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Sample records for 3h 4he 16o

  1. Contributions of excited {sup 6}Li and {sup 7}Li nuclei to the production of {sup 4}He+{sup 2}H and {sup 4}He+{sup 3}H systems in {sup 16}O{sub p} collisions at a momentum of 3.25 GeV/c per nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Olimov, K.; Glagolev, V. V.; Gulamov, K. G.; Lutpullaev, S. L.; Kurbanov, A. R.; Olimov, A. K.; Petrov, V. I.; Yuldashev, A. A.

    2013-07-15

    New experimental data on the cross sections for the yield of excited {sup 6}Li* and {sup 7}Li* nuclei and on their contributions to the production of {sup 4}He + {sup 2}H and {sup 4}He+{sup 3}H light dinuclear systems in {sup 16}O{sub p} collisions at a momentumof 3.25 A GeV/c per nucleon are presented.

  2. Astrophysical S factors of radiative {sup 3}He{sup 4}He, {sup 3}H{sup 4}He, and {sup 2}H{sup 4}He capture

    SciTech Connect

    Dubovichenko, S. B.

    2010-09-15

    The possibility of describing the astrophysical S factors for radiative {sup 3}He{sup 4}He capture at energies of up to 15 keV and radiative {sup 3}H{sup 4}He and {sup 2}H{sup 4}He capture at energies of up 5 keV is considered on the basis of the potential cluster model involving forbidden states.

  3. Spin polarization effects in the /sup 3/H(d,n)/sup 4/He fusion reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Conzett, H.E.; Rioux, C.

    1985-06-01

    A recent investigation has shown that the /sup 3/H(d,n)/sup 4/He fusion reaction rate could be enhanced by a factor of 3/2 if the fusion plasma consisted of both polarized deuterons and tritons, forming exclusively the channel-spin S = 3/2, J = 3/2/sup +/ state. This result follows simply from the statistical weights of the quartet S = 3/2 and doublet S = 1/2 initial states, with the assumption of the single J = 3/2/sup +/ reaction amplitude. Since, with a small but nonzero J = 1/2/sup +/ amplitude, the maximum enhancement of the reaction occurs at the peak of the J = 3/2/sup +/ resonance, corresponding to a deuteron lab energy of 107 keV, it is of obvious interest to know what the enhancement would be at the lower energies that are typical of fusion plasmas. We are able to address this question by extending earlier calculations which gave the values of all of the spin-polarization observables at this J = 3/2/sup +/ resonance in both the /sup 3/H(d,n)/sup 4/He and the /sup 3/He(d,p)/sup 4/He reactions.

  4. Direct measurement of {sup 4}He({sup 12}C, {sup 16}O)gamma reaction at KUTL

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, K.; Sagara, K.; Teranishi, T.; Goto, T.; Iwabuchi, R.; Matsuda, S.; Nakano, K.; Oba, N.; Taniguchi, M.; Yamaguchi, H.

    2010-06-01

    A {sup 12}C+{sup 4}He->{sup 16}O+gamma is regarded as the very important reaction to know the evolution of heavy stars. The cross section is, however, still unknown in spite of more than 40 years experiment in the world because of an existence of a resonance state of {sup 16}O at sub-threshold region. A cross section measurement with the direct detection of the produced {sup 16}O from E{sub cm} = 2.4 downto 0.7 MeV have been planned at Kyushu University Tandem Laboratory(KUTL). Detection of the {sup 16}O is the most possible method at low energy, since a detection efficiency of the {sup 16}O is very high.The new windowless blow-in gas target was developed to achieve the pressure of 24 Torr. Many movable slit were installed in a recoil mass separator, so that the backgrounds generated by the {sup 12}C beam was eliminated effectively. The results of recent experiments at E{sub cm} = 2.4 and 1.5 MeV are reported.

  5. Ab initio many-body calculations of the (3)H(d,n)(4)He and (3)He(d,p)(4)He fusion reactions.

    PubMed

    Navrátil, Petr; Quaglioni, Sofia

    2012-01-27

    We apply the ab initio no-core shell model combined with the resonating-group method approach to calculate the cross sections of the (3)H(d,n)(4)He and (3)He(d,p)(4)He fusion reactions. These are important reactions for the big bang nucleosynthesis and the future of energy generation on Earth. Starting from a selected similarity-transformed chiral nucleon-nucleon interaction that accurately describes two-nucleon data, we performed many-body calculations that predict the S factor of both reactions. Virtual three-body breakup effects are obtained by including excited pseudostates of the deuteron in the calculation. Our results are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data and pave the way for microscopic investigations of polarization and electron-screening effects, of the (3)H(d,γn)(4)He bremsstrahlung and other reactions relevant to fusion research. PMID:22400830

  6. Polarization Transfer in 4He(e-vector,e[prime]p-vector)3H

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Paolone

    2007-10-01

    Polarization transfer in quasi-elastic nucleon knockout is sensitive to the properties of the nucleon in the nuclear medium, including possible modification of the nucleon form factor and/or spinor. In our recently completed experiment E03-104 at Jefferson Lab we measured the proton recoil polarization in the 4He(e-vector,e[prime]p-vector)3H reaction at a Q2 of 0.8 (GeV/c)2 and 1.3 (GeV/c)2 with unprecedented precision. These data complement earlier data between 0.4 and 2.6 (GeV/c)2 from both Mainz and Jefferson Lab, in which the measured ratio of polarization-transfer coefficients differs from a fully relativistic DWIA calculation. Preliminary results hint at a possible unexpected Q2 dependence in the polarization transfer coefficient ratio. Final analysis will help constrain FSI models

  7. Direct measurement of {sup 4}He({sup 12}C, {sup 16}O){gamma} reaction near stellar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, K.; Sagara, K.; Teranishi, T.; Goto, T.; Iwabuchi, R.; Matsuda, S.; Oba, N.; Taniguchi, M.; Yamaguchi, H.

    2010-08-12

    A cross section measurement with a direct {sup 16}O detection method for the reaction energy from E{sub cm} = 2.4 down to 0.7 MeV is planned at Kyushu University Tandem Laboratory (KUTL). To perform the experiment successfully and to get the quantitative information of the cross section within the 10% error, we have newly developed several instruments in 2009, such as a blow-in type windowless gas target and movable slit system placed in the recoil mass separator. By using the windowless blow-in gas target, a pressure of 24 Torr was achieved. The effective thickness along the beam axis was measured by p+{sup 4}He scattering. Thanks to the movable slits installed in a recoil mass separator and the trajectory analysis, we found effective reduction of background conditions from the {sup 12}C beam.

  8. Medium Modifications from {sup 4}He(e-vector,e'p-vector){sup 3}H

    SciTech Connect

    Malace, S.; Paolone, M.; Strauch, S.

    2008-10-13

    Polarization transfer in quasi-elastic nucleon knockout is sensitive to the properties of the nucleon in the nuclear medium, including possible modification of the nucleon form factor and/or spinor. In our recently completed experiment E03-104 at Jefferson Lab we measured the proton recoil polarization in the {sup 4}He(e-vector,e'p-vector){sup 3}H reaction at a Q{sup 2} of 0.8 (GeV/c){sup 2} and 1.3 (GeV/c){sup 2} with unprecedented precision. These data complement earlier data between 0.4 and 2.6 (GeV/c){sup 2} from both Mainz and Jefferson Lab. The measured ratio of polarization-transfer coefficients differs from a fully relativistic calculation, favoring either the inclusion of a medium modification of the proton form factors predicted by a quark-meson coupling model or strong charge-exchange final-state interactions. The measured induced polarizations agree well with the fully relativistic calculation and indicate that these strong final-state interactions may not be applicable.

