent, J.-Y.

    2012-10-01

    Since the 90's, porous silicon has been studied and implemented in many devices, especially in MEMS technology. In this article, we present a new approach to build miniaturized proton exchange membrane micro-fuel cells using porous silicon as a hydrogen diffusion layer. In particular, we propose an innovative process to build micro fuel cells from a “corrugated iron like” 3D structured porous silicon substrates. This structure is able to increase up to 40% the cell area keeping a constant footprint on the silicon wafer. We propose here a process route to perform electrochemically 3D porous gas diffusion layers and to deposit fuel cell active layers on such substrates. The prototype peak power performance was measured to be 90 mW cm-2 in a “breathing configuration” at room temperature. These performances are less than expected if we compare with a reference 2D micro fuel cell. Actually, the active layer deposition processes are not fully optimized but this prototype demonstrates the feasibility of these 3D devices.

  6. Direct electrospinning of 3D auricle-shaped scaffolds for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Walser, Jochen; Stok, Kathryn S; Caversaccio, Marco D; Ferguson, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Thirty-two poly(ε)caprolactone (PCL) scaffolds have been produced by electrospinning directly into an auricle-shaped mould and seeded with articular chondrocytes harvested from bovine ankle joints. After seeding, the auricle shaped constructs were cultured in vitro and analysed at days 1, 7, 14 and 21 for regional differences in total DNA, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and collagen (COL) content as well as the expression of aggrecan (AGG), collagen type I and type II (COL1/2) and matrix metalloproteinase 3 and 13 (MMP3/13). Stress-relaxation indentation testing was performed to investigate regional mechanical properties of the electrospun constructs. Electrospinning into a conductive mould yielded stable 3D constructs both initially and for the whole in vitro culture period, with an equilibrium modulus in the MPa range. Rapid cell proliferation and COL accumulation was observed until week 3. Quantitative real time PCR analysis showed an initial increase in AGG, no change in COL2, a persistent increase in COL1, and only a slight decrease initially for MMP3. Electrospinning of fibrous scaffolds directly into an auricle-shape represents a promising option for auricular tissue engineering, as it can reduce the steps needed to achieve an implantable structure. PMID:27171651

  7. Injectable and porous PLGA microspheres that form highly porous scaffolds at body temperature.

    PubMed

    Qutachi, Omar; Vetsch, Jolanda R; Gill, Daniel; Cox, Helen; Scurr, David J; Hofmann, Sandra; Müller, Ralph; Quirk, Robin A; Shakesheff, Kevin M; Rahman, Cheryl V

    2014-12-01

    Injectable scaffolds are of interest in the field of regenerative medicine because of their minimally invasive mode of delivery. For tissue repair applications, it is essential that such scaffolds have the mechanical properties, porosity and pore diameter to support the formation of new tissue. In the current study, porous poly(dl-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres were fabricated with an average size of 84±24μm for use as injectable cell carriers. Treatment with ethanolic sodium hydroxide for 2min was observed to increase surface porosity without causing the microsphere structure to disintegrate. This surface treatment also enabled the microspheres to fuse together at 37°C to form scaffold structures. The average compressive strength of the scaffolds after 24h at 37°C was 0.9±0.1MPa, and the average Young's modulus was 9.4±1.2MPa. Scaffold porosity levels were 81.6% on average, with a mean pore diameter of 54±38μm. This study demonstrates a method for fabricating porous PLGA microspheres that form solid porous scaffolds at body temperature, creating an injectable system capable of supporting NIH-3T3 cell attachment and proliferation in vitro. PMID:25152354

  8. Injectable and porous PLGA microspheres that form highly porous scaffolds at body temperature

    PubMed Central

    Qutachi, Omar; Vetsch, Jolanda R.; Gill, Daniel; Cox, Helen; Scurr, David J.; Hofmann, Sandra; Müller, Ralph; Quirk, Robin A.; Shakesheff, Kevin M.; Rahman, Cheryl V.

    2014-01-01

    Injectable scaffolds are of interest in the field of regenerative medicine because of their minimally invasive mode of delivery. For tissue repair applications, it is essential that such scaffolds have the mechanical properties, porosity and pore diameter to support the formation of new tissue. In the current study, porous poly(dl-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres were fabricated with an average size of 84 ± 24 μm for use as injectable cell carriers. Treatment with ethanolic sodium hydroxide for 2 min was observed to increase surface porosity without causing the microsphere structure to disintegrate. This surface treatment also enabled the microspheres to fuse together at 37 °C to form scaffold structures. The average compressive strength of the scaffolds after 24 h at 37 °C was 0.9 ± 0.1 MPa, and the average Young’s modulus was 9.4 ± 1.2 MPa. Scaffold porosity levels were 81.6% on average, with a mean pore diameter of 54 ± 38 μm. This study demonstrates a method for fabricating porous PLGA microspheres that form solid porous scaffolds at body temperature, creating an injectable system capable of supporting NIH-3T3 cell attachment and proliferation in vitro. PMID:25152354

  9. A 3D porous Ni-Cu alloy film for high-performance hydrazine electrooxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ming; Lu, Zhiyi; Luo, Liang; Chang, Zheng; Sun, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Structural design and catalyst screening are two most important factors for achieving exceptional electrocatalytic performance. Herein we demonstrate that constructing a three-dimensional (3D) porous Ni-Cu alloy film is greatly beneficial for improving the hydrazine oxidation reaction (HzOR) performance. A facile electrodeposition process is employed to synthesize a Ni-Cu alloy film with a 3D hierarchical porous structure. As an integrated electrode for HzOR, the Ni-Cu alloy film exhibits superior catalytic activity and stability to the Ni or Cu counterparts. The synthesis parameters are also systematically tuned for optimizing the HzOR performance. The excellent HzOR performance of the Ni-Cu alloy film is attributed to its high intrinsic activity, large electrochemical specific surface area, and 3D porous architecture which offers a ``superaerophobic'' surface to effectively remove the gas product in a small volume. It is believed that the Ni-Cu alloy film electrode has potential application in direct hydrazine fuel cells as well as other catalytic fields.Structural design and catalyst screening are two most important factors for achieving exceptional electrocatalytic performance. Herein we demonstrate that constructing a three-dimensional (3D) porous Ni-Cu alloy film is greatly beneficial for improving the hydrazine oxidation reaction (HzOR) performance. A facile electrodeposition process is employed to synthesize a Ni-Cu alloy film with a 3D hierarchical porous structure. As an integrated electrode for HzOR, the Ni-Cu alloy film exhibits superior catalytic activity and stability to the Ni or Cu counterparts. The synthesis parameters are also systematically tuned for optimizing the HzOR performance. The excellent HzOR performance of the Ni-Cu alloy film is attributed to its high intrinsic activity, large electrochemical specific surface area, and 3D porous architecture which offers a ``superaerophobic'' surface to effectively remove the gas product in a small

  10. Hierarchical bioceramic scaffolds with 3D-plotted macropores and mussel-inspired surface nanolayers for stimulating osteogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mengchi; Zhai, Dong; Xia, Lunguo; Li, Hong; Chen, Shiyi; Fang, Bing; Chang, Jiang; Wu, Chengtie

