Science.gov

Sample records for 3d stereo visualization

  1. 3D visualization techniques for the STEREO-mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiegelmann, T.; Podlipnik, B.; Inhester, B.; Feng, L.; Ruan, P.

    The forthcoming STEREO-mission will observe the Sun from two different viewpoints We expect about 2GB data per day which ask for suitable data presentation techniques A key feature of STEREO is that it will provide for the first time a 3D-view of the Sun and the solar corona In our normal environment we see objects three dimensional because the light from real 3D objects needs different travel times to our left and right eye As a consequence we see slightly different images with our eyes which gives us information about the depth of objects and a corresponding 3D impression Techniques for the 3D-visualization of scientific and other data on paper TV computer screen cinema etc are well known e g two colour anaglyph technique shutter glasses polarization filters and head-mounted displays We discuss advantages and disadvantages of these techniques and how they can be applied to STEREO-data The 3D-visualization techniques are not limited to visual images but can be also used to show the reconstructed coronal magnetic field and energy and helicity distribution In the advent of STEREO we test the method with data from SOHO which provides us different viewpoints by the solar rotation This restricts the analysis to structures which remain stationary for several days Real STEREO-data will not be affected by these limitations however

  2. 3D panorama stereo visual perception centering on the observers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, YiPing; Zhou, Jingkai; Xu, Haitao; Xiang, Yun

    2015-09-01

    For existing three-dimensional (3D) laser scanners, acquiring geometry and color information of the objects simultaneously is difficult. Moreover, the current techniques cannot store, modify, and model the point clouds efficiently. In this work, we have developed a novel sensor system, which is called active stereo omni-directional vision sensor (ASODVS), to address those problems. ASODVS is an integrated system composed of a single-view omni-directional vision sensor and a mobile planar green laser generator platform. Driven by a stepper motor, the laser platform can move vertically along the axis of the ASODVS. During the scanning of the laser generators, the panoramic images of the environment are captured and the characteristics and space location information of the laser points are calculated accordingly. Based on the image information of the laser points, the 3D space can be reconstructed. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed ASODVS system can measure and reconstruct the 3D space in real-time and with high quality.

  3. Web Based Interactive Anaglyph Stereo Visualization of 3D Model of Geoscience Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, J.

    2014-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to create interactive online tool for generating and viewing the anaglyph 3D stereo image on a Web browser via Internet. To achieve this, we designed and developed the prototype system. Three-dimensional visualization is well known and becoming popular in recent years to understand the target object and the related physical phenomena. Geoscience data have the complex data model, which combines large extents with rich small scale visual details. So, the real-time visualization of 3D geoscience data model on the Internet is a challenging work. In this paper, we show the result of creating which can be viewed in 3D anaglyph of geoscience data in any web browser which supports WebGL. We developed an anaglyph image viewing prototype system, and some representative results are displayed by anaglyph 3D stereo image generated in red-cyan colour from pairs of air-photo/digital elevation model and geological map/digital elevation model respectively. The best viewing is achieved by using suitable 3D red-cyan glasses, although alternatively red-blue or red-green spectacles can be also used. The middle mouse wheel can be used to zoom in/out the anaglyph image on a Web browser. Application of anaglyph 3D stereo image is a very important and easy way to understand the underground geologic system and active tectonic geomorphology. The integrated strata with fine three-dimensional topography and geologic map data can help to characterise the mineral potential area and the active tectonic abnormal characteristics. To conclude, it can be stated that anaglyph 3D stereo image provides a simple and feasible method to improve the relief effect of geoscience data such as geomorphology and geology. We believe that with further development, the anaglyph 3D stereo imaging system could as a complement to 3D geologic modeling, constitute a useful tool for better understanding of the underground geology and the active tectonic

  4. 3D Vision on Mars: Stereo processing and visualizations for NASA and ESA rover missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Ben

    2016-07-01

    Three dimensional (3D) vision processing is an essential component of planetary rover mission planning and scientific data analysis. Standard ground vision processing products are digital terrain maps, panoramas, and virtual views of the environment. Such processing is currently developed for the PanCam instrument of ESA's ExoMars Rover mission by the PanCam 3D Vision Team under JOANNEUM RESEARCH coordination. Camera calibration, quality estimation of the expected results and the interfaces to other mission elements such as operations planning, rover navigation system and global Mars mapping are a specific focus of the current work. The main goals of the 3D Vision team in this context are: instrument design support & calibration processing: Development of 3D vision functionality Visualization: development of a 3D visualization tool for scientific data analysis. 3D reconstructions from stereo image data during the mission Support for 3D scientific exploitation to characterize the overall landscape geomorphology, processes, and the nature of the geologic record using the reconstructed 3D models. The developed processing framework PRoViP establishes an extensible framework for 3D vision processing in planetary robotic missions. Examples of processing products and capabilities are: Digital Terrain Models, Ortho images, 3D meshes, occlusion, solar illumination-, slope-, roughness-, and hazard-maps. Another important processing capability is the fusion of rover and orbiter based images with the support of multiple missions and sensors (e.g. MSL Mastcam stereo processing). For 3D visualization a tool called PRo3D has been developed to analyze and directly interpret digital outcrop models. Stereo image products derived from Mars rover data can be rendered in PRo3D, enabling the user to zoom, rotate and translate the generated 3D outcrop models. Interpretations can be digitized directly onto the 3D surface, and simple measurements of the outcrop and sedimentary features

  5. Interactive 3D Visualization of Humboldt Bay Bridge Earthquake Simulation With High Definition Stereo Output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ang, P. B.; Nayak, A.; Yan, J.; Elgamal, A.

    2006-12-01

    This visualization project involves the study of the Humboldt Bay Middle Channel Bridge, a Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research (PEER) testbed site, subjected to an earthquake simulated by the Department of Structural Engineering, UCSD. The numerical simulation and data generation was carried out using the OpenSees finite element analysis platform, and GiD was employed for the mesh generation in preprocessing. In collaboration with the Scripps Visualization Center, the data was transformed into a virtual 3D world that a viewer could rotate around, zoom into, pan about, step through each timestep or examine in true stereo. The data consists of the static mesh of the bridge-foundation-ground elements, material indices for each type of element, the displacement amount of each element nodes over time, and the shear stress levels for each ground element over time. The Coin3D C++ Open Inventor API was used to parse the data and to render the bridge system in full 3D at 1130 individual time steps to show how the bridge structure and the surrounding soil elements interact during the full course of an earthquake. The results can be viewed interactively while using the program, saved as images and processed into animated movies, in resolutions as high as High Definition (1920x1080), or in stereo modes such as red-blue anaglyph.

  6. 3D micropositioning control based on stereo microscopic visual servoing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sha, Xiaopeng; Li, Huiguang; Wang, Shuai; Li, Zhiquan; Li, Guoyou

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, the global visual servoing micropositioning control method is analyzed and the imaging model is derived based on the CMO type stereo light microscopes (SLM). The model contains no depth information and the left and right image information is used to obtain the image Jacobian matrix. Considering the kinematics characteristics of micro robot, we design an image-based controller. The experimental and simulation results based on the four degree-offreedom (DOF) microrobot system demonstrate the validity of the theory in this paper.

  7. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-03-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The current paper describes the modern stereo 3-D technologies that are applicable to various tasks in teaching physics in schools, colleges, and universities. Examples of stereo 3-D simulations developed by the author can be observed on online.

  8. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-01-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The…

  9. VPython: Python plus Animations in Stereo 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, Bruce

    2004-03-01

    Python is a modern object-oriented programming language. VPython (http://vpython.org) is a combination of Python (http://python.org), the Numeric module from LLNL (http://www.pfdubois.com/numpy), and the Visual module created by David Scherer, all of which have been under continuous development as open source projects. VPython makes it easy to write programs that generate real-time, navigable 3D animations. The Visual module includes a set of 3D objects (sphere, cylinder, arrow, etc.), tools for creating other shapes, and support for vector algebra. The 3D renderer runs in a parallel thread, and animations are produced as a side effect of computations, freeing the programmer to concentrate on the physics. Applications include educational and research visualization. In the Fall of 2003 Hugh Fisher at the Australian National University, John Zelle at Wartburg College, and I contributed to a new stereo capability of VPython. By adding a single statement to an existing VPython program, animations can be viewed in true stereo 3D. One can choose several modes: active shutter glasses, passive polarized glasses, or colored glasses (e.g. red-cyan). The talk will demonstrate the new stereo capability and discuss the pros and cons of various schemes for display of stereo 3D for a large audience. Supported in part by NSF grant DUE-0237132.

  10. Optic disc boundary segmentation from diffeomorphic demons registration of monocular fundus image sequences versus 3D visualization of stereo fundus image pairs for automated early stage glaucoma assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatti, Vijay; Hill, Jason; Mitra, Sunanda; Nutter, Brian

    2014-03-01

    Despite the current availability in resource-rich regions of advanced technologies in scanning and 3-D imaging in current ophthalmology practice, world-wide screening tests for early detection and progression of glaucoma still consist of a variety of simple tools, including fundus image-based parameters such as CDR (cup to disc diameter ratio) and CAR (cup to disc area ratio), especially in resource -poor regions. Reliable automated computation of the relevant parameters from fundus image sequences requires robust non-rigid registration and segmentation techniques. Recent research work demonstrated that proper non-rigid registration of multi-view monocular fundus image sequences could result in acceptable segmentation of cup boundaries for automated computation of CAR and CDR. This research work introduces a composite diffeomorphic demons registration algorithm for segmentation of cup boundaries from a sequence of monocular images and compares the resulting CAR and CDR values with those computed manually by experts and from 3-D visualization of stereo pairs. Our preliminary results show that the automated computation of CDR and CAR from composite diffeomorphic segmentation of monocular image sequences yield values comparable with those from the other two techniques and thus may provide global healthcare with a cost-effective yet accurate tool for management of glaucoma in its early stage.

  11. Fast 3D stereo flood simulations in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoes, O.; de Haan, G.; Stelling, G.; van Leeuwen, E.; van Dam, A.; Pleumeekers, O.; Schuurmans, W.

    2012-04-01

    Flood propagation models are essential to study floods as it is problematic to collect data during actual floods. Moreover, models are needed to explore the consequences of additional scenarios above the actual flood itself. The results of these model studies are generally graphs with water levels over time for certain locations or maps with the flood extent in an area for different return periods. A main difficulty with these depictions of flood information is that they do not reflect the seriousness of flood impacts well in terms of life-like human experience. Typically, one needs a (near) flood before measures are implemented. Apparently, a graph or map is not the proper material to convince politicians and policy makers, even if they live in the threatened area. The recent introduction of commercially available 3D stereo projectors and high resolution elevation data make it possible to build life-like visualizations of simulations. In our research we explored using 3D stereo, the recently collected elevation data of the Netherlands (20 laser points per m2!) in combination with aerial photographs, and a new fast 2D flood propagation calculation scheme. This scheme (under construction) is able to simulate floods using such high amounts of data points. The model simulates flood propagation on an irregular grid; at locations with large elevation differences (e.g. in urban areas) and fast flowing water, smaller cells are used compared to flat surfaces where the water is not or hardly flowing. The result of our combination is a very detailed flood simulation model that can be used to simulate floods within a fraction of the current calculation time. The opportunities of models and their results increase enormously with fast calculations and visualizations combined. For example, the model allows on the spot exploration of measures during a flood, with the 3D visualization ensuring that flood impacts become clear for decision makers. We will show the preliminary

  12. Development of a stereo 3-D pictorial primary flight display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nataupsky, Mark; Turner, Timothy L.; Lane, Harold; Crittenden, Lucille

    1989-01-01

    Computer-generated displays are becoming increasingly popular in aerospace applications. The use of stereo 3-D technology provides an opportunity to present depth perceptions which otherwise might be lacking. In addition, the third dimension could also be used as an additional dimension along which information can be encoded. Historically, the stereo 3-D displays have been used in entertainment, in experimental facilities, and in the handling of hazardous waste. In the last example, the source of the stereo images generally has been remotely controlled television camera pairs. The development of a stereo 3-D pictorial primary flight display used in a flight simulation environment is described. The applicability of stereo 3-D displays for aerospace crew stations to meet the anticipated needs for 2000 to 2020 time frame is investigated. Although, the actual equipment that could be used in an aerospace vehicle is not currently available, the lab research is necessary to determine where stereo 3-D enhances the display of information and how the displays should be formatted.

  13. "Stereo Compton cameras" for the 3-D localization of radioisotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, K.; Kataoka, J.; Nishiyama, T.; Fujita, T.; Kishimoto, A.; Ohsuka, S.; Nakamura, S.; Adachi, S.; Hirayanagi, M.; Uchiyama, T.; Ishikawa, Y.; Kato, T.

    2014-11-01

    The Compton camera is a viable and convenient tool used to visualize the distribution of radioactive isotopes that emit gamma rays. After the nuclear disaster in Fukushima in 2011, there is a particularly urgent need to develop "gamma cameras", which can visualize the distribution of such radioisotopes. In response, we propose a portable Compton camera, which comprises 3-D position-sensitive GAGG scintillators coupled with thin monolithic MPPC arrays. The pulse-height ratio of two MPPC-arrays allocated at both ends of the scintillator block determines the depth of interaction (DOI), which dramatically improves the position resolution of the scintillation detectors. We report on the detailed optimization of the detector design, based on Geant4 simulation. The results indicate that detection efficiency reaches up to 0.54%, or more than 10 times that of other cameras being tested in Fukushima, along with a moderate angular resolution of 8.1° (FWHM). By applying the triangular surveying method, we also propose a new concept for the stereo measurement of gamma rays by using two Compton cameras, thus enabling the 3-D positional measurement of radioactive isotopes for the first time. From one point source simulation data, we ensured that the source position and the distance to the same could be determined typically to within 2 meters' accuracy and we also confirmed that more than two sources are clearly separated by the event selection from two point sources of simulation data.

  14. On-screen-display (OSD) menu detection for proper stereo content reproduction for 3D TV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstaya, Ekaterina V.; Bucha, Victor V.; Rychagov, Michael N.

    2011-03-01

    Modern consumer 3D TV sets are able to show video content in two different modes: 2D and 3D. In 3D mode, stereo pair comes from external device such as Blue-ray player, satellite receivers etc. The stereo pair is split into left and right images that are shown one after another. The viewer sees different image for left and right eyes using shutter-glasses properly synchronized with a 3DTV. Besides, some devices that provide TV with a stereo content are able to display some additional information by imposing an overlay picture on video content, an On-Screen-Display (OSD) menu. Some OSDs are not always 3D compatible and lead to incorrect 3D reproduction. In this case, TV set must recognize the type of OSD, whether it is 3D compatible, and visualize it correctly by either switching off stereo mode, or continue demonstration of stereo content. We propose a new stable method for detection of 3D incompatible OSD menus on stereo content. Conventional OSD is a rectangular area with letters and pictograms. OSD menu can be of different transparency levels and colors. To be 3D compatible, an OSD is overlaid separately on both images of a stereo pair. The main problem in detecting OSD is to distinguish whether the color difference is due to OSD presence, or due to stereo parallax. We applied special techniques to find reliable image difference and additionally used a cue that usually OSD has very implicit geometrical features: straight parallel lines. The developed algorithm was tested on our video sequences database, with several types of OSD with different colors and transparency levels overlaid upon video content. Detection quality exceeded 99% of true answers.

  15. Amazing Space: Explanations, Investigations, & 3D Visualizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, Frank

    2011-05-01

    The Amazing Space website is STScI's online resource for communicating Hubble discoveries and other astronomical wonders to students and teachers everywhere. Our team has developed a broad suite of materials, readings, activities, and visuals that are not only engaging and exciting, but also standards-based and fully supported so that they can be easily used within state and national curricula. These products include stunning imagery, grade-level readings, trading card games, online interactives, and scientific visualizations. We are currently exploring the potential use of stereo 3D in astronomy education.

  16. Multiple footprint stereo algorithms for 3D display content generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boughorbel, Faysal

    2007-02-01

    This research focuses on the conversion of stereoscopic video material into an image + depth format which is suitable for rendering on the multiview auto-stereoscopic displays of Philips. The recent interest shown in the movie industry for 3D significantly increased the availability of stereo material. In this context the conversion from stereo to the input formats of 3D displays becomes an important task. In this paper we present a stereo algorithm that uses multiple footprints generating several depth candidates for each image pixel. We characterize the various matching windows and we devise a robust strategy for extracting high quality estimates from the resulting depth candidates. The proposed algorithm is based on a surface filtering method that employs simultaneously the available depth estimates in a small local neighborhood while ensuring correct depth discontinuities by the inclusion of image constraints. The resulting highquality image-aligned depth maps proved an excellent match with our 3D displays.

  17. Stereo and motion in the display of 3-D scattergrams

    SciTech Connect

    Littlefield, R.J.

    1982-04-01

    A display technique is described that is useful for detecting structure in a 3-dimensional distribution of points. The technique uses a high resolution color raster display to produce a 3-D scattergram. Depth cueing is provided by motion parallax using a capture-replay mechanism. Stereo vision depth cues can also be provided. The paper discusses some general aspects of stereo scattergrams and describes their implementation as red/green anaglyphs. These techniques have been used with data sets containing over 20,000 data points. They can be implemented on relatively inexpensive hardware. (A film of the display was shown at the conference.)

  18. The 3D Heliosphere: What Can We Learn from STEREO?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, S. T.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Many techniques have been used to study the 3D heliosphere, with the earliest probably being the analysis of comet tails. I will list most of these and mention a few, focusing on existing multi-point studies. The result, from more than 50 years of study, Is that a lot is known. This has led to a good picture of the quasi-steady heliosphere and its relation to the 3D Corona. But, there are also some large gaps and STEREO is designed to address one of these: the timing, size, geometry, mass, speed, direction, and 3D propagation of Corona[ mass ejections (CMEs). In spite of the statistical analysis of a large data archive, Imaginative use of in situ and remote measurements, and extensive modeling, these properties of CMES are poorly known. I will outline an example of how STEREO instruments might work together to develop a far better 30 description of CMEs In the 3D heliosphere and note that other examples are described in the Science Definition Team report and in the Science Objectives given by the four instrument teams. Since the two STEREO spacecraft are not intended to work in isolation, I will also outline how they might be used In combination With ground-based and other spacecraft observations.

  19. Gamma/x-ray linear pushbroom stereo for 3D cargo inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhigang; Hu, Yu-Chi

    2006-05-01

    For evaluating the contents of trucks, containers, cargo, and passenger vehicles by a non-intrusive gamma-ray or X-ray imaging system to determine the possible presence of contraband, three-dimensional (3D) measurements could provide more information than 2D measurements. In this paper, a linear pushbroom scanning model is built for such a commonly used gamma-ray or x-ray cargo inspection system. Accurate 3D measurements of the objects inside a cargo can be obtained by using two such scanning systems with different scanning angles to construct a pushbroom stereo system. A simple but robust calibration method is proposed to find the important parameters of the linear pushbroom sensors. Then, a fast and automated stereo matching algorithm based on free-form deformable registration is developed to obtain 3D measurements of the objects under inspection. A user interface is designed for 3D visualization of the objects in interests. Experimental results of sensor calibration, stereo matching, 3D measurements and visualization of a 3D cargo container and the objects inside, are presented.

  20. Impact of Building Heights on 3d Urban Density Estimation from Spaceborne Stereo Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Feifei; Gong, Jianya; Wang, Le; Wu, Huayi; Yang, Jiansi

    2016-06-01

    In urban planning and design applications, visualization of built up areas in three dimensions (3D) is critical for understanding building density, but the accurate building heights required for 3D density calculation are not always available. To solve this problem, spaceborne stereo imagery is often used to estimate building heights; however estimated building heights might include errors. These errors vary between local areas within a study area and related to the heights of the building themselves, distorting 3D density estimation. The impact of building height accuracy on 3D density estimation must be determined across and within a study area. In our research, accurate planar information from city authorities is used during 3D density estimation as reference data, to avoid the errors inherent to planar information extracted from remotely sensed imagery. Our experimental results show that underestimation of building heights is correlated to underestimation of the Floor Area Ratio (FAR). In local areas, experimental results show that land use blocks with low FAR values often have small errors due to small building height errors for low buildings in the blocks; and blocks with high FAR values often have large errors due to large building height errors for high buildings in the blocks. Our study reveals that the accuracy of 3D density estimated from spaceborne stereo imagery is correlated to heights of buildings in a scene; therefore building heights must be considered when spaceborne stereo imagery is used to estimate 3D density to improve precision.

  1. Vhrs Stereo Images for 3d Modelling of Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bujakiewicz, A.; Holc, M.

    2012-07-01

    The paper presents the project which was carried out in the Photogrammetric Laboratory of Warsaw University of Technology. The experiment is concerned with the extraction of 3D vector data for buildings creation from 3D photogrammetric model based on the Ikonos stereo images. The model was reconstructed with photogrammetric workstation - Summit Evolution combined with ArcGIS 3D platform. Accuracy of 3D model was significantly improved by use for orientation of pair of satellite images the stereo measured tie points distributed uniformly around the model area in addition to 5 control points. The RMS for model reconstructed on base of the RPC coefficients only were 16,6 m, 2,7 m and 47,4 m, for X, Y and Z coordinates, respectively. By addition of 5 control points the RMS were improved to 0,7 m, 0,7 m 1,0 m, where the best results were achieved when RMS were estimated from deviations in 17 check points (with 5 control points)and amounted to 0,4 m, 0,5 m and 0,6 m, for X, Y, and Z respectively. The extracted 3D vector data for buildings were integrated with 2D data of the ground footprints and afterwards they were used for 3D modelling of buildings in Google SketchUp software. The final results were compared with the reference data obtained from other sources. It was found that the shape of buildings (in concern to the number of details) had been reconstructed on level of LoD1, when the accuracy of these models corresponded to the level of LoD2.

  2. On the use of orientation filters for 3D reconstruction in event-driven stereo vision

    PubMed Central

    Camuñas-Mesa, Luis A.; Serrano-Gotarredona, Teresa; Ieng, Sio H.; Benosman, Ryad B.; Linares-Barranco, Bernabe

    2014-01-01

    The recently developed Dynamic Vision Sensors (DVS) sense visual information asynchronously and code it into trains of events with sub-micro second temporal resolution. This high temporal precision makes the output of these sensors especially suited for dynamic 3D visual reconstruction, by matching corresponding events generated by two different sensors in a stereo setup. This paper explores the use of Gabor filters to extract information about the orientation of the object edges that produce the events, therefore increasing the number of constraints applied to the matching algorithm. This strategy provides more reliably matched pairs of events, improving the final 3D reconstruction. PMID:24744694

  3. Micro stereo lithography and fabrication of 3D microdevices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Varadan, Vasundara V.

    1999-08-01

    Micro Stereo Lithography (MSL) is a poor man's LIGA for fabricating high aspect ratio MEMS devices in UV curable semiconducting polymers using either two computer-controlled low inertia galvanometric mirrors with the aid of focusing lens or an array of optical fibers. For 3D MEMS devices, the polymers need to have conductive and possibly piezoelectric or ferroelectric properties. Such polymers are being developed at Penn State resulting in microdevices for fluid and drug delivery. Applications may include implanted medical delivery systems, chemical and biological instruments, fluid delivery in engines, pump coolants and refrigerants for local cooling of electronic components. With the invention of organic thin film transistor, now it is possible to fabricate 3D polymeric MEMS devices with built-in-electronics similar to silicon based microelectronics. In this paper, a brief introduction of MSL system is presented followed by a detailed design and development of micro pumps using this approach.

  4. Interactive 3D Mars Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.

  5. Fusion and Visualization of HiRISE Super-Resolution, Shape-from-Shading DTM with MER Stereo 3D Reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, S.; Paar, G.; Muller, J. P.; Tao, Y.; Tyler, L.; Traxler, C.; Hesina, G.; Huber, B.; Nauschnegg, B.

    2014-12-01

    The FP7-SPACE project PRoViDE has assembled a major portion of the imaging data gathered so far from rover vehicles, landers and probes on extra-terrestrial planetary surfaces into a unique database, bringing them into a common planetary geospatial context and providing access to a complete set of 3D vision products. One major aim of PRoViDE is the fusion between orbiter and rover image products. To close the gap between HiRISE imaging resolution (down to 25cm for the OrthoRectified image (ORI), down to 1m for the DTM) and surface vision products, images from multiple HiRISE acquisitions are combined into a super resolution data set (Tao & Muller, 2014), increasing to 5cm resolution the Ortho images. Furthermore, shape-from-shading is applied to one of the ORIs at its original resolution for refinement of the HiRISE DTM, leading to DTM ground resolutions of up to 25 cm. After texture-based co-registration with these refined orbiter 3D products, MER PanCam and NavCam 3D image products can be smoothly pasted into a multi-resolution 3D data representation. Typical results from the MER mission are presented by a dedicated real-time rendering tool which is fed by a hierarchical 3D data structure that is able to cope with all involved scales from global planetary scale down to close-up reconstructions in the mm range. This allows us to explore and analyze the geological characteristics of rock outcrops, for example the detailed geometry and internal features of sedimentary rock layers, to aid paleoenvironmental interpretation. This integrated approach enables more efficient development of geological models of martian rock outcrops. The rendering tool also provides measurement tools to obtain geospatial data of surface points and distances between them. We report on novel scientific use cases and the added value potential of the resultant high-quality data set and presentation means to support further geologic investigations. The research leading to these results has

  6. Arena3D: visualization of biological networks in 3D

    PubMed Central

    Pavlopoulos, Georgios A; O'Donoghue, Seán I; Satagopam, Venkata P; Soldatos, Theodoros G; Pafilis, Evangelos; Schneider, Reinhard

    2008-01-01

    Background Complexity is a key problem when visualizing biological networks; as the number of entities increases, most graphical views become incomprehensible. Our goal is to enable many thousands of entities to be visualized meaningfully and with high performance. Results We present a new visualization tool, Arena3D, which introduces a new concept of staggered layers in 3D space. Related data – such as proteins, chemicals, or pathways – can be grouped onto separate layers and arranged via layout algorithms, such as Fruchterman-Reingold, distance geometry, and a novel hierarchical layout. Data on a layer can be clustered via k-means, affinity propagation, Markov clustering, neighbor joining, tree clustering, or UPGMA ('unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean'). A simple input format defines the name and URL for each node, and defines connections or similarity scores between pairs of nodes. The use of Arena3D is illustrated with datasets related to Huntington's disease. Conclusion Arena3D is a user friendly visualization tool that is able to visualize biological or any other network in 3D space. It is free for academic use and runs on any platform. It can be downloaded or lunched directly from . Java3D library and Java 1.5 need to be pre-installed for the software to run. PMID:19040715

  7. 3D Visualization for Phoenix Mars Lander Science Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Laurence; Keely, Leslie; Lees, David; Stoker, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Planetary surface exploration missions present considerable operational challenges in the form of substantial communication delays, limited communication windows, and limited communication bandwidth. A 3D visualization software was developed and delivered to the 2008 Phoenix Mars Lander (PML) mission. The components of the system include an interactive 3D visualization environment called Mercator, terrain reconstruction software called the Ames Stereo Pipeline, and a server providing distributed access to terrain models. The software was successfully utilized during the mission for science analysis, site understanding, and science operations activity planning. A terrain server was implemented that provided distribution of terrain models from a central repository to clients running the Mercator software. The Ames Stereo Pipeline generates accurate, high-resolution, texture-mapped, 3D terrain models from stereo image pairs. These terrain models can then be visualized within the Mercator environment. The central cross-cutting goal for these tools is to provide an easy-to-use, high-quality, full-featured visualization environment that enhances the mission science team s ability to develop low-risk productive science activity plans. In addition, for the Mercator and Viz visualization environments, extensibility and adaptability to different missions and application areas are key design goals.

  8. Teaching Geography with 3-D Visualization Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthamatten, Peter; Ziegler, Susy S.

    2006-01-01

    Technology that helps students view images in three dimensions (3-D) can support a broad range of learning styles. "Geo-Wall systems" are visualization tools that allow scientists, teachers, and students to project stereographic images and view them in 3-D. We developed and presented 3-D visualization exercises in several undergraduate courses.…

  9. Stereo-vision based 3D modeling for unmanned ground vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Se, Stephen; Jasiobedzki, Piotr

    2007-04-01

    Instant Scene Modeler (iSM) is a vision system for generating calibrated photo-realistic 3D models of unknown environments quickly using stereo image sequences. Equipped with iSM, Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) can capture stereo images and create 3D models to be sent back to the base station, while they explore unknown environments. Rapid access to 3D models will increase the operator situational awareness and allow better mission planning and execution, as the models can be visualized from different views and used for relative measurements. Current military operations of UGVs in urban warfare threats involve the operator hand-sketching the environment from live video feed. iSM eliminates the need for an additional operator as the 3D model is generated automatically. The photo-realism of the models enhances the situational awareness of the mission and the models can also be used for change detection. iSM has been tested on our autonomous vehicle to create photo-realistic 3D models while the rover traverses in unknown environments. Moreover, a proof-of-concept iSM payload has been mounted on an iRobot PackBot with Wayfarer technology, which is equipped with autonomous urban reconnaissance capabilities. The Wayfarer PackBot UGV uses wheel odometry for localization and builds 2D occupancy grid maps from a laser sensor. While the UGV is following walls and avoiding obstacles, iSM captures and processes images to create photo-realistic 3D models. Experimental results show that iSM can complement Wayfarer PackBot's autonomous navigation in two ways. The photo-realistic 3D models provide better situational awareness than 2D grid maps. Moreover, iSM also recovers the camera motion, also known as the visual odometry. As wheel odometry error grows over time, this can help improve the wheel odometry for better localization.

  10. 3D Scientific Visualization with Blender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Brian R.

    2015-03-01

    This is the first book written on using Blender for scientific visualization. It is a practical and interesting introduction to Blender for understanding key parts of 3D rendering and animation that pertain to the sciences via step-by-step guided tutorials. 3D Scientific Visualization with Blender takes you through an understanding of 3D graphics and modelling for different visualization scenarios in the physical sciences.

  11. 3d visualization of atomistic simulations on every desktop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peled, Dan; Silverman, Amihai; Adler, Joan

    2013-08-01

    Once upon a time, after making simulations, one had to go to a visualization center with fancy SGI machines to run a GL visualization and make a movie. More recently, OpenGL and its mesa clone have let us create 3D on simple desktops (or laptops), whether or not a Z-buffer card is present. Today, 3D a la Avatar is a commodity technique, presented in cinemas and sold for home TV. However, only a few special research centers have systems large enough for entire classes to view 3D, or special immersive facilities like visualization CAVEs or walls, and not everyone finds 3D immersion easy to view. For maximum physics with minimum effort a 3D system must come to each researcher and student. So how do we create 3D visualization cheaply on every desktop for atomistic simulations? After several months of attempts to select commodity equipment for a whole room system, we selected an approach that goes back a long time, even predating GL. The old concept of anaglyphic stereo relies on two images, slightly displaced, and viewed through colored glasses, or two squares of cellophane from a regular screen/projector or poster. We have added this capability to our AViz atomistic visualization code in its new, 6.1 version, which is RedHat, CentOS and Ubuntu compatible. Examples using data from our own research and that of other groups will be given.

  12. 3D Visualization of Recent Sumatra Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Atul; Kilb, Debi

    2005-04-01

    Scientists and visualization experts at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography have created an interactive three-dimensional visualization of the 28 March 2005 magnitude 8.7 earthquake in Sumatra. The visualization shows the earthquake's hypocenter and aftershocks recorded until 29 March 2005, and compares it with the location of the 26 December 2004 magnitude 9 event and the consequent seismicity in that region. The 3D visualization was created using the Fledermaus software developed by Interactive Visualization Systems (http://www.ivs.unb.ca/) and stored as a ``scene'' file. To view this visualization, viewers need to download and install the free viewer program iView3D (http://www.ivs3d.com/products/iview3d).

  13. 3-D Flyover Visualization of Veil Nebula

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D visualization flies across a small portion of the Veil Nebula as photographed by the Hubble Space Telescope. This region is a small part of a huge expanding remnant from a star that explod...