  9. Comparative study of dose distributions and cell survival fractions for 1H, 4He, 12C and 16O beams using Geant4 and Microdosimetric Kinetic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burigo, Lucas; Pshenichnov, Igor; Mishustin, Igor; Bleicher, Marcus

    2015-04-01

    Depth and radial dose profiles for therapeutic 1H, 4He, 12C and 16O beams are calculated using the Geant4-based Monte Carlo model for Heavy-Ion Therapy (MCHIT). 4He and 16O ions are presented as alternative options to 1H and 12C broadly used for ion-beam cancer therapy. Biological dose profiles and survival fractions of cells are estimated using the modified Microdosimetric Kinetic model. Depth distributions of cell survival of healthy tissues, assuming 10% and 50% survival of tumor cells, are calculated for 6 cm SOBPs at two tumor depths and for different tissues radiosensitivities. It is found that the optimal ion choice depends on (i) depth of the tumor, (ii) dose levels and (iii) the contrast of radiosensitivities of tumor and surrounding healthy tissues. Our results indicate that 12C and 16O ions are more appropriate to spare healthy tissues in the case of a more radioresistant tumor at moderate depths. On the other hand, a sensitive tumor surrounded by more resistant tissues can be better treated with 1H and 4He ions. In general, 4He beam is found to be a good candidate for therapy. It better spares healthy tissues in all considered cases compared to 1H. Besides, the dose conformation is improved for deep-seated tumors compared to 1H, and the damage to surrounding healthy tissues is reduced compared to heavier ions due to the lower impact of nuclear fragmentation. No definite advantages of 16O with respect to 12C ions are found in this study.

  10. Comparative study of dose distributions and cell survival fractions for 1H, 4He, 12C and 16O beams using Geant4 and Microdosimetric Kinetic model.

    PubMed

    Burigo, Lucas; Pshenichnov, Igor; Mishustin, Igor; Bleicher, Marcus

    2015-04-21

    Depth and radial dose profiles for therapeutic (1)H, (4)He, (12)C and (16)O beams are calculated using the Geant4-based Monte Carlo model for Heavy-Ion Therapy (MCHIT). (4)He and (16)O ions are presented as alternative options to (1)H and (12)C broadly used for ion-beam cancer therapy. Biological dose profiles and survival fractions of cells are estimated using the modified Microdosimetric Kinetic model. Depth distributions of cell survival of healthy tissues, assuming 10% and 50% survival of tumor cells, are calculated for 6 cm SOBPs at two tumor depths and for different tissues radiosensitivities. It is found that the optimal ion choice depends on (i) depth of the tumor, (ii) dose levels and (iii) the contrast of radiosensitivities of tumor and surrounding healthy tissues. Our results indicate that (12)C and (16)O ions are more appropriate to spare healthy tissues in the case of a more radioresistant tumor at moderate depths. On the other hand, a sensitive tumor surrounded by more resistant tissues can be better treated with (1)H and (4)He ions. In general, (4)He beam is found to be a good candidate for therapy. It better spares healthy tissues in all considered cases compared to (1)H. Besides, the dose conformation is improved for deep-seated tumors compared to (1)H, and the damage to surrounding healthy tissues is reduced compared to heavier ions due to the lower impact of nuclear fragmentation. No definite advantages of (16)O with respect to (12)C ions are found in this study. PMID:25825827

  11. Polarization transfer in the {sup 4}He({rvec e}, e'{rvec p}){sup 3}H reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Sonja Dieterich; et. al

    2001-02-15

    Polarization transfer in the {sup 4}He({rvec e}, e'{rvec p}){sup 3}H reaction at a Q{sup 2} of 0.4 (GeV/c){sup 2} was measured at the Mainz Microtron MAMI. The ratio of the transverse to the longitudinal polarization components of the ejected protons was compared with the same ratio for elastic ep scattering. The results are consistent with a recent fully relativistic calculation which includes a predicted medium modification of the proton form factor based on a quark-meson coupling model.

  12. A precise extraction of the induced polarization in the 4He(e,e'p)3H reaction

    SciTech Connect

    S.P. Malace, M. Paolone, S. Strauch

    2011-01-01

    We measured with unprecedented precision the induced polarization Py in 4He(e,e'p)3H at Q^2 = 0.8 (GeV/c)^2 and 1.3 (GeV/c)^2. The induced polarization is indicative of reaction-mechanism effects beyond the impulse approximation. Our results are in agreement with a relativistic distorted-wave impulse approximation calculation but are over-estimated by a calculation with strong charge-exchange effects. Our data are used to constrain the strength of the spin independent charge-exchange term in the latter calculation.

  13. Polarization transfer in 4He(e,e'p)3H: is the ratio GEp/GMp modified in medium ?

    SciTech Connect

    Rocco Schiavilla

    2004-12-01

    Polarization observables in the {sup 4}He({rvec e}, e{prime} {rvec p}){sup 3}H reaction are calculated using accurate three- and four-nucleon bound-state wave functions, a realistic model for the nuclear electromagnetic current operator, and a treatment of final-state-interactions with an optical potential model constrained by p {sup 3}H elastic and charge-exchange cross section data. In contrast to earlier studies, no significant discrepancies are found between theory and experiment both for the ratio of transverse to longitudinal polarization transfers and for the induced polarization, when free-nucleon electromagnetic form factors are used in the current operator. The present results challenge the current interpretation of the experimental data in terms of medium-modified form factors.

  14. Background reduction system of {sup 4}He({sup 12}C,{sup 16}O)gamma at KUTL

    SciTech Connect

    Taniguchi, M.; Sagara, K.; Teranishi, T.; Fujita, K.; Iwabuchi, R.; Gotoh, T.; Nakano, K.; Oba, N.

    2010-06-01

    The C-alpha reaction is one of the most important reactions in astrophysics. At Kyushu University Tandem accelerator Laboratory (KUTL), a high detective efficiency measurement has been made by adopting inverse kinematics: {sup 12}C beam is injected on windowless {sup 4}He gas target. In this experiment, a powerful background reduction system is necessary. We describe the effectiveness of the background system consisting of recoil mass separator, a long time chopper, and new movable slits.

  15. Polarization Transfer in {sup 4}He(e-vector,e{sup '}p-vector){sup 3}H

    SciTech Connect

    Paolone, Michael

    2007-10-26

    Polarization transfer in quasi-elastic nucleon knockout is sensitive to the properties of the nucleon in the nuclear medium, including possible modification of the nucleon form factor and/or spinor. In our recently completed experiment E03-104 at Jefferson Lab we measured the proton recoil polarization in the {sup 4}He(e-vector,e{sup '}p-vector){sup 3}H reaction at a Q{sup 2} of 0.8 (GeV/c){sup 2} and 1.3 (GeV/c){sup 2} with unprecedented precision. These data complement earlier data between 0.4 and 2.6 (GeV/c){sup 2} from both Mainz and Jefferson Lab, in which the measured ratio of polarization-transfer coefficients differs from a fully relativistic DWIA calculation. Preliminary results hint at a possible unexpected Q{sup 2} dependence in the polarization transfer coefficient ratio. Final analysis will help constrain FSI models.

  16. Fragmentation of {sup 7}Li relativistic nuclei on a proton into the {sup 3}H + {sup 4}He channel

    SciTech Connect

    Peresadko, N. G.; Alexandrov, Yu. A. Gerasimov, S. G.; Dronov, V. A.; Larionova, V. G.; Pisetskaya, A. V.; Tamm, E. I.; Fetisov, V. N.; Kharlamov, S. P.; Shesterkina, L. N.