    2016-07-01

    The hierarchical structure of biomaterials plays an important role in the process of tissue reconstruction and regeneration. 3D-plotted scaffolds have been widely used for bone tissue engineering due to their controlled macropore structure and mechanical properties. However, the lack of micro- or nano-structures on the strut surface of 3D-plotted scaffolds, especially for bioceramic scaffolds, limits their biological activity. Inspired by the adhesive versatility of mussels and the active ion-chelating capacity of polydopamine, we set out to prepare a hierarchical bioceramic scaffold with controlled macropores and mussel-inspired surface nanolayers by combining the 3D-plotting technique with the polydopamine/apatite hybrid strategy in order to synergistically accelerate the osteogenesis and angiogenesis. β-Tricalcium phosphate (TCP) scaffolds were firstly 3D-plotted and then treated in dopamine-Tris/HCl and dopamine-SBF solutions to obtain TCP-DOPA-Tris and TCP-DOPA-SBF scaffolds, respectively. It was found that polydopamine/apatite hybrid nanolayers were formed on the surface of both TCP-DOPA-Tris and TCP-DOPA-SBF scaffolds and TCP-DOPA-SBF scaffolds induced apatite mineralization for the second time during the cell culture. As compared to TCP scaffolds, both TCP-DOPA-Tris and TCP-DOPA-SBF scaffolds significantly promoted the osteogenesis of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) as well as the angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and the TCP-DOPA-SBF group presented the highest in vitro osteogenic/angiogenic activity among the three groups. Furthermore, both TCP-DOPA-Tris and TCP-DOPA-SBF scaffolds significantly improved the formation of new bone in vivo as compared to TCP scaffolds without a nanostructured surface. Our results suggest that the utilization of a mussel-inspired Ca, P-chelated polydopamine nanolayer on 3D-plotted bioceramic scaffolds is a viable and effective strategy to construct a hierarchical structure for synergistically

  11. Hierarchical bioceramic scaffolds with 3D-plotted macropores and mussel-inspired surface nanolayers for stimulating osteogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mengchi; Zhai, Dong; Xia, Lunguo; Li, Hong; Chen, Shiyi; Fang, Bing; Chang, Jiang; Wu, Chengtie

    2016-07-01

    The hierarchical structure of biomaterials plays an important role in the process of tissue reconstruction and regeneration. 3D-plotted scaffolds have been widely used for bone tissue engineering due to their controlled macropore structure and mechanical properties. However, the lack of micro- or nano-structures on the strut surface of 3D-plotted scaffolds, especially for bioceramic scaffolds, limits their biological activity. Inspired by the adhesive versatility of mussels and the active ion-chelating capacity of polydopamine, we set out to prepare a hierarchical bioceramic scaffold with controlled macropores and mussel-inspired surface nanolayers by combining the 3D-plotting technique with the polydopamine/apatite hybrid strategy in order to synergistically accelerate the osteogenesis and angiogenesis. β-Tricalcium phosphate (TCP) scaffolds were firstly 3D-plotted and then treated in dopamine-Tris/HCl and dopamine-SBF solutions to obtain TCP-DOPA-Tris and TCP-DOPA-SBF scaffolds, respectively. It was found that polydopamine/apatite hybrid nanolayers were formed on the surface of both TCP-DOPA-Tris and TCP-DOPA-SBF scaffolds and TCP-DOPA-SBF scaffolds induced apatite mineralization for the second time during the cell culture. As compared to TCP scaffolds, both TCP-DOPA-Tris and TCP-DOPA-SBF scaffolds significantly promoted the osteogenesis of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) as well as the angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and the TCP-DOPA-SBF group presented the highest in vitro osteogenic/angiogenic activity among the three groups. Furthermore, both TCP-DOPA-Tris and TCP-DOPA-SBF scaffolds significantly improved the formation of new bone in vivo as compared to TCP scaffolds without a nanostructured surface. Our results suggest that the utilization of a mussel-inspired Ca, P-chelated polydopamine nanolayer on 3D-plotted bioceramic scaffolds is a viable and effective strategy to construct a hierarchical structure for synergistically

  12. Combination of thermal extrusion printing and ultrafast laser fabrication for the manufacturing of 3D composite scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balčiūnas, Evaldas; Lukoševičius, Laurynas; Mackevičiūtė, Dovilė; Rekštytė, Sima; Rutkūnas, Vygandas; Paipulas, Domas; Stankevičiūtė, Karolina; Baltriukienė, Daiva; Bukelskienė, Virginija; Piskarskas, Algis P.; Malinauskas, Mangirdas

    2014-03-01

    We present a novel approach to manufacturing 3D microstructured composite scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. A thermal extrusion 3D printer - a simple, low-cost tabletop device enabling rapid materialization of CAD models in plastics - was used to produce cm-scale microporous scaffolds out of polylactic acid (PLA). The fabricated objects were subsequently immersed in a photosensitive monomer solution and direct laser writing technique (DLW) was used to refine its inner structure by fabricating a fine mesh inside the previously produced scaffold. In addition, a composite material structure out of four different materials fabricated via DLW is presented. This technique, empowered by ultrafast lasers allows 3D structuring with high spatial resolution in a great variety of photosensitive materials. A composite scaffold made of distinct materials and periodicities is acquired after the development process used to wash out non-linked monomers. Another way to modify the 3D printed PLA surfaces was also demonstrated - ablation with femtosecond laser beam. Structure geometry on macro- to micro- scales could be finely tuned by combining these fabrication techniques. Such artificial 3D substrates could be used for cell growth or as biocompatible-biodegradable implants. To our best knowledge, this is the first experimental demonstration showing the creation of composite 3D scaffolds using convenient 3D printing combined with DLW. This combination of distinct material processing techniques enables rapid fabrication of diverse functional micro-featured and integrated devices. Hopefully, the proposed approach will find numerous applications in the field of tissue engineering, as well as in microelectromechanical systems, microfluidics, microoptics and others.

  13. Two-photon polymerization technique for microfabrication of CAD-designed 3D scaffolds from commercially available photosensitive materials.

    PubMed

    Ovsianikov, Aleksandr; Schlie, Sabrina; Ngezahayo, Anaclet; Haverich, Axel; Chichkov, Boris N

    2007-01-01

    We report on recent advances in the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine constructs using a two-photon polymerization technique (2PP). 2PP is a novel CAD/CAM technology allowing the fabrication of any computer-designed 3D structure from a photosensitive polymeric material. The flexibility of this technology and the ability to precisely define 3D construct geometry allows issues associated with vascularization and patient-specific tissue fabrication to be directly addressed. The fabrication of reproducible scaffold structures by 2PP is important for systematic studies of cellular processes and better understanding of in vitro tissue formation. In this study, 2PP was applied for the generation of 3D scaffold-like structures, using the photosensitive organic-inorganic hybrid polymer ORMOCER (ORganically MOdified CERamics) and epoxy-based SU8 materials. By comparing the proliferation rates of cells grown on flat material surfaces and under control conditions, it was demonstrated that ORMOCER and SU8 are not cytotoxic. Additional tests show that the DNA strand breaking of GFSHR-17 granulosa cells was not affected by the presence of ORMOCER. Furthermore, gap junction conductance measurements revealed that ORMOCER did not alter the formation of cell-cell junctions, critical for functional tissue growth. The possibilities of seeding 3D structures with cells were analysed. These studies demonstrate the great potential of 2PP technique for the manufacturing of scaffolds with controlled topology and properties. PMID:18265416

  14. The Integration of 3-D Cell-Printing and Mesoscopic Fluorescence Molecular Tomography of Vascular Constructs within Thick Hydrogel Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lingling; Lee, Vivian K.; Yoo, Seung-Schik; Dai, Guohao; Intes, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Developing methods that provide adequate vascular perfusion is an important step toward engineering large functional tissues. Meanwhile, an imaging modality to assess the three-dimensional (3-D) structures and functions of the vascular channels is lacking for thick matrices (>2~3mm). Herein, we report on an original approach to construct and image 3-D dynamically perfused vascular structures in thick hydrogel scaffolds. In this work, we integrated a robotic 3-D cell-printing technology with a mesoscopic fluorescence molecular tomography imaging system, and demonstrated the capability of the platform to construct perfused collagen scaffolds with endothelial lining and to image both the fluid flow and fluorescent-labeled living endothelial cells at high-frame rates, with high sensitivity and accuracy. These results establish the potential of integrating both 3-D cell-printing and fluorescence mesoscopic imaging for functional and molecular studies in complex tissue engineered tissues. PMID:22531221