  14. Stereo and IMU-Assisted Visual Odometry for Small Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    This software performs two functions: (1) taking stereo image pairs as input, it computes stereo disparity maps from them by cross-correlation to achieve 3D (three-dimensional) perception; (2) taking a sequence of stereo image pairs as input, it tracks features in the image sequence to estimate the motion of the cameras between successive image pairs. A real-time stereo vision system with IMU (inertial measurement unit)-assisted visual odometry was implemented on a single 750 MHz/520 MHz OMAP3530 SoC (system on chip) from TI (Texas Instruments). Frame rates of 46 fps (frames per second) were achieved at QVGA (Quarter Video Graphics Array i.e. 320 240), or 8 fps at VGA (Video Graphics Array 640 480) resolutions, while simultaneously tracking up to 200 features, taking full advantage of the OMAP3530's integer DSP (digital signal processor) and floating point ARM processors. This is a substantial advancement over previous work as the stereo implementation produces 146 Mde/s (millions of disparities evaluated per second) in 2.5W, yielding a stereo energy efficiency of 58.8 Mde/J, which is 3.75 better than prior DSP stereo while providing more functionality.

  15. Development of visual 3D virtual environment for control software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirose, Michitaka; Myoi, Takeshi; Amari, Haruo; Inamura, Kohei; Stark, Lawrence

    1991-01-01

    Virtual environments for software visualization may enable complex programs to be created and maintained. A typical application might be for control of regional electric power systems. As these encompass broader computer networks than ever, construction of such systems becomes very difficult. Conventional text-oriented environments are useful in programming individual processors. However, they are obviously insufficient to program a large and complicated system, that includes large numbers of computers connected to each other; such programming is called 'programming in the large.' As a solution for this problem, the authors are developing a graphic programming environment wherein one can visualize complicated software in virtual 3D world. One of the major features of the environment is the 3D representation of concurrent process. 3D representation is used to supply both network-wide interprocess programming capability (capability for 'programming in the large') and real-time programming capability. The authors' idea is to fuse both the block diagram (which is useful to check relationship among large number of processes or processors) and the time chart (which is useful to check precise timing for synchronization) into a single 3D space. The 3D representation gives us a capability for direct and intuitive planning or understanding of complicated relationship among many concurrent processes. To realize the 3D representation, a technology to enable easy handling of virtual 3D object is a definite necessity. Using a stereo display system and a gesture input device (VPL DataGlove), our prototype of the virtual workstation has been implemented. The workstation can supply the 'sensation' of the virtual 3D space to a programmer. Software for the 3D programming environment is implemented on the workstation. According to preliminary assessments, a 50 percent reduction of programming effort is achieved by using the virtual 3D environment. The authors expect that the 3D

  16. Spatial Visualization by Realistic 3D Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yue, Jianping

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the popular Purdue Spatial Visualization Test-Visualization by Rotations (PSVT-R) in isometric drawings was recreated with CAD software that allows 3D solid modeling and rendering to provide more realistic pictorial views. Both the original and the modified PSVT-R tests were given to students and their scores on the two tests were…

  17. 3D Visualization Development of SIUE Campus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nellutla, Shravya

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has progressed from the traditional map-making to the modern technology where the information can be created, edited, managed and analyzed. Like any other models, maps are simplified representations of real world. Hence visualization plays an essential role in the applications of GIS. The use of sophisticated visualization tools and methods, especially three dimensional (3D) modeling, has been rising considerably due to the advancement of technology. There are currently many off-the-shelf technologies available in the market to build 3D GIS models. One of the objectives of this research was to examine the available ArcGIS and its extensions for 3D modeling and visualization and use them to depict a real world scenario. Furthermore, with the advent of the web, a platform for accessing and sharing spatial information on the Internet, it is possible to generate interactive online maps. Integrating Internet capacity with GIS functionality redefines the process of sharing and processing the spatial information. Enabling a 3D map online requires off-the-shelf GIS software, 3D model builders, web server, web applications and client server technologies. Such environments are either complicated or expensive because of the amount of hardware and software involved. Therefore, the second objective of this research was to investigate and develop simpler yet cost-effective 3D modeling approach that uses available ArcGIS suite products and the free 3D computer graphics software for designing 3D world scenes. Both ArcGIS Explorer and ArcGIS Online will be used to demonstrate the way of sharing and distributing 3D geographic information on the Internet. A case study of the development of 3D campus for the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville is demonstrated.

  18. Implementation of a Self-Consistent Stereo Processing Chain for 3D Stereo Reconstruction of the Lunar Landing Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasdelen, E.; Willner, K.; Unbekannt, H.; Glaeser, P.; Oberst, J.

    2014-04-01

    The department for Planetary Geodesy at TU Berlin is developing routines for photogrammetric processing of planetary image data to derive 3D representations of planetary surfaces. The ISIS software [1], developed by USGS, Flagstaff, is readily available, open source, and very well documented. Hence, ISIS was chosen as a prime processing platform and tool kit. However, ISIS does not provide a full photogrammetric stereo processing chain. Several components like image matching, bundle block adjustment (until recently) or digital terrain model (DTM) interpolation from 3D object points are missing. Our group aims to complete this photogrammetric stereo processing chain by implementing the missing components, taking advantage of already existing ISIS classes and functionality. With this abstract we would like to report on the development of our stereo processing chain and its first application on the Lunar Apollo landing sites.

  19. Implementation of a Self-Consistent Stereo Processing Chain for 3D Stereo Reconstruction of the Lunar Landing Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasdelen, E.; Willner, K.; Unbekannt, H.; Glaeser, P.; Oberst, J.

    2014-04-01

    The department for Planetary Geodesy at Technical University Berlin is developing routines for photogrammetric processing of planetary image data to derive 3D representations of planetary surfaces. The Integrated Software for Imagers and Spectrometers (ISIS) software (Anderson et al., 2004), developed by USGS, Flagstaff, is readily available, open source, and very well documented. Hence, ISIS was chosen as a prime processing platform and tool kit. However, ISIS does not provide a full photogrammetric stereo processing chain. Several components like image matching, bundle block adjustment (until recently) or digital terrain model (DTM) interpolation from 3D object points are missing. Our group aims to complete this photogrammetric stereo processing chain by implementing the missing components, taking advantage of already existing ISIS classes and functionality. We report here on the current status of the development of our stereo processing chain and its first application on the Lunar Apollo landing sites.

  20. Illustrative visualization of 3D city models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doellner, Juergen; Buchholz, Henrik; Nienhaus, Marc; Kirsch, Florian

    2005-03-01

    This paper presents an illustrative visualization technique that provides expressive representations of large-scale 3D city models, inspired by the tradition of artistic and cartographic visualizations typically found in bird"s-eye view and panoramic maps. We define a collection of city model components and a real-time multi-pass rendering algorithm that achieves comprehensible, abstract 3D city model depictions based on edge enhancement, color-based and shadow-based depth cues, and procedural facade texturing. Illustrative visualization provides an effective visual interface to urban spatial information and associated thematic information complementing visual interfaces based on the Virtual Reality paradigm, offering a huge potential for graphics design. Primary application areas include city and landscape planning, cartoon worlds in computer games, and tourist information systems.

  1. Visual inertia of rotating 3-D objects.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Y; Pantle, A J; Mark, L S

    1998-02-01

    Five experiments were designed to determine whether a rotating, transparent 3-D cloud of dots (simulated sphere) could influence the perceived direction of rotation of a subsequent sphere. Experiment 1 established conditions under which the direction of rotation of a virtual sphere was perceived unambiguously. When a near-far luminance difference and perspective depth cues were present, observers consistently saw the sphere rotate in the intended direction. In Experiment 2, a near-far luminance difference was used to create an unambiguous rotation sequence that was followed by a directionally ambiguous rotation sequence that lacked both the near-far luminance cue and the perspective cue. Observers consistently saw the second sequence as rotating in the same direction as the first, indicating the presence of 3-D visual inertia. Experiment 3 showed that 3-D visual inertia was sufficiently powerful to bias the perceived direction of a rotation sequence made unambiguous by a near-far luminance cue. Experiment 5 showed that 3-D visual inertia could be obtained using an occlusion depth cue to create an unambiguous inertia-inducing sequence. Finally, Experiments 2, 4, and 5 all revealed a fast-decay phase of inertia that lasted for approximately 800 msec, followed by an asymptotic phase that lasted for periods as long as 1,600 msec. The implications of these findings are examined with respect to motion mechanisms of 3-D visual inertia. PMID:9529911

  2. Implementation of wireless 3D stereo image capture system and 3D exaggeration algorithm for the region of interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, Woonchul; Song, Chulgyu; Lee, Kangsan; Badarch, Luubaatar

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we introduce the mobile embedded system implemented for capturing stereo image based on two CMOS camera module. We use WinCE as an operating system and capture the stereo image by using device driver for CMOS camera interface and Direct Draw API functions. We aslo comments on the GPU hardware and CUDA programming for implementation of 3D exaggeraion algorithm for ROI by adjusting and synthesizing the disparity value of ROI (region of interest) in real time. We comment on the pattern of aperture for deblurring of CMOS camera module based on the Kirchhoff diffraction formula and clarify the reason why we can get more sharp and clear image by blocking some portion of aperture or geometric sampling. Synthesized stereo image is real time monitored on the shutter glass type three-dimensional LCD monitor and disparity values of each segment are analyzed to prove the validness of emphasizing effect of ROI.

  3. 3D Modeling of CMEs observed with STEREO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosman, E.; Bothmer, V.

    2012-04-01

    From January 2007 until end of 2010, 565 typical large-scale coronal mass ejections (CMEs) have been identified in the SECCHI/COR2 synoptic movies of the STEREO Mission. A subset comprising 114 CME events, selected based on the CME's brightness appearance in the SECCHI/COR2 images, has been modeled through the Graduated Cylindrical Shell (GCS) Model developed by Thernisien et al. (2006). This study presents an overview of the GCS forward-modeling results and an interpretation of the CME characteristics in relationship to their solar source region properties and solar cycle appearances.

  4. Visualization of liver in 3-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chin-Tu; Chou, Jin-Shin; Giger, Maryellen L.; Kahn, Charles E., Jr.; Bae, Kyongtae T.; Lin, Wei-Chung

    1991-05-01

    Visualization of the liver in three dimensions (3-D) can improve the accuracy of volumetric estimation and also aid in surgical planning. We have developed a method for 3-D visualization of the liver using x-ray computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) images. This method includes four major components: (1) segmentation algorithms for extracting liver data from tomographic images; (2) interpolation techniques for both shape and intensity; (3) schemes for volume rendering and display, and (4) routines for electronic surgery and image analysis. This method has been applied to cases from a living-donor liver transplant project and appears to be useful for surgical planning.

  5. Computing 3-D structure of rigid objects using stereo and motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Thinh V.

    1987-01-01

    Work performed as a step toward an intelligent automatic machine vision system for 3-D imaging is discussed. The problem considered is the quantitative 3-D reconstruction of rigid objects. Motion and stereo are the two clues considered in this system. The system basically consists of three processes: the low level process to extract image features, the middle level process to establish the correspondence in the stereo (spatial) and motion (temporal) modalities, and the high level process to compute the 3-D coordinates of the corner points by integrating the spatial and temporal correspondences.

  6. Recent research results in stereo 3-D pictorial displays at Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Russell V.; Busquets, Anthony M.; Williams, Steven P.

    1990-01-01

    Recent results from a NASA-Langley program which addressed stereo 3D pictorial displays from a comprehensive standpoint are reviewed. The program dealt with human factors issues and display technology aspects, as well as flight display applications. The human factors findings include addressing a fundamental issue challenging the application of stereoscopic displays in head-down flight applications, with the determination that stereoacuity is unaffected by the short-term use of stereo 3D displays. While stereoacuity has been a traditional measurement of depth perception abilities, it is a measure of relative depth, rather than actual depth (absolute depth). Therefore, depth perception effects based on size and distance judgments and long-term stereo exposure remain issues to be investigated. The applications of stereo 3D to pictorial flight displays within the program have repeatedly demonstrated increases in pilot situational awareness and task performance improvements. Moreover, these improvements have been obtained within the constraints of the limited viewing volume available with conventional stereo displays. A number of stereo 3D pictorial display applications are described, including recovery from flight-path offset, helicopter hover, and emulated helmet-mounted display.

  7. X-ray stereo imaging for micro 3D motions within non-transparent objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salih, Wasil H. M.; Buytaert, Jan A. N.; Dirckx, Joris J. J.

    2012-03-01

    We propose a new technique to measure the 3D motion of marker points along a straight path within an object using x-ray stereo projections. From recordings of two x-ray projections with 90° separation angle, the 3D coordinates of marker points can be determined. By synchronizing the x-ray exposure time to the motion event, a moving marker leaves a trace in the image of which the gray scale is linearly proportional to the marker velocity. From the gray scale along the motion path, the 3D motion (velocity) is obtained. The path of motion was reconstructed and compared with the applied waveform. The results showed that the accuracy is in order of 5%. The difference of displacement amplitude between the new method and laser vibrometry was less than 5μm. We demonstrated the method on the malleus ossicle motion in the gerbil middle ear as a function of pressure applied on the eardrum. The new method has the advantage over existing methods such as laser vibrometry that the structures under study do not need to be visually exposed. Due to the short measurement time and the high resolution, the method can be useful in the field of biomechanics for a variety of applications.

  8. Techniques for interactive 3-D scientific visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Glinert, E.P. . Dept. of Computer Science); Blattner, M.M. Hospital and Tumor Inst., Houston, TX . Dept. of Biomathematics California Univ., Davis, CA . Dept. of Applied Science Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA ); Becker, B.G. . Dept. of Applied Science Lawrence Livermore National La

    1990-09-24

    Interest in interactive 3-D graphics has exploded of late, fueled by (a) the allure of using scientific visualization to go where no-one has gone before'' and (b) by the development of new input devices which overcome some of the limitations imposed in the past by technology, yet which may be ill-suited to the kinds of interaction required by researchers active in scientific visualization. To resolve this tension, we propose a flat 5-D'' environment in which 2-D graphics are augmented by exploiting multiple human sensory modalities using cheap, conventional hardware readily available with personal computers and workstations. We discuss how interactions basic to 3-D scientific visualization, like searching a solution space and comparing two such spaces, are effectively carried out in our environment. Finally, we describe 3DMOVE, an experimental microworld we have implemented to test out some of our ideas. 40 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Stereo 3D vision adapter using commercial DIY goods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Kunio; Ohara, Takashi

    2009-10-01

    The conventional display can show only one screen, but it is impossible to enlarge the size of a screen, for example twice. Meanwhile the mirror supplies us with the same image but this mirror image is usually upside down. Assume that the images on an original screen and a virtual screen in the mirror are completely different and both images can be displayed independently. It would be possible to enlarge a screen area twice. This extension method enables the observers to show the virtual image plane and to enlarge a screen area twice. Although the displaying region is doubled, this virtual display could not produce 3D images. In this paper, we present an extension method using a unidirectional diffusing image screen and an improvement for displaying a 3D image using orthogonal polarized image projection.

  10. Java 3D Interactive Visualization for Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, K.; Edirisinghe, D.; Lingerfelt, E. J.; Guidry, M. W.

    2003-05-01

    We are developing a series of interactive 3D visualization tools that employ the Java 3D API. We have applied this approach initially to a simple 3-dimensional galaxy collision model (restricted 3-body approximation), with quite satisfactory results. Running either as an applet under Web browser control, or as a Java standalone application, this program permits real-time zooming, panning, and 3-dimensional rotation of the galaxy collision simulation under user mouse and keyboard control. We shall also discuss applications of this technology to 3-dimensional visualization for other problems of astrophysical interest such as neutron star mergers and the time evolution of element/energy production networks in X-ray bursts. *Managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  11. Rigid Body Motion in Stereo 3D Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the difficulties experienced by first-grade students studying rigid body motion at Sofia University. Most quantities describing the rigid body are in relations that the students find hard to visualize and understand. They also lose the notion of cause-result relations between vector quantities, such as the relation between…

  12. Photorealistic 3D omni-directional stereo simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiners, Dirk; Cruz-Neira, Carolina; Neumann, Carsten

    2015-03-01

    While a lot of areas in VR have made significant advances, visual rendering in VR is often not quite keeping up with the state of the art. There are many reasons for this, but one way to alleviate some of the issues is by using ray tracing instead of rasterization for image generation. Contrary to popular belief, ray tracing is a realistic, competitive technology nowadays. This paper looks at the pros and cons of using ray tracing and demonstrates the feasibility of employing it using the example of a helicopter flight simulator image generator.

  13. Digital mono- and 3D stereo-photogrammetry for geological and geomorphological mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scapozza, Cristian; Schenker, Filippo Luca; Castelletti, Claudio; Bozzini, Claudio; Ambrosi, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The generalization of application of digital tools for managing, mapping and updating geological data have become widely accepted in the last decennia. Despite the increasing quality and availability of digital topographical maps, orthorectified aerial photographs (orthophotos) and high resolution (5 up to 0.5 m) Digital Elevation Models (DEMs), a correct recognition of the kind, the nature and the boundaries of geological formations and geomophological landforms, unconsolidated sedimentary deposits or slope instabilities is often very difficult on conventional two-dimensional (2D) products, in particular in steep zones (rock walls and talus slopes), under the forest cover, for a very complex topography and in deeply urbanised zones. In many cases, photo-interpretative maps drawn only by 2D data sets must be improved by field verifications or, at least, by field oblique photographs. This is logical, because our natural perception of the real world is three-dimensional (3D), which is partially disabled by the application of 2D visualization techniques. Here we present some examples of application of digital mapping based on a 3D visualization (for aerial and satellite images photo-interpretation) or on a terrestrial perception by digital mono-photogrammetry (for oblique photographs). The 3D digital mapping was performed thanks to an extension of the software ESRI® ArcGIS™ called ArcGDS™. This methodology was also applied on historical aerial photographs (normally analysed by optical stereo-photogrammetry), which were digitized by scanning and then oriented and aero-triangulated thanks to the ArcGDS™ software, allowing the 3D visualisation and the mapping in a GIS environment (Ambrosi and Scapozza, 2015). The mono-photogrammetry (or monoplotting) is the technique of photogrammetrical georeferentiation of single oblique unrectified photographs, which are related to a DEM. In other words, the monoplotting allows relating each pixel of the photograph to the

  14. A stereo matching model observer for stereoscopic viewing of 3D medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Gezheng; Markey, Mia K.; Muralidlhar, Gautam S.

    2014-03-01

    Stereoscopic viewing of 3D medical imaging data has the potential to increase the detection of abnormalities. We present a new stereo model observer inspired by the characteristics of stereopsis in human vision. Given a stereo pair of images of an object (i.e., left and right images separated by a small displacement), the model observer rst nds the corresponding points between the two views, and then fuses them together to create a 2D cyclopean view. Assuming that the cyclopean view has extracted most of the 3D information presented in the stereo pair, a channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) can be utilized to make decisions. We conduct a simulation study that attempts to mimic the detection of breast lesions on stereoscopic viewing of breast tomosynthesis projection images. We render voxel datasets that contain random 3D power-law noise to model normal breast tissues with various breast densities. 3D Gaussian signal is added to some of the datasets to model the presence of a breast lesion. By changing the separation angle between the two views, multiple stereo pairs of projection images are generated for each voxel dataset. The performance of the model is evaluated in terms of the accuracy of binary decisions on the presence of the simulated lesions.

  15. Online Stereo 3D Simulation in Studying the Spherical Pendulum in Conservative Force Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabunov, Svetoslav S.

    2013-01-01

    The current paper aims at presenting a modern e-learning method and tool that is utilized in teaching physics in the universities. An online stereo 3D simulation is used for e-learning mechanics and specifically the teaching of spherical pendulum as part of the General Physics course for students in the universities. This approach was realized on…

  16. 3D visualization of polymer nanostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, James H

    2009-01-01

    Soft materials and structured polymers are extremely useful nanotechnology building blocks. Block copolymers, in particular, have served as 2D masks for nanolithography and 3D scaffolds for photonic crystals, nanoparticle fabrication, and solar cells. F or many of these applications, the precise 3 dimensional structure and the number and type of defects in the polymer is important for ultimate function. However, directly visualizing the 3D structure of a soft material from the nanometer to millimeter length scales is a significant technical challenge. Here, we propose to develop the instrumentation needed for direct 3D structure determination at near nanometer resolution throughout a nearly millimeter-cubed volume of a soft, potentially heterogeneous, material. This new capability will be a valuable research tool for LANL missions in chemistry, materials science, and nanoscience. Our approach to soft materials visualization builds upon exciting developments in super-resolution optical microscopy that have occurred over the past two years. To date, these new, truly revolutionary, imaging methods have been developed and almost exclusively used for biological applications. However, in addition to biological cells, these super-resolution imaging techniques hold extreme promise for direct visualization of many important nanostructured polymers and other heterogeneous chemical systems. Los Alamos has a unique opportunity to lead the development of these super-resolution imaging methods for problems of chemical rather than biological significance. While these optical methods are limited to systems transparent to visible wavelengths, we stress that many important functional chemicals such as polymers, glasses, sol-gels, aerogels, or colloidal assemblies meet this requirement, with specific examples including materials designed for optical communication, manipulation, or light-harvesting Our Research Goals are: (1) Develop the instrumentation necessary for imaging materials

  17. Volumetric visualization of 3D data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Gregory; Miles, Richard

    1989-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a rapid growth in the ability to obtain detailed data on large complex structures in three dimensions. This development occurred first in the medical field, with CAT (computer aided tomography) scans and now magnetic resonance imaging, and in seismological exploration. With the advances in supercomputing and computational fluid dynamics, and in experimental techniques in fluid dynamics, there is now the ability to produce similar large data fields representing 3D structures and phenomena in these disciplines. These developments have produced a situation in which currently there is access to data which is too complex to be understood using the tools available for data reduction and presentation. Researchers in these areas are becoming limited by their ability to visualize and comprehend the 3D systems they are measuring and simulating.

  18. Image selection in photogrammetric multi-view stereo methods for metric and complete 3D reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseininaveh Ahmadabadian, Ali; Robson, Stuart; Boehm, Jan; Shortis, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Multi-View Stereo (MVS) as a low cost technique for precise 3D reconstruction can be a rival for laser scanners if the scale of the model is resolved. A fusion of stereo imaging equipment with photogrammetric bundle adjustment and MVS methods, known as photogrammetric MVS, can generate correctly scaled 3D models without using any known object distances. Although a huge number of stereo images (e.g. 200 high resolution images from a small object) captured of the object contains redundant data that allows detailed and accurate 3D reconstruction, the capture and processing time is increased when a vast amount of high resolution images are employed. Moreover, some parts of the object are often missing due to the lack of coverage of all areas. These problems demand a logical selection of the most suitable stereo camera views from the large image dataset. This paper presents a method for clustering and choosing optimal stereo or optionally single images from a large image dataset. The approach focusses on the two key steps of image clustering and iterative image selection. The method is developed within a software application called Imaging Network Designer (IND) and tested by the 3D recording of a gearbox and three metric reference objects. A comparison is made between IND and CMVS, which is a free package for selecting vantage images. The final 3D models obtained from the IND and CMVS approaches are compared with datasets generated with an MMDx Nikon Laser scanner. Results demonstrate that IND can provide a better image selection for MVS than CMVS in terms of surface coordinate uncertainty and completeness.

  19. Visualization of 3D optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hoseong; Clemens, James

    2016-05-01

    We describe the visualization of 3D optical lattices based on Sisyphus cooling implemented with open source software. We plot the adiabatic light shift potentials found by diagonalizing the effective Hamiltonian for the light shift operator. Our program incorporates a variety of atomic ground state configurations with total angular momentum ranging from j = 1 / 2 to j = 4 and a variety of laser beam configurations including the two-beam lin ⊥ lin configuration, the four-beam umbrella configuration, and four beams propagating in two orthogonal planes. In addition to visualizing the lattice the program also evaluates lattice parameters such as the oscillation frequency for atoms trapped deep in the wells. The program is intended to help guide experimental implementations of optical lattices.

  20. Opti-acoustic stereo imaging: on system calibration and 3-D target reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Negahdaripour, Shahriar; Sekkati, Hicham; Pirsiavash, Hamed

    2009-06-01

    Utilization of an acoustic camera for range measurements is a key advantage for 3-D shape recovery of underwater targets by opti-acoustic stereo imaging, where the associated epipolar geometry of optical and acoustic image correspondences can be described in terms of conic sections. In this paper, we propose methods for system calibration and 3-D scene reconstruction by maximum likelihood estimation from noisy image measurements. The recursive 3-D reconstruction method utilized as initial condition a closed-form solution that integrates the advantages of two other closed-form solutions, referred to as the range and azimuth solutions. Synthetic data tests are given to provide insight into the merits of the new target imaging and 3-D reconstruction paradigm, while experiments with real data confirm the findings based on computer simulations, and demonstrate the merits of this novel 3-D reconstruction paradigm. PMID:19380272

  1. 2D/3D Visual Tracker for Rover Mast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajracharya, Max; Madison, Richard W.; Nesnas, Issa A.; Bandari, Esfandiar; Kunz, Clayton; Deans, Matt; Bualat, Maria

    2006-01-01

    A visual-tracker computer program controls an articulated mast on a Mars rover to keep a designated feature (a target) in view while the rover drives toward the target, avoiding obstacles. Several prior visual-tracker programs have been tested on rover platforms; most require very small and well-estimated motion between consecutive image frames a requirement that is not realistic for a rover on rough terrain. The present visual-tracker program is designed to handle large image motions that lead to significant changes in feature geometry and photometry between frames. When a point is selected in one of the images acquired from stereoscopic cameras on the mast, a stereo triangulation algorithm computes a three-dimensional (3D) location for the target. As the rover moves, its body-mounted cameras feed images to a visual-odometry algorithm, which tracks two-dimensional (2D) corner features and computes their old and new 3D locations. The algorithm rejects points, the 3D motions of which are inconsistent with a rigid-world constraint, and then computes the apparent change in the rover pose (i.e., translation and rotation). The mast pan and tilt angles needed to keep the target centered in the field-of-view of the cameras (thereby minimizing the area over which the 2D-tracking algorithm must operate) are computed from the estimated change in the rover pose, the 3D position of the target feature, and a model of kinematics of the mast. If the motion between the consecutive frames is still large (i.e., 3D tracking was unsuccessful), an adaptive view-based matching technique is applied to the new image. This technique uses correlation-based template matching, in which a feature template is scaled by the ratio between the depth in the original template and the depth of pixels in the new image. This is repeated over the entire search window and the best correlation results indicate the appropriate match. The program could be a core for building application programs for systems

  2. Visualization of 3-D tensor fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesselink, L.

    1996-01-01

    Second-order tensor fields have applications in many different areas of physics, such as general relativity and fluid mechanics. The wealth of multivariate information in tensor fields makes them more complex and abstract than scalar and vector fields. Visualization is a good technique for scientists to gain new insights from them. Visualizing a 3-D continuous tensor field is equivalent to simultaneously visualizing its three eigenvector fields. In the past, research has been conducted in the area of two-dimensional tensor fields. It was shown that degenerate points, defined as points where eigenvalues are equal to each other, are the basic singularities underlying the topology of tensor fields. Moreover, it was shown that eigenvectors never cross each other except at degenerate points. Since we live in a three-dimensional world, it is important for us to understand the underlying physics of this world. In this report, we describe a new method for locating degenerate points along with the conditions for classifying them in three-dimensional space. Finally, we discuss some topological features of three-dimensional tensor fields, and interpret topological patterns in terms of physical properties.

  3. Glnemo2: Interactive Visualization 3D Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Jean-Charles

    2011-10-01

    Glnemo2 is an interactive 3D visualization program developed in C++ using the OpenGL library and Nokia QT 4.X API. It displays in 3D the particles positions of the different components of an nbody snapshot. It quickly gives a lot of information about the data (shape, density area, formation of structures such as spirals, bars, or peanuts). It allows for in/out zooms, rotations, changes of scale, translations, selection of different groups of particles and plots in different blending colors. It can color particles according to their density or temperature, play with the density threshold, trace orbits, display different time steps, take automatic screenshots to make movies, select particles using the mouse, and fly over a simulation using a given camera path. All these features are accessible from a very intuitive graphic user interface. Glnemo2 supports a wide range of input file formats (Nemo, Gadget 1 and 2, phiGrape, Ramses, list of files, realtime gyrfalcON simulation) which are automatically detected at loading time without user intervention. Glnemo2 uses a plugin mechanism to load the data, so that it is easy to add a new file reader. It's powered by a 3D engine which uses the latest OpenGL technology, such as shaders (glsl), vertex buffer object, frame buffer object, and takes in account the power of the graphic card used in order to accelerate the rendering. With a fast GPU, millions of particles can be rendered in real time. Glnemo2 runs on Linux, Windows (using minGW compiler), and MaxOSX, thanks to the QT4API.

  4. Immersive 3D Visualization of Astronomical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaaff, A.; Berthier, J.; Da Rocha, J.; Deparis, N.; Derriere, S.; Gaultier, P.; Houpin, R.; Normand, J.; Ocvirk, P.

    2015-09-01

    The immersive-3D visualization, or Virtual Reality in our study, was previously dedicated to specific uses (research, flight simulators, etc.) The investment in infrastructure and its cost was reserved to large laboratories or companies. Lately we saw the development of immersive-3D masks intended for wide distribution, for example the Oculus Rift and the Sony Morpheus projects. The usual reaction is to say that these tools are primarily intended for games since it is easy to imagine a player in a virtual environment and the added value to conventional 2D screens. Yet it is likely that there are many applications in the professional field if these tools are becoming common. Introducing this technology into existing applications or new developments makes sense only if interest is properly evaluated. The use in Astronomy is clear for education, it is easy to imagine mobile and light planetariums or to reproduce poorly accessible environments (e.g., large instruments). In contrast, in the field of professional astronomy the use is probably less obvious and it requires to conduct studies to determine the most appropriate ones and to assess the contributions compared to the other display modes.

  5. Real-Time 3D Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Butler Hine, former director of the Intelligent Mechanism Group (IMG) at Ames Research Center, and five others partnered to start Fourth Planet, Inc., a visualization company that specializes in the intuitive visual representation of dynamic, real-time data over the Internet and Intranet. Over a five-year period, the then NASA researchers performed ten robotic field missions in harsh climes to mimic the end- to-end operations of automated vehicles trekking across another world under control from Earth. The core software technology for these missions was the Virtual Environment Vehicle Interface (VEVI). Fourth Planet has released VEVI4, the fourth generation of the VEVI software, and NetVision. VEVI4 is a cutting-edge computer graphics simulation and remote control applications tool. The NetVision package allows large companies to view and analyze in virtual 3D space such things as the health or performance of their computer network or locate a trouble spot on an electric power grid. Other products are forthcoming. Fourth Planet is currently part of the NASA/Ames Technology Commercialization Center, a business incubator for start-up companies.

  6. 3-D Visualizations At (Almost) No Expense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedlock, R. L.

    2003-12-01

    Like most teaching-oriented public universities, San José State University (part of the California State University system) currently faces severe budgetary constraints. These circumstances prohibit the construction of one or more Geo-Walls on-campus. Nevertheless, the Department of Geology has pursued alternatives that enable our students to benefit from 3-D visualizations such as those used with the Geo-Wall. This experience - a sort of virtual virtuality - depends only on the availability of a computer lab and an optional plotter. Starting in June 2003, we have used the methods described here with two diverse groups of participants: middle- and high-school teachers taking professional development workshops through grants funded by NSF and NASA, and regular university students enrolled in introductory earth science and geology laboratory courses. We use two types of three-dimensional images with our students: visualizations from the on-line Gallery of Virtual Topography (Steve Reynolds), and USGS digital topographic quadrangles that have been transformed into anaglyph files for viewing with 3-D glasses. The procedure for transforming DEMs into these anaglyph files, developed by Paul Morin, is available at http://geosun.sjsu.edu/~sedlock/anaglyph.html. The resulting images can be used with students in one of two ways. First, maps can be printed on a suitable plotter, laminated (optional but preferable), and used repeatedly with different classes. Second, the images can be viewed in school computer labs or by students on their own computers. Chief advantages of the plotter option are (1) full-size maps (single or tiled) viewable in their entirety, and (2) dependability (independent of Internet connections and electrical power). Chief advantages of the computer option are (1) minimal preparation time and no other needed resources, assuming a computer lab with Internet access, and (2) students can work with the images outside of regularly scheduled courses. Both

  7. 3D Flow Visualization Using Texture Advection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Kwansik; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Texture advection is an effective tool for animating and investigating 2D flows. In this paper, we discuss how this technique can be extended to 3D flows. In particular, we examine the use of 3D and 4D textures on 3D synthetic and computational fluid dynamics flow fields.