    2010-11-15

    In a track nuclear photoemulsion exposed to a beam of {sup 7}Li nuclei accelerated to a momentum of 3 GeV/c per nucleon at the synchrophasotron of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR, Dubna), 13 events in which {sup 7}Li nuclei interacting with protons break up into {sup 3}H and {sup 4}He fragments were detected among 3730 inelastic-interaction events. For this fragmentation channel, the cross section was found to be 8 {+-} 2 mb. The average value of the fragment total transverse momentum was 214 {+-} 5 MeV/c. This value exceeds markedly the average value of the transverse-momentum transfer in the coherent dissociation of {sup 7}Li nuclei on track-emulsion nuclei (166{+-}5MeV/c). The recoil-proton transverse momentum was on average 98% of the total proton momentum. The longitudinal-momentum distribution of protons was characterized by a variance of 16 MeV/c and a mean value of 37 {+-} 2MeV/c.

  17. Search for sup 3 H, sub 3 He, and sub 4 He in D sub 2 -loaded titanium

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, W.B.; Clarke, R.M. )

    1992-03-01

    In this paper a search is described for {sup 3}He, {sup 4}He, and tritium produced when D{sub 2} is absorbed by titanium sponge, or released when titanium deuteride is heated. The D{sub 2} is prepared from pre-nuclear-era D{sub 2}O, which has a tritium/deuterium (T/D) ratio of 1.8 {times} 10{sup {minus}15}. Two reservoirs of titanium sponge in a vacuum system attached to the inlet line of a mass spectrometer are heated to allow rapid transfer of D{sub 2} from one sponge to the other. Significant amounts of {sup 3}He and {sup 4}He are released only after the deuterium content is increased to reach TiD{sub 1.5} in one sponge. Then {sup 3}He and {sup 4}He are decreased as the D{sub 2} is transferred back and forth. When the titanium is loaded to a composition of TiD{sub 2.0}, {sup 3}He and {sup 4}He increase during the next two transfers, then decrease. When the D{sub 2} is replaced by H{sub 2}, then D{sub 2}-H{sub 2} (1:1), {sup 3}He and {sup 4}He decrease steadily, indicating that the transfer process causes partial release of {sup 3}He and {sup 4}He trapped in the titanium.

  18. The {sup 3}He(e,e'p){sup 2}H and {sup 4}He(e,e'p){sup 3}H reactions at high momentum transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, William P.; Schiavilla, Rocco; Van Orden, J. W.

    2014-03-01

    We present updated calculations for observables in the processes {sup 3}He(e,e'p){sup 2}H, {sup 4}He(e,e'p){sup 3}H and {sup 4}He(e-vector, e'p-vector){sup 3}H. This update entails the implementation of improved nucleon-nucleon (NN) amplitudes to describe final state interactions (FSI) within a Glauber approximation and includes full spin-isospin dependence in the profile operator. In addition, an optical potential, which has also been updated since previous work, is utilized to treat FSI for the {sup 4}He(e,e'p){sup 3}H and {sup 4}He(e-vector, e'p-vector){sup 3}H reactions. The calculations are compared with experimental data and show good agreement between theory and experiment. Comparisons are made between the various approximations in the Glauber treatment, including model dependence due to the NN scattering amplitudes, rescattering contributions, and spin dependence. We also analyze the validity of the Glauber approximation at the kinematics the data is available, by comparing to the results obtained with the optical potential.

  19. Photodisintegration cross section of the reaction (4)He(γ,p)(3)H between 22 and 30 MeV.

    PubMed

    Raut, R; Tornow, W; Ahmed, M W; Crowell, A S; Kelley, J H; Rusev, G; Stave, S C; Tonchev, A P

    2012-01-27

    The two-body photodisintegration cross section of (4)He into a proton and triton was measured with monoenergetic photon beams in 0.5 MeV energy steps between 22 and 30 MeV. High-pressure (4)He-Xe gas scintillators of various (4)He/Xe ratios served as targets and detectors. Pure Xe gas scintillators were used for background studies. A NaI detector together with a plastic scintillator paddle was employed for determining the incident photon flux. Our comprehensive data set follows the trend of the theoretical calculations of the Trento group very well, although our data are consistently lower in magnitude by about 5%. However, they differ significantly from the majority of the previous data, especially from the recent data of Shima et al. The latter data had put into question the validity of theoretical approaches used to calculate core-collapse supernova explosions and big-bang nucleosynthesis abundances of certain light nuclei. PMID:22400829

  20. Estimating the groundwater residence time in eskers of the Amos region, northern Quebec by 3H-3He and (U-Th/4He) methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, Christine; Berthot, Laureline; Pinti, Daniele Luigi; Larocque, Marie; Cloutier, Vincent; Blanchette, Daniel; Castro, Maria Clara; Hall, Chris M.

    2013-04-01

    An esker is a long winding ridge of stratified sand and gravel. The eskers of the Amos region (Abitibi-Témiscamingue, Québec) that were deposited during the last deglaciation, are known to be aquifers containing drinking water of exceptional quality. Yet little is known about their hydrologic regime and exchanges with other water sources. A better understanding of these systems is necessary to assess the vulnerability of these aquifers to contaminants and to implement a management plan for these resources. A multi-isotopic study of groundwater in the eskers of the Amos region (Saint-Mathieu-Berry, Barraute and Harricana moraine) was carried out in 2011-2012. Noble gas isotopes, together with major ions chemistry and stable isotopes were used to estimate the residence time of waters, to trace fluid flow paths and to determine the atmospheric temperature at the time of the recharge took place. Measured 3He/4He ratios were primarily used to identify mixing between different water types carrying distinct helium components. The 20Ne/4He vs. 3He/4He relationship shows that waters flowing into eskers have three helium components: atmospheric, tritiogenic 3He-rich and radiogenic 4He-rich. The measured 3He/4He ratios (R) normalized to the atmospheric one (R/Ra) varies between 0.224±0.012 and 1.849±0.036. Most radiogenic 4He-rich mineralized waters are those from fractured basement rocks of Archean age. Freshwater flowing into eskers show mixing between radiogenic helium and tritiogenic 3He. A clear relationship between the well depths, salinity and the 3He/4He ratios suggests that mixing occurs between these two groundwater bodies. Tritium measurements allow the calculation of 3H-3He ages varying from 6.7±1.3 yrs to 9.7±1.3 yrs for waters flowing through the Harricana moraine. Groundwater from Saint-Mathieu de Berry esker ranges from 11.0±2.1 yrs to 32.5±1.6 yrs. The 3H-3He ages plotted against the wells depth show a linear relationship for both, the Saint

  1. Polarization Transfer in the 4He(e,e'p)3H Reaction at Q^2 = 0.8 and 1.3 (GeV/c)^2

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Michael Paolone; Malace, Simona P.; Strauch, Steffen

    2010-08-01

    Proton recoil polarization was measured in the quasielastic 4He(e,e'p)3H reaction at Q^2 = 0.8 (GeV/c)^2 and 1.3 (GeV/c)^2 with unprecedented precision. The polarization-transfer coefficients are found to differ from those of the 1H(e,e' p) reaction, contradicting a relativistic distorted-wave approximation, and favoring either the inclusion of medium-modified proton form factors predicted by the quark-meson coupling model or a spin-dependent charge-exchange final-state interaction. For the first time, the polarization-transfer ratio is studied as a function of the virtuality of the proton.

  2. Polarization transfer in the 4He(e→,e'p→)3H reaction at Q2 = 0.8 and 1.3 (GeV/c)2

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Michael Paolone; Malace, Simona P.

    2010-08-12

    Here, proton recoil polarization was measured in the quasielastic 4He(e→,e'p→)3H reaction at Q2 = 0.8 (GeV/c)2 and 1.3 (GeV/c)2 with unprecedented precision. The polarization-transfer coefficients are found to differ from those of the 1H(e→,e'p→) reaction, contradicting a relativistic distorted-wave approximation, and favoring either the inclusion of medium-modified proton form factors predicted by the quark-meson coupling model or a spin-dependent charge-exchange final-state interaction. For the first time, the polarization-transfer ratio is studied as a function of the virtuality of the proton.