  15. 3D Porous Sponge-Inspired Electrode for Stretchable Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Chen, Zheng; Zhou, Guangmin; Sun, Yongming; Lee, Hye Ryoung; Liu, Chong; Yao, Hongbin; Bao, Zhenan; Cui, Yi

    2016-05-01

    A stretchable Li4 Ti5 O12 anode and a LiFePO4 cathode with 80% stretchability are prepared using a 3D interconnected porous polydimethylsiloxane sponge based on sugar cubes. 82% and 91% capacity retention for anode and cathode are achieved after 500 stretch-release cycles. Slight capacity decay of 6% in the battery using the electrode in stretched state is observed. PMID:26992146

  16. Characterization of Mechanical and Biological Properties of 3-D Scaffolds Reinforced with Zinc Oxide for Bone Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Shuai, Cijun; Peng, Shuping

    2014-01-01

    A scaffold for bone tissue engineering should have highly interconnected porous structure, appropriate mechanical and biological properties. In this work, we fabricated well-interconnected porous β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds via selective laser sintering (SLS). We found that the mechanical and biological properties of the scaffolds were improved by doping of zinc oxide (ZnO). Our data showed that the fracture toughness increased from 1.09 to 1.40 MPam1/2, and the compressive strength increased from 3.01 to 17.89 MPa when the content of ZnO increased from 0 to 2.5 wt%. It is hypothesized that the increase of ZnO would lead to a reduction in grain size and an increase in density of the strut. However, the fracture toughness and compressive strength decreased with further increasing of ZnO content, which may be due to the sharp increase in grain size. The biocompatibility of the scaffolds was investigated by analyzing the adhesion and the morphology of human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells cultured on the surfaces of the scaffolds. The scaffolds exhibited better and better ability to support cell attachment and proliferation when the content of ZnO increased from 0 to 2.5 wt%. Moreover, a bone like apatite layer formed on the surfaces of the scaffolds after incubation in simulated body fluid (SBF), indicating an ability of osteoinduction and osteoconduction. In summary, interconnected porous β-TCP scaffolds doped with ZnO were successfully fabricated and revealed good mechanical and biological properties, which may be used for bone repair and replacement potentially. PMID:24498185

  17. 3D-printed silicate porous bioceramics using a non-sacrificial preceramic polymer binder.

    PubMed

    Zocca, A; Elsayed, H; Bernardo, E; Gomes, C M; Lopez-Heredia, M A; Knabe, C; Colombo, P; Günster, J

    2015-06-01

    Silicate bioceramics possess an excellent bioactivity; however, shaping them into complex geometries is still challenging. Therefore, this paper aims to present a new strategy for the shaping of a bioglass-ceramic with controlled geometry and properties starting from a glass powder combined with a preceramic polymer, i.e. a silicon resin, and reactive fillers. The powder-based three-dimensional (3D)-printing of wollastonite (CaSiO3)-based silicate bioceramic parts was demonstrated in this work. The resin plays a dual role, as it not only acts as a non-sacrificial binder for the filler powders in the printing process but it also reacts with the fillers to generate the desired bioceramic phases. The mechanical and physical properties, i.e. ball-on-three-balls test, density, porosity and morphology, were evaluated in 3D-printed discs. These samples possessed a total porosity around 64 vol% and a biaxial flexural strength around 6 MPa. The raw materials used in this work also enabled the 3D-printing of scaffolds possessing a designed multi-scale porosity, suitable bioceramic phase assemblage and a compressive strength of 1 MPa (for cylindrical scaffolds with total porosity ~80 vol%). Solubility in TRIS/HCl and in vitro assays, i.e. viability, cytotoxicity and apoptosis assays, were also performed. In vitro tests indicated good cell viability and no cytotoxicity effect on the cells. PMID:26000907

  18. Synthesis of various 3D porous gold-based alloy nanostructures with branched shapes.

    PubMed

    Swiatkowska-Warkocka, Zaneta; Pyatenko, Alexander; Koshizaki, Naoto; Kawaguchi, Kenji

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a facile and flexible synthesis platform for various 3D porous gold-iron nanostructures based on selective laser heating of colloidal nanoparticles and selective acid treatment. The presented approach allows to create porous gold-based nanostructures with different morphologies. In addition, for the first time, our studies indicate that various nanoarchitectures (brain-like, flower-like, cage-like, or raspberry-like structures) can be obtained by varying the experimental conditions such as size of Au and Fe3O4 nanoparticles, solvent, laser fluence, and irradiation time. We believe that these porous structures will find immediate applications in catalysis and separations, where high surface area and magnetic properties are often simultaneously required. PMID:27565959

  19. Vulnerability mapping of groundwater contamination based on 3D lithostratigraphical models of porous aquifers.

    PubMed

    Ducci, Daniela; Sellerino, Mariangela

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to apply a methodology in order to reconstruct a lithostratigraphic 3D model of an aquifer so as to define some parameters involved in the evaluation of the aquifer vulnerability to contamination of porous aquifers. The DRASTIC, SINTACS and AVI methods have been applied to an alluvial coastal aquifer of southern Italy. The stratigraphic reconstruction has been obtained by interpolating stratigraphic data from more than one borehole per 2 km. The lithostratigraphic reconstruction of a 3D model has been applied and used for three-dimensional or two-dimensional representations. In the first two methods, the layers of the vadose zone and the aquifer media have been evaluated not only by the interpolation of the single boreholes and piezometers, but also by the 3D model, assigning the scores of the parameters of each layer of the 3D model. The comparison between the maps constructed from the weighted values in each borehole and the maps deriving from the attribution of the values of each layer of the 3D model, highlights that the second representation avoids or minimizes the "bullseye" effect linked to the presence of boreholes with higher or lower values. The study has demonstrated that it is possible to integrate a 3D lithostratigraphic model of an aquifer in the assessment of the parameters involved in the evaluation of the aquifer vulnerability to contamination by Point Count System methods. PMID:23391897

  20. Controlled release of pentoxifylline from porous chitosan-pectin scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsin-Yi; Yeh, Chih-Tsung

    2010-07-01

    Measures to suppress inflammatory reactions are taken to prevent fibrous encapsulation of implants. It is proposed in this study that tissue engineered scaffolds that can slowly release anti-inflammatory drugs can help reduce inflammatory reactions around implants. Chitosan and chitosan cross-linked with different concentrations of pectin were made into films and porous scaffolds. Results seen from Fourier-transform infrared spectra and thermal gravimetric analysis showed that polyelectrolyte complexation took place between chitosan and pectin units. As the amounts of pectin added to chitosan increased (0%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2%) the scaffolds became more wettable (contact angle decreased from 81 degrees to 76 degrees ), less swellable (swelling ratio decreased from 35% to 30%), and less capable of releasing pentoxifylline (PTX) (release efficacies decreased from 93% to 83%). Higher degrees of pectin cross-linking made the scaffolds more resistant to compression (Young's modulus increased from 2.4 kPa to 3.7 kPa) and more favorable for initial cell attachment (percentage of attached cells increased from 55% to 67%). In vitro tests showed that, with the reduction of PTX release rates, PTX became more effective in inhibiting TNF-alpha and IL-6 production from activated macrophages. This investigation has demonstrated that the changes in the basic drug release properties of chitosan scaffolds were proportional to the amount of pectin added. The changes could help improve the effectiveness of PTX. PMID:20370329

  1. Electrochemical fabrication of 2D and 3D nickel nanowires using porous anodic alumina templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mebed, A. M.; Abd-Elnaiem, Alaa M.; Al-Hosiny, Najm M.