  8. Development of 3D Image Measurement System and Stereo-matching Method, and Its Archeological Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochi, Nobuo; Ito, Tadayuki; Kitamura, Kazuo; Kaneko, Syun'ichi

    The three dimensional measurement & modeling system with digital cameras on PC is now making progress and its need and hope is increasingly felt in terrestrial (close-range) photogrammetry for such sectors as cultural heritage preservation, architecture, civil engineering, manufacturing, measurement etc. Therefore, we have developed a system to improve the accuracy of stereo-matching, which is the very core of 3D measurement. As for stereo-matching method, in order to minimize the mismatching and to be robust in geometric distortions, occlusion, as well as brightness change, we invented Coarse-to-Fine Strategy Method by integrating OCM (Orientation Code Matching) with LSM (Least Squares Matching). Thus this system could attain the accuracy of 0.26mm, when we experimented on a mannequin. And when we actually experimented on the archeological ruins in Greece and Turkey, the accuracy was within the range of 1cm, compared with their blue-print plan. Besides, formally workers used to take at least 1.5 month for this kind of survey operation with the existing method, but now workers need only 3 or 4 days. Thus, its practicality and efficiency was confirmed. This paper demonstrates our new system of 3D measurement and stereo-matching with some concrete examples as its practical application.

  9. Error control in the set-up of stereo camera systems for 3d animal tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavagna, A.; Creato, C.; Del Castello, L.; Giardina, I.; Melillo, S.; Parisi, L.; Viale, M.

    2015-12-01

    Three-dimensional tracking of animal systems is the key to the comprehension of collective behavior. Experimental data collected via a stereo camera system allow the reconstruction of the 3d trajectories of each individual in the group. Trajectories can then be used to compute some quantities of interest to better understand collective motion, such as velocities, distances between individuals and correlation functions. The reliability of the retrieved trajectories is strictly related to the accuracy of the 3d reconstruction. In this paper, we perform a careful analysis of the most significant errors affecting 3d reconstruction, showing how the accuracy depends on the camera system set-up and on the precision of the calibration parameters.

  10. 3D visual discomfort predictor: analysis of horizontal disparity and neural activity statistics.

    PubMed

    Park, Jincheol; Oh, Heeseok; Lee, Sanghoon; Bovik, Alan Conrad

    2015-03-01

    Being able to predict the degree of visual discomfort that is felt when viewing stereoscopic 3D (S3D) images is an important goal toward ameliorating causative factors, such as excessive horizontal disparity, misalignments or mismatches between the left and right views of stereo pairs, or conflicts between different depth cues. Ideally, such a model should account for such factors as capture and viewing geometries, the distribution of disparities, and the responses of visual neurons. When viewing modern 3D displays, visual discomfort is caused primarily by changes in binocular vergence while accommodation in held fixed at the viewing distance to a flat 3D screen. This results in unnatural mismatches between ocular fixations and ocular focus that does not occur in normal direct 3D viewing. This accommodation vergence conflict can cause adverse effects, such as headaches, fatigue, eye strain, and reduced visual ability. Binocular vision is ultimately realized by means of neural mechanisms that subserve the sensorimotor control of eye movements. Realizing that the neuronal responses are directly implicated in both the control and experience of 3D perception, we have developed a model-based neuronal and statistical framework called the 3D visual discomfort predictor (3D-VDP)that automatically predicts the level of visual discomfort that is experienced when viewing S3D images. 3D-VDP extracts two types of features: 1) coarse features derived from the statistics of binocular disparities and 2) fine features derived by estimating the neural activity associated with the processing of horizontal disparities. In particular, we deploy a model of horizontal disparity processing in the extrastriate middle temporal region of occipital lobe. We compare the performance of 3D-VDP with other recent discomfort prediction algorithms with respect to correlation against recorded subjective visual discomfort scores,and show that 3D-VDP is statistically superior to the other methods. PMID

  11. Study of the 3D geometry of tangential discontinuities based on simultaneous STEREO and Ulysses measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facsko, Gabor; Reshetnyk, Volodymyr; Agapitov, Oleksiy; Opitz, Andrea; Szabo, Adam; McComas, David

    Tangential discontinuties (TDs) are usually considered as thin planar current sheets frozen in the solar wind flow. Previous studies based on the magnetic field measurements onboard of ACE, Wind, and STEREO A, and B proved that this hypotesis is not valid. The curvature of the TDs were determined in several cases. After applying minimum variance and the cross product methods for Ulysses, ACE and STEREO A and B magnetometer measurements, numerous TDs are identified in 2008 and 2009. The time shift of the TD observations is determinated by correlation analysis of the solar wind speed and the magnetic field variations. The 3D topology of the TD is then determinated in some special cases when the four spacecraft are on the same side of the Sun. After fitting a simple model, the location of the TD formation region can be outlined.

  12. Comparison of interferometric and stereo-radargrammetric 3D metrics in mapping of forest resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karila, K.; Karjalainen, M.; Yu, X.; Vastaranta, M.; Holopainen, M.; Hyyppa, J.

    2015-04-01

    Accurate forest resources maps are needed in diverse applications ranging from the local forest management to the global climate change research. In particular, it is important to have tools to map changes in forest resources, which helps us to understand the significance of the forest biomass changes in the global carbon cycle. In the task of mapping changes in forest resources for wide areas, Earth Observing satellites could play the key role. In 2013, an EU/FP7-Space funded project "Advanced_SAR" was started with the main objective to develop novel forest resources mapping methods based on the fusion of satellite based 3D measurements and in-situ field measurements of forests. During the summer 2014, an extensive field surveying campaign was carried out in the Evo test site, Southern Finland. Forest inventory attributes of mean tree height, basal area, mean stem diameter, stem volume, and biomass, were determined for 91 test plots having the size of 32 by 32 meters (1024 m2). Simultaneously, a comprehensive set of satellite and airborne data was collected. Satellite data also included a set of TanDEM-X (TDX) and TerraSAR-X (TSX) X-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, suitable for interferometric and stereo-radargrammetric processing to extract 3D elevation data representing the forest canopy. In the present study, we compared the accuracy of TDX InSAR and TSX stereo-radargrammetric derived 3D metrics in forest inventory attribute prediction. First, 3D data were extracted from TDX and TSX images. Then, 3D data were processed as elevations above the ground surface (forest canopy height values) using an accurate Digital Terrain Model (DTM) based on airborne laser scanning survey. Finally, 3D metrics were calculated from the canopy height values for each test plot and the 3D metrics were compared with the field reference data. The Random Forest method was used in the forest inventory attributes prediction. Based on the results InSAR showed slightly better

  13. A Skeleton-Based 3D Shape Reconstruction of Free-Form Objects with Stereo Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Deepika; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, an efficient approach is proposed for recovering the 3D shape of a free-form object from its arbitrary pair of stereo images. In particular, the reconstruction problem is treated as the reconstruction of the skeleton and the external boundary of the object. The reconstructed skeleton is termed as the line-like representation or curve-skeleton of the 3D object. The proposed solution for object reconstruction is based on this evolved curve-skeleton. It is used as a seed for recovering shape of the 3D object, and the extracted boundary is used for terminating the growing process of the object. NURBS-skeleton is used to extract the skeleton of both views. Affine invariant property of the convex hulls is used to establish the correspondence between the skeletons and boundaries in the stereo images. In the growing process, a distance field is defined for each skeleton point as the smallest distance from that point to the boundary of the object. A sphere centered at a skeleton point of radius equal to the minimum distance to the boundary is tangential to the boundary. Filling in the spheres centered at each skeleton point reconstructs the object. Several results are presented in order to check the applicability and validity of the proposed algorithm.

  14. Three-dimensional positioning control based on stereo microscopic visual servoing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sha, Xiaopeng; Li, Huiguang; Li, Wenchao; Wang, Shuai

    2015-01-01

    A stereo microscopic system as a high-precision visual feedback is widely used in the fields of micro-three-dimensional (3-D) measurement and micromanipulation tasks. A new stereo binocular visual servoing model based on a Greenough-type stereoscopic light microscope to solve the 3-D micropositioning problem is proposed. The new model contains no depth information, but the information at the left and right images is used to obtain the image Jacobian matrix. Visual information can be directly obtained from the 3-D space without measuring or estimating the depth information of the unknown points of the object via this new model. The new model can not only accurately and rapidly realize automatic control for a micromanipulation system, but also improve the system control performance. We design an image-based controller with consideration of the kinematics characteristics of a microrobot. Experimental results verify the validity of the model.

  15. Virtual rough samples to test 3D nanometer-scale scanning electron microscopy stereo photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villarrubia, J. S.; Tondare, V. N.; Vladár, A. E.

    2016-03-01

    The combination of scanning electron microscopy for high spatial resolution, images from multiple angles to provide 3D information, and commercially available stereo photogrammetry software for 3D reconstruction offers promise for nanometer-scale dimensional metrology in 3D. A method is described to test 3D photogrammetry software by the use of virtual samples—mathematical samples from which simulated images are made for use as inputs to the software under test. The virtual sample is constructed by wrapping a rough skin with any desired power spectral density around a smooth near-trapezoidal line with rounded top corners. Reconstruction is performed with images simulated from different angular viewpoints. The software's reconstructed 3D model is then compared to the known geometry of the virtual sample. Three commercial photogrammetry software packages were tested. Two of them produced results for line height and width that were within close to 1 nm of the correct values. All of the packages exhibited some difficulty in reconstructing details of the surface roughness.

  16. 3D reconstruction in laparoscopy with close-range photometric stereo.

    PubMed

    Collins, Toby; Bartoli, Adrien

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the first solution to 3D reconstruction in monocular laparoscopy using methods based on Photometric Stereo (PS). Our main contributions are to provide the new theory and practical solutions to successfully apply PS in close-range imaging conditions. We are specifically motivated by a solution with minimal hardware modification to existing laparoscopes. In fact the only physical modification we make is to adjust the colour of the laparoscope's illumination via three colour filters placed at its tip. Once calibrated, our approach can compute 3D from a single image, does not require correspondence estimation, and computes absolute depth densely. We demonstrate the potential of our approach with ground truth ex-vivo and in-vivo experimentation. PMID:23286102

  17. Error analysis in stereo vision for location measurement of 3D point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yunting; Zhang, Jun; Tian, Jinwen

    2015-12-01

    Location measurement of 3D point in stereo vision is subjected to different sources of uncertainty that propagate to the final result. For current methods of error analysis, most of them are based on ideal intersection model to calculate the uncertainty region of point location via intersecting two fields of view of pixel that may produce loose bounds. Besides, only a few of sources of error such as pixel error or camera position are taken into account in the process of analysis. In this paper we present a straightforward and available method to estimate the location error that is taken most of source of error into account. We summed up and simplified all the input errors to five parameters by rotation transformation. Then we use the fast algorithm of midpoint method to deduce the mathematical relationships between target point and the parameters. Thus, the expectations and covariance matrix of 3D point location would be obtained, which can constitute the uncertainty region of point location. Afterwards, we turned back to the error propagation of the primitive input errors in the stereo system and throughout the whole analysis process from primitive input errors to localization error. Our method has the same level of computational complexity as the state-of-the-art method. Finally, extensive experiments are performed to verify the performance of our methods.

  18. 3-D visualization of ensemble weather forecasts - Part 1: The visualization tool Met.3D (version 1.0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rautenhaus, M.; Kern, M.; Schäfler, A.; Westermann, R.

    2015-02-01

    We present Met.3D, a new open-source tool for the interactive 3-D visualization of numerical ensemble weather predictions. The tool has been developed to support weather forecasting during aircraft-based atmospheric field campaigns, however, is applicable to further forecasting, research and teaching activities. Our work approaches challenging topics related to the visual analysis of numerical atmospheric model output - 3-D visualization, ensemble visualization, and how both can be used in a meaningful way suited to weather forecasting. Met.3D builds a bridge from proven 2-D visualization methods commonly used in meteorology to 3-D visualization by combining both visualization types in a 3-D context. We address the issue of spatial perception in the 3-D view and present approaches to using the ensemble to allow the user to assess forecast uncertainty. Interactivity is key to our approach. Met.3D uses modern graphics technology to achieve interactive visualization on standard consumer hardware. The tool supports forecast data from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts and can operate directly on ECMWF hybrid sigma-pressure level grids. We describe the employed visualization algorithms, and analyse the impact of the ECMWF grid topology on computing 3-D ensemble statistical quantitites. Our techniques are demonstrated with examples from the T-NAWDEX-Falcon 2012 campaign.

  19. Experimentation of structured light and stereo vision for underwater 3D reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, F.; Bianco, G.; Muzzupappa, M.; Barone, S.; Razionale, A. V.

    Current research on underwater 3D imaging methods is mainly addressing long range applications like seafloor mapping or surveys of archeological sites and shipwrecks. Recently, there is an increasing need for more accessible and precise close-range 3D acquisition technologies in some application fields like, for example, monitoring the growth of coral reefs or reconstructing underwater archaeological pieces that in most cases cannot be recovered from the seabed. This paper presents the first results of a research project that aims to investigate the possibility of using active optical techniques for the whole-field 3D reconstructions in an underwater environment. In this work we have tested an optical technique, frequently used for in air acquisition, based on the projection of structured lighting patterns acquired by a stereo vision system. We describe the experimental setup used for the underwater tests, which were conducted in a water tank with different turbidity conditions. The tests have evidenced that the quality of 3D reconstruction is acceptable even with high turbidity values, despite the heavy presence of scattering and absorption effects.

  20. Diffractive optical element for creating visual 3D images.

    PubMed

    Goncharsky, Alexander; Goncharsky, Anton; Durlevich, Svyatoslav

    2016-05-01

    A method is proposed to compute and synthesize the microrelief of a diffractive optical element to produce a new visual security feature - the vertical 3D/3D switch effect. The security feature consists in the alternation of two 3D color images when the diffractive element is tilted up/down. Optical security elements that produce the new security feature are synthesized using electron-beam technology. Sample optical security elements are manufactured that produce 3D to 3D visual switch effect when illuminated by white light. Photos and video records of the vertical 3D/3D switch effect of real optical elements are presented. The optical elements developed can be replicated using standard equipment employed for manufacturing security holograms. The new optical security feature is easy to control visually, safely protected against counterfeit, and designed to protect banknotes, documents, ID cards, etc. PMID:27137530

  1. One-eyed stereo: a general approach to modeling 3-d scene geometry.

    PubMed

    Strat, T M; Fischler, M A

    1986-06-01

    A single two-dimensional image is an ambiguous representation of the three-dimensional world¿many different scenes could have produced the same image¿yet the human visual system is ex-tremely successful at recovering a qualitatively correct depth model from this type of representation. Workers in the field of computational vision have devised a number of distinct schemes that attempt to emulate this human capability; these schemes are collectively known as ``shape from...'' methods (e.g., shape from shading, shape from texture, or shape from contour). In this paper we contend that the distinct assumptions made in each of these schemes is tantamount to providing a second (virtual) image of the original scene, and that each of these approaches can be translated into a conventional stereo formalism. In particular, we show that it is frequently possible to structure the problem as one of recovering depth from a stereo pair consisting of the supplied perspective image (the original image) and an hypothesized orthographic image (the virtual image). We present a new algorithm of the form required to accomplish this type of stereo reconstruction task. PMID:21869368

  2. Is sensorimotor BCI performance influenced differently by mono, stereo, or 3-D auditory feedback?

    PubMed

    McCreadie, Karl A; Coyle, Damien H; Prasad, Girijesh

    2014-05-01

    Imagination of movement can be used as a control method for a brain-computer interface (BCI) allowing communication for the physically impaired. Visual feedback within such a closed loop system excludes those with visual problems and hence there is a need for alternative sensory feedback pathways. In the context of substituting the visual channel for the auditory channel, this study aims to add to the limited evidence that it is possible to substitute visual feedback for its auditory equivalent and assess the impact this has on BCI performance. Secondly, the study aims to determine for the first time if the type of auditory feedback method influences motor imagery performance significantly. Auditory feedback is presented using a stepped approach of single (mono), double (stereo), and multiple (vector base amplitude panning as an audio game) loudspeaker arrangements. Visual feedback involves a ball-basket paradigm and a spaceship game. Each session consists of either auditory or visual feedback only with runs of each type of feedback presentation method applied in each session. Results from seven subjects across five sessions of each feedback type (visual, auditory) (10 sessions in total) show that auditory feedback is a suitable substitute for the visual equivalent and that there are no statistical differences in the type of auditory feedback presented across five sessions. PMID:24691154

  3. 3D visualization of port simulation.

    SciTech Connect

    Horsthemke, W. H.; Macal, C. M.; Nevins, M. R.

    1999-06-14

    Affordable and realistic three dimensional visualization technology can be applied to large scale constructive simulations such as the port simulation model, PORTSIM. These visualization tools enhance the experienced planner's ability to form mental models of how seaport operations will unfold when the simulation model is implemented and executed. They also offer unique opportunities to train new planners not only in the use of the simulation model but on the layout and design of seaports. Simulation visualization capabilities are enhanced by borrowing from work on interface design, camera control, and data presentation. Using selective fidelity, the designers of these visualization systems can reduce their time and efforts by concentrating on those features which yield the most value for their simulation. Offering the user various observational tools allows the freedom to simply watch or engage in the simulation without getting lost. Identifying the underlying infrastructure or cargo items with labels can provide useful information at the risk of some visual clutter. The PortVis visualization expands the PORTSIM user base which can benefit from the results provided by this capability, especially in strategic planning, mission rehearsal, and training. Strategic planners will immediately reap the benefits of seeing the impact of increased throughput visually without keeping track of statistical data. Mission rehearsal and training users will have an effective training tool to supplement their operational training exercises which are limited in number because of their high costs. Having another effective training modality in this visualization system allows more training to take place and more personnel to gain an understanding of seaport operations. This simulation and visualization training can be accomplished at lower cost than would be possible for the operational training exercises alone. The application of PORTSIM and PortVis will lead to more efficient

  4. Visualization of 3D Geological Models on Google Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Um, J.; Park, M.

    2013-05-01

    Google Earth combines satellite imagery, aerial photography, thematic maps and various data sets to make a three-dimensional (3D) interactive image of the world. Currently, Google Earth is a popular visualization tool in a variety of fields and plays an increasingly important role not only for private users in daily life, but also for scientists, practitioners, policymakers and stakeholders in research and application. In this study, a method to visualize 3D geological models on Google Earth is presented. COLLAborative Design Activity (COLLADA, an open standard XML schema for establishing interactive 3D applications) was used to represent different 3D geological models such as borehole, fence section, surface-based 3D volume and 3D grid by triangle meshes (a set of triangles connected by their common edges or corners). In addition, we designed Keyhole Markup Language (KML, the XML-based scripting language of Google Earth) codes to import the COLLADA files into the 3D render window of Google Earth. The method was applied to the Grosmont formation in Alberta, Canada. The application showed that the combination of COLLADA and KML enables Google Earth to effectively visualize 3D geological structures and properties.; Visualization of the (a) boreholes, (b) fence sections, (c) 3D volume model and (d) 3D grid model of Grossmont formation on Google Earth

  5. Breast Tissue 3D Segmentation and Visualization on MRI

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xiangfei; Sun, Feifei

    2013-01-01

    Tissue segmentation and visualization are useful for breast lesion detection and quantitative analysis. In this paper, a 3D segmentation algorithm based on Kernel-based Fuzzy C-Means (KFCM) is proposed to separate the breast MR images into different tissues. Then, an improved volume rendering algorithm based on a new transfer function model is applied to implement 3D breast visualization. Experimental results have been shown visually and have achieved reasonable consistency. PMID:23983676

  6. Visualization of 3D Geological Data using COLLADA and KML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yosoon; Um, Jeong-Gi; Park, Myong-Ho

    2013-04-01

    This study presents a method to visualize 3D geological data using COLLAborative Design Activity(COLLADA, an open standard XML schema for establishing interactive 3D applications) and Keyhole Markup Language(KML, the XML-based scripting language of Google Earth).We used COLLADA files to represent different 3D geological data such as borehole, fence section, surface-based 3D volume and 3D grid by triangle meshes(a set of triangles connected by their common edges or corners). The COLLADA files were imported into the 3D render window of Google Earth using KML codes. An application to the Grosmont formation in Alberta, Canada showed that the combination of COLLADA and KML enables Google Earth to visualize 3D geological structures and properties.

  7. A client–server framework for 3D remote visualization of radiotherapy treatment space

    PubMed Central

    Santhanam, Anand P.; Min, Yugang; Dou, Tai H.; Kupelian, Patrick; Low, Daniel A.

    2013-01-01

    Radiotherapy is safely employed for treating wide variety of cancers. The radiotherapy workflow includes a precise positioning of the patient in the intended treatment position. While trained radiation therapists conduct patient positioning, consultation is occasionally required from other experts, including the radiation oncologist, dosimetrist, or medical physicist. In many circumstances, including rural clinics and developing countries, this expertise is not immediately available, so the patient positioning concerns of the treating therapists may not get addressed. In this paper, we present a framework to enable remotely located experts to virtually collaborate and be present inside the 3D treatment room when necessary. A multi-3D camera framework was used for acquiring the 3D treatment space. A client–server framework enabled the acquired 3D treatment room to be visualized in real-time. The computational tasks that would normally occur on the client side were offloaded to the server side to enable hardware flexibility on the client side. On the server side, a client specific real-time stereo rendering of the 3D treatment room was employed using a scalable multi graphics processing units (GPU) system. The rendered 3D images were then encoded using a GPU-based H.264 encoding for streaming. Results showed that for a stereo image size of 1280 × 960 pixels, experts with high-speed gigabit Ethernet connectivity were able to visualize the treatment space at approximately 81 frames per second. For experts remotely located and using a 100 Mbps network, the treatment space visualization occurred at 8–40 frames per second depending upon the network bandwidth. This work demonstrated the feasibility of remote real-time stereoscopic patient setup visualization, enabling expansion of high quality radiation therapy into challenging environments. PMID:23440605

  8. 3D papillary image capturing by the stereo fundus camera system for clinical diagnosis on retina and optic nerve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motta, Danilo A.; Serillo, André; de Matos, Luciana; Yasuoka, Fatima M. M.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.; Carvalho, Luis A. V.

    2014-03-01

    Glaucoma is the second main cause of the blindness in the world and there is a tendency to increase this number due to the lifetime expectation raise of the population. Glaucoma is related to the eye conditions, which leads the damage to the optic nerve. This nerve carries visual information from eye to brain, then, if it has damage, it compromises the visual quality of the patient. In the majority cases the damage of the optic nerve is irreversible and it happens due to increase of intraocular pressure. One of main challenge for the diagnosis is to find out this disease, because any symptoms are not present in the initial stage. When is detected, it is already in the advanced stage. Currently the evaluation of the optic disc is made by sophisticated fundus camera, which is inaccessible for the majority of Brazilian population. The purpose of this project is to develop a specific fundus camera without fluorescein angiography and red-free system to accomplish 3D image of optic disc region. The innovation is the new simplified design of a stereo-optical system, in order to make capable the 3D image capture and in the same time quantitative measurements of excavation and topography of optic nerve; something the traditional fundus cameras do not do. The dedicated hardware and software is developed for this ophthalmic instrument, in order to permit quick capture and print of high resolution 3D image and videos of optic disc region (20° field-of-view) in the mydriatic and nonmydriatic mode.

  9. Estimation of 3D reconstruction errors in a stereo-vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belhaoua, A.; Kohler, S.; Hirsch, E.

    2009-06-01

    The paper presents an approach for error estimation for the various steps of an automated 3D vision-based reconstruction procedure of manufactured workpieces. The process is based on a priori planning of the task and built around a cognitive intelligent sensory system using so-called Situation Graph Trees (SGT) as a planning tool. Such an automated quality control system requires the coordination of a set of complex processes performing sequentially data acquisition, its quantitative evaluation and the comparison with a reference model (e.g., CAD object model) in order to evaluate quantitatively the object. To ensure efficient quality control, the aim is to be able to state if reconstruction results fulfill tolerance rules or not. Thus, the goal is to evaluate independently the error for each step of the stereo-vision based 3D reconstruction (e.g., for calibration, contour segmentation, matching and reconstruction) and then to estimate the error for the whole system. In this contribution, we analyze particularly the segmentation error due to localization errors for extracted edge points supposed to belong to lines and curves composing the outline of the workpiece under evaluation. The fitting parameters describing these geometric features are used as quality measure to determine confidence intervals and finally to estimate the segmentation errors. These errors are then propagated through the whole reconstruction procedure, enabling to evaluate their effect on the final 3D reconstruction result, specifically on position uncertainties. Lastly, analysis of these error estimates enables to evaluate the quality of the 3D reconstruction, as illustrated by the shown experimental results.

  10. Integrating 3D Visualization and GIS in Planning Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Li

    2010-01-01

    Most GIS-related planning practices and education are currently limited to two-dimensional mapping and analysis although 3D GIS is a powerful tool to study the complex urban environment in its full spatial extent. This paper reviews current GIS and 3D visualization uses and development in planning practice and education. Current literature…

  11. Development of 3D interactive visual objects using the Scripps Institution of Oceanography's Visualization Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilb, D.; Reif, C.; Peach, C.; Keen, C. S.; Smith, B.; Mellors, R. J.

    2003-12-01

    Within the last year scientists and educators at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO), the Birch Aquarium at Scripps and San Diego State University have collaborated with education specialists to develop 3D interactive graphic teaching modules for use in the classroom and in teacher workshops at the SIO Visualization center (http://siovizcenter.ucsd.edu). The unique aspect of the SIO Visualization center is that the center is designed around a 120 degree curved Panoram floor-to-ceiling screen (8'6" by 28'4") that immerses viewers in a virtual environment. The center is powered by an SGI 3400 Onyx computer that is more powerful, by an order of magnitude in both speed and memory, than typical base systems currently used for education and outreach presentations. This technology allows us to display multiple 3D data layers (e.g., seismicity, high resolution topography, seismic reflectivity, draped interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) images, etc.) simultaneously, render them in 3D stereo, and take a virtual flight through the data as dictated on the spot by the user. This system can also render snapshots, images and movies that are too big for other systems, and then export smaller size end-products to more commonly used computer systems. Since early 2002, we have explored various ways to provide informal education and outreach focusing on current research presented directly by the researchers doing the work. The Center currently provides a centerpiece for instruction on southern California seismology for K-12 students and teachers for various Scripps education endeavors. Future plans are in place to use the Visualization Center at Scripps for extended K-12 and college educational programs. In particular, we will be identifying K-12 curriculum needs, assisting with teacher education, developing assessments of our programs and products, producing web-accessible teaching modules and facilitating the development of appropriate teaching tools to be

  12. DspaceOgre 3D Graphics Visualization Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Abhinandan; Myin, Steven; Pomerantz, Marc I.

    2011-01-01

    This general-purpose 3D graphics visualization C++ tool is designed for visualization of simulation and analysis data for articulated mechanisms. Examples of such systems are vehicles, robotic arms, biomechanics models, and biomolecular structures. DspaceOgre builds upon the open-source Ogre3D graphics visualization library. It provides additional classes to support the management of complex scenes involving multiple viewpoints and different scene groups, and can be used as a remote graphics server. This software provides improved support for adding programs at the graphics processing unit (GPU) level for improved performance. It also improves upon the messaging interface it exposes for use as a visualization server.

  13. The 3D widgets for exploratory scientific visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herndon, Kenneth P.; Meyer, Tom

    1995-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques are used to simulate flows of fluids like air or water around such objects as airplanes and automobiles. These techniques usually generate very large amounts of numerical data which are difficult to understand without using graphical scientific visualization techniques. There are a number of commercial scientific visualization applications available today which allow scientists to control visualization tools via textual and/or 2D user interfaces. However, these user interfaces are often difficult to use. We believe that 3D direct-manipulation techniques for interactively controlling visualization tools will provide opportunities for powerful and useful interfaces with which scientists can more effectively explore their datasets. A few systems have been developed which use these techniques. In this paper, we will present a variety of 3D interaction techniques for manipulating parameters of visualization tools used to explore CFD datasets, and discuss in detail various techniques for positioning tools in a 3D scene.

  14. Restoring Fort Frontenac in 3D: Effective Usage of 3D Technology for Heritage Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabe, M.; Goins, E.; Jackson, C.; Halbstein, D.; Foster, S.; Bazely, S.

    2015-02-01

    This paper is composed of three elements: 3D modeling, web design, and heritage visualization. The aim is to use computer graphics design to inform and create an interest in historical visualization by rebuilding Fort Frontenac using 3D modeling and interactive design. The final model will be integr ated into an interactive website to learn more about the fort's historic imp ortance. It is apparent that using computer graphics can save time and money when it comes to historical visualization. Visitors do not have to travel to the actual archaeological buildings. They can simply use the Web in their own home to learn about this information virtually. Meticulously following historical records to create a sophisticated restoration of archaeological buildings will draw viewers into visualizations, such as the historical world of Fort Frontenac. As a result, it allows the viewers to effectively understand the fort's social sy stem, habits, and historical events.

  15. Examination of 3D visual attention in stereoscopic video content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh-Thu, Quan; Schiatti, Luca

    2011-03-01

    Recent advances in video technology and digital cinema have made it possible to produce entertaining 3D stereoscopic content that can be viewed for an extended duration without necessarily causing extreme fatigue, visual strain and discomfort. Viewers focus naturally their attention on specific areas of interest in their visual field. Visual attention is an important aspect of perception and its understanding is therefore an important aspect for the creation of 3D stereoscopic content. Most of the studies on visual attention have focused on the case of still images or 2D video. Only a very few studies have investigated eye movement patterns in 3D stereoscopic moving sequences, and how these may differ from viewing 2D video content. In this paper, we present and discuss the results of a subjective experiment that we conducted using an eye-tracking apparatus to record observers' gaze patterns. Participants were asked to watch the same set of video clips in a free-viewing task. Each clip was shown in a 3D stereoscopic version and 2D version. Our results indicate that the extent of areas of interests is not necessarily wider in 3D. We found a very strong content dependency in the difference of density and locations of fixations between 2D and 3D stereoscopic content. However, we found that saccades were overall faster and that fixation durations were overall lower when observers viewed the 3D stereoscopic version.

  16. 3D visualization of middle ear structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Uwe; Schmitt, Thomas

    1998-06-01

    application of a micro- tomographic imaging device. Therefore an X-ray beam focused down to few microns passes the object in a tomographic arrangement. Subsequently the slices become reconstructed. Generally spatial resolution down to 10 micrometer may be obtained by using this procedure. But there exist few devices only, it is not available as standard equipment. The best results concerning spatial resolution should be achieved by applying conventional histologic sectioning techniques. Of course the target will become destroyed during the procedure. It is cut into sections (e.g., 10 micrometer thick), every layer is stained, and the image acquired and stored by a digital still-camera with appropriate resolution (e.g., 2024 X 3036). Three-dimensional reconstruction is done with the computer. The staining allows visual selection of bones and soft tissues, resolutions down to 10 micrometer are possible without target segmentation. But there arise some practical problems. Mainly the geometric context of the layers is affected by the cutting procedure, especially if cutting bone. Another problem performs the adjustment of the -- possibly distorted -- slices to each other. Artificial markers are necessary, which could allow automatic adjustment too. But the introduction and imaging of the markers is difficult inside the temporal bone specimen, that is interspersed by several cavities. Of course the internal target structures must not be destroyed by the marker introduction. Furthermore the embedding compound could disturb the image acquisition, e.g., by optical scattering of paraffin. A related alternative is given by layered ablation/grinding and imaging of the top layer. This saves the geometric consistency, but requires very tricky and time-consuming embedding procedures. Both approaches require considerable expenditures. The possible approaches are evaluated in detail and first results are compared. So far none of the above-mentioned procedures has been established as a

  17. Visualizing Terrestrial and Aquatic Systems in 3-D

    EPA Science Inventory

    The environmental modeling community has a long-standing need for affordable, easy-to-use tools that support 3-D visualization of complex spatial and temporal model output. The Visualization of Terrestrial and Aquatic Systems project (VISTAS) aims to help scientists produce effe...

  18. Faster, higher quality volume visualization for 3D medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvin, Alan D.; Laine, Andrew F.; Song, Ting

    2008-03-01

    The two major volume visualization methods used in biomedical applications are Maximum Intensity Projection (MIP) and Volume Rendering (VR), both of which involve the process of creating sets of 2D projections from 3D images. We have developed a new method for very fast, high-quality volume visualization of 3D biomedical images, based on the fact that the inverse of this process (transforming 2D projections into a 3D image) is essentially equivalent to tomographic image reconstruction. This new method uses the 2D projections acquired by the scanner, thereby obviating the need for the two computationally expensive steps currently required in the complete process of biomedical visualization, that is, (i) reconstructing the 3D image from 2D projection data, and (ii) computing the set of 2D projections from the reconstructed 3D image As well as improvements in computation speed, this method also results in improvements in visualization quality, and in the case of x-ray CT we can exploit this quality improvement to reduce radiation dosage. In this paper, demonstrate the benefits of developing biomedical visualization techniques by directly processing the sensor data acquired by body scanners, rather than by processing the image data reconstructed from the sensor data. We show results of using this approach for volume visualization for tomographic modalities, like x-ray CT, and as well as for MRI.