  3. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1111, LB4914_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1111, LB4914_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  4. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1511, LB4929_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1511, LB4929_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  5. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1211, LB4553_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1211, LB4553_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  6. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1212, LB4921_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1212, LB4921_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  7. Diffraction dissociation of {sup 7}Li and {sup 7}Be relativistic nuclei on proton targets through the {sup 3}H({sup 3}He)+{sup 4}He channels

    SciTech Connect

    Fetisov, V. N.

    2015-07-15

    For the fragmentation of {sup 7}Li and {sup 7}Be relativistic nuclei (with momenta of, respectively, P = 3 GeV/c and P = 1.6 GeV/c per nucleon) on proton targets through the {sup 3}H({sup 3}He) + {sup 4}He channels, the differential cross sections with respect to the momentum transfer Q to the fragments were calculated on the basis of the cluster version of Akhiezer–Glauber–Sitenko diffraction theory by employing the twobody cluster model for the {sup 7}Li ({sup 3}H + {sup 4}He) and {sup 7}Be ({sup 3}He + {sup 4}He) nuclei. These calculations, performed in the impulse approximation in the interaction of intranuclear clusters with the target nucleus, explained a strong suppression of the cross sections for reactions on protons at Q lower than 100 MeV/c and higher than 350 MeV/c and the observed irregularities in the behavior off the cross section for {sup 7}Li fragmentation on complex track-emulsion nuclei. Cross-section values close to their experimental counterparts were obtained upon setting the coefficient of two-body clustering in the {sup 7}Li and {sup 7}Be nuclei to k ≃ 0.7.

  8. Method for determination of .sup.18 O/.sup.16 O and .sup.2 H/.sup.1 H ratios and .sup.3 H (tritium) concentrations of xylem waters and subsurface waters using time series sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Brian; Menchaca, Leticia

    1999-01-01

    A method for determination of .sup.18 O/.sup.16 O and .sup.2 H/.sup.1 H ratios and .sup.3 H concentrations of xylem and subsurface waters using time series sampling, insulating sampling chambers, and combined .sup.18 O/.sup.16 O, .sup.2 H/.sup.1 H and .sup.3 H concentration data on transpired water. The method involves collecting water samples transpired from living plants and correcting the measured isotopic compositions of oxygen (.sup.18 O/.sup.16 O) and hydrogen (.sup.2 H/.sup.1 H and/or .sup.3 H concentrations) to account for evaporative isotopic fractionation in the leafy material of the plant.

  9. Method for determination of {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O and {sup 2}H/{sup 1}H ratios and {sup 3}H (tritium) concentrations of xylem waters and subsurface waters using time-series sampling

    SciTech Connect

    1999-11-09

    This application describes a method for the determination of {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O and {sup 2}H/{sup 1}H ratios and {sup 3}H concentrations of xylem and subsurface waters using time-series sampling, insulating sampling chambers, and combined {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O, {sup 2}H/{sup 1}H and {sup 3}H concentration data on transpired water. The method involves collecting water samples transpired from living plants and correcting the measured isotopic compositions of oxygen ({sup 18}O/{sup 16}O) and hydrogen ({sup 2}H/{sup 1}H and/or {sup 3}H concentrations) to account for evaporative isotopic fractionation in the leafy material of the plant.

  10. Experiments with solid 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallock, R. B.

    2010-08-01

    The possibility of supersolid behavior in 4He was predicted many years ago, but negative experiments in the 1970’s removed motivation for further experimental efforts to explore the possibility until the work of Goodkind’s group renewed attention. Kim and Chan found unambiguous evidence for a period shift in a torsional oscillator filled with solid 4He and this observation and its interpretation have created substantial interest in the study of solid 4He. Here, recent work with an experimental design that allows for superfluid 4He to be in direct contact with solid 4He off the melting curve will be discussed and evidence for the flow of helium atoms through a cell filled with solid 4He, caused by an applied chemical potential difference will be briefly reviewed.

  11. Aspects of 4He II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, F. W.

    1981-10-01

    Some recent assertions concerning Fröhlich's form for the second-order reduce density matrix for 4He II are shown to be incorrect, based on work by McMillan and Whitlock et al. An ansatz to replace the Beliaev ansatz is advanced, which leads directly to Fröhlich's form.

  12. Coulomb sum rule for {sup 4}He

    SciTech Connect

    J. Carlson; J. Jourdan; R. Schiavilla; I. Sick

    2002-10-01

    We determine the Coulomb sum for {sup 4}He using world data on {sup 4}He(e, e') and compare the results to calculations based on realistic interactions and including two-body components in the nuclear charge operator. We find good agreement between theory and experiment using free-nucleon form factors. The apparent reduction of the in-medium G{sub ep} implied by IA-interpretation of the L/T-ratios measured in {sup 4}He(e,e'p) and {sup 4}He([vec]e, e'p) is not confirmed.

  13. Zircon 4He/3He thermochronometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathy-Lang, Alka; Fox, Matthew; Shuster, David L.

    2015-10-01

    Multiple thermochronometric methods are often required to constrain time-continuous rock exhumation for studying tectonic processes or development of km-scale topography at Earth's surface. Here, we explore 4He/3He thermochronometry of zircon as a method for constraining continuous time-temperature (t-T) paths of individual samples through a temperature range that is complementary to methods such as 40Ar/39Ar thermochronometry of K-feldspar and 4He/3He thermochronometry of apatite. For different cooling rates and diffusion domain size, the temperature sensitivity of zircon 4He/3He thermochronometry ranges from slightly less than 100 °C to slightly greater than 250 °C; a typical sample provides continuous thermal constraints over ∼100 °C within that range. Outside these temperatures, 4He in zircon will either be quantitatively retained or completely lost by volume diffusion. As proof-of-concept, we present stepwise release 4He/3He spectra and associated U and Th concentration maps measured by laser ablation ICP-MS analysis of individual crystal aliquots of Fish Canyon Tuff (FCT) zircon and of a more complex setting in the Sierra Nevada batholith that experienced reheating from a proximal basaltic intrusion, the Little Devil's Postpile (LDP). The FCT zircon 4He/3He release spectra are consistent with a 4He spatial distribution dominated by alpha-ejection from crystal surfaces. The spatial distributions of U and Th measured in the same crystals do not substantially influence 4He/3He release spectra that are predicted for the known thermal history, even when incorporating spatially variable diffusivity due to accumulation of radiation damage. Conversely, the LDP 4He/3He release spectra are strongly influenced by the observed parent nuclide zonation. A three-dimensional (3D) numerical model of 4He production and diffusion, which incorporates crystal geometry, U and Th zonation, and spatially variable He diffusion kinetics, substantially improves the fit between

  14. {sup 4}He microscopic optical model potential

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Hairui; Liang Haiying; Han Yinlu; Shen Qingbiao; Xu Yongli

    2011-06-15

    The {sup 4}He microscopic optical model potential is obtained by Green's function method through nuclear matter approximation and local density approximation based on the effective Skyrme interaction. The microscopic optical model potential is analyzed and utilized to calculate the reaction cross sections and elastic scattering angular distributions for the target nuclei in the mass range 12{<=}A{<=}209 with incident {sup 4}He energy up to 400 MeV. The theoretical results are compared with the experimental data.