    2016-06-01

    Mechanically stable nickel (Ni) nanowires array and nanowires network were synthesized by pulse electrochemical deposition using 2D and 3D porous anodic alumina (PAA) templates. The structures and morphologies of as-prepared films were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The grown Ni nanowire using 3D PAA revealed more strength and larger surface area than has grown Ni use 2D PAA template. The prepared nanowires have a face-centered cubic crystal structure with average grain size 15 nm, and the preferred orientation of the nucleation of the nanowires is (111). The diameter of the nanowires is about 50-70 nm with length 3 µm. The resulting 3D Ni nanowire lattice, which provides enhanced mechanical stability and an increased surface area, benefits energy storage and many other applications which utilize the large surface area.

  2. Pore-scale intermittent velocity structure underpinning anomalous transport through 3-D porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Peter K.; Anna, Pietro; Nunes, Joao P.; Bijeljic, Branko; Blunt, Martin J.; Juanes, Ruben

    2014-09-01

    We study the nature of non-Fickian particle transport in 3-D porous media by simulating fluid flow in the intricate pore space of real rock. We solve the full Navier-Stokes equations at the same resolution as the 3-D micro-CT (computed tomography) image of the rock sample and simulate particle transport along the streamlines of the velocity field. We find that transport at the pore scale is markedly anomalous: longitudinal spreading is superdiffusive, while transverse spreading is subdiffusive. We demonstrate that this anomalous behavior originates from the intermittent structure of the velocity field at the pore scale, which in turn emanates from the interplay between velocity heterogeneity and velocity correlation. Finally, we propose a continuous time random walk model that honors this intermittent structure at the pore scale and captures the anomalous 3-D transport behavior at the macroscale.

  3. Development of bioartificial myocardium by electrostimulation of 3D collagen scaffolds seeded with stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Haneef, Kanwal; Lila, Nermine; Benadda, Samira; Legrand, Fabien; Carpentier, Alain; Chachques, Juan C.

    2012-01-01

    Electrostimulation (ES) can be defined as a safe physical method to induce stem cell differentiation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of ES on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) seeded in collagen scaffolds in terms of proliferation and differentiation into cardiomyocytes. BMSCs were isolated from Wistar rats and seeded into 3D collagen type 1 templates measuring 25 × 25 × 6 mm. Bipolar in vitro ES was performed during 21 days. Electrical impedance and cell proliferation were measured. Expression of cardiac markers was assessed by immunocytochemistry. Viscoelasticity of collagen matrix was evaluated. Electrical impedance assessments showed a low resistance of 234±41 Ohms which indicates good electrical conductivity of collagen matrix. Cell proliferation at 570 nm as significantly increased in ES groups after seven day (ES 0.129±0.03 vs non-stimulated control matrix 0.06±0.01, P=0.002) and after 21 days, (ES 0.22±0.04 vs control 0.13±0.01, P=0.01). Immunocytoche mistry of BMSCs after 21 days ES showed positive staining of cardiac markers, troponin I, connexin 43, sarcomeric alpha-actinin, slow myosin, fast myosin and desmin. Staining for BMSCs marker CD29 after 21 days was negative. Electrostimulation of cell-seeded collagen matrix changed stem cell morphology and biochemical characteristics, increasing the expression of cardiac markers. Thus, MSC-derived differentiated cells by electrostimulation grafted in biological scaffolds might result in a convenient tissue engineering source for myocardial diseases. PMID:23185681

  4. Graded Porous β-Tricalcium Phosphate Scaffolds Enhance Bone Regeneration in Mandible Augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jingwen; Kang, Yunqing; Browne, Christopher; Jiang, Ting; Yang, Yunzhi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Bone augmentation requires scaffold to promote forming of natural bone structure. Currently, most of the reported bone scaffolds are porous solids with uniform pores. The aim of the currentstudy is to evaluate the effect of a graded porous β-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds on alveolar bone augmentation. Three groups of scaffolds were fabricated by a template-casting method: (1) graded porous scaffolds with large pores in the center and small pores at theperiphery, (2) scaffolds with large uniform pores, and (3) scaffolds with small uniform pores. Bone augmentation on rabbit mandible wasinvestigated by microcomputed tomography, sequential fluorescentlabeling, and histologic examination 3 months after implantation.The result presents that all the scaffold groups maintain their augmented bone height after 3-month observation, whereas the autograftinggroup presents an obvious bone resorption. Microcomputed tomography reveals that the graded porous group has significantly greater volume of new bone (P < 0.05) and similar bone density compared with the uniform pores groups. Bone substance distributes unevenly in all the 3 experimental groups. Greater bone volume can be observed in the area closer to the bone bed. The sequential fluorescentlabeling observation reveals robust bone regeneration in the first month and faster bone growth in the graded porous scaffold group than that in the large porous scaffold group. Histologic examinationsconfirm bone structure in the aspect of distribution, activity, and maturity. We conclude that graded porous designed biodegradableβ-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds are beneficial to promote bone augmentation in the aspect of bone volume. PMID:25675019

  5. Engineering anatomically shaped vascularized bone grafts with hASCs and 3D-printed PCL scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Temple, Joshua P; Hutton, Daphne L; Hung, Ben P; Huri, Pinar Yilgor; Cook, Colin A; Kondragunta, Renu; Jia, Xiaofeng; Grayson, Warren L

    2014-12-01

    The treatment of large craniomaxillofacial bone defects is clinically challenging due to the limited availability of transplantable autologous bone grafts and the complex geometry of the bones. The ability to regenerate new bone tissues that faithfully replicate the anatomy would revolutionize treatment options. Advances in the field of bone tissue engineering over the past few decades offer promising new treatment alternatives using biocompatible scaffold materials and autologous cells. This approach combined with recent advances in three-dimensional (3D) printing technologies may soon allow the generation of large, bioartificial bone grafts with custom, patient-specific architecture. In this study, we use a custom-built 3D printer to develop anatomically shaped polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds with varying internal porosities. These scaffolds are assessed for their ability to support induction of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) to form vasculature and bone, two essential components of functional bone tissue. The development of functional tissues is assessed in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we demonstrate the ability to print large mandibular and maxillary bone scaffolds that replicate fine details extracted from patient's computed tomography scans. The findings of this study illustrate the capabilities and potential of 3D printed scaffolds to be used for engineering autologous, anatomically shaped, vascularized bone grafts. PMID:24510413

  6. Surfactant tuning of hydrophilicity of porous degradable copolymer scaffolds promotes cellular proliferation and enhances bone formation.