  19. An annotation system for 3D fluid flow visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loughlin, Maria M.; Hughes, John F.

    1995-01-01

    Annotation is a key activity of data analysis. However, current systems for data analysis focus almost exclusively on visualization. We propose a system which integrates annotations into a visualization system. Annotations are embedded in 3D data space, using the Post-it metaphor. This embedding allows contextual-based information storage and retrieval, and facilitates information sharing in collaborative environments. We provide a traditional database filter and a Magic Lens filter to create specialized views of the data. The system has been customized for fluid flow applications, with features which allow users to store parameters of visualization tools and sketch 3D volumes.

  20. Automatic visualization of 3D geometry contained in online databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie; John, Nigel W.

    2003-04-01

    In this paper, the application of the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) for efficient database visualization is analyzed. With the help of JAVA programming, three examples of automatic visualization from a database containing 3-D Geometry are given. The first example is used to create basic geometries. The second example is used to create cylinders with a defined start point and end point. The third example is used to processs data from an old copper mine complex in Cheshire, United Kingdom. Interactive 3-D visualization of all geometric data in an online database is achieved with JSP technology.

  1. 3D Visualization of Astronomical Data with Blender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, B. R.

    2015-09-01

    We present the innovative use of Blender, a 3D graphics package, for astronomical visualization. With a Python API and feature rich interface, Blender lends itself well to many 3D data visualization scenarios including data cube rendering, N-body simulations, catalog displays, and surface maps. We focus on the aspects of the software most useful to astronomers such as visual data exploration, applying data to Blender object constructs, and using graphics processing units (GPUs) for rendering. We share examples from both observational data and theoretical models to illustrate how the software can fit into an astronomer's toolkit.

  2. Exploratory Climate Data Visualization and Analysis Using DV3D and UVCDAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxwell, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Earth system scientists are being inundated by an explosion of data generated by ever-increasing resolution in both global models and remote sensors. Advanced tools for accessing, analyzing, and visualizing very large and complex climate data are required to maintain rapid progress in Earth system research. To meet this need, NASA, in collaboration with the Ultra-scale Visualization Climate Data Analysis Tools (UVCOAT) consortium, is developing exploratory climate data analysis and visualization tools which provide data analysis capabilities for the Earth System Grid (ESG). This paper describes DV3D, a UV-COAT package that enables exploratory analysis of climate simulation and observation datasets. OV3D provides user-friendly interfaces for visualization and analysis of climate data at a level appropriate for scientists. It features workflow inte rfaces, interactive 40 data exploration, hyperwall and stereo visualization, automated provenance generation, and parallel task execution. DV30's integration with CDAT's climate data management system (COMS) and other climate data analysis tools provides a wide range of high performance climate data analysis operations. DV3D expands the scientists' toolbox by incorporating a suite of rich new exploratory visualization and analysis methods for addressing the complexity of climate datasets.

  3. Incremental Multi-view 3D Reconstruction Starting from Two Images Taken by a Stereo Pair of Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El hazzat, Soulaiman; Saaidi, Abderrahim; Karam, Antoine; Satori, Khalid

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we present a new method for multi-view 3D reconstruction based on the use of a binocular stereo vision system constituted of two unattached cameras to initialize the reconstruction process. Afterwards , the second camera of stereo vision system (characterized by varying parameters) moves to capture more images at different times which are used to obtain an almost complete 3D reconstruction. The first two projection matrices are estimated by using a 3D pattern with known properties. After that, 3D scene points are recovered by triangulation of the matched interest points between these two images. The proposed approach is incremental. At each insertion of a new image, the camera projection matrix is estimated using the 3D information already calculated and new 3D points are recovered by triangulation from the result of the matching of interest points between the inserted image and the previous image. For the refinement of the new projection matrix and the new 3D points, a local bundle adjustment is performed. At first, all projection matrices are estimated, the matches between consecutive images are detected and Euclidean sparse 3D reconstruction is obtained. So, to increase the number of matches and have a more dense reconstruction, the Match propagation algorithm, more suitable for interesting movement of the camera, was applied on the pairs of consecutive images. The experimental results show the power and robustness of the proposed approach.

  4. Creating 3D visualizations of MRI data: A brief guide

    PubMed Central

    Madan, Christopher R.

    2015-01-01

    While magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data is itself 3D, it is often difficult to adequately present the results papers and slides in 3D. As a result, findings of MRI studies are often presented in 2D instead. A solution is to create figures that include perspective and can convey 3D information; such figures can sometimes be produced by standard functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis packages and related specialty programs. However, many options cannot provide functionality such as visualizing activation clusters that are both cortical and subcortical (i.e., a 3D glass brain), the production of several statistical maps with an identical perspective in the 3D rendering, or animated renderings. Here I detail an approach for creating 3D visualizations of MRI data that satisfies all of these criteria. Though a 3D ‘glass brain’ rendering can sometimes be difficult to interpret, they are useful in showing a more overall representation of the results, whereas the traditional slices show a more local view. Combined, presenting both 2D and 3D representations of MR images can provide a more comprehensive view of the study’s findings. PMID:26594340

  5. Axial-Stereo 3-D Optical Metrology for Inner Profile of Pipes Using a Scanning Laser Endoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yuanzheng; Johnston, Richard S.; Melville, C. David; Seibel, Eric J.

    2015-07-01

    As the rapid progress in the development of optoelectronic components and computational power, 3-D optical metrology becomes more and more popular in manufacturing and quality control due to its flexibility and high speed. However, most of the optical metrology methods are limited to external surfaces. This article proposed a new approach to measure tiny internal 3-D surfaces with a scanning fiber endoscope and axial-stereo vision algorithm. A dense, accurate point cloud of internally machined threads was generated to compare with its corresponding X-ray 3-D data as ground truth, and the quantification was analyzed by Iterative Closest Points algorithm.

  6. Axial-Stereo 3-D Optical Metrology for Inner Profile of Pipes Using a Scanning Laser Endoscope

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Yuanzheng; Johnston, Richard S.; Melville, C. David; Seibel, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    As the rapid progress in the development of optoelectronic components and computational power, 3D optical metrology becomes more and more popular in manufacturing and quality control due to its flexibility and high speed. However, most of the optical metrology methods are limited to external surfaces. This paper proposed a new approach to measure tiny internal 3D surfaces with a scanning fiber endoscope and axial-stereo vision algorithm. A dense, accurate point cloud of internally machined threads was generated to compare with its corresponding X-ray 3D data as ground truth, and the quantification was analyzed by Iterative Closest Points algorithm. PMID:26640425

  7. Advanced Data Visualization in Astrophysics: The X3D Pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Frédéric P. A.; Owen, Chris I.; Verdes-Montenegro, Lourdes; Borthakur, Sanchayeeta

    2016-02-01

    Most modern astrophysical data sets are multi-dimensional; a characteristic that can nowadays generally be conserved and exploited scientifically during the data reduction/simulation and analysis cascades. However, the same multi-dimensional data sets are systematically cropped, sliced, and/or projected to printable two-dimensional diagrams at the publication stage. In this article, we introduce the concept of the “X3D pathway” as a mean of simplifying and easing the access to data visualization and publication via three-dimensional (3D) diagrams. The X3D pathway exploits the facts that (1) the X3D 3D file format lies at the center of a product tree that includes interactive HTML documents, 3D printing, and high-end animations, and (2) all high-impact-factor and peer-reviewed journals in astrophysics are now published (some exclusively) online. We argue that the X3D standard is an ideal vector for sharing multi-dimensional data sets because it provides direct access to a range of different data visualization techniques, is fully open source, and is a well-defined standard from the International Organization for Standardization. Unlike other earlier propositions to publish multi-dimensional data sets via 3D diagrams, the X3D pathway is not tied to specific software (prone to rapid and unexpected evolution), but instead is compatible with a range of open-source software already in use by our community. The interactive HTML branch of the X3D pathway is also actively supported by leading peer-reviewed journals in the field of astrophysics. Finally, this article provides interested readers with a detailed set of practical astrophysical examples designed to act as a stepping stone toward the implementation of the X3D pathway for any other data set.

  8. Ultrascale Climate Data Visualization and Analysis Using UVCDAT and DV3D (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, T. P.; Williams, D. N.; Potter, G. L.

    2013-12-01

    Earth system scientists are being inundated by an explosion of data generated by ever-increasing resolution in both global models and remote sensors. Advanced tools for accessing, analyzing, and visualizing very large and complex climate data are required to maintain rapid progress in Earth system research. To meet this need, the NASA Center for Climate Simulation (NCCS) at Goddard Space Flight Center is developing an advanced computational infrastructure that can provide high-performance analysis and visualization capabilities to the desktops of climate scientists. In collaboration with the Ultra-scale Visualization Climate Data Analysis Tools (UV-CDAT) development consortium, NCCS is developing climate data analysis and visualization tools for UV-CDAT, which provides data analysis capabilities for the Earth System Grid (ESG). These tools feature workflow interfaces, interactive 3D data exploration, hyperwall and stereo visualization, automated provenance generation, parallel task execution, and streaming data parallel pipelines. NASA's DV3D is a UV-CDAT package that enables exploratory analysis of diverse and rich data sets from various sources including the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF). DV3D provides user-friendly workflow interfaces for advanced visualization and analysis of climate data at a level appropriate for scientists. DV3D's integration with CDAT's climate data management system (CDMS) and other climate data analysis tools provides a wide range of climate data analysis operations, e.g. simple arithmetic operations, regridding, conditioned comparisons, weighted averages, various statistical operations, etc. Several teams are developing parallel versions of these tools that will enable users to analyze and display large data sets that cannot currently be processed with existing desktop tools. This enables scientists to run analyses that were previously intractable due to the large size of the datasets and, using DV3D, seamlessly couple these

  9. Ultrascale Climate Data Visualization and Analysis Using DV3D and UVCDAT.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, T. P.; Potter, G. L.; Williams, D. N.; Doutriaux, C.; Chaudhary, A.

    2014-12-01

    Earth system scientists are being inundated by an explosion of data generated by ever-increasing resolution in both global models and remote sensors. Advanced tools for accessing, analyzing, and visualizing very large and complex climate data are required to maintain rapid progress in Earth system research. To meet this need, the NASA Center for Climate Simulation (NCCS) at Goddard Space Flight Center is developing an advanced computational infrastructure that can provide high-performance analysis and visualization capabilities to the desktops of climate scientists. In collaboration with the Ultra-scale Visualization Climate Data Analysis Tools (UV-CDAT) development consortium, NCCS is developing climate data analysis and visualization tools for UV-CDAT, which provides data analysis capabilities for the Earth System Grid (ESG). These tools feature workflow interfaces, interactive 3D data exploration, hyperwall and stereo visualization, automated provenance generation, parallel task execution, and streaming data parallel pipelines. NASA's DV3D is a UV-CDAT package that enables exploratory analysis of diverse and rich data sets from various sources including the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF). DV3D provides user-friendly workflow interfaces for advanced visualization and analysis of climate data at a level appropriate for scientists. DV3D's integration with CDAT's climate data management system (CDMS) and other tools provides a wide range of climate data analysis operations, e.g. simple arithmetic operations, regridding, conditioned comparisons, weighted averages, various statistical operations, etc. Several teams are developing parallel versions of these tools that will enable users to analyze and display large data sets that cannot currently be processed with existing desktop tools. This enables scientists to run analyses that were previously intractable due to the large size of the datasets and, using DV3D, seamlessly couple these analyses with advanced

  10. Texture splats for 3D vector and scalar field visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Crawfis, R.A.; Max, N.

    1993-04-06

    Volume Visualization is becoming an important tool for understanding large 3D datasets. A popular technique for volume rendering is known as splatting. With new hardware architectures offering substantial improvements in the performance of rendering texture mapped objects, we present textured splats. An ideal reconstruction function for 3D signals is developed which can be used as a texture map for a splat. Extensions to the basic splatting technique are then developed to additionally represent vector fields.

  11. Vizcano: Student development of 3-D Volcanic Visualizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konter, J. G.; Smith-Konter, B. R.

    2008-12-01

    The development and use of 3-D visualizations of volcanoes in the classroom provides a unique way to balance common student curiosity about volcanoes with interests in computer technology and opportunities for exploration. Through the inclusion of multiple scientific datasets, students can develop 3-D volcano visualizations and use these unique tools to investigate relationships between geological, geophysical, and geochemical datasets. This type of exercise allows undergraduates to become familiar with research-type exploration, while graduate students can focus on more specific research questions. This Fall, students enrolled in the Volcanology course at the University of Texas at El Paso will develop 3-D visualizations of major volcanoes on Earth, using Fledermaus and GRASS visualization software. Each visualization project will utilize SRTM v.4 topography data and available LandSat imagery. These data will allow for an initial investigation of the structure of the volcano, including recognition of recent volcanic features. Students will also use seismic data from a variety of online resources to evaluate earthquake locations and earthquake swarms as indicators of volcanic activity. Each visualization project will be archived on a website hosted at UTEP (http://www.geo.utep.edu/pub/jasper/volcano), making each visualization product globally accessible to students, teachers, researchers, and the general public. These student-generated visualizations form an important part of a practical resource for not only students and teachers, but also Earth scientists that are interested in placing their own research in a geospatial context.

  12. DspaceOgreTerrain 3D Terrain Visualization Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myint, Steven; Jain, Abhinandan; Pomerantz, Marc I.

    2012-01-01

    DspaceOgreTerrain is an extension to the DspaceOgre 3D visualization tool that supports real-time visualization of various terrain types, including digital elevation maps, planets, and meshes. DspaceOgreTerrain supports creating 3D representations of terrains and placing them in a scene graph. The 3D representations allow for a continuous level of detail, GPU-based rendering, and overlaying graphics like wheel tracks and shadows. It supports reading data from the SimScape terrain- modeling library. DspaceOgreTerrain solves the problem of displaying the results of simulations that involve very large terrains. In the past, it has been used to visualize simulations of vehicle traverses on Lunar and Martian terrains. These terrains were made up of billions of vertices and would not have been renderable in real-time without using a continuous level of detail rendering technique.

  13. 3D web visualization of huge CityGML models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prandi, F.; Devigili, F.; Soave, M.; Di Staso, U.; De Amicis, R.

    2015-08-01

    Nowadays, rapid technological development into acquiring geo-spatial information; joined to the capabilities to process these data in a relative short period of time, allows the generation of detailed 3D textured city models that will become an essential part of the modern city information infrastructure (Spatial Data Infrastructure) and, can be used to integrate various data from different sources for public accessible visualisation and many other applications. One of the main bottlenecks, which at the moment limit the use of these datasets to few experts, is a lack on efficient visualization systems through the web and interoperable frameworks that allow standardising the access to the city models. The work presented in this paper tries to satisfy these two requirements developing a 3D web-based visualization system based on OGC standards and effective visualization concepts. The architectural framework, based on Services Oriented Architecture (SOA) concepts, provides the 3D city data to a web client designed to support the view process in a very effective way. The first part of the work is to design a framework compliant to the 3D Portrayal Service drafted by the of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) 3D standardization working group. The latter is related to the development of an effective web client able to render in an efficient way the 3D city models.

  14. Measuring visual discomfort associated with 3D displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambooij, M.; Fortuin, M.; Ijsselsteijn, W. A.; Heynderickx, I.

    2009-02-01

    Some people report visual discomfort when watching 3D displays. For both the objective measurement of visual fatigue and the subjective measurement of visual discomfort, we would like to arrive at general indicators that are easy to apply in perception experiments. Previous research yielded contradictory results concerning such indicators. We hypothesize two potential causes for this: 1) not all clinical tests are equally appropriate to evaluate the effect of stereoscopic viewing on visual fatigue, and 2) there is a natural variation in susceptibility to visual fatigue amongst people with normal vision. To verify these hypotheses, we designed an experiment, consisting of two parts. Firstly, an optometric screening was used to differentiate participants in susceptibility to visual fatigue. Secondly, in a 2×2 within-subjects design (2D vs 3D and two-view vs nine-view display), a questionnaire and eight optometric tests (i.e. binocular acuity, fixation disparity with and without fusion lock, heterophoria, convergent and divergent fusion, vergence facility and accommodation response) were administered before and immediately after a reading task. Results revealed that participants found to be more susceptible to visual fatigue during screening showed a clinically meaningful increase in fusion amplitude after having viewed 3D stimuli. Two questionnaire items (i.e., pain and irritation) were significantly affected by the participants' susceptibility, while two other items (i.e., double vision and sharpness) were scored differently between 2D and 3D for all participants. Our results suggest that a combination of fusion range measurements and self-report is appropriate for evaluating visual fatigue related to 3D displays.

  15. Dynamic 3D Visualization of Vocal Tract Shaping During Speech

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yinghua; Kim, Yoon-Chul; Proctor, Michael I.; Narayanan, Shrikanth S.; Nayak, Krishna S.

    2014-01-01

    Noninvasive imaging is widely used in speech research as a means to investigate the shaping and dynamics of the vocal tract during speech production. 3D dynamic MRI would be a major advance, as it would provide 3D dynamic visualization of the entire vocal tract. We present a novel method for the creation of 3D dynamic movies of vocal tract shaping based on the acquisition of 2D dynamic data from parallel slices and temporal alignment of the image sequences using audio information. Multiple sagittal 2D real-time movies with synchronized audio recordings are acquired for English vowel-consonant-vowel stimuli /ala/, /aɹa/, /asa/ and /aʃa/. Audio data are aligned using mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC) extracted from windowed intervals of the speech signal. Sagittal image sequences acquired from all slices are then aligned using dynamic time warping (DTW). The aligned image sequences enable dynamic 3D visualization by creating synthesized movies of the moving airway in the coronal planes, visualizing desired tissue surfaces and tube-shaped vocal tract airway after manual segmentation of targeted articulators and smoothing. The resulting volumes allow for dynamic 3D visualization of salient aspects of lingual articulation, including the formation of tongue grooves and sublingual cavities, with a temporal resolution of 78 ms. PMID:23204279

  16. An Automatic 3d Reconstruction Method Based on Multi-View Stereo Vision for the Mogao Grottoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, J.; Zhong, S.; Zheng, L.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents an automatic three-dimensional reconstruction method based on multi-view stereo vision for the Mogao Grottoes. 3D digitization technique has been used in cultural heritage conservation and replication over the past decade, especially the methods based on binocular stereo vision. However, mismatched points are inevitable in traditional binocular stereo matching due to repeatable or similar features of binocular images. In order to reduce the probability of mismatching greatly and improve the measure precision, a portable four-camera photographic measurement system is used for 3D modelling of a scene. Four cameras of the measurement system form six binocular systems with baselines of different lengths to add extra matching constraints and offer multiple measurements. Matching error based on epipolar constraint is introduced to remove the mismatched points. Finally, an accurate point cloud can be generated by multi-images matching and sub-pixel interpolation. Delaunay triangulation and texture mapping are performed to obtain the 3D model of a scene. The method has been tested on 3D reconstruction several scenes of the Mogao Grottoes and good results verify the effectiveness of the method.

  17. Distributed 3D Information Visualization - Towards Integration of the Dynamic 3D Graphics and Web Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vucinic, Dean; Deen, Danny; Oanta, Emil; Batarilo, Zvonimir; Lacor, Chris

    This paper focuses on visualization and manipulation of graphical content in distributed network environments. The developed graphical middleware and 3D desktop prototypes were specialized for situational awareness. This research was done in the LArge Scale COllaborative decision support Technology (LASCOT) project, which explored and combined software technologies to support human-centred decision support system for crisis management (earthquake, tsunami, flooding, airplane or oil-tanker incidents, chemical, radio-active or other pollutants spreading, etc.). The performed state-of-the-art review did not identify any publicly available large scale distributed application of this kind. Existing proprietary solutions rely on the conventional technologies and 2D representations. Our challenge was to apply the "latest" available technologies, such Java3D, X3D and SOAP, compatible with average computer graphics hardware. The selected technologies are integrated and we demonstrate: the flow of data, which originates from heterogeneous data sources; interoperability across different operating systems and 3D visual representations to enhance the end-users interactions.

  18. 3D Stereoscopic Visualization of Fenestrated Stent Grafts

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Zhonghua; Squelch, Andrew; Bartlett, Andrew; Cunningham, Kylie; Lawrence-Brown, Michael

    2009-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to present a technique of stereoscopic visualization in the evaluation of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm treated with fenestrated stent grafts compared with conventional 2D visualizations. Two patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm undergoing fenestrated stent grafting were selected for inclusion in the study. Conventional 2D views including axial, multiplanar reformation, maximum-intensity projection, and volume rendering and 3D stereoscopic visualizations were assessed by two experienced reviewers independently with regard to the treatment outcomes of fenestrated repair. Interobserver agreement was assessed with Kendall's W statistic. Multiplanar reformation and maximum-intensity projection visualizations were scored the highest in the evaluation of parameters related to the fenestrated stent grafting, while 3D stereoscopic visualization was scored as valuable in the evaluation of appearance (any distortions) of the fenestrated stent. Volume rendering was found to play a limited role in the follow-up of fenestrated stent grafting. 3D stereoscopic visualization adds additional information that assists endovascular specialists to identify any distortions of the fenestrated stents when compared with 2D visualizations.

  19. Stereo frame decomposition for error-constrained remote visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Steven; Shen, Han-Wei

    2013-01-01

    As growth in dataset sizes continues to exceed growth in available bandwidth, new solutions are needed to facilitate efficient visual analysis workflows. Remote visualization can enable the colocation of visual analysis compute resources with simulation compute resources, reducing the impact of bandwidth constraints. While there are many off-the-shelf solutions available for general remoting needs, there is substantial room for improvement in the interactivity they offer, and none focus on supporting stereo remote visualization with programmable error bounds. We propose a novel system enabling efficient compression of stereo video streams using standard codecs that can be integrated with existing remoting solutions, while at the same time offering error constraints that provide users with fidelity guarantees. By taking advantage of interocular coherence, the flexibility permitted by error constraints, and knowledge of scene depth and camera information, our system offers improved remote visualization frame rates.

  20. Towards robust 3D visual tracking for motion compensation in beating heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Richa, Rogério; Bó, Antônio P L; Poignet, Philippe

    2011-06-01

    In the context of minimally invasive cardiac surgery, active vision-based motion compensation schemes have been proposed for mitigating problems related to physiological motion. However, robust and accurate visual tracking remains a difficult task. The purpose of this paper is to present a robust visual tracking method that estimates the 3D temporal and spatial deformation of the heart surface using stereo endoscopic images. The novelty is the combination of a visual tracking method based on a Thin-Plate Spline (TPS) model for representing the heart surface deformations with a temporal heart motion model based on a time-varying dual Fourier series for overcoming tracking disturbances or failures. The considerable improvements in tracking robustness facing specular reflections and occlusions are demonstrated through experiments using images of in vivo porcine and human beating hearts. PMID:21277821

  1. A web-based 3D geological information visualization system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Renbo; Jiang, Nan

    2013-03-01

    Construction of 3D geological visualization system has attracted much more concern in GIS, computer modeling, simulation and visualization fields. It not only can effectively help geological interpretation and analysis work, but also can it can help leveling up geosciences professional education. In this paper, an applet-based method was introduced for developing a web-based 3D geological information visualization system. The main aims of this paper are to explore a rapid and low-cost development method for constructing a web-based 3D geological system. First, the borehole data stored in Excel spreadsheets was extracted and then stored in SQLSERVER database of a web server. Second, the JDBC data access component was utilized for providing the capability of access the database. Third, the user interface was implemented with applet component embedded in JSP page and the 3D viewing and querying functions were implemented with PickCanvas of Java3D. Last, the borehole data acquired from geological survey were used for test the system, and the test results has shown that related methods of this paper have a certain application values.

  2. 3D volume visualization in remote radiation treatment planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, David Y.; Garcia, Hong-Mei C.; Mun, Seong K.; Rogers, James E.; Tohme, Walid G.; Carlson, Wayne E.; May, Stephen; Yagel, Roni

    1996-03-01

    This paper reports a novel applications of 3D visualization in an ARPA-funded remote radiation treatment planning (RTP) experiment, utilizing supercomputer 3D volumetric modeling power and NASA ACTS (Advanced Communication Technology Satellite) communication bandwidths at the Ka-band range. The objective of radiation treatment is to deliver a tumorcidal dose of radiation to a tumor volume while minimizing doses to surrounding normal tissues. High performance graphics computers are required to allow physicians to view a 3D anatomy, specify proposed radiation beams, and evaluate the dose distribution around the tumor. Supercomputing power is needed to compute and even optimize dose distribution according to pre-specified requirements. High speed communications offer possibilities for sharing scarce and expensive computing resources (e.g., hardware, software, personnel, etc.) as well as medical expertise for 3D treatment planning among hospitals. This paper provides initial technical insights into the feasibility of such resource sharing. The overall deployment of the RTP experiment, visualization procedures, and parallel volume rendering in support of remote interactive 3D volume visualization will be described.

  3. Volumetric image display for complex 3D data visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, Che-Chih; Chen, Jyh Shing

    2000-05-01

    A volumetric image display is a new display technology capable of displaying computer generated 3D images in a volumetric space. Many viewers can walk around the display and see the image from omni-directions simultaneously without wearing any glasses. The image is real and possesses all major elements in both physiological and psychological depth cues. Due to the volumetric nature of its image, the VID can provide the most natural human-machine interface in operations involving 3D data manipulation and 3D targets monitoring. The technology creates volumetric 3D images by projecting a series of profiling images distributed in the space form a volumetric image because of the after-image effect of human eyes. Exemplary applications in biomedical image visualization were tested on a prototype display, using different methods to display a data set from Ct-scans. The features of this display technology make it most suitable for applications that require quick understanding of the 3D relations, need frequent spatial interactions with the 3D images, or involve time-varying 3D data. It can also be useful for group discussion and decision making.

  4. Point Cloud Visualization in AN Open Source 3d Globe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De La Calle, M.; Gómez-Deck, D.; Koehler, O.; Pulido, F.

    2011-09-01

    During the last years the usage of 3D applications in GIS is becoming more popular. Since the appearance of Google Earth, users are familiarized with 3D environments. On the other hand, nowadays computers with 3D acceleration are common, broadband access is widespread and the public information that can be used in GIS clients that are able to use data from the Internet is constantly increasing. There are currently several libraries suitable for this kind of applications. Based on these facts, and using libraries that are already developed and connected to our own developments, we are working on the implementation of a real 3D GIS with analysis capabilities. Since a 3D GIS such as this can be very interesting for tasks like LiDAR or Laser Scanner point clouds rendering and analysis, special attention is given to get an optimal handling of very large data sets. Glob3 will be a multidimensional GIS in which 3D point clouds could be explored and analysed, even if they are consist of several million points.The latest addition to our visualization libraries is the development of a points cloud server that works regardless of the cloud's size. The server receives and processes petitions from a 3d client (for example glob3, but could be any other, such as one based on WebGL) and delivers the data in the form of pre-processed tiles, depending on the required level of detail.

  5. Recent Advances in Visualizing 3D Flow with LIC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interrante, Victoria; Grosch, Chester

    1998-01-01

    Line Integral Convolution (LIC), introduced by Cabral and Leedom in 1993, is an elegant and versatile technique for representing directional information via patterns of correlation in a texture. Although most commonly used to depict 2D flow, or flow over a surface in 3D, LIC methods can equivalently be used to portray 3D flow through a volume. However, the popularity of LIC as a device for illustrating 3D flow has historically been limited both by the computational expense of generating and rendering such a 3D texture and by the difficulties inherent in clearly and effectively conveying the directional information embodied in the volumetric output textures that are produced. In an earlier paper, we briefly discussed some of the factors that may underlie the perceptual difficulties that we can encounter with dense 3D displays and outlined several strategies for more effectively visualizing 3D flow with volume LIC. In this article, we review in more detail techniques for selectively emphasizing critical regions of interest in a flow and for facilitating the accurate perception of the 3D depth and orientation of overlapping streamlines, and we demonstrate new methods for efficiently incorporating an indication of orientation into a flow representation and for conveying additional information about related scalar quantities such as temperature or vorticity over a flow via subtle, continuous line width and color variations.

  6. Stereo 3-D Imagery Uses for Definition of Geologic Structures and Geomorphic Features (Anaglyph colored glasses employed)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, B. G.; Fuente, J. D.

    2008-12-01

    Recently completed projects incorporating TopoMorpher* digital images as adjuncts to commonly employed tools has emphasized the distinct advantage gained with STEREO 3-D DIGITAL IMAGERY. By manipulating scale, relief (four types of digital shading), sun angle, direction of viewing and tilt of scene, etc. -- to produce differing views of the same terrain -- aids in identifying, tracing, and interpreting ground surface anomalies. *TopoMorpher is a digital software product of Eighteen Software (18 software.com). The advantage of Stereo 3-D views combined with digital removal of vegetation which blocked interpretation (commonly called 'bare earth/naked' views) cannot be over-emphasized. The TopoMorpher program creates scenes transferable to disk for printing at any size. Included is with computer projector which allows large display and discussion ease for groups. The examples include (1) fault systems for targeting water well locations in bedrock and (2) delineation of debris slide and avalanche terrain. Combining geologic mapping and spring locations with Stereo 3-D TopoMorpher tracing of fault lineaments has allowed targeting of water well drilling sites. Selection of geophysical study areas for well siting has been simplified. Stereo 3-D TopoMorpher has a specific "relief/terrain setting" to define potential failure sites by producing detailed colored slope maps keyed to field-data derived parameters. Posters display individual project images and large scale overviews for identifying unusual major terrain features. Images at scales using 10 and 30 meter digital data as well as Lidar (< 1 meter) will be shown.

  7. Structural stereo matching of Laplacian-of-Gaussian contour segments for 3D perception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyer, K. L.; Sotak, G. E., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The stereo correspondence problem is solved using Laplacian-of-Gaussian zero-crossing contours as a source of primitives for structural stereopsis, as opposed to traditional point-based algorithms. Up to 74 percent matching of candidate zero crossing points are being achieved on 240 x 246 images at small scales and large ranges of disparity, without coarse-to-fine tracking and without precise knowledge of the epipolar geometry. This approach should prove particularly useful in recovering the epipolar geometry automatically for stereo pairs for which it is unavailable a priori. Such situations occur in the extraction of terrain models from stereo aerial photographs.

  8. Large Terrain Continuous Level of Detail 3D Visualization Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myint, Steven; Jain, Abhinandan

    2012-01-01

    This software solved the problem of displaying terrains that are usually too large to be displayed on standard workstations in real time. The software can visualize terrain data sets composed of billions of vertices, and can display these data sets at greater than 30 frames per second. The Large Terrain Continuous Level of Detail 3D Visualization Tool allows large terrains, which can be composed of billions of vertices, to be visualized in real time. It utilizes a continuous level of detail technique called clipmapping to support this. It offloads much of the work involved in breaking up the terrain into levels of details onto the GPU (graphics processing unit) for faster processing.

  9. Advanced 3D Sensing and Visualization System for Unattended Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, J.J.; Little, C.Q.; Nelson, C.L.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to create a reliable, 3D sensing and visualization system for unattended monitoring. The system provides benefits for several of Sandia's initiatives including nonproliferation, treaty verification, national security and critical infrastructure surety. The robust qualities of the system make it suitable for both interior and exterior monitoring applications. The 3D sensing system combines two existing sensor technologies in a new way to continuously maintain accurate 3D models of both static and dynamic components of monitored areas (e.g., portions of buildings, roads, and secured perimeters in addition to real-time estimates of the shape, location, and motion of humans and moving objects). A key strength of this system is the ability to monitor simultaneous activities on a continuous basis, such as several humans working independently within a controlled workspace, while also detecting unauthorized entry into the workspace. Data from the sensing system is used to identi~ activities or conditions that can signi~ potential surety (safety, security, and reliability) threats. The system could alert a security operator of potential threats or could be used to cue other detection, inspection or warning systems. An interactive, Web-based, 3D visualization capability was also developed using the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML). The intex%ace allows remote, interactive inspection of a monitored area (via the Internet or Satellite Links) using a 3D computer model of the area that is rendered from actual sensor data.

  10. How 3D immersive visualization is changing medical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koning, Anton H. J.