  15. Exploration of Vacancies in Solid 4^He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Bryan; Ceperley, David

    2006-03-01

    Experiments by Kim and Chan [1] have renewed interest in the understanding of supersolids and whether mechanisms exist in solid ^4He to allow for supersolid-like effects. Ground state vacancies would lead to bose condensation and superfluidity. Using Path Integral Monte Carlo we examine vacancy formation energies, vacancy-vacancy interactions and the effect of vacancies on supersolid behavior in solid ^4He. [1] E. Kim and M. H. Chan, Science 305, 1941 (2004).

  16. sup 4 He- sup 4 He elastic scattering and variational wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Usmani, A.A.; Ahmad, I. ); Usmani, Q.N. )

    1992-01-01

    We calculate differential cross sections for {sup 4}He-{sup 4}He elastic scattering at 4.32 GeV/{ital c} in the framework of Glauber multiple scattering theory using correlated variational wave functions as given by the two-nucleon Urbana {ital v}{sub 14} potential and the spin-isospin averaged Melfleit-Tjon force {ital V}. These wave functions are found to give fairly satisfactory results.

  17. The Annealing Process in Solid 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rittner, Ann Sophie C.; Reppy, John D.

    2007-09-01

    We have used a torsional oscillator with square cross section and a resonance frequency of 185 Hz to confirm the nonclassical rotational inertia (NCRI) discovered by Kim and Chan (Nature 427:225, 2004; Science 305:1941, 2004). We have also found a strong correlation between the NCRI signal and a high dissipation Q -1 of 4×10-6 of the oscillation above the transition temperature. Here, we present preliminary results of the annealing process in 4He at a pressure of 26 bar. When holding the temperature constant above 1 K we have observed a immediate rise in the period and a slow decay of the dissipation. The equilibrium value of Q -1 decreases with increasing temperature.

  18. Tortuosity of 4He Films on Aerogel

    SciTech Connect

    Ashton, C. E.; Golov, A. I.; Mulders, N.

    2006-09-07

    A torsional oscillator has been used to study the flow of liquid 4He through silica aerogel. The tortuosity and dissipation of the flow in the fractal aerogel environment has been measured, for both capillary condensed films and a fully saturated cell. The scaling of tortuosity as a function of filling fraction has been investigated. We compare the results of our 88%-porous aerogel to a 92%-porous sample where a transverse sound technique was used. Our more sensitive technique has reduced the scatter in both the frequency and dissipation data. Like in the previous transverse sound experiment, we find tortuosity as a function of filling fraction to scale with an exponent of {approx} -1.1. Further experiments are planned, to find the dependence of the exponent on the fractal dimension and porosity of aerogel.

  19. Positive ion induced solidification of 4He.

    PubMed

    Moroshkin, P; Lebedev, V; Weis, A

    2009-03-20

    We have observed bulk solidification of 4He induced by nucleation on positive alkali ions in pressurized superfluid helium. The ions are extracted into the liquid from alkali-doped solid He by a static electric field. The experiments prove the existence of charged particles in a solid structure composed of doped He that was recently shown to coexist with superfluid helium below the He solidification pressure. This supports our earlier suggestion that the Coulomb interaction of positive ions surrounded by a solid He shell (snowballs) and electrons trapped in spherical cavities (electron bubbles), together with surface tension, is responsible for the stability of that structure against melting. We have determined the density of charges in the sample by two independent methods. PMID:19392211

  20. Superfluid 4He dynamics beyond quasiparticle excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauvois, K.; Campbell, C. E.; Dawidowski, J.; Fâk, B.; Godfrin, H.; Krotscheck, E.; Lauter, H.-J.; Lichtenegger, T.; Ollivier, J.; Sultan, A.

    2016-07-01

    The dynamics of superfluid 4He at and above the Landau quasiparticle regime is investigated by high-precision inelastic neutron scattering measurements of the dynamic structure factor. A highly structured response is observed above the familiar phonon-maxon-roton spectrum, characterized by sharp thresholds for phonon-phonon, maxon-roton, and roton-roton coupling processes. The experimental dynamic structure factor is compared to the calculation of the same physical quantity by a dynamic many-body theory including three-phonon processes self-consistently. The theory is found to provide a quantitative description of the dynamics of the correlated bosons for energies up to about three times that of the Landau quasiparticles.

  1. The breakup of (16)O and its astrophysical implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, Diane Carol

    1998-07-01

    The feasibility of using the breakup of 16O to obtain information about the 12C(/alpha,/gamma)16O radiative capture reaction has been studied in a series of experiments performed at the Nuclear Structure Research Laboratory at the University of Rochester. The 16O breakup fragments-12C and 4He-were identified using a new focal-plane detector capable of identifying these fragments down to a relative energy of 50 keV. The relative energy spectra obtained from 16O breakup on a 58Ni target are dominated by sequential breakup from 9.85 MeV, and 10.36 MeV excited states in 16O. There is also some evidence of breakup at relative energies below 1 MeV. Interpretation of this low energy yield in terms of E2 Coulomb excitation leads to a value of SE2=346 keV b at Erel=0.828 MeV after making a correction for the contribution due to nuclear breakup. This suggests that the rate of the 12C(/alpha,/gamma)16O reaction at astrophysical energies is much higher than is presently accepted, which would have an enormous impact on stellar nucleosynthesis.

  2. Microscopic characterization of overpressurized superfluid 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, M.; Vitali, E.; Reatto, L.; Galli, D. E.

    2012-01-01

    We have studied static and dynamical properties of superfluid 4He at T=0 K in the pressure range from -6 up to 87 atm well above freezing into the metastable region. Zero temperature properties have been obtained with the exact shadow path integral ground state (SPIGS) method. Information about dynamic structure factors at different pressures have been obtained from imaginary time correlation functions via the genetic inversion via falsification of theories (GIFT) method. In the full pressure range sharp roton excitations are always present in the spectral functions. The roton energy decreases at higher pressures in good agreement with experimental data also in the metastable region. The roton energies have essentially a linear trend with pressure, going from about 7.4 K near freezing to about 4.3 K at about 87 atm. The pressure at which the linear trend would extrapolate to a zero roton energy turns out to be about 170 atm. At T=0 K, no sign of metastable glass phase has been found; the disordered systems studied at pressures above about 87 atm readily start homogeneous nucleation processes. Our results in the metastable phase for the condensate fractions and roton gaps differ remarkably from previous ones obtained via a diffusion Monte Carlo study.

  3. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering off 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joosten, Sylvester; CLAS Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The European Muon Collaboration (EMC) observed the first signs of a modification of the partonic structure of the nucleon when present in a nuclear medium. The precise nature of these effects, as well as their underlying cause, is yet to be determined. The generalized parton distribution (GPD) framework provides a powerful tool to study the partonic structure of nucleons inside a nucleus. Hard exclusive leptoproduction of a real photon off a nucleon, deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS), is presently considered the cleanest experimental access to the GPDs, through the Compton form factors (CFFs). This is especially the case for scattering off the spin-zero helium nucleus, where only a single CFF contributes to the process. The real and imaginary parts of this CFF can be constrained through the beam-spin asymmetry (BSA). We will present the first measurements of the DVCS process off 4He using the CEBAF 6 GeV polarized electron beam and the CLAS detector at JLab. The CLAS detector was supplemented with an inner electromagnetic calorimeter for photons produced at small angles, as well as a radial time projection chamber (RTPC) to detect low-energy recoil nuclei. This setup allowed for a clean measurement of the BSA in both the coherent and incoherent channels.