    PubMed

    Yassin, Mohammed A; Leknes, Knut N; Sun, Yang; Lie, Stein A; Finne-Wistrand, Anna; Mustafa, Kamal

    2016-08-01

    Poly(l-lactide-co-ɛ-caprolactone) (poly(LLA-co-CL)) has been blended with Tween 80 to tune the material properties and optimize cell-material interactions. Accordingly, the aims of this study were fourfold: to evaluate the effect of low concentrations of Tween 80 on the surface microstructure of 3D poly(LLA-co-CL) porous scaffolds: to determine the effect of different concentrations of Tween 80 on proliferation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in vitro under dynamic cell culture at 7 and 21 days; to assess the influence of Tween 80 on the degradation rate of poly(LLA-co-CL) at 7 and 21 days; and in a subcutaneous rat model, to evaluate the effect on bone formation of porous scaffolds modified with 3% Tween 80 at 2 and 8 weeks. Blending 3% (w/w) Tween 80 with poly(LLA-co-CL) improves the surface wettability (p < 0.001). Poly(LLA-co-CL)/3% Tween 80 shows significantly increased cellular proliferation at days 7 and 21 (p < 0.001). Moreover, the presence of Tween 80 facilitates the degradation of poly(LLA-co-CL). Two weeks post-implantation, the poly(LLA-co-CL)/3% Tween 80 scaffolds exhibit significant mRNA expression of Runx2 (p = 0.004). After 8 weeks, poly(LLA-co-CL)/3% Tween 80 scaffolds show significantly increased de novo bone formation, demonstrated by μ-CT (p = 0.0133) and confirmed histologically. It can be concluded that blending 3% (w/w) Tween 80 with poly (LLA-co-CL) improves the hydrophilicity and osteogenic potential of the scaffolds. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 2049-2059, 2016. PMID:27086867

  7. Water-based polyurethane 3D printed scaffolds with controlled release function for customized cartilage tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Hung, Kun-Che; Tseng, Ching-Shiow; Dai, Lien-Guo; Hsu, Shan-hui

    2016-03-01

    Conventional 3D printing may not readily incorporate bioactive ingredients for controlled release because the process often involves the use of heat, organic solvent, or crosslinkers that reduce the bioactivity of the ingredients. Water-based 3D printing materials with controlled bioactivity for customized cartilage tissue engineering is developed in this study. The printing ink contains the water dispersion of synthetic biodegradable polyurethane (PU) elastic nanoparticles, hyaluronan, and bioactive ingredients TGFβ3 or a small molecule drug Y27632 to replace TGFβ3. Compliant scaffolds are printed from the ink at low temperature. These scaffolds promote the self-aggregation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and, with timely release of the bioactive ingredients, induce the chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs and produce matrix for cartilage repair. Moreover, the growth factor-free controlled release design may prevent cartilage hypertrophy. Rabbit knee implantation supports the potential of the novel 3D printing scaffolds in cartilage regeneration. We consider that the 3D printing composite scaffolds with controlled release bioactivity may have potential in customized tissue engineering. PMID:26774563

  8. Development of the flow behavior model for 3D scaffold fabrication in the polymer deposition process by a heating method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong Young; Park, Jung Kyu; Hahn, Sei Kwang; Kwon, Tai Hun; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2009-10-01

    The flow behavior model for 3D scaffold fabrication in the polymer deposition process by the heating method was developed for enhanced efficiency of the deposition process. The analysis of the polymer flow property is very important in the fabrication process of precise micro-structures such as scaffolds. In this study, a deposition model considering fluid mechanics and heat transfer phenomena was built up and introduced for the estimation of the fluid behavior of molten polymer. The effectiveness of the simulation model was verified through comparison with the experimental result in the case of PCL biomaterial. In addition, the effects of various parameters, such as pressure, temperature and nozzle size, were predicted through simulation before experimental approaches. Through the fabrication of 3D scaffold, it is concluded that this model is useful in predicting the flow behavior characteristics in the micro-structure fabrication process, which is based on the heating method.

  9. Comparison of unstable water infiltration in porous media in 2D and 3D experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schütz, C.; Neuweiler, I.; Lehmann, P.; Papafotiou, A.; Vontobel, P.; Hartmann, S.

    2010-05-01

    Water infiltration into unsaturated soil is an important process for groundwater recharge and thus for water balance of natural hydrosystems. The characteristics of infiltration patterns depend on porous media properties and initial moisture content. Infiltration fronts into soil can be unstable in layered media with fine over dry coarse material. To predict arrival times of infiltration fronts and average water content in upscaled models, it is necessary to understand occurrence of instabilities. The unstable flow behavior is not captured by standard models and finger characteristics have mostly been investigated experimentally. Most experiments in the past were carried out in 2D setups and it is not clear how the results of such studies relate to real 3D systems. The aim of this study is to compare development and finger characteristics of unstable infiltration in 2D and 3D setups. We carried out laboratory experiments on fast infiltration in 2D and 3D setups and measured water content in porous media with neutron transmission technology at the NEUTRA beam line at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland. The 2D experiments were carried out in a glass sandbox (260 mm high, 75 mm wide and 11 mm deep). For the 3D experiments aluminum cylindrical column (150 mm in height and 100 mm in diameter) were used. Both columns were filled homogeneously with coarse quartz sand (grain size 0.7 - 1.2 mm) below fine sand layer (0.1 - 0.3 mm) of 20 - 30 mm thickness. Two dimensional projection images of water content with spatial resolution of 125 microns were deduced from neutron images every 2 second. For the 3D setup water content distribution was reconstructed in 3D to monitor water content inside the fingers over time. Water content and finger-width (15 - 23 mm) were similar for 2D and 3D setups. In both cases water content was maximum when the front passes and was decreasing afterwards (indicating "overshoot" behavior). Also the water content difference between values after

  10. An endothelial cultured condition medium embedded porous PLGA scaffold for the enhancement of mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Li, Ching-Wen; Pan, Wei-Ting; Ju, Jyh-Cherng; Wang, Gou-Jen

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we have developed a microporous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffold that combines a continuous release property and a three-dimensional (3D) scaffolding technique for the precise and efficient formation of endothelial cell lineage from embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Eight PLGA scaffolds (14.29%, 16.67%, 20% and 25% concentrations of PLGA solutions) mixed with two crystal sizes of sodium chloride (NaCl) were fabricated by leaching. Then, vascular endothelial cell conditioned medium (ECCM) mixed with gelatin was embedded into the scaffold for culturing of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). The 14.29% PLGA scaffolds fabricated using non-ground NaCl particles (NG-PLGA) and the 25% PLGA containing scaffolds fabricated using ground NaCl particles (G-PLGA) possessed minimum and maximum moisture content and bovine serum albumin (BSA) content properties, respectively. These two groups of scaffolds were used for future experiments in this study. Cell culture results demonstrated that the proposed porous scaffolds without growth factors were sufficient to induce mouse ESCs to differentiate into endothelial-like cells in the early culture stages, and combined with embedded ECCM could provide a long-term inducing system for ESC differentiation. PMID:27068738

  11. Exploiting novel sterilization techniques for porous polyurethane scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Bertoldi, Serena; Farè, Silvia; Haugen, Håvard Jostein; Tanzi, Maria Cristina

    2015-05-01

    Porous polyurethane (PU) structures raise increasing interest as scaffolds in tissue engineering applications. Understanding the effects of sterilization on their properties is mandatory to assess their potential use in the clinical practice. The aim of this work is the evaluation of the effects of two innovative sterilization techniques (i.e. plasma, Sterrad(®) system, and ozone) on the morphological, chemico-physical and mechanical properties of a PU foam synthesized by gas foaming, using water as expanding agent. In addition, possible toxic effects of the sterilization were evaluated by in vitro cytotoxicity tests. Plasma sterilization did not affect the morphological and mechanical properties of the PU foam, but caused at some extent degradative phenomena, as detected by infrared spectroscopy. Ozone sterilization had a major effect on foam morphology, causing the formation of new small pores, and stronger degradation and oxidation on the structure of the material. These modifications affected the mechanical properties of the sterilized PU foam too. Even though, no cytotoxic effects were observed after both plasma and ozone sterilization, as confirmed by the good values of cell viability assessed by Alamar Blue assay. The results here obtained can help in understanding the effects of sterilization procedures on porous polymeric scaffolds, and how the scaffold morphology, in particular porosity, can influence the effects of sterilization, and viceversa. PMID:25893387

  12. Composite Scaffolds Containing Silk Fibroin, Gelatin, and Hydroxyapatite for Bone Tissue Regeneration and 3D Cell Culturing

    PubMed Central

    Moisenovich, M. M.; Arkhipova, A. Yu.; Orlova, A. A.; Drutskaya, M. S; Volkova, S. V.; Zacharov, S. E.; Agapov, I. I.; Kirpichnikov, M. P.