    2011-03-01

    Originally the only way to look inside the human body without opening it up was by means of two dimensional (2D) images obtained using X-ray equipment. The fact that human anatomy is inherently three dimensional leads to ambiguities in interpretation and problems of occlusion. Three dimensional (3D) imaging modalities such as CT, MRI and 3D ultrasound remove these drawbacks and are now part of routine medical care. While most hospitals 'have gone digital', meaning that the images are no longer printed on film, they are still being viewed on 2D screens. However, this way valuable depth information is lost, and some interactions become unnecessarily complex or even unfeasible. Using a virtual reality (VR) system to present volumetric data means that depth information is presented to the viewer and 3D interaction is made possible. At the Erasmus MC we have developed V-Scope, an immersive volume visualization system for visualizing a variety of (bio-)medical volumetric datasets, ranging from 3D ultrasound, via CT and MRI, to confocal microscopy, OPT and 3D electron-microscopy data. In this talk we will address the advantages of such a system for both medical diagnostics as well as for (bio)medical research.

  11. Visual odometry based on structural matching of local invariant features using stereo camera sensor.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Pedro; Vázquez-Martín, Ricardo; Bandera, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a novel sensor system to estimate the motion of a stereo camera. Local invariant image features are matched between pairs of frames and linked into image trajectories at video rate, providing the so-called visual odometry, i.e., motion estimates from visual input alone. Our proposal conducts two matching sessions: the first one between sets of features associated to the images of the stereo pairs and the second one between sets of features associated to consecutive frames. With respect to previously proposed approaches, the main novelty of this proposal is that both matching algorithms are conducted by means of a fast matching algorithm which combines absolute and relative feature constraints. Finding the largest-valued set of mutually consistent matches is equivalent to finding the maximum-weighted clique on a graph. The stereo matching allows to represent the scene view as a graph which emerge from the features of the accepted clique. On the other hand, the frame-to-frame matching defines a graph whose vertices are features in 3D space. The efficiency of the approach is increased by minimizing the geometric and algebraic errors to estimate the final displacement of the stereo camera between consecutive acquired frames. The proposed approach has been tested for mobile robotics navigation purposes in real environments and using different features. Experimental results demonstrate the performance of the proposal, which could be applied in both industrial and service robot fields. PMID:22164016

  12. Visual Odometry Based on Structural Matching of Local Invariant Features Using Stereo Camera Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Núñez, Pedro; Vázquez-Martín, Ricardo; Bandera, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a novel sensor system to estimate the motion of a stereo camera. Local invariant image features are matched between pairs of frames and linked into image trajectories at video rate, providing the so-called visual odometry, i.e., motion estimates from visual input alone. Our proposal conducts two matching sessions: the first one between sets of features associated to the images of the stereo pairs and the second one between sets of features associated to consecutive frames. With respect to previously proposed approaches, the main novelty of this proposal is that both matching algorithms are conducted by means of a fast matching algorithm which combines absolute and relative feature constraints. Finding the largest-valued set of mutually consistent matches is equivalent to finding the maximum-weighted clique on a graph. The stereo matching allows to represent the scene view as a graph which emerge from the features of the accepted clique. On the other hand, the frame-to-frame matching defines a graph whose vertices are features in 3D space. The efficiency of the approach is increased by minimizing the geometric and algebraic errors to estimate the final displacement of the stereo camera between consecutive acquired frames. The proposed approach has been tested for mobile robotics navigation purposes in real environments and using different features. Experimental results demonstrate the performance of the proposal, which could be applied in both industrial and service robot fields. PMID:22164016

  13. 3-D Flow Visualization with a Light-field Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurow, B.

    2012-12-01

    Light-field cameras have received attention recently due to their ability to acquire photographs that can be computationally refocused after they have been acquired. In this work, we describe the development of a light-field camera system for 3D visualization of turbulent flows. The camera developed in our lab, also known as a plenoptic camera, uses an array of microlenses mounted next to an image sensor to resolve both the position and angle of light rays incident upon the camera. For flow visualization, the flow field is seeded with small particles that follow the fluid's motion and are imaged using the camera and a pulsed light source. The tomographic MART algorithm is then applied to the light-field data in order to reconstruct a 3D volume of the instantaneous particle field. 3D, 3C velocity vectors are then determined from a pair of 3D particle fields using conventional cross-correlation algorithms. As an illustration of the concept, 3D/3C velocity measurements of a turbulent boundary layer produced on the wall of a conventional wind tunnel are presented. Future experiments are planned to use the camera to study the influence of wall permeability on the 3-D structure of the turbulent boundary layer.Schematic illustrating the concept of a plenoptic camera where each pixel represents both the position and angle of light rays entering the camera. This information can be used to computationally refocus an image after it has been acquired. Instantaneous 3D velocity field of a turbulent boundary layer determined using light-field data captured by a plenoptic camera.

  14. 3D Visualization of Machine Learning Algorithms with Astronomical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Brian R.

    2016-01-01

    We present innovative machine learning (ML) methods using unsupervised clustering with minimum spanning trees (MSTs) to study 3D astronomical catalogs. Utilizing Python code to build trees based on galaxy catalogs, we can render the results with the visualization suite Blender to produce interactive 360 degree panoramic videos. The catalogs and their ML results can be explored in a 3D space using mobile devices, tablets or desktop browsers. We compare the statistics of the MST results to a number of machine learning methods relating to optimization and efficiency.

  15. Visual homing with a pan-tilt based stereo camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nirmal, Paramesh; Lyons, Damian M.

    2013-01-01

    Visual homing is a navigation method based on comparing a stored image of the goal location and the current image (current view) to determine how to navigate to the goal location. It is theorized that insects, such as ants and bees, employ visual homing methods to return to their nest. Visual homing has been applied to autonomous robot platforms using two main approaches: holistic and feature-based. Both methods aim at determining distance and direction to the goal location. Navigational algorithms using Scale Invariant Feature Transforms (SIFT) have gained great popularity in the recent years due to the robustness of the feature operator. Churchill and Vardy have developed a visual homing method using scale change information (Homing in Scale Space, HiSS) from SIFT. HiSS uses SIFT feature scale change information to determine distance between the robot and the goal location. Since the scale component is discrete with a small range of values, the result is a rough measurement with limited accuracy. We have developed a method that uses stereo data, resulting in better homing performance. Our approach utilizes a pan-tilt based stereo camera, which is used to build composite wide-field images. We use the wide-field images combined with stereo-data obtained from the stereo camera to extend the keypoint vector described in to include a new parameter, depth (z). Using this info, our algorithm determines the distance and orientation from the robot to the goal location. We compare our method with HiSS in a set of indoor trials using a Pioneer 3-AT robot equipped with a BumbleBee2 stereo camera. We evaluate the performance of both methods using a set of performance measures described in this paper.

  16. Improvements in the Visualization of Stereoscopic 3D Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurrieri, Luis E.

    2015-09-01

    A pleasant visualization of stereoscopic imagery must take into account factors that may produce eye strain and fatigue. Fortunately, our binocular vision system has embedded mechanisms to perceive depth for extended periods of time without producing eye fatigue; however, stereoscopic imagery may still induce visual discomfort in certain displaying scenarios. An important source of eye fatigue originates in the conflict between vergence eye movement and focusing mechanisms. Today's eye-tracking technology makes possible to know the viewers' gaze direction; hence, 3D imagery can be dynamically corrected based on this information. In this paper, I introduce a method to improve the visualization of stereoscopic imagery on planar displays based on emulating vergence and accommodation mechanisms of binocular human vision. Unlike other methods to improve the visual comfort that introduce depth distortions, in the stereoscopic visual media, this technique aims to produce a gentler and more natural binocular viewing experience without distorting the original depth of the scene.

  17. Enhancement Strategies for Frame-To Uas Stereo Visual Odometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersten, J.; Rodehorst, V.

    2016-06-01

    Autonomous navigation of indoor unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) requires accurate pose estimations usually obtained from indirect measurements. Navigation based on inertial measurement units (IMU) is known to be affected by high drift rates. The incorporation of cameras provides complementary information due to the different underlying measurement principle. The scale ambiguity problem for monocular cameras is avoided when a light-weight stereo camera setup is used. However, also frame-to-frame stereo visual odometry (VO) approaches are known to accumulate pose estimation errors over time. Several valuable real-time capable techniques for outlier detection and drift reduction in frame-to-frame VO, for example robust relative orientation estimation using random sample consensus (RANSAC) and bundle adjustment, are available. This study addresses the problem of choosing appropriate VO components. We propose a frame-to-frame stereo VO method based on carefully selected components and parameters. This method is evaluated regarding the impact and value of different outlier detection and drift-reduction strategies, for example keyframe selection and sparse bundle adjustment (SBA), using reference benchmark data as well as own real stereo data. The experimental results demonstrate that our VO method is able to estimate quite accurate trajectories. Feature bucketing and keyframe selection are simple but effective strategies which further improve the VO results. Furthermore, introducing the stereo baseline constraint in pose graph optimization (PGO) leads to significant improvements.

  18. Visual fatigue evaluation based on depth in 3D videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng-jiao; Sang, Xin-zhu; Liu, Yangdong; Shi, Guo-zhong; Xu, Da-xiong

    2013-08-01

    In recent years, 3D technology has become an emerging industry. However, visual fatigue always impedes the development of 3D technology. In this paper we propose some factors affecting human perception of depth as new quality metrics. These factors are from three aspects of 3D video--spatial characteristics, temporal characteristics and scene movement characteristics. They play important roles for the viewer's visual perception. If there are many objects with a certain velocity and the scene changes fast, viewers will feel uncomfortable. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm to calculate the weight values of these factors and analyses their effect on visual fatigue.MSE (Mean Square Error) of different blocks is taken into consideration from the frame and inter-frame for 3D stereoscopic videos. The depth frame is divided into a number of blocks. There are overlapped and sharing pixels (at half of the block) in the horizontal and vertical direction. Ignoring edge information of objects in the image can be avoided. Then the distribution of all these data is indicated by kurtosis with regard of regions which human eye may mainly gaze at. Weight values can be gotten by the normalized kurtosis. When the method is used for individual depth, spatial variation can be achieved. When we use it in different frames between current and previous one, we can get temporal variation and scene movement variation. Three factors above are linearly combined, so we can get objective assessment value of 3D videos directly. The coefficients of three factors can be estimated based on the liner regression. At last, the experimental results show that the proposed method exhibits high correlation with subjective quality assessment results.

  19. Met.3D - a new open-source tool for interactive 3D visualization of ensemble weather forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rautenhaus, Marc; Kern, Michael; Schäfler, Andreas; Westermann, Rüdiger

    2015-04-01

    We introduce Met.3D, a new open-source tool for the interactive 3D visualization of numerical ensemble weather predictions. The tool has been developed to support weather forecasting during aircraft-based atmospheric field campaigns, however, is applicable to further forecasting, research and teaching activities. Our work approaches challenging topics related to the visual analysis of numerical atmospheric model output -- 3D visualisation, ensemble visualization, and how both can be used in a meaningful way suited to weather forecasting. Met.3D builds a bridge from proven 2D visualization methods commonly used in meteorology to 3D visualization by combining both visualization types in a 3D context. It implements methods that address the issue of spatial perception in the 3D view as well as approaches to using the ensemble in order to assess forecast uncertainty. Interactivity is key to the Met.3D approach. The tool uses modern graphics hardware technology to achieve interactive visualization of present-day numerical weather prediction datasets on standard consumer hardware. Met.3D supports forecast data from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts and operates directly on ECMWF hybrid sigma-pressure level grids. In this presentation, we provide an overview of the software --illustrated with short video examples--, and give information on its availability.

  20. Ideal Positions: 3D Sonography, Medical Visuality, Popular Culture.

    PubMed

    Seiber, Tim

    2016-03-01

    As digital technologies are integrated into medical environments, they continue to transform the experience of contemporary health care. Importantly, medicine is increasingly visual. In the history of sonography, visibility has played an important role in accessing fetal bodies for diagnostic and entertainment purposes. With the advent of three-dimensional (3D) rendering, sonography presents the fetus visually as already a child. The aesthetics of this process and the resulting imagery, made possible in digital networks, discloses important changes in the relationship between technology and biology, reproductive health and political debates, and biotechnology and culture. PMID:26164291

  1. Stereo photography of neutral density He-filled bubbles for 3-D fluid motion studies in an engine cylinder.

    PubMed

    Kent, J C; Eaton, A R

    1982-03-01

    A new technique has been developed for studies of fluid motion within the cylinder of a reciprocating piston engine during the air induction process. Helium-filled bubbles, serving as neutrally buoyant flow tracer particles, enter the cylinder along with the inducted air charge. The bubble motion is recorded by stereo cine photography through the transparent cylinder of a specially designed research engine. Quantitative data on the 3-D velocity field generated during induction is obtained from frame-to-frame analysis of the stereo images, taking into account refraction of the rays due to the transparent cylinder. Other applications for which this technique appears suitable include measurements of velocity fields within intake ports and flow-field dynamics within intake manifolds of multicylinder engines. PMID:20372559

  2. Stereo and motion parallax cues in human 3D vision: can they vanish without a trace?

    PubMed

    Rauschecker, Andreas M; Solomon, Samuel G; Glennerster, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    In an immersive virtual reality environment, subjects fail to notice when a scene expands or contracts around them, despite correct and consistent information from binocular stereopsis and motion parallax, resulting in gross failures of size constancy (A. Glennerster, L. Tcheang, S. J. Gilson, A. W. Fitzgibbon, & A. J. Parker, 2006). We determined whether the integration of stereopsis/motion parallax cues with texture-based cues could be modified through feedback. Subjects compared the size of two objects, each visible when the room was of a different size. As the subject walked, the room expanded or contracted, although subjects failed to notice any change. Subjects were given feedback about the accuracy of their size judgments, where the "correct" size setting was defined either by texture-based cues or (in a separate experiment) by stereo/motion parallax cues. Because of feedback, observers were able to adjust responses such that fewer errors were made. For texture-based feedback, the pattern of responses was consistent with observers weighting texture cues more heavily. However, for stereo/motion parallax feedback, performance in many conditions became worse such that, paradoxically, biases moved away from the point reinforced by the feedback. This can be explained by assuming that subjects remap the relationship between stereo/motion parallax cues and perceived size or that they develop strategies to change their criterion for a size match on different trials. In either case, subjects appear not to have direct access to stereo/motion parallax cues. PMID:17209749

  3. Breast tumour visualization using 3D quantitative ultrasound methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangeh, Mehrdad J.; Raheem, Abdul; Tadayyon, Hadi; Liu, Simon; Hadizad, Farnoosh; Czarnota, Gregory J.

    2016-04-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancer types accounting for 29% of all cancer cases. Early detection and treatment has a crucial impact on improving the survival of affected patients. Ultrasound (US) is non-ionizing, portable, inexpensive, and real-time imaging modality for screening and quantifying breast cancer. Due to these attractive attributes, the last decade has witnessed many studies on using quantitative ultrasound (QUS) methods in tissue characterization. However, these studies have mainly been limited to 2-D QUS methods using hand-held US (HHUS) scanners. With the availability of automated breast ultrasound (ABUS) technology, this study is the first to develop 3-D QUS methods for the ABUS visualization of breast tumours. Using an ABUS system, unlike the manual 2-D HHUS device, the whole patient's breast was scanned in an automated manner. The acquired frames were subsequently examined and a region of interest (ROI) was selected in each frame where tumour was identified. Standard 2-D QUS methods were used to compute spectral and backscatter coefficient (BSC) parametric maps on the selected ROIs. Next, the computed 2-D parameters were mapped to a Cartesian 3-D space, interpolated, and rendered to provide a transparent color-coded visualization of the entire breast tumour. Such 3-D visualization can potentially be used for further analysis of the breast tumours in terms of their size and extension. Moreover, the 3-D volumetric scans can be used for tissue characterization and the categorization of breast tumours as benign or malignant by quantifying the computed parametric maps over the whole tumour volume.

  4. Realistic terrain visualization based on 3D virtual world technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Fengru; Lin, Hui; Chen, Bin; Xiao, Cai

    2010-11-01

    The rapid advances in information technologies, e.g., network, graphics processing, and virtual world, have provided challenges and opportunities for new capabilities in information systems, Internet applications, and virtual geographic environments, especially geographic visualization and collaboration. In order to achieve meaningful geographic capabilities, we need to explore and understand how these technologies can be used to construct virtual geographic environments to help to engage geographic research. The generation of three-dimensional (3D) terrain plays an important part in geographical visualization, computer simulation, and virtual geographic environment applications. The paper introduces concepts and technologies of virtual worlds and virtual geographic environments, explores integration of realistic terrain and other geographic objects and phenomena of natural geographic environment based on SL/OpenSim virtual world technologies. Realistic 3D terrain visualization is a foundation of construction of a mirror world or a sand box model of the earth landscape and geographic environment. The capabilities of interaction and collaboration on geographic information are discussed as well. Further virtual geographic applications can be developed based on the foundation work of realistic terrain visualization in virtual environments.

  5. Realistic terrain visualization based on 3D virtual world technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Fengru; Lin, Hui; Chen, Bin; Xiao, Cai

    2009-09-01

    The rapid advances in information technologies, e.g., network, graphics processing, and virtual world, have provided challenges and opportunities for new capabilities in information systems, Internet applications, and virtual geographic environments, especially geographic visualization and collaboration. In order to achieve meaningful geographic capabilities, we need to explore and understand how these technologies can be used to construct virtual geographic environments to help to engage geographic research. The generation of three-dimensional (3D) terrain plays an important part in geographical visualization, computer simulation, and virtual geographic environment applications. The paper introduces concepts and technologies of virtual worlds and virtual geographic environments, explores integration of realistic terrain and other geographic objects and phenomena of natural geographic environment based on SL/OpenSim virtual world technologies. Realistic 3D terrain visualization is a foundation of construction of a mirror world or a sand box model of the earth landscape and geographic environment. The capabilities of interaction and collaboration on geographic information are discussed as well. Further virtual geographic applications can be developed based on the foundation work of realistic terrain visualization in virtual environments.

  6. Automated 3d Road Sign Mapping with Stereovision-Based Mobile Mapping Exploiting Disparity Information from Dense Stereo Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavegn, S.; Nebiker, S.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents algorithms and investigations on the automated detection, classification and mapping of road signs which systematically exploit depth information from stereo images. This approach was chosen due to recent progress in the development of stereo matching algorithms enabling the generation of accurate and dense depth maps. In comparison to mono imagery-based approaches, depth maps also allow 3D mapping of the objects. This is essential for efficient inventory and for future change detection purposes. Test measurements with the mobile mapping system by the Institute of Geomatics Engineering of the FHNW University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland demonstrated that the developed algorithms for the automated 3D road sign mapping perform well, even under difficult to poor lighting conditions. Approximately 90% of the relevant road signs with predominantly red, blue and yellow colors in Switzerland can be detected, and 85% can be classified correctly. Furthermore, fully automated mapping with a 3D accuracy of better than 10 cm is possible.

  7. EarthServer - 3D Visualization on the Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Sebastian; Herzig, Pasquale; Bockholt, Ulrich; Jung, Yvonne; Behr, Johannes

    2013-04-01

    EarthServer (www.earthserver.eu), funded by the European Commission under its Seventh Framework Program, is a project to enable the management, access and exploration of massive, multi-dimensional datasets using Open GeoSpatial Consortium (OGC) query and processing language standards like WCS 2.0 and WCPS. To this end, a server/client architecture designed to handle Petabyte/Exabyte volumes of multi-dimensional data is being developed and deployed. As an important part of the EarthServer project, six Lighthouse Applications, major scientific data exploitation initiatives, are being established to make cross-domain, Earth Sciences related data repositories available in an open and unified manner, as service endpoints based on solutions and infrastructure developed within the project. Clients technology developed and deployed in EarthServer ranges from mobile and web clients to immersive virtual reality systems, all designed to interact with a physically and logically distributed server infrastructure using exclusively OGC standards. In this contribution, we would like to present our work on a web-based 3D visualization and interaction client for Earth Sciences data using only technology found in standard web browsers without requiring the user to install plugins or addons. Additionally, we are able to run the earth data visualization client on a wide range of different platforms with very different soft- and hardware requirements such as smart phones (e.g. iOS, Android), different desktop systems etc. High-quality, hardware-accelerated visualization of 3D and 4D content in standard web browsers can be realized now and we believe it will become more and more common to use this fast, lightweight and ubiquitous platform to provide insights into big datasets without requiring the user to set up a specialized client first. With that in mind, we will also point out some of the limitations we encountered using current web technologies. Underlying the EarthServer web client

  8. The zone of comfort: Predicting visual discomfort with stereo displays

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Takashi; Kim, Joohwan; Hoffman, David M.; Banks, Martin S.

    2012-01-01

    Recent increased usage of stereo displays has been accompanied by public concern about potential adverse effects associated with prolonged viewing of stereo imagery. There are numerous potential sources of adverse effects, but we focused on how vergence–accommodation conflicts in stereo displays affect visual discomfort and fatigue. In one experiment, we examined the effect of viewing distance on discomfort and fatigue. We found that conflicts of a given dioptric value were slightly less comfortable at far than at near distance. In a second experiment, we examined the effect of the sign of the vergence–accommodation conflict on discomfort and fatigue. We found that negative conflicts (stereo content behind the screen) are less comfortable at far distances and that positive conflicts (content in front of screen) are less comfortable at near distances. In a third experiment, we measured phoria and the zone of clear single binocular vision, which are clinical measurements commonly associated with correcting refractive error. Those measurements predicted susceptibility to discomfort in the first two experiments. We discuss the relevance of these findings for a wide variety of situations including the viewing of mobile devices, desktop displays, television, and cinema. PMID:21778252

  9. Visual storytelling in 2D and stereoscopic 3D video: effect of blur on visual attention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh-Thu, Quan; Vienne, Cyril; Blondé, Laurent

    2013-03-01

    Visual attention is an inherent mechanism that plays an important role in the human visual perception. As our visual system has limited capacity and cannot efficiently process the information from the entire visual field, we focus our attention on specific areas of interest in the image for detailed analysis of these areas. In the context of media entertainment, the viewers' visual attention deployment is also influenced by the art of visual storytelling. To this date, visual editing and composition of scenes in stereoscopic 3D content creation still mostly follows those used in 2D. In particular, out-of-focus blur is often used in 2D motion pictures and photography to drive the viewer's attention towards a sharp area of the image. In this paper, we study specifically the impact of defocused foreground objects on visual attention deployment in stereoscopic 3D content. For that purpose, we conducted a subjective experiment using an eyetracker. Our results bring more insights on the deployment of visual attention in stereoscopic 3D content viewing, and provide further understanding on visual attention behavior differences between 2D and 3D. Our results show that a traditional 2D scene compositing approach such as the use of foreground blur does not necessarily produce the same effect on visual attention deployment in 2D and 3D. Implications for stereoscopic content creation and visual fatigue are discussed.

  10. Comparative visual analysis of 3D urban wind simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röber, Niklas; Salim, Mohamed; Grawe, David; Leitl, Bernd; Böttinger, Michael; Schlünzen, Heinke

    2016-04-01

    Climate simulations are conducted in large quantity for a variety of different applications. Many of these simulations focus on global developments and study the Earth's climate system using a coupled atmosphere ocean model. Other simulations are performed on much smaller regional scales, to study very small fine grained climatic effects. These microscale climate simulations pose similar, yet also different, challenges for the visualization and the analysis of the simulation data. Modern interactive visualization and data analysis techniques are very powerful tools to assist the researcher in answering and communicating complex research questions. This presentation discusses comparative visualization for several different wind simulations, which were created using the microscale climate model MITRAS. The simulations differ in wind direction and speed, but are all centered on the same simulation domain: An area of Hamburg-Wilhelmsburg that hosted the IGA/IBA exhibition in 2013. The experiments contain a scenario case to analyze the effects of single buildings, as well as examine the impact of the Coriolis force within the simulation. The scenario case is additionally compared with real measurements from a wind tunnel experiment to ascertain the accuracy of the simulation and the model itself. We also compare different approaches for tree modeling and evaluate the stability of the model. In this presentation, we describe not only our workflow to efficiently and effectively visualize microscale climate simulation data using common 3D visualization and data analysis techniques, but also discuss how to compare variations of a simulation and how to highlight the subtle differences in between them. For the visualizations we use a range of different 3D tools that feature techniques for statistical data analysis, data selection, as well as linking and brushing.

  11. Visualization and Analysis of 3D Gene Expression Data

    SciTech Connect

    Bethel, E. Wes; Rubel, Oliver; Weber, Gunther H.; Hamann, Bernd; Hagen, Hans

    2007-10-25

    Recent methods for extracting precise measurements ofspatial gene expression patterns from three-dimensional (3D) image dataopens the way for new analysis of the complex gene regulatory networkscontrolling animal development. To support analysis of this novel andhighly complex data we developed PointCloudXplore (PCX), an integratedvisualization framework that supports dedicated multi-modal, physical andinformation visualization views along with algorithms to aid in analyzingthe relationships between gene expression levels. Using PCX, we helpedour science stakeholders to address many questions in 3D gene expressionresearch, e.g., to objectively define spatial pattern boundaries andtemporal profiles of genes and to analyze how mRNA patterns arecontrolled by their regulatory transcription factors.

  12. 3D Immersive Visualization: An Educational Tool in Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Campos, N.; Cárdenas-Soto, M.; Juárez-Casas, M.; Castrejón-Pineda, R.

    2007-05-01

    3D immersive visualization is an innovative tool currently used in various disciplines, such as medicine, architecture, engineering, video games, etc. Recently, the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) mounted a visualization theater (Ixtli) with leading edge technology, for academic and research purposes that require immersive 3D tools for a better understanding of the concepts involved. The Division of Engineering in Earth Sciences of the School of Engineering, UNAM, is running a project focused on visualization of geoscience data. Its objective is to incoporate educational material in geoscience courses in order to support and to improve the teaching-learning process, especially in well-known difficult topics for students. As part of the project, proffessors and students are trained in visualization techniques, then their data are adapted and visualized in Ixtli as part of a class or a seminar, where all the attendants can interact, not only among each other but also with the object under study. As part of our results, we present specific examples used in basic geophysics courses, such as interpreted seismic cubes, seismic-wave propagation models, and structural models from bathymetric, gravimetric and seismological data; as well as examples from ongoing applied projects, such as a modeled SH upward wave, the occurrence of an earthquake cluster in 1999 in the Popocatepetl volcano, and a risk atlas from Delegación Alvaro Obregón in Mexico City. All these examples, plus those to come, constitute a library for students and professors willing to explore another dimension of the teaching-learning process. Furthermore, this experience can be enhaced by rich discussions and interactions by videoconferences with other universities and researchers.

  13. Vegetation Height Estimation Near Power transmission poles Via satellite Stereo Images using 3D Depth Estimation Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qayyum, A.; Malik, A. S.; Saad, M. N. M.; Iqbal, M.; Abdullah, F.; Rahseed, W.; Abdullah, T. A. R. B. T.; Ramli, A. Q.

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring vegetation encroachment under overhead high voltage power line is a challenging problem for electricity distribution companies. Absence of proper monitoring could result in damage to the power lines and consequently cause blackout. This will affect electric power supply to industries, businesses, and daily life. Therefore, to avoid the blackouts, it is mandatory to monitor the vegetation/trees near power transmission lines. Unfortunately, the existing approaches are more time consuming and expensive. In this paper, we have proposed a novel approach to monitor the vegetation/trees near or under the power transmission poles using satellite stereo images, which were acquired using Pleiades satellites. The 3D depth of vegetation has been measured near power transmission lines using stereo algorithms. The area of interest scanned by Pleiades satellite sensors is 100 square kilometer. Our dataset covers power transmission poles in a state called Sabah in East Malaysia, encompassing a total of 52 poles in the area of 100 km. We have compared the results of Pleiades satellite stereo images using dynamic programming and Graph-Cut algorithms, consequently comparing satellites' imaging sensors and Depth-estimation Algorithms. Our results show that Graph-Cut Algorithm performs better than dynamic programming (DP) in terms of accuracy and speed.

  14. FROMS3D: New Software for 3-D Visualization of Fracture Network System in Fractured Rock Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Y. H.; Um, J. G.; Choi, Y.

    2014-12-01

    A new software (FROMS3D) is presented to visualize fracture network system in 3-D. The software consists of several modules that play roles in management of borehole and field fracture data, fracture network modelling, visualization of fracture geometry in 3-D and calculation and visualization of intersections and equivalent pipes between fractures. Intel Parallel Studio XE 2013, Visual Studio.NET 2010 and the open source VTK library were utilized as development tools to efficiently implement the modules and the graphical user interface of the software. The results have suggested that the developed software is effective in visualizing 3-D fracture network system, and can provide useful information to tackle the engineering geological problems related to strength, deformability and hydraulic behaviors of the fractured rock masses.

  15. Visual cues in flight simulation - An evaluation of stereo effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Walter W.; Andre, Anthony D.; Kruk, Ronald V.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to quantify the effects of visual scene information on precision hovering tasks under biocular and stereo viewing conditions in a rotorcraft helmet-mounted display simulator. Four NASA test pilots performed a series of precision hover maneuvers in the context of three different scene contents, two ground textures, and three levels of control configuration difficulty. The results revealed that vertical position variability was greatest when vertical cues were absent, and that patterned ground texture aided hover stability only when other position-reference cues were absent from the scene. The stereo viewing condition showed no uniform advantages over the biocular condition. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for simulator design and qualification.

  16. Estimating and Correcting Bias in Stereo Visual Odometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farboud-Sheshdeh, Sara

    Stereo visual odometry (VO) is a common technique for estimating a camera's motion; features are tracked across frames and the pose change is subsequently inferred. This method can play a particularly important role in environments where the global positioning system (GPS) is not available (e.g., Mars rovers). Recently, some authors have noticed a bias in VO position estimates that grows with distance travelled; this can cause the resulting estimate to become highly inaccurate. In this thesis, two effects are identified at play in stereo VO bias: first, the inherent bias in the maximum-likelihood estimation framework, and second, the disparity threshold used to discard far-away and erroneous observations. To estimate the bias, the sigma-point method (with modification) combined with the concept of bootstrap bias estimation is proposed. This novel method achieves similar accuracy to Monte Carlo experiments, but at a fraction of the computational cost. The approach is validated through simulations.

  17. 3D Healpix-based Skymaps Visualization using Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joliet, E.; O'Mullane, W.; Górski, K. M.; Banday, A. J.; Hivon, E.; Carr, R.

    2008-08-01

    HEALPix {http://healpix.jpl.nasa.gov/} is useful for data analysis and visualization. Gaia is the ESA space astrometry cornerstone mission the main objective of wich is to astrometrically and spectro-photometrically map 10^{9} celestial objects (mostly in our galaxy) with unprecedented accuracy. The data will be organized and stored in a central database at ESAC (Spain). The data treatment needs data analysis and visualization tools to accomplish a successful mission. The 3D Healpix-based skymaps are used as part of the interactive diagnostic tools as well as within the core processing. We present the HEALPix Java library and give some examples of its use within Gaia and Planck processing.

  18. Interactive 3D visualization speeds well, reservoir planning

    SciTech Connect

    Petzet, G.A.

    1997-11-24

    Texaco Exploration and Production has begun making expeditious analyses and drilling decisions that result from interactive, large screen visualization of seismic and other three dimensional data. A pumpkin shaped room or pod inside a 3,500 sq ft, state-of-the-art facility in Southwest Houston houses a supercomputer and projection equipment Texaco said will help its people sharply reduce 3D seismic project cycle time, boost production from existing fields, and find more reserves. Oil and gas related applications of the visualization center include reservoir engineering, plant walkthrough simulation for facilities/piping design, and new field exploration. The center houses a Silicon Graphics Onyx2 infinite reality supercomputer configured with 8 processors, 3 graphics pipelines, and 6 gigabytes of main memory.

  19. 3D diffraction tomography for visualization of contrast media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai, Vinay M.; Stein, Ashley; Kozlowski, Megan; George, Ashvin; Kopace, Rael; Bennett, Eric; Auxier, Julie A.; Wen, Han

    2011-03-01

    In x-ray CT, the ability to selectively isolate a contrast agent signal from the surrounding soft tissue and bone can greatly enhance contrast visibility and enable quantification of contrast concentration. We present here a 3D diffraction tomography implementation for selectively retaining volumetric diffraction signal from contrast agent particles that are within a banded size range while suppressing the background signal from soft tissue and bone. For this purpose, we developed a CT implementation of a single-shot x-ray diffraction imaging technique utilizing gratings. This technique yields both diffraction and absorption images from a single grating-modulated projection image through analysis in the spatial frequency domain. A solution of iron oxide nano-particles, having very different x-ray diffraction properties from tissue, was injected into ex vivo chicken wing and in vivo rat specimens respectively and imaged in a 3D diffraction CT setup. Following parallel beam reconstruction, it is noted that while the soft tissue, bone and contrast media are observed in the absorption volume reconstruction, only the contrast media is observed in the diffraction volume reconstruction. This 3D diffraction tomographic reconstruction permits the visualization and quantification of the contrast agent isolated from the soft tissue and bone background.