  4. Search for dislocation free 4He crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souris, Fabien; Fefferman, Andrew; Haziot, Ariel; Beamish, John; Balibar, Sebastien

    2014-03-01

    The elastic anomaly of 4He crystals is known to be a consequence of the motion of their dislocations. We have built an acoustic cell in order to grow and study crystals with the smallest possible density of dislocations. It has a polished inner surface to avoid pinning sites for the liquid-solid interface. Piezoelectric transducers are placed outside the cell volume, in order to drive and detect acoustical resonances through built-in copper membranes. We expect dislocation free crystals to behave rather differently from the usual ones (1,2). For example, they should not show any anomalous softening. Preliminary results show that crystals grown in this particular cell have longer dislocation lengths than in those studied in previous experiments (1,2). Centimeter long dislocations should resonate below 20 kHz. 1- A. Haziot et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 035301 (2013), Phys. Rev. B 87, 060509(R) (2013), and Phys. Rev. B 88, 014106 (2013). 2- A. D. Fefferman et al., submitted to Phys. Rev. B, Nov. 2013. ERC Grant AdG247258 SUPERSOLID and NSERC Canada.

  5. Measurement of fusion cross sections for 16O+16O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, J. G.; Gasques, L. R.; Oliveira, J. R. B.; Zagatto, V. A. B.; Chamon, L. C.; Medina, N. H.; Added, N.; Seale, W. A.; Alcántara-Núñez, J. A.; Rossi, E. S., Jr.; Amador-Valenzuela, P.; Lépine-Szily, A.; Freitas, A. S.; Scarduelli, V.; Aguiar, V. A. P.; Shorto, J. M. B.

    2015-06-01

    In earlier works, the fusion cross section for the 16O+16O reaction has been measured using different techniques. In the present work, we have obtained an experimental excitation function for 16O+16O using γ-ray spectroscopy. The measurements were performed at center-of-mass energies between 8.28 and 12.25 MeV. The theoretical predictions obtained with a coupled-channel model are consistent with the experimental data. From our analyses, the extrapolated S-factor value at 6.6 MeV, corresponding to the Gamow peak energy for core oxygen burning conditions, is about 3.6 × 1025 MeV barn.

  6. Measurements of diffuse and specular scattering of sup 4 He atoms from sup 4 He films

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, S.

    1989-01-01

    We have observed scattering of {sup 4}He atomic beams from films of {sup 4}He on glass and mica substrates. The specular reflection coefficient, or reflectivity, R(k,{theta}) was measured as a function of the angle of incidence {theta} and the wavevector k of the incident atoms, and the thickness of the film. The film thickness d varied from 45 {angstrom} to macroscopic values. In contrast to previous experiments on scattering from 10 cm deep liquid, we observed not only the expected specular reflection, but also isotropic diffuse scattering. To explain the diffuse signal, we assume that most of the incident atoms are converted into phonons, rotons and ripplons at the surface of the film. The phonons and rotons are scattered at the substrate, and subsequently evaporate an isotropic distribution of atoms.

  7. Crystallization of 4He in aerogel via mass flow from surrounding solid 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, H.; Ochi, A.; Isozaki, R.; Minami, S.; Nomura, R.; Pollanen, J.; Halperin, W. P.; Okuda, Y.

    2016-07-01

    The phase boundary between the quantum solid and the liquid phases of 4He is strongly modified in a porous material. However the phase diagram at very low temperatures remains unexplored. We have used a variable-volume experimental cell with optical access to visualize the crystallization of 4He in silica aerogels with independent control of the pressure and temperature. The onset of crystallization was investigated in two aerogel samples with differing porosity both by pressurization at constant temperature and by cooling at constant pressure. With isothermal pressurization we have established a low-temperature phase diagram for each aerogel, and we find that the equilibrium crystallization pressure is reduced with increasing aerogel porosity. Crystals also began to grow in the aerogel on cooling at fixed pressure below an onset temperature Tgrow. We found that below this temperature the crystallization rate increased with decreasing temperature. The aerogel in our cell was surrounded by bulk crystals of 4He , and surprisingly Tgrow was found to be widely distributed when the surrounding bulk crystals were repressurized. In this experimental arrangement, crystallization within the aerogel on cooling requires mass flow from these exterior bulk crystals and is strongly influenced by the disordered structure at the interface between the bulk solid and the helium within the aerogel.

  8. Investigation of the 4-α linear chain state in 16O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, N.; Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Aprahamian, A.; Ashwood, N. I.; Barr, M.; Bucher, B.; Copp, P.; Couder, M.; Fang, X.; Freer, M.; Goldring, G.; Jung, F.; Lesher, S. R.; Lu, W.; Malcolm, J. D.; Roberts, A.; Tan, W. P.; Wheldon, C.; Ziman, V. A.

    2013-12-01

    The 12C(4He,8Be)8Be and 12C(4He,12C* → 8Be+α)α reactions have been measured with beam energies ranging from 12.2 to 20.0 MeV. The α particles emitted directly and following the decay of 8Be and 12C* were detected in an array of four double sided silicon strip detectors. An analysis of the angular distributions obtained for the 12C(4He,8Be)8Be channel provides no evidence to support the previously proposed rotational structure consisting of a rigid, linear, arrangement of four α particles in 16O.

  9. Does a 4-α linear chain exist in 16O?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, N.; Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Aprahamian, A.; Ashwood, N. I.; Barr, M.; Bucher, B.; Copp, P.; Couder, M.; Fang, X.; Freer, M.; Goldring, G.; Jung, F.; Lesher, S. R.; Lu, W.; Malcolm, J. D.; Roberts, A.; Tan, W. P.; Wheldon, C.; Ziman, V. A.

    2012-09-01

    The12C(4He,8Be)8Be reaction has been measured with a beam energy ranging from 12.2 to 20.0 MeV. The α-particles emitted in the decay of 8Be were detected in an array of four double sided silicon strip detectors. The excitation function for events in which the 8Be centre of mass angle θcm = 90° provides evidence that the previously observed 6+ resonance at an excitation energy of 19.35 MeV in 16O is a 6+ doublet, with members at ~ 19.30 and 19.37 MeV.

  10. Analysis of ultratrace lithium and boron by neutron activation and mass-spectrometric measurement of 3He and 4He.

    PubMed

    Clarke, W B; Koekebakker, M; Barr, R D; Downing, R G; Fleming, R F

    1987-01-01

    A new technique for analysis of lithium and boron at ultratrace concentrations (less than 10(-8)g g-1) is described. The method consists of mass-spectrometric assay of 3He from decay of tritium produced by thermal-neutron reaction on 6Li, and 4He produced by thermal-neutron reaction on 10B. Two neutron-irradiation facilities were used: the McMaster reactor, which is 235U-enriched and light-water moderated; and a graphite-moderated thermal column attached to the 235U-enriched, heavy-water-moderated core at the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) reactor. In the McMaster irradiations, fast neutrons (greater than 0.2 MeV) induce the reactions 14N(n, 3H)12C, 12C(n, alpha)9Be, 16O(n, alpha)13C, and 14N(n, alpha)11B. These reactions become serious sources of error in samples such as human blood which have very low concentrations of lithium and boron, and high concentrations of nitrogen, carbon and oxygen. In the NBS thermal column, fast-neutron reactions are virtually absent, and only corrections for thermal-neutron capture by deuterium, and thermal-neutron (n, alpha) reactions on oxygen, sulfur, chlorine, potassium, and calcium need to be taken into account. Results are presented for various actual samples including human blood and its components, and some standard biological reference materials, to provide a realistic base for other workers to judge the reliability of the method. PMID:2822629

  11. Sound velocity of liquid 4He in aerogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Koichi; Arai, Osamu; Okuda, Yuichi; Tajiri, Koji

    2000-07-01

    The sound velocity and attenuation of liquid 4He in 93.7% and 94.6% porosity aerogels were measured for a frequency of 10 MHz. The sound velocity in 93.7% aerogel was larger than that in bulk 4He, whereas that in 94.6% was smaller. A model of the aerogel- 4He composite gave satisfactory agreement with the dependence of the sound velocity on the temperature and the aerogel density. This shows that the normal fluid is clamped to aerogel strands, although the viscous penetration depth is comparable to the typical size of a void in the aerogel.