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) silk fibroin scaffolds were modified with one of the major bone tissue derivatives (nano-hydroxyapatite) and/or a collagen derivative (gelatin). Adhesion and proliferation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) within the scaffold were increased after modification with either nano-hydroxyapatite or gelatin. However, a significant increase in MEF adhesion and proliferation was observed when both additives were introduced into the scaffold. Such modified composite scaffolds provide a new and better platform to study wound healing, bone and other tissue regeneration, as well as artificial organ bioengineering. This system can further be applied to establish experimental models to study cell-substrate interactions, cell migration and other complex processes, which may be difficult to address using the conventional two-dimensional culture systems. PMID:24772332

  13. Using Polymer Confinement for Stem Cell Differentiation: 3D Printed vs Molded Scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafailovich, Miriam

    Additive manufacturing technologies are increasingly being used to replace standard extrusion or molding methods in engineering polymeric biomedical implants, which can be further seeded with cells for tissue regeneration. The principal advantage of this new technology is the ability to print directly from a scan and hence produce parts which are an ideal fit for an individual, eliminating much of the sizing and fitting associated with standard manufacturing methods. The question though arises whether devices which may be macroscopically similar, serve identical functions and are produced from the same material, interact in the same manner with cells and living tissue. Here we show that fundamental differences can exist between 3-D printed and extruded scaffolds which can impact stem cell differentiation and lineage selection. We will show how polymer confinement inherent in these methods affect the printed features on multiple length scales. We will also and how the differentiation of stem cells is affected by substrate heterogeneity in both morphological and mechanical features. NSF-Inspire award # 1344267.

  14. 3D silk fibroin scaffold incorporating titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticle (NPs) for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Ho; Sheikh, Faheem A; Ju, Hyung Woo; Park, Hyun Jung; Moon, Bo Mi; Lee, Ok Joo; Park, Chan Hum

    2014-07-01

    The present study deals with fabrication of scaffolds composing of silk fibroin and TiO2 NPs fabricated using a salt-leaching process. At first instance, the TiO2 NPs were prepared by using sol-gel synthesis, affording to have average diameter of 77±21μm. Furthermore, the aqueous solutions of silk fibroin were mixed with 0.2%, 2.0% and 4.0% of TiO2 NPs and salt-leaching process was introduced which resulted in creation of porous scaffolds modified with TiO2 NPs. The presence of TiO2 NPs in scaffolds was confirmed by VP-FE-SEM-EDS, TGA and XRD. The presence of TiO2 NPs influenced in decrease in pore size and swelling behavior of composite scaffolds. The resultant mechanical property of scaffolds was improved upon the introduction of TiO2 NPs. Moreover, cell cytotoxicity results for 1, 3 and 7 days; revealed no toxic behavior to osteoblasts. However, a mild toxicity to NIH 3T3 fibroblasts was observed with the scaffolds containing 4.0% TiO2 NPs. The cell fixation results from 1 and 7 days of incubation indicated the attachment, spreading and subsequent proliferation of fibroblasts. However, these findings were independent to the amount of TiO2 NPs in scaffolds. PMID:24794196

  15. High nitrogen-containing cotton derived 3D porous carbon frameworks for high-performance supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Li-Zhen; Chen, Tian-Tian; Song, Wei-Li; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Shichao

    2015-10-01

    Supercapacitors fabricated by 3D porous carbon frameworks, such as graphene- and carbon nanotube (CNT)-based aerogels, have been highly attractive due to their various advantages. However, their high cost along with insufficient yield has inhibited their large-scale applications. Here we have demonstrated a facile and easily scalable approach for large-scale preparing novel 3D nitrogen-containing porous carbon frameworks using ultralow-cost commercial cotton. Electrochemical performance suggests that the optimal nitrogen-containing cotton-derived carbon frameworks with a high nitrogen content (12.1 mol%) along with low surface area 285 m2 g-1 present high specific capacities of the 308 and 200 F g-1 in KOH electrolyte at current densities of 0.1 and 10 A g-1, respectively, with very limited capacitance loss upon 10,000 cycles in both aqueous and gel electrolytes. Moreover, the electrode exhibits the highest capacitance up to 220 F g-1 at 0.1 A g-1 and excellent flexibility (with negligible capacitance loss under different bending angles) in the polyvinyl alcohol/KOH gel electrolyte. The observed excellent performance competes well with that found in the electrodes of similar 3D frameworks formed by graphene or CNTs. Therefore, the ultralow-cost and simply strategy here demonstrates great potential for scalable producing high-performance carbon-based supercapacitors in the industry.

  16. High nitrogen-containing cotton derived 3D porous carbon frameworks for high-performance supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Fan, Li-Zhen; Chen, Tian-Tian; Song, Wei-Li; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Shichao

    2015-01-01

    Supercapacitors fabricated by 3D porous carbon frameworks, such as graphene- and carbon nanotube (CNT)-based aerogels, have been highly attractive due to their various advantages. However, their high cost along with insufficient yield has inhibited their large-scale applications. Here we have demonstrated a facile and easily scalable approach for large-scale preparing novel 3D nitrogen-containing porous carbon frameworks using ultralow-cost commercial cotton. Electrochemical performance suggests that the optimal nitrogen-containing cotton-derived carbon frameworks with a high nitrogen content (12.1 mol%) along with low surface area 285 m(2) g(-1) present high specific capacities of the 308 and 200 F g(-1) in KOH electrolyte at current densities of 0.1 and 10 A g(-1), respectively, with very limited capacitance loss upon 10,000 cycles in both aqueous and gel electrolytes. Moreover, the electrode exhibits the highest capacitance up to 220 F g(-1) at 0.1 A g(-1) and excellent flexibility (with negligible capacitance loss under different bending angles) in the polyvinyl alcohol/KOH gel electrolyte. The observed excellent performance competes well with that found in the electrodes of similar 3D frameworks formed by graphene or CNTs. Therefore, the ultralow-cost and simply strategy here demonstrates great potential for scalable producing high-performance carbon-based supercapacitors in the industry. PMID:26472144

  17. Random porous media flow on large 3-D grids: Numerics, performance, and application to homogenization

    SciTech Connect

    Ababou, R.

    1996-12-31

    Subsurface flow processes are inherently three-dimensional and heterogeneous over many scales. Taking this into account, for instance assuming random heterogeneity in 3-D space, puts heavy constraints on numerical models. An efficient numerical code has been developed for solving the porous media flow equations, appropriately generalized to account for 3-D, random-like heterogeneity. The code is based on implicit finite differences (or finite volumes), and uses specialized versions of pre-conditioned iterative solvers that take advantage of sparseness. With Diagonally Scaled Conjugate Gradients, in particular, large systems on the order of several million equations, with randomly variable coefficients, have been solved efficiently on Cray-2 and Cray-Y/MP8 machines, in serial mode as well as parallel mode (autotasking). The present work addresses, first, the numerical aspects and computational issues associated with detailed 3-D flow simulations, and secondly, presents a specific application related to the conductivity homogenization problem (identifying a macroscale conduction law, and an equivalent or effective conductivity). Analytical expressions of effective conductivities are compared with empirical values obtained from several large scale simulations conducted for single realizations of random porous media.