  20. Visualization using 3D voxelization of full lidar waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Joong Yong; Ramnath, Vinod; Feygels, Victor

    2014-11-01

    Airborne bathymetric lidar (Light Detection and Ranging) systems measure photoelectrons on the optical path (range and angle) at the photocathode of a returned laser pulse at high rates, such as every nanosecond. The collected measurement of a single pulse in a time series is called a waveform. Based on the calibration of the lidar system, the return signal is converted into units of received power. This converted value from the lidar waveform data is used to compute an estimate of the reflectance from the returned backscatter, which contains environmental information from along the optical path. This concept led us to develop a novel tool to visualize lidar data in terms of the returned backscatter, and to use this as a data analysis and editing tool. The full lidar waveforms along the optical path, from laser points collected in the region of interest (ROI), are voxelized into a 3D image cube. This allows lidar measurements to be analyzed in three orthogonal directions simultaneously. The laser pulse return (reflection) from the seafloor is visible in the waveform as a pronounced "bump" above the volume backscatter. Floating or submerged objects in the water may also be visible. Similarly, forest canopies and tree branches can be identified in the 3D voxelization. This paper discusses the possibility of using this unique three-orthogonal volume visualizing tool to extract environmental information for carrying out rapid environmental assessments over forests and water.

  1. 3D Building Evacuation Route Modelling and Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, W.; Armenakis, C.

    2014-11-01

    The most common building evacuation approach currently applied is to have evacuation routes planned prior to these emergency events. These routes are usually the shortest and most practical path from each building room to the closest exit. The problem with this approach is that it is not adaptive. It is not responsively configurable relative to the type, intensity, or location of the emergency risk. Moreover, it does not provide any information to the affected persons or to the emergency responders while not allowing for the review of simulated hazard scenarios and alternative evacuation routes. In this paper we address two main tasks. The first is the modelling of the spatial risk caused by a hazardous event leading to choosing the optimal evacuation route for a set of options. The second is to generate a 3D visual representation of the model output. A multicriteria decision making (MCDM) approach is used to model the risk aiming at finding the optimal evacuation route. This is achieved by using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) on the criteria describing the different alternative evacuation routes. The best route is then chosen to be the alternative with the least cost. The 3D visual representation of the model displays the building, the surrounding environment, the evacuee's location, the hazard location, the risk areas and the optimal evacuation pathway to the target safety location. The work has been performed using ESRI's ArcGIS. Using the developed models, the user can input the location of the hazard and the location of the evacuee. The system then determines the optimum evacuation route and displays it in 3D.

  2. A novel technique for visualizing high-resolution 3D terrain maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dammann, John

    2007-02-01

    A new technique is presented for visualizing high-resolution terrain elevation data. It produces realistic images at small scales on the order of the data resolution and works particularly well when natural objects are present. Better visualization at small scales opens up new applications, like site surveillance for security and Google Earth-type local search and exploration tasks that are now done with 2-D maps. The large 3-D maps are a natural for high-resolution stereo display. The traditional technique drapes a continuous surface over the regularly spaced elevation values. This technique works well when displaying large areas or in cities with large buildings, but falls apart at small scales or for natural objects like trees. The new technique visualizes the terrain as a set of disjoint square patches. It is combined with an algorithm that identifies smooth areas within the scene. Where the terrain is smooth, such as in grassy areas, roads, parking lots and rooftops, it warps the patches to create a smooth surface. For trees or shrubs or other areas where objects are under-sampled, however, the patches are left disjoint. This has the disadvantage of leaving gaps in the data, but the human mind is very adept at filling in this missing information. It has the strong advantage of making natural terrain look realistic, trees and bushes look stylized but still look natural and are easy to interpret. Also, it does not add artifacts to the map, like filling in blank vertical walls where there are alcoves and other structure and extending bridges and overpasses down to the ground. The new technique is illustrated using very large 1-m resolution 3-D maps from the Rapid Terrain Visualization (RTV) program, and comparisons are made with traditional visualizations using these maps.

  3. Accuracy aspects of stereo side-looking radar. [analysis of its visual perception and binocular vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leberl, F. W.

    1979-01-01

    The geometry of the radar stereo model and factors affecting visual radar stereo perception are reviewed. Limits to the vertical exaggeration factor of stereo radar are defined. Radar stereo model accuracies are analyzed with respect to coordinate errors caused by errors of radar sensor position and of range, and with respect to errors of coordinate differences, i.e., cross-track distances and height differences.

  4. Planetary subsurface investigation by 3D visualization model .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seu, R.; Catallo, C.; Tragni, M.; Abbattista, C.; Cinquepalmi, L.

    Subsurface data analysis and visualization represents one of the main aspect in Planetary Observation (i.e. search for water or geological characterization). The data are collected by subsurface sounding radars as instruments on-board of deep space missions. These data are generally represented as 2D radargrams in the perspective of space track and z axes (perpendicular to the subsurface) but without direct correlation to other data acquisition or knowledge on the planet . In many case there are plenty of data from other sensors of the same mission, or other ones, with high continuity in time and in space and specially around the scientific sites of interest (i.e. candidate landing areas or particular scientific interesting sites). The 2D perspective is good to analyse single acquisitions and to perform detailed analysis on the returned echo but are quite useless to compare very large dataset as now are available on many planets and moons of solar system. The best way is to approach the analysis on 3D visualization model generated from the entire stack of data. First of all this approach allows to navigate the subsurface in all directions and analyses different sections and slices or moreover navigate the iso-surfaces respect to a value (or interval). The last one allows to isolate one or more iso-surfaces and remove, in the visualization mode, other data not interesting for the analysis; finally it helps to individuate the underground 3D bodies. Other aspect is the needs to link the on-ground data, as imaging, to the underground one by geographical and context field of view.

  5. Visualizing 3D velocity fields near contour surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N.; Crawfis, R.; Grant, C.

    1994-03-01

    Vector field rendering is difficult in 3D because the vector icons overlap and hide each other. We propose four different techniques for visualizing vector fields only near surfaces. The first uses motion blurred particles in a thickened region around the surface. The second uses a voxel grid to contain integral curves of the vector field. The third uses many antialiased lines through the surface, and the fourth uses hairs sprouting from the surface and then bending in the direction of the vector field. All the methods use the graphite pipeline, allowing real time rotation and interaction, and the first two methods can animate the texture to move in the flow determined by the velocity field.

  6. Visualizing 3D fracture morphology in granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalbe, Marie-Julie; Juanes, Ruben

    2015-11-01

    Multiphase flow in porous media plays a fundamental role in many natural and engineered subsurface processes. The interplay between fluid flow, medium deformation and fracture is essential in geoscience problems as disparate as fracking for unconventional hydrocarbon production, conduit formation and methane venting from lake and ocean sediments, and desiccation cracks in soil. Recent work has pointed to the importance of capillary forces in some relevant regimes of fracturing of granular materials (Sandnes et al., Nat. Comm. 2011), leading to the term hydro-capillary fracturing (Holtzman et al., PRL 2012). Most of these experimental and computational investigations have focused, however, on 2D or quasi-2D systems. Here, we develop an experimental set-up that allows us to observe two-phase flow in a 3D granular bed, and control the level of confining stress. We use an index matching technique to directly visualize the injection of a liquid in a granular media saturated with another, immiscible liquid. We determine the key dimensionless groups that control the behavior of the system, and elucidate different regimes of the invasion pattern. We present result for the 3D morphology of the invasion, with particular emphasis on the fracturing regime.

  7. Visualizing 3D Fracture Morphology in Granular Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalbe, M. J.; Juanes, R.

    2015-12-01

    Multiphase flow in porous media plays a fundamental role in many natural and engineered subsurface processes. The interplay between fluid flow, medium deformation and fracture is essential in geoscience problems as disparate as fracking for unconventional hydrocarbon production, conduit formation and methane venting from lake and ocean sediments, and desiccation cracks in soil. Recent work has pointed to the importance of capillary forces in some relevant regimes of fracturing of granular materials (Sandnes et al., Nat. Comm. 2011), leading to the term hydro-capillary fracturing (Holtzman et al., PRL 2012). Most of these experimental and computational investigations have focused, however, on 2D or quasi-2D systems. Here, we develop an experimental set-up that allows us to observe two-phase flow in a 3D granular bed, and control the level of confining stress. We use an index matching technique to directly visualize the injection of a liquid in a granular media saturated with another, immiscible liquid. We determine the key dimensionless groups that control the behavior of the system, and elucidate different regimes of the invasion pattern. We present result for the 3D morphology of the invasion, with particular emphasis on the fracturing regime.

  8. A workflow for the 3D visualization of meteorological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbig, Carolin; Rink, Karsten

    2014-05-01

    In the future, climate change will strongly influence our environment and living conditions. To predict possible changes, climate models that include basic and process conditions have been developed and big data sets are produced as a result of simulations. The combination of various variables of climate models with spatial data from different sources helps to identify correlations and to study key processes. For our case study we use results of the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model of two regions at different scales that include various landscapes in Northern Central Europe and Baden-Württemberg. We visualize these simulation results in combination with observation data and geographic data, such as river networks, to evaluate processes and analyze if the model represents the atmospheric system sufficiently. For this purpose, a continuous workflow that leads from the integration of heterogeneous raw data to visualization using open source software (e.g. OpenGeoSys Data Explorer, ParaView) is developed. These visualizations can be displayed on a desktop computer or in an interactive virtual reality environment. We established a concept that includes recommended 3D representations and a color scheme for the variables of the data based on existing guidelines and established traditions in the specific domain. To examine changes over time in observation and simulation data, we added the temporal dimension to the visualization. In a first step of the analysis, the visualizations are used to get an overview of the data and detect areas of interest such as regions of convection or wind turbulences. Then, subsets of data sets are extracted and the included variables can be examined in detail. An evaluation by experts from the domains of visualization and atmospheric sciences establish if they are self-explanatory and clearly arranged. These easy-to-understand visualizations of complex data sets are the basis for scientific communication. In addition, they have

  9. Four-directional stereo-microscopy for 3D particle tracking with real-time error evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hay, R F; Gibson, G M; Lee, M P; Padgett, M J; Phillips, D B

    2014-07-28

    High-speed video stereo-microscopy relies on illumination from two distinct angles to create two views of a sample from different directions. The 3D trajectory of a microscopic object can then be reconstructed using parallax to combine 2D measurements of its position in each image. In this work, we evaluate the accuracy of 3D particle tracking using this technique, by extending the number of views from two to four directions. This allows us to record two independent sets of measurements of the 3D coordinates of tracked objects, and comparison of these enables measurement and minimisation of the tracking error in all dimensions. We demonstrate the method by tracking the motion of an optically trapped microsphere of 5 μm in diameter, and find an accuracy of 2-5 nm laterally, and 5-10 nm axially, representing a relative error of less than 2.5% of its range of motion in each dimension. PMID:25089484

  10. 3D visualization of numeric planetary data using JMARS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickenshied, S.; Christensen, P. R.; Anwar, S.; Carter, S.; Hagee, W.; Noss, D.

    2013-12-01

    JMARS (Java Mission-planning and Analysis for Remote Sensing) is a free geospatial application developed by the Mars Space Flight Facility at Arizona State University. Originally written as a mission planning tool for the THEMIS instrument on board the MARS Odyssey Spacecraft, it was released as an analysis tool to the general public in 2003. Since then it has expanded to be used for mission planning and scientific data analysis by additional NASA missions to Mars, the Moon, and Vesta, and it has come to be used by scientists, researchers and students of all ages from more than 40 countries around the world. The public version of JMARS now also includes remote sensing data for Mercury, Venus, Earth, the Moon, Mars, and a number of the moons of Jupiter and Saturn. Additional datasets for asteroids and other smaller bodies are being added as they becomes available and time permits. In addition to visualizing multiple datasets in context with one another, significant effort has been put into on-the-fly projection of georegistered data over surface topography. This functionality allows a user to easily create and modify 3D visualizations of any regional scene where elevation data is available in JMARS. This can be accomplished through the use of global topographic maps or regional numeric data such as HiRISE or HRSC DTMs. Users can also upload their own regional or global topographic dataset and use it as an elevation source for 3D rendering of their scene. The 3D Layer in JMARS allows the user to exaggerate the z-scale of any elevation source to emphasize the vertical variance throughout a scene. In addition, the user can rotate, tilt, and zoom the scene to any desired angle and then illuminate it with an artificial light source. This scene can be easily overlain with additional JMARS datasets such as maps, images, shapefiles, contour lines, or scale bars, and the scene can be easily saved as a graphic image for use in presentations or publications.

  11. Field calibration of binocular stereo vision based on fast reconstruction of 3D control field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haijun; Liu, Changjie; Fu, Luhua; Guo, Yin

    2015-08-01

    Construction of high-speed railway in China has entered a period of rapid growth. To accurately and quickly obtain the dynamic envelope curve of high-speed vehicle is an important guarantee for safe driving. The measuring system is based on binocular stereo vision. Considering the difficulties in field calibration such as environmental changes and time limits, carried out a field calibration method based on fast reconstruction of three-dimensional control field. With the rapid assembly of pre-calibrated three-dimensional control field, whose coordinate accuracy is guaranteed by manufacture accuracy and calibrated by V-STARS, two cameras take a quick shot of it at the same time. The field calibration parameters are then solved by the method combining linear solution with nonlinear optimization. Experimental results showed that the measurement accuracy can reach up to +/- 0.5mm, and more importantly, in the premise of guaranteeing accuracy, the speed of the calibration and the portability of the devices have been improved considerably.

  12. The 3D visualization technology research of submarine pipeline based Horde3D GameEngine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Guanghui; Ma, Xiushui; Chen, Genlang; Ye, Lingjian

    2013-10-01

    With the development of 3D display and virtual reality technology, its application gets more and more widespread. This paper applies 3D display technology to the monitoring of submarine pipeline. We reconstruct the submarine pipeline and its surrounding submarine terrain in computer using Horde3D graphics rendering engine on the foundation database "submarine pipeline and relative landforms landscape synthesis database" so as to display the virtual scene of submarine pipeline based virtual reality and show the relevant data collected from the monitoring of submarine pipeline.

  13. 3D Orbit Visualization for Earth-Observing Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, Joseph C.; Plesea, Lucian; Chafin, Brian G.; Weiss, Barry H.

    2011-01-01

    This software visualizes orbit paths for the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO), but was designed to be general and applicable to any Earth-observing mission. The software uses the Google Earth user interface to provide a visual mechanism to explore spacecraft orbit paths, ground footprint locations, and local cloud cover conditions. In addition, a drill-down capability allows for users to point and click on a particular observation frame to pop up ancillary information such as data product filenames and directory paths, latitude, longitude, time stamp, column-average dry air mole fraction of carbon dioxide, and solar zenith angle. This software can be integrated with the ground data system for any Earth-observing mission to automatically generate daily orbit path data products in Google Earth KML format. These KML data products can be directly loaded into the Google Earth application for interactive 3D visualization of the orbit paths for each mission day. Each time the application runs, the daily orbit paths are encapsulated in a KML file for each mission day since the last time the application ran. Alternatively, the daily KML for a specified mission day may be generated. The application automatically extracts the spacecraft position and ground footprint geometry as a function of time from a daily Level 1B data product created and archived by the mission s ground data system software. In addition, ancillary data, such as the column-averaged dry air mole fraction of carbon dioxide and solar zenith angle, are automatically extracted from a Level 2 mission data product. Zoom, pan, and rotate capability are provided through the standard Google Earth interface. Cloud cover is indicated with an image layer from the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) aboard the Aqua satellite, which is automatically retrieved from JPL s OnEarth Web service.

  14. Implementation of Headtracking and 3D Stereo with Unity and VRPN for Computer Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noyes, Matthew A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores low-cost hardware and software methods to provide depth cues traditionally absent in monocular displays. The use of a VRPN server in conjunction with a Microsoft Kinect and/or Nintendo Wiimote to provide head tracking information to a Unity application, and NVIDIA 3D Vision for retinal disparity support, is discussed. Methods are suggested to implement this technology with NASA's EDGE simulation graphics package, along with potential caveats. Finally, future applications of this technology to astronaut crew training, particularly when combined with an omnidirectional treadmill for virtual locomotion and NASA's ARGOS system for reduced gravity simulation, are discussed.

  15. Designing stereoscopic information visualization for 3D-TV: What can we can learn from S3D gaming?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schild, Jonas; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    This paper explores graphical design and spatial alignment of visual information and graphical elements into stereoscopically filmed content, e.g. captions, subtitles, and especially more complex elements in 3D-TV productions. The method used is a descriptive analysis of existing computer- and video games that have been adapted for stereoscopic display using semi-automatic rendering techniques (e.g. Nvidia 3D Vision) or games which have been specifically designed for stereoscopic vision. Digital games often feature compelling visual interfaces that combine high usability with creative visual design. We explore selected examples of game interfaces in stereoscopic vision regarding their stereoscopic characteristics, how they draw attention, how we judge effect and comfort and where the interfaces fail. As a result, we propose a list of five aspects which should be considered when designing stereoscopic visual information: explicit information, implicit information, spatial reference, drawing attention, and vertical alignment. We discuss possible consequences, opportunities and challenges for integrating visual information elements into 3D-TV content. This work shall further help to improve current editing systems and identifies a need for future editing systems for 3DTV, e.g., live editing and real-time alignment of visual information into 3D footage.

  16. 3D Solar Corona from Soho/eit to Stereo/secchi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portier-Fozzani, Fabrice; Stereo Team

    While taking into account the difficulties encountered by 3D imaging specialists with usual objects over the last 20 years we derived apropriate stereoscopic methods that we could use for the very specific case of the solar corona. Tomographic methods which should be better for such optically thin EUV lines need lots of different quasi-simultaneous viewpoints which is not possible. Usual objects reconstructed by stereovision are mainly optical thick objects such as buildings with variable external luminosity. Direclty applied classical algorithms give at least big uncertainties due to the light emission integration along the line of sight. Also structures extractions and maching between images are very difficult to derived. Epipolar geometry has to be determined before all other steps and decomposing each image in wavelet spatial frequencies with Multiscale Vision Model for example improves a lot the extract/match step. Results of such automatization of the method are presented in the paper. Shorter methods for 3D loops descriptions with applications for helicity measurement of coronal structures evolutions and links to space weather are also presented.

  17. Initial Results of 3D Topographic Mapping Using Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Stereo Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R.; Oberst, J.; McEwen, A. S.; Archinal, B. A.; Beyer, R. A.; Thomas, P. C.; Chen, Y.; Hwangbo, J.; Lawver, J. D.; Scholten, F.; Mattson, S. S.; Howington-Kraus, A. E.; Robinson, M. S.

    2009-12-01

    jitter effect is performed by measuring lunar surface features in the NAC CCD overlapping strip in the image space and object space. Topographic and cartographic data processing results and products derived from LROC NAC and WAC stereo imagery using different software systems from several participating institutions of the LROC team will be presented, including results of calibration, bundle adjustment, jitter analysis, DEM, orthophoto, and cartographic maps.

  18. Visualizer: 3D Gridded Data Visualization Software for Geoscience Education and Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwood, C.; Billen, M. I.; Kreylos, O.; Jadamec, M.; Sumner, D. Y.; Kellogg, L. H.; Hamann, B.

    2008-12-01

    In both research and education learning is an interactive and iterative process of exploring and analyzing data or model results. However, visualization software often presents challenges on the path to learning because it assumes the user already knows the locations and types of features of interest, instead of enabling flexible and intuitive examination of results. We present examples of research and teaching using the software, Visualizer, specifically designed to create an effective and intuitive environment for interactive, scientific analysis of 3D gridded data. Visualizer runs in a range of 3D virtual reality environments (e.g., GeoWall, ImmersaDesk, or CAVE), but also provides a similar level of real-time interactivity on a desktop computer. When using Visualizer in a 3D-enabled environment, the software allows the user to interact with the data images as real objects, grabbing, rotating or walking around the data to gain insight and perspective. On the desktop, simple features, such as a set of cross-bars marking the plane of the screen, provide extra 3D spatial cues that allow the user to more quickly understand geometric relationships within the data. This platform portability allows the user to more easily integrate research results into classroom demonstrations and exercises, while the interactivity provides an engaging environment for self-directed and inquiry-based learning by students. Visualizer software is freely available for download (www.keckcaves.org) and runs on Mac OSX and Linux platforms.

  19. Visual tracking in stereo. [by computer vision system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saund, E.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described for visual object tracking by a computer vision system using TV cameras and special low-level image processing hardware. The tracker maintains an internal model of the location, orientation, and velocity of the object in three-dimensional space. This model is used to predict where features of the object will lie on the two-dimensional images produced by stereo TV cameras. The differences in the locations of features in the two-dimensional images as predicted by the internal model and as actually seen create an error signal in the two-dimensional representation. This is multiplied by a generalized inverse Jacobian matrix to deduce the error in the internal model. The procedure repeats to update the internal model of the object's location, orientation and velocity continuously.

  20. Sub aquatic 3D visualization and temporal analysis utilizing ArcGIS online and 3D applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used 3D Visualization tools to illustrate some complex water quality data we’ve been collecting in the Great Lakes. These data include continuous tow data collected from our research vessel the Lake Explorer II, and continuous water quality data collected from an autono...

  1. Automated objective characterization of visual field defects in 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Wolfgang (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A method and apparatus for electronically performing a visual field test for a patient. A visual field test pattern is displayed to the patient on an electronic display device and the patient's responses to the visual field test pattern are recorded. A visual field representation is generated from the patient's responses. The visual field representation is then used as an input into a variety of automated diagnostic processes. In one process, the visual field representation is used to generate a statistical description of the rapidity of change of a patient's visual field at the boundary of a visual field defect. In another process, the area of a visual field defect is calculated using the visual field representation. In another process, the visual field representation is used to generate a statistical description of the volume of a patient's visual field defect.

  2. Visualizing Terrestrial and Aquatic Systems in 3D

    EPA Science Inventory

    The need for better visualization tools for environmental science is well documented, and the Visualization for Terrestrial and Aquatic Systems project (VISTAS) aims to both help scientists produce effective environmental science visualizations and to determine which visualizatio...

  3. Educational Visualizations in 3D Collaborative Virtual Environments: A Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fominykh, Mikhail; Prasolova-Forland, Ekaterina

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Collaborative virtual environments (CVEs) have become increasingly popular in educational settings and the role of 3D content is becoming more and more important. Still, there are many challenges in this area, such as lack of empirical studies that provide design for educational activities in 3D CVEs and lack of norms of how to support…

  4. Visual Short-Term Memory Benefit for Objects on Different 3-D Surfaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Yaoda; Nakayama, Ken

    2007-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) plays an important role in visual cognition. Although objects are located on different 3-dimensional (3-D) surfaces in the real world, how VSTM capacity may be influenced by the presence of multiple 3-D surfaces has never been examined. By manipulating binocular disparities of visual displays, the authors found that…

  5. E3D, the Euro3D visualization tool II: Mosaics, VIMOS data and large IFUs of the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Becker, T.; Kelz, A.

    2004-03-01

    In this paper, we describe the capabilities of E3D, the Euro3D visualization tool, to handle and display data created by large Integral Field Units (IFUs) and by mosaics consisting of multiple pointings. The reliability of the software has been tested with real data, originating from the PMAS instrument in mosaic mode and from the VIMOS instrument, which features the largest IFU currently available. The capabilities and limitations of the current software are examined in view of future large IFUs, which will produce extremely large datasets.

  6. NASA VERVE: Interactive 3D Visualization Within Eclipse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Tamar; Allan, Mark B.

    2014-01-01

    At NASA, we develop myriad Eclipse RCP applications to provide situational awareness for remote systems. The Intelligent Robotics Group at NASA Ames Research Center has developed VERVE - a high-performance, robot user interface that provides scientists, robot operators, and mission planners with powerful, interactive 3D displays of remote environments.VERVE includes a 3D Eclipse view with an embedded Java Ardor3D scenario, including SWT and mouse controls which interact with the Ardor3D camera and objects in the scene. VERVE also includes Eclipse views for exploring and editing objects in the Ardor3D scene graph, and a HUD (Heads Up Display) framework allows Growl-style notifications and other textual information to be overlayed onto the 3D scene. We use VERVE to listen to telemetry from robots and display the robots and associated scientific data along the terrain they are exploring; VERVE can be used for any interactive 3D display of data.VERVE is now open source. VERVE derives from the prior Viz system, which was developed for Mars Polar Lander (2001) and used for the Mars Exploration Rover (2003) and the Phoenix Lander (2008). It has been used for ongoing research with IRG's K10 and KRex rovers in various locations. VERVE was used on the International Space Station during two experiments in 2013 - Surface Telerobotics, in which astronauts controlled robots on Earth from the ISS, and SPHERES, where astronauts control a free flying robot on board the ISS.We will show in detail how to code with VERVE, how to interact between SWT controls to the Ardor3D scenario, and share example code.

  7. On the comparison of visual discomfort generated by S3D and 2D content based on eye-tracking features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iatsun, Iana; Larabi, Mohamed-Chaker; Fernandez-Maloigne, Christine

    2014-03-01

    The changing of TV systems from 2D to 3D mode is the next expected step in the telecommunication world. Some works have already been done to perform this progress technically, but interaction of the third dimension with humans is not yet clear. Previously, it was found that any increased load of visual system can create visual fatigue, like prolonged TV watching, computer work or video gaming. But watching S3D can cause another nature of visual fatigue, since all S3D technologies creates illusion of the third dimension based on characteristics of binocular vision. In this work we propose to evaluate and compare the visual fatigue from watching 2D and S3D content. This work shows the difference in accumulation of visual fatigue and its assessment for two types of content. In order to perform this comparison eye-tracking experiments using six commercially available movies were conducted. Healthy naive participants took part into the test and gave their answers feeling the subjective evaluation. It was found that watching stereo 3D content induce stronger feeling of visual fatigue than conventional 2D, and the nature of video has an important effect on its increase. Visual characteristics obtained by using eye-tracking were investigated regarding their relation with visual fatigue.

  8. Tensor3D: A computer graphics program to simulate 3D real-time deformation and visualization of geometric bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallozzi Lavorante, Luca; Dirk Ebert, Hans

    2008-07-01

    Tensor3D is a geometric modeling program with the capacity to simulate and visualize in real-time the deformation, specified through a tensor matrix and applied to triangulated models representing geological bodies. 3D visualization allows the study of deformational processes that are traditionally conducted in 2D, such as simple and pure shears. Besides geometric objects that are immediately available in the program window, the program can read other models from disk, thus being able to import objects created with different open-source or proprietary programs. A strain ellipsoid and a bounding box are simultaneously shown and instantly deformed with the main object. The principal axes of strain are visualized as well to provide graphical information about the orientation of the tensor's normal components. The deformed models can also be saved, retrieved later and deformed again, in order to study different steps of progressive strain, or to make this data available to other programs. The shape of stress ellipsoids and the corresponding Mohr circles defined by any stress tensor can also be represented. The application was written using the Visualization ToolKit, a powerful scientific visualization library in the public domain. This development choice, allied to the use of the Tcl/Tk programming language, which is independent on the host computational platform, makes the program a useful tool for the study of geometric deformations directly in three dimensions in teaching as well as research activities.

  9. Real-time auto-stereoscopic visualization of 3D medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portoni, Luisa; Patak, Alexandre; Noirard, Pierre; Grossetie, Jean-Claude; van Berkel, Cees

    2000-04-01

    The work here described regards multi-viewer auto- stereoscopic visualization of 3D models of anatomical structures and organs of the human body. High-quality 3D models of more than 1600 anatomical structures have been reconstructed using the Visualization Toolkit, a freely available C++ class library for 3D graphics and visualization. 2D images used for 3D reconstruction comes from the Visible Human Data Set. Auto-stereoscopic 3D image visualization is obtained using a prototype monitor developed at Philips Research Labs, UK. This special multiview 3D-LCD screen has been connected directly to a SGI workstation, where 3D reconstruction and medical imaging applications are executed. Dedicated software has been developed to implement multiview capability. A number of static or animated contemporary views of the same object can simultaneously be seen on the 3D-LCD screen by several observers, having a real 3D perception of the visualized scene without the use of extra media as dedicated glasses or head-mounted displays. Developed software applications allow real-time interaction with visualized 3D models, didactical animations and movies have been realized as well.

  10. Development of a 3D parallel mechanism robot arm with three vertical-axial pneumatic actuators combined with a stereo vision system.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Mao-Hsiung; Lin, Hao-Ting

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a novel 3D parallel mechanism robot driven by three vertical-axial pneumatic actuators with a stereo vision system for path tracking control. The mechanical system and the control system are the primary novel parts for developing a 3D parallel mechanism robot. In the mechanical system, a 3D parallel mechanism robot contains three serial chains, a fixed base, a movable platform and a pneumatic servo system. The parallel mechanism are designed and analyzed first for realizing a 3D motion in the X-Y-Z coordinate system of the robot's end-effector. The inverse kinematics and the forward kinematics of the parallel mechanism robot are investigated by using the Denavit-Hartenberg notation (D-H notation) coordinate system. The pneumatic actuators in the three vertical motion axes are modeled. In the control system, the Fourier series-based adaptive sliding-mode controller with H(∞) tracking performance is used to design the path tracking controllers of the three vertical servo pneumatic actuators for realizing 3D path tracking control of the end-effector. Three optical linear scales are used to measure the position of the three pneumatic actuators. The 3D position of the end-effector is then calculated from the measuring position of the three pneumatic actuators by means of the kinematics. However, the calculated 3D position of the end-effector cannot consider the manufacturing and assembly tolerance of the joints and the parallel mechanism so that errors between the actual position and the calculated 3D position of the end-effector exist. In order to improve this situation, sensor collaboration is developed in this paper. A stereo vision system is used to collaborate with the three position sensors of the pneumatic actuators. The stereo vision system combining two CCD serves to measure the actual 3D position of the end-effector and calibrate the error between the actual and the calculated 3D position of the end-effector. Furthermore, to

  11. Use and Evaluation of 3D GeoWall Visualizations in Undergraduate Space Science Classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, N. E.; Hamed, K. M.; Lopez, R. E.; Mitchell, E. J.; Gray, C. L.; Corralez, D. S.; Robinson, C. A.; Soderlund, K. M.

    2005-12-01

    One persistent difficulty many astronomy students face is the lack of 3- dimensional mental model of the systems being studied, in particular the Sun-Earth-Moon system. Students without such a mental model can have a very hard time conceptualizing the geometric relationships that cause, for example, the cycle of lunar phases or the pattern of seasons. The GeoWall is a recently developed and affordable projection mechanism for three-dimensional stereo visualization which is becoming a popular tool in classrooms and research labs for use in geology classes, but as yet very little work has been done involving the GeoWall for astronomy classes. We present results from a large study involving over 1000 students of varied backgrounds: some students were tested at the University of Texas at El Paso, a large public university on the US-Mexico border and other students were from the Florida Institute of Technology, a small, private, technical school in Melbourne Florida. We wrote a lecture tutorial-style lab to go along with a GeoWall 3D visual of the Earth-Moon system and tested the students before and after with several diagnostics. Students were given pre and post tests using the Lunar Phase Concept Inventory (LPCI) as well as a separate evaluation written specifically for this project. We found the lab useful for both populations of students, but not equally effective for all. We discuss reactions from the students and their improvement, as well as whether the students are able to correctly assess the usefullness of the project for their own learning.

  12. Three-dimensional visualization of ensemble weather forecasts - Part 1: The visualization tool Met.3D (version 1.0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rautenhaus, M.; Kern, M.; Schäfler, A.; Westermann, R.