  12. Solid 4He probed by both torsional oscillator and ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Harry; Iwasa, Izumi; Goodkind, John

    2013-03-01

    The interpretation of observed anomalous increases in the frequencies of torsional oscillators (TO) containing solid 4He confined in Vycor nanopores as evidence for emergence of a supersolid phase has been met recently by conflicting experiments. Yet questions remain on the origin of the observed TO anomalies in bulk solid 4He samples. To search for the origin, we are carrying out simultaneous measurements of 10 MHz longitudinal ultrasound and TOs (250 ~ 1100 Hz) on identical solid 4He samples. Temperature dependence of velocity and attenuation of ultrasound and that of amplitude and frequency of TO are measured. At the temperatures, where TO anomalies occur, anomalies in sound velocity and attenuation also appear. When solid 4He is doped with 20 ppm 3He, the tempeature of TO anomaly tracks that of ultrasound. Interpretation of these observations in terms of the motion of dislocation lines will be presented. Research supported by NSF.

  13. Heat Capacity of Dilute 3He-4He Monolayer Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morishita, Masashi

    2016-05-01

    The heat capacities of a small amount of 3He dissolved in monolayer 4He films are measured to clarify natures of monolayer 4He films. With increasing areal density, the measured heat capacities gradually increase and subsequently gradually decrease. With further increase in areal density, the measured heat capacity rapidly decreases to zero over a very narrow areal density range near that of the sqrt{3} × sqrt{3} phase. These slightly complex areal-density variations and dependence on 3He concentration are discussed from the viewpoint of the known properties of 4He films. The behaviors can be explained. However, the expected two-dimensional gas-liquid or gas-solid coexistence is not observed in this study.

  14. Surface Waves on the Superfluids ^3He and ^4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manninen, M. S.; Ranni, A.; Rysti, J.; Todoshchenko, I. A.; Tuoriniemi, J. T.

    2016-06-01

    Free surface waves were examined both in superfluids ^3He and ^4He with the premise that these inviscid media would represent ideal realizations for this fluid dynamics problem. The work in ^3He is one of the first of its kind, but in ^4He, it was possible to produce a much more complete set of data for meaningful comparison with theoretical models. Most measurements were performed at the zero temperature limit, meaning T< 100 mK for ^4He and T˜ 100 μ K for ^3He. Dozens of surface wave resonances, including up to 11 overtones, were observed and monitored as the liquid depth in the cell was varied. Despite of the wealth of data, perfect agreement with the constructed theoretical models could not be achieved.

  15. Surface Waves on the Superfluids ^3 He and ^4 He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manninen, M. S.; Ranni, A.; Rysti, J.; Todoshchenko, I. A.; Tuoriniemi, J. T.

    2016-04-01

    Free surface waves were examined both in superfluids ^3 He and ^4 He with the premise that these inviscid media would represent ideal realizations for this fluid dynamics problem. The work in ^3 He is one of the first of its kind, but in ^4 He, it was possible to produce a much more complete set of data for meaningful comparison with theoretical models. Most measurements were performed at the zero temperature limit, meaning T< 100 mK for ^4 He and T˜ 100 μ K for ^3 He. Dozens of surface wave resonances, including up to 11 overtones, were observed and monitored as the liquid depth in the cell was varied. Despite of the wealth of data, perfect agreement with the constructed theoretical models could not be achieved.

  16. A Summary of Mass Flux Measurements in Solid 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallock, R. B.; Ray, M. W.; Vekhov, Y.

    2012-11-01

    Here we provide a summary and brief review of some of the work done with solid 4He at the University of Massachusetts Amherst below a sample pressure of 28 bar. The motivation for the work has been to attempt to pass 4He atoms through solid 4He without directly applying mechanical pressure to the solid itself. The specific technique chosen is limited to pressures near the melting curve and was initially designed to provide a yes/no answer to the question of whether or not it might be possible to observe such a mass flux. The thermo-mechanical effect and direct mass injection have been separately used to create chemical potential differences between two reservoirs of superfluid 4He connected to each other through superfluid-filled Vycor rods in series with solid 4He, which is in the hcp region of the phase diagram. The thermo-mechanical effect is a more versatile approach. And, in a particular symmetric application it is designed to provide a mass flux with little or no net increase in the density of the solid. Our observations, off but near the melting curve, have included: (1) the presence of an increasing DC flux of atoms through the solid-filled cell with decreasing temperature below ≈650 mK and no flux above this temperature; (2) the presence of a flux minimum and flux instability in the vicinity of 75-80 mK, with a flux increase at lower temperatures; (3) the temperature dependence of the flux above 100 mK and the dependence of the flux on the net driving chemical potential difference provide interesting insights on the possible mechanism that leads to the flux above 100 mK. The most recent data suggest that whatever is responsible for the flux in solid 4He, at least for T>100 mK, may be an example of a Bosonic Luttinger liquid.

  17. Transverse beam asymmetries from $^4$He and hydrogen targets

    SciTech Connect

    Lisa Kaufman

    2007-07-01

    The HAPPEX Collaboration at Jefferson Lab has measured the transverse beam spin asymmetries ($A_T$) for elastic electron scattering from proton and $^4$He targets. The experiment was conducted using a vertically polarized electron beam of energy ~3 GeV at $Q^2$ ~0.1 GeV$^2$ and a scattering angle $\\theta_{lab}$ ~6$^{\\circ}$. The preliminary results are reported here. The $^4$He measurement is non-neglible; therefore, it will be necessary to make measurements of $A_T$ for future parity-violating experiments using nuclear targets

  18. Photodisintegration of $^4$He into p+t

    SciTech Connect

    R. Nasseripour, B.L. Berman, N. Benmouna, Y. Ilieva, J.-M. Laget

    2009-10-01

    The two-body photodisintegration of $^4$He into a proton and a triton has been studied using the CEBAF Large-Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at Jefferson Laboratory. Real photons produced with the Hall-B bremsstrahlung-tagging system in the energy range from 0.35 to 1.55 GeV were incident on a liquid $^4$He target. This is the first measurement of the photodisintegration of $^4$He above 0.4 GeV. The differential cross sections for the $\\gamma$$^4$He$\\to pt$ reaction have been measured as a function of photon-beam energy and proton-scattering angle, and are compared with the latest model calculations by J.-M. Laget. At 0.6-1.2 GeV, our data are in good agreement only with the calculations that include three-body mechanisms, thus confirming their importance. These results reinforce the conclusion of our previous study of the three-body breakup of $^3$He that demonstrated the great importance of three-body mechanisms in the energy region 0.5-0.8 GeV .

  19. Transverse Ultrasound Measurements in 4He Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syshchenko, O.; Beamish, J.

    2008-02-01

    Recently, Kim and Chan (Science 305:1941, 2004; Phys. Rev. Lett. 97:115302, 2006) have reported an anomalous decoupling transition of solid 4He in a torsional oscillator measurement, and interpret their results as evidence for non-classical rotational inertia and a possible supersolid phase of 4He. The detailed nature and properties of such a “supersolid” state in 4He are still far from being clear, although there are clues from experiments involving 3He impurities, different sample cell geometries, annealing effects and grain boundary flow. Defects produced during crystal growth or deformation (e.g. dislocations) may affect supersolidity, or even produce it, and they are expected to have significant impact on the elastic properties of the solid. The supersolid fraction could also decouple from the lattice and produce a decrease in the transverse sound speed. We have begun the experiments in this laboratory to study such effects, measuring the velocity and attenuation of transverse ultrasound at 10 MHz in 4He single crystals grown at constant pressure.