  18. High nitrogen-containing cotton derived 3D porous carbon frameworks for high-performance supercapacitors

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Li-Zhen; Chen, Tian-Tian; Song, Wei-Li; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Shichao

    2015-01-01

    Supercapacitors fabricated by 3D porous carbon frameworks, such as graphene- and carbon nanotube (CNT)-based aerogels, have been highly attractive due to their various advantages. However, their high cost along with insufficient yield has inhibited their large-scale applications. Here we have demonstrated a facile and easily scalable approach for large-scale preparing novel 3D nitrogen-containing porous carbon frameworks using ultralow-cost commercial cotton. Electrochemical performance suggests that the optimal nitrogen-containing cotton-derived carbon frameworks with a high nitrogen content (12.1 mol%) along with low surface area 285 m2 g−1 present high specific capacities of the 308 and 200 F g−1 in KOH electrolyte at current densities of 0.1 and 10 A g−1, respectively, with very limited capacitance loss upon 10,000 cycles in both aqueous and gel electrolytes. Moreover, the electrode exhibits the highest capacitance up to 220 F g−1 at 0.1 A g−1 and excellent flexibility (with negligible capacitance loss under different bending angles) in the polyvinyl alcohol/KOH gel electrolyte. The observed excellent performance competes well with that found in the electrodes of similar 3D frameworks formed by graphene or CNTs. Therefore, the ultralow-cost and simply strategy here demonstrates great potential for scalable producing high-performance carbon-based supercapacitors in the industry. PMID:26472144

  19. Evaluation of synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells and 3D printed nanocomposite scaffolds for tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Jian-Feng; Li, Shuo; Guo, Chang-An; Xu, Du-Liang; Zhang, Feng; Yan, Zuo-Qin; Mo, Xiu-Mei

    2015-08-01

    Stem cells and scaffolds play a very important role in tissue engineering. Here, we isolated synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells (SMSCs) from synovial membrane tissue and characterized stem-cell properties. Gelatin nanoparticles (NP) were prepared using a two-step desolvation method and then pre-mixed into different host matrix (silk fibroin (SF), gelatin (Gel), or SF-Gel mixture) to generate various 3D printed nanocomposite scaffolds (NP/SF, NP/SF-Gel, NP/Gel-1, and NP/Gel-2). The microstructure was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Biocompatibility assessment was performed through CCK-8 assay by coculturing with SMSCs at 1, 3, 7 and 14 days. According to the results, SMSCs are similar to other MSCs in their surface epitope expression, which are negative for CD45 and positive for CD44, CD90, and CD105. After incubation in lineage-specific medium, SMSCs could differentiate into chondrocytes, osteocytes and adipocytes. 3D printed nanocomposite scaffolds exhibited a good biocompatibility in the process of coculturing with SMSCs and had no negative effect on cell behavior. The study provides a strategy to obtain SMSCs and fabricate 3D printed nanocomposite scaffolds, the combination of which could be used for practical applications in tissue engineering.

  20. Poly(dopamine) coating of 3D printed poly(lactic acid) scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Kao, Chia-Tze; Lin, Chi-Chang; Chen, Yi-Wen; Yeh, Chia-Hung; Fang, Hsin-Yuan; Shie, Ming-You

    2015-11-01

    3D printing is a versatile technique to generate large quantities of a wide variety of shapes and sizes of polymer. The aim of this study is to develop functionalized 3D printed poly(lactic acid) (PLA) scaffolds and use a mussel-inspired surface coating to regulate cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs). We prepared PLA 3D scaffolds coated with polydopamine (PDA). The chemical composition and surface properties of PDA/PLA were characterized by XPS. PDA/PLA modulated hADSCs' responses in several ways. Firstly, adhesion and proliferation, and cell cycle of hADSCs cultured on PDA/PLA were significantly enhanced relative to those on PLA. In addition, the collagen I secreted from cells was increased and promoted cell attachment and cell cycle progression were depended on the PDA content. In osteogenesis assay, the ALP activity and osteocalcin of hADSCs cultured on PDA/PLA were significantly higher than seen in those cultured on pure PLA scaffolds. Moreover, hADSCs cultured on PDA/PLA showed up-regulation of the ang-1 and vWF proteins associated with angiogenic differentiation. Our results demonstrate that the bio-inspired coating synthetic PLA polymer can be used as a simple technique to render the surfaces of synthetic scaffolds active, thus enabling them to direct the specific responses of hADSCs. PMID:26249577

  1. Matrix forming characteristics of inner and outer human meniscus cells on 3D collagen scaffolds under normal and low oxygen tensions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    toward chondrogenic phenotype and ECM production. Oxygen tension played a key role in modulating the redifferentiation of meniscal fibrochondrocytes on a 3D collagen scaffold in vitro. PMID:24330551

  2. Diffusion model to describe osteogenesis within a porous titanium scaffold.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, M; Allena, R; Schouman, T; Frasca, S; Collombet, J M; Holy, X; Rouch, P

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we develop a two-dimensional finite element model, which is derived from an animal experiment and allows simulating osteogenesis within a porous titanium scaffold implanted in ewe's hemi-mandible during 12 weeks. The cell activity is described through diffusion equations and regulated by the stress state of the structure. We compare our model to (i) histological observations and (ii) experimental data obtained from a mechanical test done on sacrificed animal. We show that our mechano-biological approach provides consistent numerical results and constitutes a useful tool to predict osteogenesis pattern. PMID:25573031

  3. 3D bioprinting of BMSC-laden methacrylamide gelatin scaffolds with CBD-BMP2-collagen microfibers.

    PubMed

    Du, Mingchun; Chen, Bing; Meng, Qingyuan; Liu, Sumei; Zheng, Xiongfei; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Heran; Li, Hongyi; Wang, Nuo; Dai, Jianwu

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting combines biomaterials, cells and functional components into complex living tissues. Herein, we assembled function-control modules into cell-laden scaffolds using 3D bioprinting. A customized 3D printer was able to tune the microstructure of printed bone mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC)-laden methacrylamide gelatin scaffolds at the micrometer scale. For example, the pore size was adjusted to 282 ± 32 μm and 363 ± 60 μm. To match the requirements of the printing nozzle, collagen microfibers with a length of 22 ± 13 μm were prepared with a high-speed crusher. Collagen microfibers bound bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) with a collagen binding domain (CBD) as differentiation-control module, from which BMP2 was able to be controllably released. The differentiation behaviors of BMSCs in the printed scaffolds were compared in three microenvironments: samples without CBD-BMP2-collagen microfibers in the growth medium, samples without microfibers in the osteogenic medium and samples with microfibers in the growth medium. The results indicated that BMSCs showed high cell viability (>90%) during printing; CBD-BMP2-collagen microfibers induced BMSC differentiation into osteocytes within 14 days more efficiently than the osteogenic medium. Our studies suggest that these function-control modules are attractive biomaterials and have potential applications in 3D bioprinting. PMID:26684899

  4. Janus emulsion mediated porous scaffold bio-fabrication.

    PubMed

    Kovach, Ildiko; Rumschöttel, Jens; Friberg, Stig E; Koetz, Joachim

    2016-09-01

    A three dimensional biopolymer network structure with incorporated nano-porous calcium phosphate (CaP) balls was fabricated by using gelatin-chitosan (GC) polymer blend and GC stabilized olive/silicone oil Janus emulsions, respectively. The emulsions were freeze-dried, and the oil droplets were washed out in order to prepare porous scaffolds with larger surface area. The morphology, pore size, chemical composition, thermal and swelling behavior was studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and micro-Differential Scanning Calorimetry (micro-DSC). Microscopic analysis confirmed that the pore size of the GC based sponges after freeze-drying may be drastically reduced by using Janus emulsions. Besides, the incorporation of nanoporous calcium phosphate balls is also lowering the pore size and enhancing thermal stability. PMID:27214784