    2015-07-01

    We present "Met.3D", a new open-source tool for the interactive three-dimensional (3-D) visualization of numerical ensemble weather predictions. The tool has been developed to support weather forecasting during aircraft-based atmospheric field campaigns; however, it is applicable to further forecasting, research and teaching activities. Our work approaches challenging topics related to the visual analysis of numerical atmospheric model output - 3-D visualization, ensemble visualization and how both can be used in a meaningful way suited to weather forecasting. Met.3D builds a bridge from proven 2-D visualization methods commonly used in meteorology to 3-D visualization by combining both visualization types in a 3-D context. We address the issue of spatial perception in the 3-D view and present approaches to using the ensemble to allow the user to assess forecast uncertainty. Interactivity is key to our approach. Met.3D uses modern graphics technology to achieve interactive visualization on standard consumer hardware. The tool supports forecast data from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) and can operate directly on ECMWF hybrid sigma-pressure level grids. We describe the employed visualization algorithms, and analyse the impact of the ECMWF grid topology on computing 3-D ensemble statistical quantities. Our techniques are demonstrated with examples from the T-NAWDEX-Falcon 2012 (THORPEX - North Atlantic Waveguide and Downstream Impact Experiment) campaign.

  13. A geoscience perspective on immersive 3D gridded data visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billen, Magali I.; Kreylos, Oliver; Hamann, Bernd; Jadamec, Margarete A.; Kellogg, Louise H.; Staadt, Oliver; Sumner, Dawn Y.

    2008-09-01

    We describe visualization software, Visualizer, that was developed specifically for interactive, visual exploration in immersive virtual reality (VR) environments. Visualizer uses carefully optimized algorithms and data structures to support the high frame rates required for immersion and the real-time feedback required for interactivity. As an application developed for VR from the ground up, Visualizer realizes benefits that usually cannot be achieved by software initially developed for the desktop and later ported to VR. However, Visualizer can also be used on desktop systems (unix/linux-based operating systems including Mac OS X) with a similar level of real-time interactivity, bridging the "software gap" between desktop and VR that has been an obstacle for the adoption of VR methods in the Geosciences. While many of the capabilities of Visualizer are already available in other software packages used in a desktop environment, the features that distinguish Visualizer are: (1) Visualizer can be used in any VR environment including the desktop, GeoWall, or CAVE, (2) in non-desktop environments the user interacts with the data set directly using a wand or other input devices instead of working indirectly via dialog boxes or text input, (3) on the desktop, Visualizer provides real-time interaction with very large data sets that cannot easily be viewed or manipulated in other software packages. Three case studies are presented that illustrate the direct scientific benefits realized by analyzing data or simulation results with Visualizer in a VR environment. We also address some of the main obstacles to widespread use of VR environments in scientific research with a user study that shows Visualizer is easy to learn and to use in a VR environment and can be as effective on desktop systems as native desktop applications.

  14. 3D model of the Bernese Part of the Swiss Molasse Basin: visualization of uncertainties in a 3D model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mock, Samuel; Allenbach, Robin; Reynolds, Lance; Wehrens, Philip; Kurmann-Matzenauer, Eva; Kuhn, Pascal; Michael, Salomè; Di Tommaso, Gennaro; Herwegh, Marco

    2016-04-01

    The Swiss Molasse Basin comprises the western and central part of the North Alpine Foreland Basin. In recent years it has come under closer scrutiny due to its promising geopotentials such as geothermal energy and CO2 sequestration. In order to adress these topics good knowledge of the subsurface is a key prerequisite. For that matter, geological 3D models serve as valuable tools. In collaboration with the Swiss Geological Survey (swisstopo) and as part of the project GeoMol CH, a geological 3D model of the Swiss Molasse Basin in the Canton of Bern has been built. The model covers an area of 1810 km2and reaches depth of up to 6.7 km. It comprises 10 major Cenozoic and Mesozoic units and numerous faults. The 3D model is mainly based on 2D seismic data complemented by information from few deep wells. Additionally, data from geological maps and profiles were used for refinement at shallow depths. In total, 1163 km of reflection seismic data, along 77 seismic lines, have been interpreted by different authors with respect to stratigraphy and structures. Both, horizons and faults, have been interpreted in 2D and modelled in 3D using IHS's Kingdom Suite and Midland Valley's MOVE software packages, respectively. Given the variable degree of subsurface information available, each 3D model is subject of uncertainty. With the primary input data coming from interpretation of reflection seismic data, a variety of uncertainties comes into play. Some of them are difficult to address (e.g. author's style of interpretation) while others can be quantified (e.g. mis-tie correction, well-tie). An important source of uncertainties is the quality of seismic data; this affects the traceability and lateral continuation of seismic reflectors. By defining quality classes we can semi-quantify this source of uncertainty. In order to visualize the quality and density of the input data in a meaningful way, we introduce quality-weighted data density maps. In combination with the geological 3D

  15. A Summary of 3-D Reconstructions of the Whole Heliosphere Interval and Comparison with in-Ecliptic Solar Wind Measurements from STEREO, ACE, and Wind Instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisi, Mario M.; Jackson, B. V.; Clover, J. M.; Hick, P. P.; Buffington, A.; Tokumaru, M.

    2010-11-01

    We present a summary of results from simultaneous Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory (STELab) Interplanetary Scintillation (IPS), STEREO, ACE, and Wind observations using three-dimensional reconstructions of the Whole Heliosphere Interval - Carrington rotation 2068. This is part of the world-wide IPS community's International Heliosphysical Year (IHY) collaboration. We show the global structure of the inner heliosphere and how our 3-D reconstructions compare with in-ecliptic spacecraft measurements.

  16. ProSAT+: visualizing sequence annotations on 3D structure.

    PubMed

    Stank, Antonia; Richter, Stefan; Wade, Rebecca C

    2016-08-01

    PRO: tein S: tructure A: nnotation T: ool-plus (ProSAT(+)) is a new web server for mapping protein sequence annotations onto a protein structure and visualizing them simultaneously with the structure. ProSAT(+) incorporates many of the features of the preceding ProSAT and ProSAT2 tools but also provides new options for the visualization and sharing of protein annotations. Data are extracted from the UniProt KnowledgeBase, the RCSB PDB and the PDBe SIFTS resource, and visualization is performed using JSmol. User-defined sequence annotations can be added directly to the URL, thus enabling visualization and easy data sharing. ProSAT(+) is available at http://prosat.h-its.org. PMID:27284084

  17. Visualization of 3D elbow kinematics using reconstructed bony surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalone, Emily A.; McDonald, Colin P.; Ferreira, Louis M.; Peters, Terry M.; King, Graham J. W.; Johnson, James A.

    2010-02-01

    An approach for direct visualization of continuous three-dimensional elbow kinematics using reconstructed surfaces has been developed. Simulation of valgus motion was achieved in five cadaveric specimens using an upper arm simulator. Direct visualization of the motion of the ulna and humerus at the ulnohumeral joint was obtained using a contact based registration technique. Employing fiducial markers, the rendered humerus and ulna were positioned according to the simulated motion. The specific aim of this study was to investigate the effect of radial head arthroplasty on restoring elbow joint stability after radial head excision. The position of the ulna and humerus was visualized for the intact elbow and following radial head excision and replacement. Visualization of the registered humerus/ulna indicated an increase in valgus angulation of the ulna with respect to the humerus after radial head excision. This increase in valgus angulation was restored to that of an elbow with a native radial head following radial head arthroplasty. These findings were consistent with previous studies investigating elbow joint stability following radial head excision and arthroplasty. The current technique was able to visualize a change in ulnar position in a single DoF. Using this approach, the coupled motion of ulna undergoing motion in all 6 degrees-of-freedom can also be visualized.

  18. Optimizing visual comfort for stereoscopic 3D display based on color-plus-depth signals.

    PubMed

    Shao, Feng; Jiang, Qiuping; Fu, Randi; Yu, Mei; Jiang, Gangyi

    2016-05-30

    Visual comfort is a long-facing problem in stereoscopic 3D (S3D) display. In this paper, targeting to produce S3D content based on color-plus-depth signals, a general framework for depth mapping to optimize visual comfort for S3D display is proposed. The main motivation of this work is to remap the depth range of color-plus-depth signals to a new depth range that is suitable to comfortable S3D display. Towards this end, we first remap the depth range globally based on the adjusted zero disparity plane, and then present a two-stage global and local depth optimization solution to solve the visual comfort problem. The remapped depth map is used to generate the S3D output. We demonstrate the power of our approach on perceptually uncomfortable and comfortable stereoscopic images. PMID:27410090

  19. KENO3D Visualization Tool for KENO V.a and KENO-VI Geometry Models

    SciTech Connect

    Horwedel, J.E.; Bowman, S.M.

    2000-06-01

    Criticality safety analyses often require detailed modeling of complex geometries. Effective visualization tools can enhance checking the accuracy of these models. This report describes the KENO3D visualization tool developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide visualization of KENO V.a and KENO-VI criticality safety models. The development of KENO3D is part of the current efforts to enhance the SCALE (Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluations) computer software system.

  20. Hardware-accelerated autostereogram rendering for interactive 3D visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petz, Christoph; Goldluecke, Bastian; Magnor, Marcus

    2003-05-01

    Single Image Random Dot Stereograms (SIRDS) are an attractive way of depicting three-dimensional objects using conventional display technology. Once trained in decoupling the eyes' convergence and focusing, autostereograms of this kind are able to convey the three-dimensional impression of a scene. We present in this work an algorithm that generates SIRDS at interactive frame rates on a conventional PC. The presented system allows rotating a 3D geometry model and observing the object from arbitrary positions in real-time. Subjective tests show that the perception of a moving or rotating 3D scene presents no problem: The gaze remains focused onto the object. In contrast to conventional SIRDS algorithms, we render multiple pixels in a single step using a texture-based approach, exploiting the parallel-processing architecture of modern graphics hardware. A vertex program determines the parallax for each vertex of the geometry model, and the graphics hardware's texture unit is used to render the dot pattern. No data has to be transferred between main memory and the graphics card for generating the autostereograms, leaving CPU capacity available for other tasks. Frame rates of 25 fps are attained at a resolution of 1024x512 pixels on a standard PC using a consumer-grade nVidia GeForce4 graphics card, demonstrating the real-time capability of the system.

  1. The Visual Priming of Motion-Defined 3D Objects

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiong; Jiang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The perception of a stimulus can be influenced by previous perceptual experience, a phenomenon known as perceptual priming. However, there has been limited investigation on perceptual priming of shape perception of three-dimensional object structures defined by moving dots. Here we examined the perceptual priming of a 3D object shape defined purely by motion-in-depth cues (i.e., Shape-From-Motion, SFM) using a classic prime-target paradigm. The results from the first two experiments revealed a significant increase in accuracy when a “cloudy” SFM stimulus (whose object structure was difficult to recognize due to the presence of strong noise) was preceded by an unambiguous SFM that clearly defined the same transparent 3D shape. In contrast, results from Experiment 3 revealed no change in accuracy when a “cloudy” SFM stimulus was preceded by a static shape or a semantic word that defined the same object shape. Instead, there was a significant decrease in accuracy when preceded by a static shape or a semantic word that defined a different object shape. These results suggested that the perception of a noisy SFM stimulus can be facilitated by a preceding unambiguous SFM stimulus—but not a static image or a semantic stimulus—that defined the same shape. The potential neural and computational mechanisms underlying the difference in priming are discussed. PMID:26658496

  2. Implementation of wireless 3D stereo image capture system and synthesizing the depth of region of interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, Woonchul; Song, Chulgyu; Kwon, Hyeokjae; Badarch, Luubaatar

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we introduce the mobile embedded system implemented for capturing stereo image based on two CMOS camera module. We use WinCE as an operating system and capture the stereo image by using device driver for CMOS camera interface and Direct Draw API functions. We send the raw captured image data to the host computer by using WiFi wireless communication and then use GPU hardware and CUDA programming for implementation of real time three-dimensional stereo image by synthesizing the depth of ROI(region of interest). We also try to find and declare the mechanism of deblurring of CMOS camera module based on the Kirchhoff diffraction formula and propose a deblurring model. Synthesized stereo image is real time monitored on the shutter glass type three-dimensional LCD monitor and disparity values of each segment are analyzed to prove the validness of emphasizing effect of ROI.

  3. 3D visualization for the MARS14 Code

    SciTech Connect

    Rzepecki, Jaroslaw P.; Kostin, Mikhail A; Mokhov, Nikolai V.

    2003-01-23

    A new three-dimensional visualization engine has been developed for the MARS14 code system. It is based on the OPENINVENTOR graphics library and integrated with the MARS built-in two-dimensional Graphical-User Interface, MARS-GUI-SLICE. The integrated package allows thorough checking of complex geometry systems and their fragments, materials, magnetic fields, particle tracks along with a visualization of calculated 2-D histograms. The algorithms and their optimization are described for two geometry classes along with examples in accelerator and detector applications.

  4. New software for visualizing 3D geological data in coal mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungjae; Choi, Yosoon

    2015-04-01

    This study developed new software to visualize 3D geological data in coal mines. The Visualization Tool Kit (VTK) library and Visual Basic.NET 2010 were used to implement the software. The software consists of several modules providing functionalities: (1) importing and editing borehole data; (2) modelling of coal seams in 3D; (3) modelling of coal properties using 3D ordinary Kriging method; (4) calculating economical values of 3D blocks; (5) pit boundary optimization for identifying economical coal reserves based on the Lerchs-Grosmann algorithm; and (6) visualizing 3D geological, geometrical and economical data. The software has been applied to a small-scale open-pit coal mine in Indonesia revealed that it can provide useful information supporting the planning and design of open-pit coal mines.

  5. 3D visualization of unsteady 2D airplane wake vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Kwan-Liu; Zheng, Z. C.

    1994-01-01

    Air flowing around the wing tips of an airplane forms horizontal tornado-like vortices that can be dangerous to following aircraft. The dynamics of such vortices, including ground and atmospheric effects, can be predicted by numerical simulation, allowing the safety and capacity of airports to be improved. In this paper, we introduce three-dimensional techniques for visualizing time-dependent, two-dimensional wake vortex computations, and the hazard strength of such vortices near the ground. We describe a vortex core tracing algorithm and a local tiling method to visualize the vortex evolution. The tiling method converts time-dependent, two-dimensional vortex cores into three-dimensional vortex tubes. Finally, a novel approach calculates the induced rolling moment on the following airplane at each grid point within a region near the vortex tubes and thus allows three-dimensional visualization of the hazard strength of the vortices. We also suggest ways of combining multiple visualization methods to present more information simultaneously.

  6. GMOL: An Interactive Tool for 3D Genome Structure Visualization.

    PubMed

    Nowotny, Jackson; Wells, Avery; Oluwadare, Oluwatosin; Xu, Lingfei; Cao, Renzhi; Trieu, Tuan; He, Chenfeng; Cheng, Jianlin

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that genome spatial structures largely affect both genome activity and DNA function. Knowing this, many researchers are currently attempting to accurately model genome structures. Despite these increased efforts there still exists a shortage of tools dedicated to visualizing the genome. Creating a tool that can accurately visualize the genome can aid researchers by highlighting structural relationships that may not be obvious when examining the sequence information alone. Here we present a desktop application, known as GMOL, designed to effectively visualize genome structures so that researchers may better analyze genomic data. GMOL was developed based upon our multi-scale approach that allows a user to scale between six separate levels within the genome. With GMOL, a user can choose any unit at any scale and scale it up or down to visualize its structure and retrieve corresponding genome sequences. Users can also interactively manipulate and measure the whole genome structure and extract static images and machine-readable data files in PDB format from the multi-scale structure. By using GMOL researchers will be able to better understand and analyze genome structure models and the impact their structural relations have on genome activity and DNA function. PMID:26868282

  7. Tools for 3D scientific visualization in computational aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bancroft, Gordon; Plessel, Todd; Merritt, Fergus; Watson, Val

    1989-01-01

    The purpose is to describe the tools and techniques in use at the NASA Ames Research Center for performing visualization of computational aerodynamics, for example visualization of flow fields from computer simulations of fluid dynamics about vehicles such as the Space Shuttle. The hardware used for visualization is a high-performance graphics workstation connected to a super computer with a high speed channel. At present, the workstation is a Silicon Graphics IRIS 3130, the supercomputer is a CRAY2, and the high speed channel is a hyperchannel. The three techniques used for visualization are post-processing, tracking, and steering. Post-processing analysis is done after the simulation. Tracking analysis is done during a simulation but is not interactive, whereas steering analysis involves modifying the simulation interactively during the simulation. Using post-processing methods, a flow simulation is executed on a supercomputer and, after the simulation is complete, the results of the simulation are processed for viewing. The software in use and under development at NASA Ames Research Center for performing these types of tasks in computational aerodynamics is described. Workstation performance issues, benchmarking, and high-performance networks for this purpose are also discussed as well as descriptions of other hardware for digital video and film recording.

  8. The role of 3-D interactive visualization in blind surveys of H I in galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punzo, D.; van der Hulst, J. M.; Roerdink, J. B. T. M.; Oosterloo, T. A.; Ramatsoku, M.; Verheijen, M. A. W.

    2015-09-01

    Upcoming H I surveys will deliver large datasets, and automated processing using the full 3-D information (two positional dimensions and one spectral dimension) to find and characterize H I objects is imperative. In this context, visualization is an essential tool for enabling qualitative and quantitative human control on an automated source finding and analysis pipeline. We discuss how Visual Analytics, the combination of automated data processing and human reasoning, creativity and intuition, supported by interactive visualization, enables flexible and fast interaction with the 3-D data, helping the astronomer to deal with the analysis of complex sources. 3-D visualization, coupled to modeling, provides additional capabilities helping the discovery and analysis of subtle structures in the 3-D domain. The requirements for a fully interactive visualization tool are: coupled 1-D/2-D/3-D visualization, quantitative and comparative capabilities, combined with supervised semi-automated analysis. Moreover, the source code must have the following characteristics for enabling collaborative work: open, modular, well documented, and well maintained. We review four state of-the-art, 3-D visualization packages assessing their capabilities and feasibility for use in the case of 3-D astronomical data.

  9. Advanced Visualization and Analysis of Climate Data using DV3D and UV-CDAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, T. P.

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes DV3D, a Vistrails package of high-level modules for the Ultra-scale Visualization Climate Data Analysis Tools (UV-CDAT) interactive visual exploration system that enables exploratory analysis of diverse and rich data sets stored in the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF). DV3D provides user-friendly workflow interfaces for advanced visualization and analysis of climate data at a level appropriate for scientists. The application builds on VTK, an open-source, object-oriented library, for visualization and analysis. DV3D provides the high-level interfaces, tools, and application integrations required to make the analysis and visualization power of VTK readily accessible to users without exposing burdensome details such as actors, cameras, renderers, and transfer functions. It can run as a desktop application or distributed over a set of nodes for hyperwall or distributed visualization applications. DV3D is structured as a set of modules which can be linked to create workflows in Vistrails. Figure 1 displays a typical DV3D workflow as it would appear in the Vistrails workflow builder interface of UV-CDAT and, on the right, the visualization spreadsheet output of the workflow. Each DV3D module encapsulates a complex VTK pipeline with numerous supporting objects. Each visualization module implements a unique interactive 3D display. The integrated Vistrails visualization spreadsheet offers multiple synchronized visualization displays for desktop or hyperwall. The currently available displays include volume renderers, volume slicers, 3D isosurfaces, 3D hovmoller, and various vector plots. The DV3D GUI offers a rich selection of interactive query, browse, navigate, and configure options for all displays. All configuration operations are saved as Vistrails provenance. DV3D's seamless integration with UV-CDAT's climate data management system (CDMS) and other climate data analysis tools provides a wide range of climate data analysis operations, e

  10. New techniques in 3D scalar and vector field visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N.; Crawfis, R.; Becker, B.

    1993-05-05

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) we have recently developed several techniques for volume visualization of scalar and vector fields, all of which use back-to-front compositing. The first renders volume density clouds by compositing polyhedral volume cells or their faces. The second is a ``splatting`` scheme which composites textures used to reconstruct the scalar or vector fields. One version calculates the necessary texture values in software, and another takes advantage of hardware texture mapping. The next technique renders contour surface polygons using semi-transparent textures, which adjust appropriately when the surfaces deform in a flow, or change topology. The final one renders the ``flow volume`` of smoke or dye tracer swept out by a fluid flowing through a small generating polygon. All of these techniques are applied to a climate model data set, to visualize cloud density and wind velocity.

  11. Subjective evaluation of user experience in interactive 3D visualization in a medical context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tourancheau, Sylvain; Sjöström, Mårten; Olsson, Roger; Persson, Anders; Ericson, Thomas; Rudling, Johan; Norén, Bengt

    2012-02-01

    New display technologies enable the usage of 3D-visualization in a medical context. Even though user performance seems to be enhanced with respect to 2D thanks to the addition of recreated depth cues, human factors, and more particularly visual comfort and visual fatigue can still be a bridle to the widespread use of these systems. This study aimed at evaluating and comparing two different 3D visualization systems (a market stereoscopic display, and a state-of-the-art multi-view display) in terms of quality of experience (QoE), in the context of interactive medical visualization. An adapted methodology was designed in order to subjectively evaluate the experience of users. 14 medical doctors and 15 medical students took part in the experiment. After solving different tasks using the 3D reconstruction of a phantom object, they were asked to judge their quality of the experience, according to specific features. They were also asked to give their opinion about the influence of 3D-systems on their work conditions. Results suggest that medical doctors are opened to 3D-visualization techniques and are confident concerning their beneficial influence on their work. However, visual comfort and visual fatigue are still an issue of 3D-displays. Results obtained with the multi-view display suggest that the use of continuous horizontal parallax might be the future response to these current limitations.

  12. A 3D visualization system for molecular structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Terry J.

    1989-01-01

    The properties of molecules derive in part from their structures. Because of the importance of understanding molecular structures various methodologies, ranging from first principles to empirical technique, were developed for computing the structure of molecules. For large molecules such as polymer model compounds, the structural information is difficult to comprehend by examining tabulated data. Therefore, a molecular graphics display system, called MOLDS, was developed to help interpret the data. MOLDS is a menu-driven program developed to run on the LADC SNS computer systems. This program can read a data file generated by the modeling programs or data can be entered using the keyboard. MOLDS has the following capabilities: draws the 3-D representation of a molecule using stick, ball and ball, or space filled model from Cartesian coordinates, draws different perspective views of the molecule; rotates the molecule on the X, Y, Z axis or about some arbitrary line in space, zooms in on a small area of the molecule in order to obtain a better view of a specific region; and makes hard copy representation of molecules on a graphic printer. In addition, MOLDS can be easily updated and readily adapted to run on most computer systems.

  13. A 3D Immersive Fault Visualizer and Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yikilmaz, M. B.; van Aalsburg, J.; Kreylos, O.; Kellogg, L. H.; Rundle, J. B.

    2007-12-01

    Digital fault models are an important resource for the study of earthquake dynamics, fault-earthquake interactions and seismicity. Once digitized these fault models can be used in Finite Element Model (FEM) programs or earthquake simulations such as Virtual California (VC). However, these models are often difficult to create, requiring a substantial amount of time to generate the fault topology and compute the properties of the individual segments. To aid in the construction of such models we have developed an immersive virtual reality (VR) application to visualize and edit fault models. Our program is designed to run in a CAVE (walk-in VR environment), but also works in a wide range of other environments, including desktop systems and GeoWalls. It is being developed at the UC Davis W.M. Keck Center for Active Visualization in the Earth Sciences (KeckCAVES, http://www.keckcaves.org). Immersive VR environments are ideal for visualizing and manipulating three- dimensional data sets. Our program allows users to create new models or modify existing ones; for example by repositioning individual fault-segments, by changing the dip angle, or by modifying (or assigning) the value of a property associated with a particular fault segment (i.e. slip rate). With the addition of high resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEM) the user can accurately add new segments to an existing model or create a fault model entirely from scratch. Interactively created or modified models can be written to XML files at any time; from there the data may easily be converted into various formats required by the analysis software or simulation. We believe that the ease of interaction provided by VR technology is ideally suited to the problem of creating and editing digital fault models. Our software provides the user with an intuitive environment for visualizing and editing fault model data. This translates not only into less time spent creating fault models, but also enables the researcher to

  14. 3D shape modeling by integration visual and tactile cues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Hanwei; Xu, Jun; Xu, Chenxi; Pan, Ming

    2015-10-01

    With the progress in CAD (Computer Aided Design) systems, many mechanical components can be designed efficiently with high precision. But, such a system is unfit for some organic shapes, for example, a toy. In this paper, an easy way to dealing with such shapes is presented, combing visual perception with tangible interaction. The method is divided into three phases: two tangible interaction phases and one visual reconstruction. In the first tangible phase, a clay model is used to represent the raw shape, and the designer can change the shape intuitively with his hands. Then the raw shape is scanned into a digital volume model through a low cost vision system. In the last tangible phase, a desktop haptic device from SensAble is used to refine the scanned volume model and convert it into a surface model. A physical clay model and a virtual clay mode are all used in this method to deal with the main shape and the details respectively, and the vision system is used to bridge the two tangible phases. The vision reconstruction system is only made of a camera to acquire raw shape through shape from silhouettes method. All of the systems are installed on a single desktop, make it convenient for designers. The vision system details and a design example are presented in the papers.

  15. Visualization of 3D ensemble weather forecasts to predict uncertain warm conveyor belt situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rautenhaus, Marc; Grams, Christian M.; Schäfler, Andreas; Westermann, Rüdiger

    2015-04-01

    We present the application of interactive 3D visualization of ensemble weather predictions to forecasting warm conveyor belt (WCB) situations during aircraft-based atmospheric research campaigns under consideration of uncertainty in the forecast. Based on requirements of the 2012 T-NAWDEX-Falcon campaign, a method based on ensemble Lagrangian particle trajectories has been developed to predict 3D probabilities of the spatial occurrence of WCBs. The method has been integrated into the new open-source 3D ensemble visualization tool Met.3D. The integration facilitates interactive visual exploration of predicted WCB features and derived probabilities in the context of ensemble forecasts from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts. To judge forecast uncertainty, Met.3D's interactivity enables the user to compute and visualize ensemble statistical quantities on-demand and to navigate the ensemble members. A new visual analysis method to quantitatively analyse the contribution of ensemble members to a probability region assists the forecaster in interpreting the obtained probabilities. In this presentation, we focus on a case study that illustrates how we envision the use of 3D ensemble visualization for weather forecasting. The case study revisits a forecast case from T-NAWDEX-Falcon and demonstrates the practical application of the proposed uncertainty visualization methods.

  16. Visualizing the process of interaction in a 3D environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaidya, Vivek; Suryanarayanan, Srikanth; Krishnan, Kajoli; Mullick, Rakesh

    2007-03-01

    As the imaging modalities used in medicine transition to increasingly three-dimensional data the question of how best to interact with and analyze this data becomes ever more pressing. Immersive virtual reality systems seem to hold promise in tackling this, but how individuals learn and interact in these environments is not fully understood. Here we will attempt to show some methods in which user interaction in a virtual reality environment can be visualized and how this can allow us to gain greater insight into the process of interaction/learning in these systems. Also explored is the possibility of using this method to improve understanding and management of ergonomic issues within an interface.

  17. Visual Object Recognition with 3D-Aware Features in KITTI Urban Scenes

    PubMed Central

    Yebes, J. Javier; Bergasa, Luis M.; García-Garrido, Miguel Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Driver assistance systems and autonomous robotics rely on the deployment of several sensors for environment perception. Compared to LiDAR systems, the inexpensive vision sensors can capture the 3D scene as perceived by a driver in terms of appearance and depth cues. Indeed, providing 3D image understanding capabilities to vehicles is an essential target in order to infer scene semantics in urban environments. One of the challenges that arises from the navigation task in naturalistic urban scenarios is the detection of road participants (e.g., cyclists, pedestrians and vehicles). In this regard, this paper tackles the detection and orientation estimation of cars, pedestrians and cyclists, employing the challenging and naturalistic KITTI images. This work proposes 3D-aware features computed from stereo color images in order to capture the appearance and depth peculiarities of the objects in road scenes. The successful part-based object detector, known as DPM, is extended to learn richer models from the 2.5D data (color and disparity), while also carrying out a detailed analysis of the training pipeline. A large set of experiments evaluate the proposals, and the best performing approach is ranked on the KITTI website. Indeed, this is the first work that reports results with stereo data for the KITTI object challenge, achieving increased detection ratios for the classes car and cyclist compared to a baseline DPM. PMID:25903553

  18. Visual Object Recognition with 3D-Aware Features in KITTI Urban Scenes.

    PubMed

    Yebes, J Javier; Bergasa, Luis M; García-Garrido, Miguel Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Driver assistance systems and autonomous robotics rely on the deployment of several sensors for environment perception. Compared to LiDAR systems, the inexpensive vision sensors can capture the 3D scene as perceived by a driver in terms of appearance and depth cues. Indeed, providing 3D image understanding capabilities to vehicles is an essential target in order to infer scene semantics in urban environments. One of the challenges that arises from the navigation task in naturalistic urban scenarios is the detection of road participants (e.g., cyclists, pedestrians and vehicles). In this regard, this paper tackles the detection and orientation estimation of cars, pedestrians and cyclists, employing the challenging and naturalistic KITTI images. This work proposes 3D-aware features computed from stereo color images in order to capture the appearance and depth peculiarities of the objects in road scenes. The successful part-based object detector, known as DPM, is extended to learn richer models from the 2.5D data (color and disparity), while also carrying out a detailed analysis of the training pipeline. A large set of experiments evaluate the proposals, and the best performing approach is ranked on the KITTI website. Indeed, this is the first work that reports results with stereo data for the KITTI object challenge, achieving increased detection ratios for the classes car and cyclist compared to a baseline DPM. PMID:25903553

  19. Registration and 3D visualization of large microscopy images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosaliganti, Kishore; Pan, Tony; Sharp, Richard; Ridgway, Randall; Iyengar, Srivathsan; Gulacy, Alexandra; Wenzel, Pamela; de Bruin, Alain; Machiraju, Raghu; Huang, Kun; Leone, Gustavo; Saltz, Joel

    2006-03-01

    Inactivation of the retinoblastoma gene in mouse embryos causes tissue infiltrations into critical sections of the placenta, which has been shown to affect fetal survivability. Our collaborators in cancer genetics are extremely interested in examining the three dimensional nature of these infiltrations given a stack of two dimensional light microscopy images. Three sets of wildtype and mutant placentas was sectioned serially and digitized using a commercial light microscopy scanner. Each individual placenta dataset consisted of approximately 1000 images totaling 700 GB in size, which were registered into a volumetric dataset using National Library of Medicine's (NIH/NLM) Insight Segmentation and Registration Toolkit (ITK). This paper describes our method for image registration to aid in volume visualization of tissue level intermixing for both wildtype and Rb - specimens. The registration process faces many challenges arising from the large image sizes, damages during sectioning, staining gradients both within and across sections, and background noise. These issues limit the direct application of standard registration techniques due to frequent convergence to local solutions. In this work, we develop a mixture of automated and semi-automated enhancements with ground-truth validation for the mutual information-based registration algorithm. Our final volume renderings clearly show tissue intermixing differences between both wildtype and Rb - specimens which are not obvious prior to registration.

  20. Sector mapping method for 3D detached retina visualization.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yi-Ran; Zhao, Yong; Zhong, Jie; Li, Ke; Lu, Cui-Xin; Zhang, Bing

    2016-10-01

    A new sphere-mapping algorithm called sector mapping is introduced to map sector images to the sphere of an eyeball. The proposed sector-mapping algorithm is evaluated and compared with the plane-mapping algorithm adopted in previous work. A simulation that maps an image of concentric circles to the sphere of the eyeball and an analysis of the difference in distance between neighboring points in a plane and sector were used to compare the two mapping algorithms. A three-dimensional model of a whole retina with clear retinal detachment was generated using the Visualization Toolkit software. A comparison of the mapping results shows that the central part of the retina near the optic disc is stretched and its edges are compressed when the plane-mapping algorithm is used. A better mapping result is obtained by the sector-mapping algorithm than by the plane-mapping algorithm in both the simulation results and real clinical retinal detachment three-dimensional reconstruction. PMID:27480739

  1. The Impact of Interactivity on Comprehending 2D and 3D Visualizations of Movement Data.

    PubMed

    Amini, Fereshteh; Rufiange, Sebastien; Hossain, Zahid; Ventura, Quentin; Irani, Pourang; McGuffin, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    GPS, RFID, and other technologies have made it increasingly common to track the positions of people and objects over time as they move through two-dimensional spaces. Visualizing such spatio-temporal movement data is challenging because each person or object involves three variables (two spatial variables as a function of the time variable), and simply plotting the data on a 2D geographic map can result in overplotting and occlusion that hides details. This also makes it difficult to understand correlations between space and time. Software such as GeoTime can display such data with a three-dimensional visualization, where the 3rd dimension is used for time. This allows for the disambiguation of spatially overlapping trajectories, and in theory, should make the data clearer. However, previous experimental comparisons of 2D and 3D visualizations have so far found little advantage in 3D visualizations, possibly due to the increased complexity of navigating and understanding a 3D view. We present a new controlled experimental comparison of 2D and 3D visualizations, involving commonly performed tasks that have not been tested before, and find advantages in 3D visualizations for more complex tasks. In particular, we tease out the effects of various basic interactions and find that the 2D view relies significantly on "scrubbing" the timeline, whereas the 3D view relies mainly on 3D camera navigation. Our work helps to improve understanding of 2D and 3D visualizations of spatio-temporal data, particularly with respect to interactivity. PMID:26357026

  2. Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) 3-D reconstruction of density enhancements behind interplanetary shocks: In-situ comparison near Earth and at STEREO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, B. V.; Hamilton, M. S.; Hick, P. P.; Buffington, A.; Bisi, M. M.; Clover, J. M.; Tokumaru, M.; Fujiki, K.