  5. 3D scaffold of PLLA/pearl and PLLA/nacre powder for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuansheng; Huang, Qianli; Feng, Qingling

    2013-12-01

    Naturally occurring pearl and its derivatives have recently gained interest in bone regeneration due to their bioactive characteristics and good mechanical properties. In this study, three-dimensional scaffolds composed of poly-l-lactide (PLLA)/aragonite pearl powder, PLLA/vaterite pearl powder and PLLA/nacre powder were fabricated by freeze-drying. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images indicated that the addition of powder made no visible difference to the morphology of the composite scaffolds. These composite scaffolds were found to have nearly twice the compressive strength and compressive modulus of the pure PLLA scaffold. X-ray diffraction patterns reveal that both PLLA/aragonite and PLLA/nacre composite scaffolds have pure aragonite crystals as their inorganic component, while PLLA/vaterite has pure vaterite crystals. The attachment and morphology of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs) on scaffolds was observed by the SEM. The proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rBMSCs on composite scaffolds was also investigated. The results indicate that PLLA/aragonite and PLLA/nacre scaffolds better stimulate cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity than the PLLA scaffold. However, the PLLA/vaterite scaffold appears to decrease rBMSCs proliferation as well as the osteogenic differentiation, possibly due to the high pH of the solution containing PLLA/vaterite. PMID:24225162

  6. Stress-strain analysis of porous scaffolds made from titanium alloys synthesized via SLS method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishkovsky, I.

    2009-09-01

    A layer-by-layer selective laser sintering (SLS) technology seems to be greatly promising for solving the plastic surgery problems, particularly those pertaining to the facial reconstruction. Made from titanium-based alloys (titanium or nitinol, i.e. NiTi-intermetallic phase), the porous scaffolds for cranioplasty are an efficient tool for rectifying the face defects and for the dental orthopedic surgery. The progress in the oral surgery and teeth implantation is caused by the problem of an osteointegration on the one hand, and by achievements of the implant synthesis techniques, on the other hand. An important problem thereby is a profound study of the stress-strain behavior of porous implants under the masticatory load or pressure. In the present study the ways for the optimization of the porous implant structural and strength properties as the function of the laser synthesis parameters are described. The finite element approach (ANSYS) was used here for a complex dowel description and numerical simulations. In order to evaluate the processes in the porous implant under the external loading, a CAD 3D model was built for different internal and external configurations of the implant and/or initial shape of powdered particles. The stress-strain dependences were calculated that displayed the irregularity of the stress distribution by the implant volume in the bone tissue. Most of the values are concentrated in places of object contact.

  7. Optimization and evaluation of silk fibroin-chitosan freeze-dried porous scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering application.

    PubMed

    Vishwanath, Varshini; Pramanik, Krishna; Biswas, Amit

    2016-05-01

    Silk fibroin/chitosan blend has been reported to be an attractive biomaterial that provides a 3D porous structure with controllable pore size and mechanical property suitable for tissue engineering applications. However, there is no systematic study for optimizing the ratio of silk fibroin (SF) and chitosan (CS) which seems to influence the scaffold property to a great extent. The present research, therefore, investigates the effect of blend ratio of SF and CS on scaffold property and establishes the optimum value of blend ratio. Among the various blends, the scaffolds with blend ratio of SF/CS (80:20) were found to be superior. The scaffold possesses pore size in the range 71-210 μm and porosity of 82.2 ± 1.3%. The compressive strength of the scaffold was measured as 190 ± 0.2 kPa. The cell supportive property of the scaffold in terms of cell attachment, cell viability, and proliferation was confirmed by cell culture study using mesenchymal stem cells derived from umbilical cord blood. Furthermore, the assessment of glycosaminoglycan secretion on the scaffolds indicates its potentiality toward cartilage tissue regeneration. PMID:26830046

  8. Expansion of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells from Fresh Bone Marrow in a 3D Scaffold-Based System under Direct Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Brachat, Sophie; Braccini, Alessandra; Wendt, David; Barbero, Andrea; Jacobi, Carsten; Martin, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal/stem cell (MSC) expansion in conventional monolayer culture on plastic dishes (2D) leads to progressive loss of functionality and thus challenges fundamental studies on the physiology of skeletal progenitors, as well as translational applications for cellular therapy and molecular medicine. Here we demonstrate that 2D MSC expansion can be entirely bypassed by culturing freshly isolated bone marrow nucleated cells within 3D porous scaffolds in a perfusion-based bioreactor system. The 3D-perfusion system generated a stromal tissue that could be enzymatically treated to yield CD45- MSC. As compared to 2D-expanded MSC (control), those derived from 3D-perfusion culture after the same time (3 weeks) or a similar extent of proliferation (7–8 doublings) better maintained their progenitor properties, as assessed by a 4.3-fold higher clonogenicity and the superior differentiation capacity towards all typical mesenchymal lineages. Transcriptomic analysis of MSC from 5 donors validated the robustness of the process and indicated a reduced inter-donor variability and a significant upregulation of multipotency-related gene clusters following 3D-perfusion- as compared to 2D-expansion. Interestingly, the differences in functionality and transcriptomics between MSC expanded in 2D or under 3D-perfusion were only partially captured by cytofluorimetric analysis using conventional surface markers. The described system offers a multidisciplinary approach to study how factors of a 3D engineered niche regulate MSC function and, by streamlining conventional labor-intensive processes, is prone to automation and scalability within closed bioreactor systems. PMID:25020062

  9. In vitro mineralization of surface-modified porous polycaprolactone scaffolds in simulated body fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Chengyun; Cheng, Haimei; Zhu, Wenjun; Yin, Zhaoyi; Chen, Hao; Zheng, Huade; Lei, Shumei; Yin, Shiheng; Tan, Guoxin

    2008-11-01

    Porous polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds were fabricated by combination of porogen-leaching and freeze-drying processes. Ice particulates were used as porogen materials. The porous PCL scaffolds were modified by potassium hydroxide solution with concentration of 1 mol/L at room temperature for 8 h, subsequently biomineralized in simulated body fluid for 2 h and 8 h, respectively. The microstructure and characteristics of the PCL scaffolds were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and EDS. The results showed (1) PCL scaffolds had high degree of connectivity and different pore sizes. (2) Plate-like apatite was observed on the surface of the scaffolds after being immersed into SBF for 8 h.

  10. Fabrication and characterization of strontium incorporated 3-D bioactive glass scaffolds for bone tissue from biosilica.

    PubMed

    Özarslan, Ali Can; Yücel, Sevil

    2016-11-01

    Bioactive glass scaffolds that contain silica are high viable biomaterials as bone supporters for bone tissue engineering due to their bioactive behaviour in simulated body fluid (SBF). In the human body, these materials help inorganic bone structure formation due to a combination of the particular ratio of elements such as silicon (Si), calcium (Ca), sodium (Na) and phosphorus (P), and the doping of strontium (Sr) into the scaffold structure increases their bioactive behaviour. In this study, bioactive glass scaffolds were produced by using rice hull ash (RHA) silica and commercial silica based bioactive glasses. The structural properties of scaffolds such as pore size, porosity and also the bioactive behaviour were investigated. The results showed that undoped and Sr-doped RHA silica-based bioactive glass scaffolds have better bioactivity than that of commercial silica based bioactive glass scaffolds. Moreover, undoped and Sr-doped RHA silica-based bioactive glass scaffolds will be able to be used instead of undoped and Sr-doped commercial silica based bioactive glass scaffolds for bone regeneration applications. Scaffolds that are produced from undoped or Sr-doped RHA silica have high potential to form new bone for bone defects in tissue engineering. PMID:27524030