    2011-07-01

    SMEI and IPS remotely observe increased brightness and velocity enhancements behind interplanetary shocks that are also seen in situ. We use the UCSD time-dependent 3-D reconstruction technique to map these enhancements, and compare them with measurements at the SOHO, Wind, ACE, and STEREO spacecraft. The analyses of these shocks from hour-averaged in-situ data show that the enhanced density column associated with the shock response varies considerably between different instruments, even for in-situ instruments located at L1 near Earth. The relatively-low-resolution SMEI 3-D reconstructions generally show density enhancements, and within errors, the column excesses match those observed in situ. In these SMEI 3-D reconstructions from remotely-sensed data, the shock density enhancements appear not as continuous broad fronts, but as segmented structures. This may provide part of the explanation for the observed discrepancies between the various in-situ measurements at Earth and STEREO, but not between individual instruments near L1.

  3. Recovery and Visualization of 3D Structure of Chromosomes from Tomographic Reconstruction Images

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, S; Liao, P; Shin, M C; Tsap, L V

    2004-04-28

    The objectives of this work include automatic recovery and visualization of a 3D chromosome structure from a sequence of 2D tomographic reconstruction images taken through the nucleus of a cell. Structure is very important for biologists as it affects chromosome functions, behavior of the cell and its state. Chromosome analysis is significant in the detection of deceases and in monitoring environmental gene mutations. The algorithm incorporates thresholding based on a histogram analysis with a polyline splitting algorithm, contour extraction via active contours, and detection of the 3D chromosome structure by establishing corresponding regions throughout the slices. Visualization using point cloud meshing generates a 3D surface. The 3D triangular mesh of the chromosomes provides surface detail and allows a user to interactively analyze chromosomes using visualization software.

  4. Recovery and Visualization of 3D Structure of Chromosomes from Tomographic Reconstruction Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, Sabarish; Liao, Pao-Chuan; Shin, Min C.; Tsap, Leonid V.

    2006-12-01

    The objectives of this work include automatic recovery and visualization of a 3D chromosome structure from a sequence of 2D tomographic reconstruction images taken through the nucleus of a cell. Structure is very important for biologists as it affects chromosome functions, behavior of the cell, and its state. Analysis of chromosome structure is significant in the detection of diseases, identification of chromosomal abnormalities, study of DNA structural conformation, in-depth study of chromosomal surface morphology, observation of in vivo behavior of the chromosomes over time, and in monitoring environmental gene mutations. The methodology incorporates thresholding based on a histogram analysis with a polyline splitting algorithm, contour extraction via active contours, and detection of the 3D chromosome structure by establishing corresponding regions throughout the slices. Visualization using point cloud meshing generates a 3D surface. The 3D triangular mesh of the chromosomes provides surface detail and allows a user to interactively analyze chromosomes using visualization software.

  5. Simulating binocular vision for no-reference 3D visual quality measurement.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wu-Jie; Yu, Lu; Wu, Ming-Wei

    2015-09-01

    Perceptual quality measurement of three-dimensional (3D) visual signals has become a fundamental challenge in 3D imaging fields. This paper proposes a novel no-reference (NR) 3D visual quality measurement (VQM) metric that uses simulations of the primary visual cortex (V1) of binocular vision. As the major technical contribution of this study, perceptual properties of simple and complex cells are considered for NR 3D-VQM. More specifically, the metric simulates the receptive fields of simple cells (one class of V1 neurons) using Gaussian derivative functions, and the receptive fields of complex cells (the other class of V1 neurons) using disparity energy responses and binocular rivalry responses. Subsequently, various quality-aware features are extracted from the primary visual cortex; these will change in the presence of distortions. Finally, those features are mapped to the subjective quality score of the distorted 3D visual signal by using support vector regression (SVR). Experiments on two publicly available 3D databases confirm the effectiveness of our proposed metric, compared to the relevant full-reference (FR) and NR metrics. PMID:26368467

  6. Dynamic visual image modeling for 3D synthetic scenes in agricultural engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Li; Yan, Juntao; Li, Xiaobo; Ji, Yatai; Li, Xin

    The dynamic visual image modeling for 3D synthetic scenes by using dynamic multichannel binocular visual image based on the mobile self-organizing network. Technologies of 3D modeling synthetic scenes have been widely used in kinds of industries. The main purpose of this paper is to use multiple networks of dynamic visual monitors and sensors to observe an unattended area, to use the advantages of mobile network in rural areas for improving existing mobile network information service further and providing personalized information services. The goal of displaying is to provide perfect representation of synthetic scenes. Using low-power dynamic visual monitors and temperature/humidity sensor or GPS installed in the node equipment, monitoring data will be sent at scheduled time. Then through the mobile self-organizing network, 3D model is rebuilt by synthesizing the returned images. On this basis, we formalize a novel algorithm for multichannel binocular visual 3D images based on fast 3D modeling. Taking advantage of these low prices mobile, mobile self-organizing networks can get a large number of video from where is not suitable for human observation or unable to reach, and accurately synthetic 3D scene. This application will play a great role in promoting its application in agriculture.

  7. Hardware Implementation of a Spline-Based Genetic Algorithm for Embedded Stereo Vision Sensor Providing Real-Time Visual Guidance to the Visually Impaired

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dah-Jye; Anderson, Jonathan D.; Archibald, James K.

    2008-12-01

    Many image and signal processing techniques have been applied to medical and health care applications in recent years. In this paper, we present a robust signal processing approach that can be used to solve the correspondence problem for an embedded stereo vision sensor to provide real-time visual guidance to the visually impaired. This approach is based on our new one-dimensional (1D) spline-based genetic algorithm to match signals. The algorithm processes image data lines as 1D signals to generate a dense disparity map, from which 3D information can be extracted. With recent advances in electronics technology, this 1D signal matching technique can be implemented and executed in parallel in hardware such as field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) to provide real-time feedback about the environment to the user. In order to complement (not replace) traditional aids for the visually impaired such as canes and Seeing Eyes dogs, vision systems that provide guidance to the visually impaired must be affordable, easy to use, compact, and free from attributes that are awkward or embarrassing to the user. "Seeing Eye Glasses," an embedded stereo vision system utilizing our new algorithm, meets all these requirements.

  8. How Spatial Abilities and Dynamic Visualizations Interplay When Learning Functional Anatomy with 3D Anatomical Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berney, Sandra; Bétrancourt, Mireille; Molinari, Gaëlle; Hoyek, Nady

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of dynamic visualizations of three-dimensional (3D) models in anatomy curricula may be an adequate solution for spatial difficulties encountered with traditional static learning, as they provide direct visualization of change throughout the viewpoints. However, little research has explored the interplay between learning material…

  9. 3D Shape Perception in Posterior Cortical Atrophy: A Visual Neuroscience Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Gillebert, Céline R.; Schaeverbeke, Jolien; Bastin, Christine; Neyens, Veerle; Bruffaerts, Rose; De Weer, An-Sofie; Seghers, Alexandra; Sunaert, Stefan; Van Laere, Koen; Versijpt, Jan; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Salmon, Eric; Todd, James T.; Orban, Guy A.

    2015-01-01

    Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a rare focal neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by progressive visuoperceptual and visuospatial deficits, most often due to atypical Alzheimer's disease (AD). We applied insights from basic visual neuroscience to analyze 3D shape perception in humans affected by PCA. Thirteen PCA patients and 30 matched healthy controls participated, together with two patient control groups with diffuse Lewy body dementia (DLBD) and an amnestic-dominant phenotype of AD, respectively. The hierarchical study design consisted of 3D shape processing for 4 cues (shading, motion, texture, and binocular disparity) with corresponding 2D and elementary feature extraction control conditions. PCA and DLBD exhibited severe 3D shape-processing deficits and AD to a lesser degree. In PCA, deficient 3D shape-from-shading was associated with volume loss in the right posterior inferior temporal cortex. This region coincided with a region of functional activation during 3D shape-from-shading in healthy controls. In PCA patients who performed the same fMRI paradigm, response amplitude during 3D shape-from-shading was reduced in this region. Gray matter volume in this region also correlated with 3D shape-from-shading in AD. 3D shape-from-disparity in PCA was associated with volume loss slightly more anteriorly in posterior inferior temporal cortex as well as in ventral premotor cortex. The findings in right posterior inferior temporal cortex and right premotor cortex are consistent with neurophysiologically based models of the functional anatomy of 3D shape processing. However, in DLBD, 3D shape deficits rely on mechanisms distinct from inferior temporal structural integrity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by progressive visuoperceptual dysfunction and most often an atypical presentation of Alzheimer's disease (AD) affecting the ventral and dorsal visual streams rather than the medial

  10. [3D Super-resolution Reconstruction and Visualization of Pulmonary Nodules from CT Image].

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing; Fan, Xing; Yang, Ying; Tian, Xuedong; Gu, Lixu

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to propose an algorithm for three-dimensional projection onto convex sets (3D POCS) to achieve super resolution reconstruction of 3D lung computer tomography (CT) images, and to introduce multi-resolution mixed display mode to make 3D visualization of pulmonary nodules. Firstly, we built the low resolution 3D images which have spatial displacement in sub pixel level between each other and generate the reference image. Then, we mapped the low resolution images into the high resolution reference image using 3D motion estimation and revised the reference image based on the consistency constraint convex sets to reconstruct the 3D high resolution images iteratively. Finally, we displayed the different resolution images simultaneously. We then estimated the performance of provided method on 5 image sets and compared them with those of 3 interpolation reconstruction methods. The experiments showed that the performance of 3D POCS algorithm was better than that of 3 interpolation reconstruction methods in two aspects, i.e., subjective and objective aspects, and mixed display mode is suitable to the 3D visualization of high resolution of pulmonary nodules. PMID:26710449

  11. Development of 3-D fracture network visualization software based on graphical user interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young-Hwan, Noh; Jeong-Gi, Um; Yosoon, Choi; Myong-Ho, Park; Jaeyoung, Choi

    2013-04-01

    A sound understanding of the structural characteristics of fractured rock masses is important in designing and maintaining earth structures because their strength, deformability, and hydraulic behavior depend mainly on the characteristics of discontinuity network structures. Despite considerable progress in understanding the structural characteristics of rock masses, the complexity of discontinuity patterns has prevented satisfactory analysis based on a 3-D rock mass visualization model. This research presents the results of studies performed to develop rock mass visualization in 3-D to analysis the mechanical and hydraulic behavior of fractured rock masses. General and particular solutions of non-linear equations of disk-shaped fractures have been derived to calculated lines of intersection and equivalent pipes. Also, program modules of DISK3D, FNTWK3D, BOUNDARY and BDM(borehole data management) have been developed to perform the visualization of fracture network and corresponding equivalent pipes for DFN based fluid flow model. The developed software for the 3-D fractured rock mass visualization model based on MS visual studio can be used to characterize rock mass geometry and network systems effectively. The results obtained in this study will be refined and then combined for use as a tool for assessing geomechanical problems related to strength, deformability and hydraulic behaviors of the fractured rock masses. Acknowledgements. This work was supported by the 2011 Energy Efficiency and Resources Program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant.

  12. Comparing and visualizing titanium implant integration in rat bone using 2D and 3D techniques.

    PubMed

    Arvidsson, Anna; Sarve, Hamid; Johansson, Carina B

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to compare the osseointegration of grit-blasted implants with and without a hydrogen fluoride treatment in rat tibia and femur, and to visualize bone formation using state-of-the-art 3D visualization techniques. Grit-blasted implants were inserted in femur and tibia of 10 Sprague-Dawley rats (4 implants/rat). Four weeks after insertion, bone implant samples were retrieved. Selected samples were imaged in 3D using Synchrotron Radiation-based μCT (SRμCT). The 3D data was quantified and visualized using two novel visualization techniques, thread fly-through and 2D unfolding. All samples were processed to cut and ground sections and 2D histomorphometrical comparisons of bone implant contact (BIC), bone area (BA), and mirror image area (MI) were performed. BA values were statistically significantly higher for test implants than controls (p < 0.05), but BIC and MI data did not differ significantly. Thus, the results partly indicate improved bone formation at blasted and hydrogen fluoride treated implants, compared to blasted implants. The 3D analysis was a valuable complement to 2D analysis, facilitating improved visualization. However, further studies are required to evaluate aspects of 3D quantitative techniques, with relation to light microscopy that traditionally is used for osseointegration studies. PMID:24711247

  13. Visualization and analysis of 3D gene expression patterns in zebrafish using web services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potikanond, D.; Verbeek, F. J.

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of patterns of gene expression patterns analysis plays an important role in developmental biology and molecular genetics. Visualizing both quantitative and spatio-temporal aspects of gene expression patterns together with referenced anatomical structures of a model-organism in 3D can help identifying how a group of genes are expressed at a certain location at a particular developmental stage of an organism. In this paper, we present an approach to provide an online visualization of gene expression data in zebrafish (Danio rerio) within 3D reconstruction model of zebrafish in different developmental stages. We developed web services that provide programmable access to the 3D reconstruction data and spatial-temporal gene expression data maintained in our local repositories. To demonstrate this work, we develop a web application that uses these web services to retrieve data from our local information systems. The web application also retrieve relevant analysis of microarray gene expression data from an external community resource; i.e. the ArrayExpress Atlas. All the relevant gene expression patterns data are subsequently integrated with the reconstruction data of the zebrafish atlas using ontology based mapping. The resulting visualization provides quantitative and spatial information on patterns of gene expression in a 3D graphical representation of the zebrafish atlas in a certain developmental stage. To deliver the visualization to the user, we developed a Java based 3D viewer client that can be integrated in a web interface allowing the user to visualize the integrated information over the Internet.

  14. Forest Inventory Attribute Estimation Using Airborne Laser Scanning, Aerial Stereo Imagery, Radargrammetry and Interferometry-Finnish Experiences of the 3d Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holopainen, M.; Vastaranta, M.; Karjalainen, M.; Karila, K.; Kaasalainen, S.; Honkavaara, E.; Hyyppä, J.

    2015-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) remote sensing has enabled detailed mapping of terrain and vegetation heights. Consequently, forest inventory attributes are estimated more and more using point clouds and normalized surface models. In practical applications, mainly airborne laser scanning (ALS) has been used in forest resource mapping. The current status is that ALS-based forest inventories are widespread, and the popularity of ALS has also raised interest toward alternative 3D techniques, including airborne and spaceborne techniques. Point clouds can be generated using photogrammetry, radargrammetry and interferometry. Airborne stereo imagery can be used in deriving photogrammetric point clouds, as very-high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data are used in radargrammetry and interferometry. ALS is capable of mapping both the terrain and tree heights in mixed forest conditions, which is an advantage over aerial images or SAR data. However, in many jurisdictions, a detailed ALS-based digital terrain model is already available, and that enables linking photogrammetric or SAR-derived heights to heights above the ground. In other words, in forest conditions, the height of single trees, height of the canopy and/or density of the canopy can be measured and used in estimation of forest inventory attributes. In this paper, first we review experiences of the use of digital stereo imagery and spaceborne SAR in estimation of forest inventory attributes in Finland, and we compare techniques to ALS. In addition, we aim to present new implications based on our experiences.

  15. Advanced Visualization of Experimental Data in Real Time Using LiveView3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Richard J.; Fleming, Gary A.

    2006-01-01

    LiveView3D is a software application that imports and displays a variety of wind tunnel derived data in an interactive virtual environment in real time. LiveView3D combines the use of streaming video fed into a three-dimensional virtual representation of the test configuration with networked communications to the test facility Data Acquisition System (DAS). This unified approach to real time data visualization provides a unique opportunity to comprehend very large sets of diverse forms of data in a real time situation, as well as in post-test analysis. This paper describes how LiveView3D has been implemented to visualize diverse forms of aerodynamic data gathered during wind tunnel experiments, most notably at the NASA Langley Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT). Planned future developments of the LiveView3D system are also addressed.

  16. Clinical evaluation of accommodation and ocular surface stability relavant to visual asthenopia with 3D displays

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To validate the association between accommodation and visual asthenopia by measuring objective accommodative amplitude with the Optical Quality Analysis System (OQAS®, Visiometrics, Terrassa, Spain), and to investigate associations among accommodation, ocular surface instability, and visual asthenopia while viewing 3D displays. Methods Fifteen normal adults without any ocular disease or surgical history watched the same 3D and 2D displays for 30 minutes. Accommodative ability, ocular protection index (OPI), and total ocular symptom scores were evaluated before and after viewing the 3D and 2D displays. Accommodative ability was evaluated by the near point of accommodation (NPA) and OQAS to ensure reliability. The OPI was calculated by dividing the tear breakup time (TBUT) by the interblink interval (IBI). The changes in accommodative ability, OPI, and total ocular symptom scores after viewing 3D and 2D displays were evaluated. Results Accommodative ability evaluated by NPA and OQAS, OPI, and total ocular symptom scores changed significantly after 3D viewing (p = 0.005, 0.003, 0.006, and 0.003, respectively), but yielded no difference after 2D viewing. The objective measurement by OQAS verified the decrease of accommodative ability while viewing 3D displays. The change of NPA, OPI, and total ocular symptom scores after 3D viewing had a significant correlation (p < 0.05), implying direct associations among these factors. Conclusions The decrease of accommodative ability after 3D viewing was validated by both subjective and objective methods in our study. Further, the deterioration of accommodative ability and ocular surface stability may be causative factors of visual asthenopia in individuals viewing 3D displays. PMID:24612686

  17. LiveView3D: Real Time Data Visualization for the Aerospace Testing Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Richard J.; Fleming, Gary A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses LiveView3D, a software package and associated data visualization system for use in the aerospace testing environment. The LiveView3D system allows researchers to graphically view data from numerous wind tunnel instruments in real time in an interactive virtual environment. The graphical nature of the LiveView3D display provides researchers with an intuitive view of the measurement data, making it easier to interpret the aerodynamic phenomenon under investigation. LiveView3D has been developed at the NASA Langley Research Center and has been applied in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT). This paper discusses the capabilities of the LiveView3D system, provides example results from its application in the UPWT, and outlines features planned for future implementation.

  18. NVision: A 3D Visualization Environment for N-Body Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markiel, J. A.

    2000-05-01

    NVision: A 3D Visualization Environment for N-Body Simulations We are developing a set of packages for 3D visualization and analysis of our numerical N-body simulations. These tools are intended to be generalizable to a wide range of related problems including cosmological, planetary dynamics, and molecular dynamics simulations. The applications and source code will be fully available to the community. To prototype this project we have adopted the Java platform with the newly released Java3D extension to take advantage of its portability, object-oriented environment, and availability of extensive documentation and class libraries. We will describe the goals and design principles of the project and demo the currently implemented features, including visualization of cosmological simulations and the simulated collision of two rubble-pile asteroids. This research is supported by NSF grants AST99-73209 and AST99-79891.

  19. A novel 3D wavelet based filter for visualizing features in noisy biological data

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, W C; Haase, S; Lyle, J M; Agard, D A; Sedat, J W

    2005-01-05

    We have developed a 3D wavelet-based filter for visualizing structural features in volumetric data. The only variable parameter is a characteristic linear size of the feature of interest. The filtered output contains only those regions that are correlated with the characteristic size, thus denoising the image. We demonstrate the use of the filter by applying it to 3D data from a variety of electron microscopy samples including low contrast vitreous ice cryogenic preparations, as well as 3D optical microscopy specimens.

  20. The impact of stereo 3D sports TV broadcasts on user's depth perception and spatial presence experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigelt, K.; Wiemeyer, J.

    2014-03-01

    This work examines the impact of content and presentation parameters in 2D versus 3D on depth perception and spatial presence, and provides guidelines for stereoscopic content development for 3D sports TV broadcasts and cognate subjects. Under consideration of depth perception and spatial presence experience, a preliminary study with 8 participants (sports: soccer and boxing) and a main study with 31 participants (sports: soccer and BMX-Miniramp) were performed. The dimension (2D vs. 3D) and camera position (near vs. far) were manipulated for soccer and boxing. In addition for soccer, the field of view (small vs. large) was examined. Moreover, the direction of motion (horizontal vs. depth) was considered for BMX-Miniramp. Subjective assessments, behavioural tests and qualitative interviews were implemented. The results confirm a strong effect of 3D on both depth perception and spatial presence experience as well as selective influences of camera distance and field of view. The results can improve understanding of the perception and experience of 3D TV as a medium. Finally, recommendations are derived on how to use various 3D sports ideally as content for TV broadcasts.

  1. 3D visualization of biomedical CT images based on OpenGL and VRML techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Meng; Luo, Qingming; Xia, Fuhua

    2002-04-01

    Current high-performance computers and advanced image processing capabilities have made the application of three- dimensional visualization objects in biomedical computer tomographic (CT) images facilitate the researches on biomedical engineering greatly. Trying to cooperate with the update technology using Internet, where 3D data are typically stored and processed on powerful servers accessible by using TCP/IP, we should hold the results of the isosurface be applied in medical visualization generally. Furthermore, this project is a future part of PACS system our lab is working on. So in this system we use the 3D file format VRML2.0, which is used through the Web interface for manipulating 3D models. In this program we implemented to generate and modify triangular isosurface meshes by marching cubes algorithm. Then we used OpenGL and MFC techniques to render the isosurface and manipulating voxel data. This software is more adequate visualization of volumetric data. The drawbacks are that 3D image processing on personal computers is rather slow and the set of tools for 3D visualization is limited. However, these limitations have not affected the applicability of this platform for all the tasks needed in elementary experiments in laboratory or data preprocessed.

  2. Radiometric and geometric evaluation of GeoEye-1, WorldView-2 and Pléiades-1A stereo images for 3D information extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poli, D.; Remondino, F.; Angiuli, E.; Agugiaro, G.

    2015-02-01

    Today the use of spaceborne Very High Resolution (VHR) optical sensors for automatic 3D information extraction is increasing in the scientific and civil communities. The 3D Optical Metrology (3DOM) unit of the Bruno Kessler Foundation (FBK) in Trento (Italy) has collected VHR satellite imagery, as well as aerial and terrestrial data over Trento for creating a complete testfield for investigations on image radiometry, geometric accuracy, automatic digital surface model (DSM) generation, 2D/3D feature extraction, city modelling and data fusion. This paper addresses the radiometric and the geometric aspects of the VHR spaceborne imagery included in the Trento testfield and their potential for 3D information extraction. The dataset consist of two stereo-pairs acquired by WorldView-2 and by GeoEye-1 in panchromatic and multispectral mode, and a triplet from Pléiades-1A. For reference and validation, a DSM from airborne LiDAR acquisition is used. The paper gives details on the project, dataset characteristics and achieved results.

  3. Lifting scheme-based method for joint coding 3D stereo digital cinema with luminace correction and optimized prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darazi, R.; Gouze, A.; Macq, B.

    2009-01-01

    Reproducing a natural and real scene as we see in the real world everyday is becoming more and more popular. Stereoscopic and multi-view techniques are used for this end. However due to the fact that more information are displayed requires supporting technologies such as digital compression to ensure the storage and transmission of the sequences. In this paper, a new scheme for stereo image coding is proposed. The original left and right images are jointly coded. The main idea is to optimally exploit the existing correlation between the two images. This is done by the design of an efficient transform that reduces the existing redundancy in the stereo image pair. This approach was inspired by Lifting Scheme (LS). The novelty in our work is that the prediction step is been replaced by an hybrid step that consists in disparity compensation followed by luminance correction and an optimized prediction step. The proposed scheme can be used for lossless and for lossy coding. Experimental results show improvement in terms of performance and complexity compared to recently proposed methods.

  4. Evaluation of quality of experience in interactive 3D visualization: methodology and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tourancheau, Sylvain; Sjöström, Mårten; Olsson, Roger; Persson, Anders; Ericson, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    Human factors are of high importance in 3D visualization, but subjective evaluation of 3D displays is not easy because of a high variability among users. This study aimed to evaluate and compare two different 3D visualization systems (a market stereoscopic display, and a state-of-the-art multi-view display) in terms of user performance and quality of experience (QoE), in the context of interactive visualization. An adapted methodology has been designed in order to focus on 3D differences and to reduce the influence of all other factors. Thirty-six subjects took part in an experiment during which they were asked to judge the quality of their experience, according to specific features. Results showed that a scene understanding and precision was significantly better on the multi-view display. Concerning the quality of experience, visual comfort was judged significantly better on the multi-view display and visual fatigue was reported by 52% of the subjects on the stereoscopic display. This study has permitted to identify some factors influencing QoE such as prior experience and stereopsis threshold.

  5. The performance & flow visualization studies of three-dimensional (3-D) wind turbine blade models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutrisno, Prajitno, Purnomo, W., Setyawan B.

    2016-06-01

    Recently, studies on the design of 3-D wind turbine blades have a less attention even though 3-D blade products are widely sold. In contrary, advanced studies in 3-D helicopter blade tip have been studied rigorously. Studies in wind turbine blade modeling are mostly assumed that blade spanwise sections behave as independent two-dimensional airfoils, implying that there is no exchange of momentum in the spanwise direction. Moreover, flow visualization experiments are infrequently conducted. Therefore, a modeling study of wind turbine blade with visualization experiment is needed to be improved to obtain a better understanding. The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance of 3-D wind turbine blade models with backward-forward swept and verify the flow patterns using flow visualization. In this research, the blade models are constructed based on the twist and chord distributions following Schmitz's formula. Forward and backward swept are added to the rotating blades. Based on this, the additional swept would enhance or diminish outward flow disturbance or stall development propagation on the spanwise blade surfaces to give better blade design. Some combinations, i. e., b lades with backward swept, provide a better 3-D favorable rotational force of the rotor system. The performance of the 3-D wind turbine system model is measured by a torque meter, employing Prony's braking system. Furthermore, the 3-D flow patterns around the rotating blade models are investigated by applying "tuft-visualization technique", to study the appearance of laminar, separated, and boundary layer flow patterns surrounding the 3-dimentional blade system.

  6. Effects of Stereo and Screen Size on the Legibility of Three-Dimensional Streamtube Visualization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Cai, Haipeng; Auchus, A P; Laidlaw, D H

    2012-12-01

    We report the impact of display characteristics (stereo and size) on task performance in diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (DMRI) in a user study with 12 participants. The hypotheses were that (1) adding stereo and increasing display size would improve task accuracy and reduce completion time, and (2) the greater the complexity of a spatial task, the greater the benefits of an improved display. Thus we expected to see greater performance gains when detailed visual reasoning was required. Participants used dense streamtube visualizations to perform five representative tasks: (1) determine the higher average fractional anisotropy (FA) values between two regions, (2) find the endpoints of fiber tracts, (3) name a bundle, (4) mark a brain lesion, and (5) judge if tracts belong to the same bundle. Contrary to our hypotheses, we found the task completion time was not improved by the use of the larger display and that performance accuracy was hurt rather than helped by the introduction of stereo in our study with dense DMRI data. Bigger was not always better. Thus cautious should be taken when selecting displays for scientific visualization applications. We explored the results further using the body-scale unit and subjective size and stereo experiences. PMID:26357120

  7. Effects of Stereo and Screen Size on the Legibility of Three-Dimensional Streamtube Visualization

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jian; Cai, Haipeng; Auchus, Alexander P.; Laidlaw, David H.

    2015-01-01

    We report the impact of display characteristics (stereo and size) on task performance in diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (DMRI) in a user study with 12 participants. The hypotheses were that (1) adding stereo and increasing display size would improve task accuracy and reduce completion time, and (2) the greater the complexity of a spatial task, the greater the benefits of an improved display. Thus we expected to see greater performance gains when detailed visual reasoning was required. Participants used dense streamtube visualizations to perform five representative tasks: (1) determine the higher average fractional anisotropy (FA) values between two regions, (2) find the endpoints of fiber tracts, (3) name a bundle, (4) mark a brain lesion, and (5) judge if tracts belong to the same bundle. Contrary to our hypotheses, we found the task completion time was not improved by the use of the larger display and that performance accuracy was hurt rather than helped by the introduction of stereo in our study with dense DMRI data. Bigger was not always better. Thus cautious should be taken when selecting displays for scientific visualization applications. We explored the results further using the body-scale unit and subjective size and stereo experiences. PMID:26357120

  8. 3D Printing Meets Astrophysics: A New Way to Visualize and Communicate Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madura, Thomas Ignatius; Steffen, Wolfgang; Clementel, Nicola; Gull, Theodore R.

    2015-08-01

    3D printing has the potential to improve the astronomy community’s ability to visualize, understand, interpret, and communicate important scientific results. I summarize recent efforts to use 3D printing to understand in detail the 3D structure of a complex astrophysical system, the supermassive binary star Eta Carinae and its surrounding bipolar ‘Homunculus’ nebula. Using mapping observations of molecular hydrogen line emission obtained with the ESO Very Large Telescope, we obtained a full 3D model of the Homunculus, allowing us to 3D print, for the first time, a detailed replica of a nebula (Steffen et al. 2014, MNRAS, 442, 3316). I also present 3D prints of output from supercomputer simulations of the colliding stellar winds in the highly eccentric binary located near the center of the Homunculus (Madura et al. 2015, arXiv:1503.00716). These 3D prints, the first of their kind, reveal previously unknown ‘finger-like’ structures at orbital phases shortly after periastron (when the two stars are closest to each other) that protrude outward from the spiral wind-wind collision region. The results of both efforts have received significant media attention in recent months, including two NASA press releases (http://www.nasa.gov/content/goddard/astronomers-bring-the-third-dimension-to-a-doomed-stars-outburst/ and http://www.nasa.gov/content/goddard/nasa-observatories-take-an-unprecedented-look-into-superstar-eta-carinae/), demonstrating the potential of using 3D printing for astronomy outreach and education. Perhaps more importantly, 3D printing makes it possible to bring the wonders of astronomy to new, often neglected, audiences, i.e. the blind and visually impaired.

  9. A web-based solution for 3D medical image visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Xiaoshuai; Sun, Jianyong; Zhang, Jianguo

    2015-03-01

    In this presentation, we present a web-based 3D medical image visualization solution which enables interactive large medical image data processing and visualization over the web platform. To improve the efficiency of our solution, we adopt GPU accelerated techniques to process images on the server side while rapidly transferring images to the HTML5 supported web browser on the client side. Compared to traditional local visualization solution, our solution doesn't require the users to install extra software or download the whole volume dataset from PACS server. By designing this web-based solution, it is feasible for users to access the 3D medical image visualization service wherever the internet is available.

  10. Memory and visual search in naturalistic 2D and 3D environments

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chia-Ling; Aivar, M. Pilar; Kit, Dmitry M.; Tong, Matthew H.; Hayhoe, Mary M.

    2016-01-01

    The role of memory in guiding attention allocation in daily behaviors is not well understood. In experiments with two-dimensional (2D) images, there is mixed evidence about the importance of memory. Because the stimulus context in laboratory experiments and daily behaviors differs extensively, we investigated the role of memory in visual search, in both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) environments. A 3D immersive virtual apartment composed of two rooms was created, and a parallel 2D visual search experiment composed of snapshots from the 3D environment was developed. Eye movements were tracked in both experiments. Repeated searches for geometric objects were performed to assess the role of spatial memory. Subsequently, subjects searched for realistic context objects to test for incidental learning. Our results show that subjects learned the room-target associations in 3D but less so in 2D. Gaze was increasingly restricted to relevant regions of the room with experience in both settings. Search for local contextual objects, however, was not facilitated by early experience. Incidental fixations to context objects do not necessarily benefit search performance. Together, these results demonstrate that memory for global aspects of the environment guides search by restricting allocation of attention to likely regions, whereas task relevance determines what is learned from the active search experience. Behaviors in 2D and 3D environments are comparable, although there is greater use of memory in 3D. PMID:27299769