  20. Small Multielectron Bubbles in Bulk Superfluid 4He

    SciTech Connect

    Lehtovaara, Lauri; Eloranta, Jussi

    2006-09-07

    A computational method for describing multielectron bubbles in bulk superfluid helium (4He) is described. The developed method can be used to study their stability and spectroscopic properties in both singlet and triplet manifolds. Our initial results indicate meta-stability of the spherical two-electron bubble in its singlet ground state.

  1. Study of states in 14C via the 10Be(4He,4He)10Be reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malcolm, J. D.; Freer, M.; Ashwood, N. I.; Curtis, N.; Munoz-Britton, T.; Wheldon, C.; Ziman, V. A.; Catford, W. N.; Brown, S.; Wilson, G.; Soic, N.; Bardayan, D.; Pain, S. D.; Achouri, N. L.; Chipps, K.; Crzywacz-Jones, K.

    2012-09-01

    A study of the 10Be(4He,4He)10Be reaction has been performed at 10Be beam energies of 25.0, 27.0, 29.0, 32.0, 34.0, 38.0, 40.0, 42.0, 44.0 and 46.0 MeV. The measurements were to explore possible molecular rotational bands in 14C. Three states at excitation energies of Ex = 18.8, 19.76 and 20.66 MeV have been measured and their spins have been determined to be 5-, 5- and 6+, respectively.

  2. Generalized Rotational Susceptibility Studies of Solid 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadagkar, V.; Pratt, E. J.; Hunt, B.; Yamashita, M.; Graf, M. J.; Balatsky, A. V.; Davis, J. C.

    2012-11-01

    Using a novel SQUID-based torsional oscillator (TO) technique to achieve increased sensitivity and dynamic range, we studied TO's containing solid 4He. Below ˜250 mK, the TO resonance frequency f increases and its dissipation D passes through a maximum as first reported by Kim and Chan. To achieve unbiased analysis of such 4He rotational dynamics, we implemented a new approach based upon the generalized rotational susceptibility χ{4He}^{ - 1}(ω,T). Upon cooling, we found that equilibration times within f( T) and D( T) exhibit a complex synchronized ultraslow evolution toward equilibrium indicative of glassy freezing of crystal disorder conformations which strongly influence the rotational dynamics. We explored a more specific χ{4He}^{ -1}(ω,tau(T)) with τ( T) representing a relaxation rate for inertially active microscopic excitations. In such models, the characteristic temperature T ∗ at which df/ dT and D pass simultaneously through a maximum occurs when the TO angular frequency ω and the relaxation rate are matched: ωτ( T ∗)=1. Then, by introducing the free inertial decay (FID) technique to solid 4He TO studies, we carried out a comprehensive map of f( T, V) and D( T, V) where V is the maximum TO rim velocity. These data indicated that the same microscopic excitations controlling the TO motions are generated independently by thermal and mechanical stimulation of the crystal. Moreover, a measure for their relaxation times τ( T, V) diverges smoothly everywhere without exhibiting a critical temperature or velocity, as expected in ωτ=1 models. Finally, following the observations of Day and Beamish, we showed that the combined temperature-velocity dependence of the TO response is indistinguishable from the combined temperature-strain dependence of the 4He shear modulus. Together, these observations imply that ultra-slow equilibration of crystal disorder conformations controls the rotational dynamics and, for any given disorder conformation, the

  3. Sodium dimers on the surface of liquid {sup 4}He

    SciTech Connect

    Ancilotto, F.; DeToffol, G.; Toigo, F.

    1995-12-01

    We have studied the structure of a sodium dimer interacting with liquid {sup 4}He. We calculated the equilibrium configuration and binding energy of a Na{sub 2} molecule solvated in a bulk liquid {sup 4}He ``bubble`` and near the liquid-vapor interface ``dimple`` by using a density-functional approach. We find that the solvated molecule is a metastable state, while the the lowest energy bound state occurs when the molecule lies flat on the surface of the liquid. The binding energy for the ``erect`` dimer is only {similar_to}1 K higher than the flat dimer, with no potential energy barrier between the two orientations, implying relatively free rotations of the molecule on the surface. The small effects of the liquid environment on the vibrational properties of the dimer are investigated.

  4. Overview on Solid 4He and the Issue of Supersolidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, M. H. W.; Hallock, R. B.; Reatto, L.

    2013-09-01

    Here we provide an overview of the status of the field of solid 4He with a focus on the recent theoretical and experimental activities stimulated by the 2004 experiments of Kim and Chan. The overview attempts to place the experimental and theoretical work in context, to respect the historical flow of the field and discuss our present understanding of the question of supersolidity in 4He. The possibility of supersolidity in cold atoms and in other systems is also addressed. Special issues of the Journal of Low Temperature Physics (168(3/4), 2012; 169(3/4), 2012), in addition to this issue, have been devoted to this subject and this overview is meant to accompany those issues of the journal.

  5. Bose-Einstein condensation in liquid 4He under pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Glyde, Henry R; Omar Diallo, Souleymane; Azuah, Richard T; Kirichek, Oleg; Taylor, Jon W.

    2011-01-01

    We present neutron scattering measurements of Bose-Einstein condensation, the atomic momen- tum distribution and Final State effects in liquid 4He under pressure. The condensate fraction at low temperature is found to decrease from n0 = 7.25 0.75% at SVP (p 0) to n0 = 3.2 0.75% at pressure p = 24 bar. This indicates an n0 = 3.0% in the liquid at the liquid/solid co-existence line (p = 25.3 bar). The atomic momentum distribution n(k) has high occupation of low k states and differs significantly from a Gaussian (e.g. a classical n(k)). Both n(k) and the Final state function broaden with increasing pressure, reflecting the increased localization of the 4He in space under increased pressure.

  6. NOVEL CONCEPTS FOR ISOTOPIC SEPARATION OF 3HE/4HE

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, L.; Nigg, H.; Watson, H.

    2012-09-04

    The research outlined below established theoretical proof-of-concept using ab initio calculations that {sup 3}He can be separated from {sup 4}He by taking advantage of weak van der Waals interactions with other higher molecular weight rare gases such as xenon. To the best of our knowledge, this is the only suggested method that exploits the physical differences of the isotopes using a chemical interaction.

  7. The Nature of the Glassy Phase in 4He Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antsygina, T. N.; Poltavskaya, M. I.; Chishko, K. A.

    2015-08-01

    A model of a close-packed polytype with a random stacking fault structure is used to interpret the anomalies of the thermodynamic properties of the disordered (glassy) phase in solid HCP 4He in the so-called supersolid state. The temperature dependence of the phonon pressure is calculated theoretically, and compared to experimental data. A quantitative agreement between the theory and the experiment is achieved.

  8. 4He crystals in superfluid under zero gravity.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Takuya; Nomura, Ryuji; Okuda, Yuichi

    2012-03-01

    The response of 4He crystals to the rapid reduction of gravity down to practically zero in a superfluid was investigated visually, utilizing the parabolic flight of a jet plane. At a high temperature of 1.6 K, the shape of 4He crystals in the bcc phase did not change with a reduction of gravity during a parabolic period of 20 s, due to the low crystallization rate. At lower temperatures, such as 0.63 K, where the crystallization rate is sufficiently high, the shape of 4He crystals in the hcp phase changed significantly, relaxing to a quasiequilibrium shape under zero gravity, where the c facet became enlarged and the a facet emerged on the surface. The crystal did not detach from the sample cell wall at any time because the adhesive force manifested as partial wetting to the wall was sufficiently strong. Some crystals removed from the wall by an acoustic wave pulse were found to float and drift in the superfluid for approximately 4.2 s under zero gravity, although most of them were quickly reattached to the wall. PMID:22587030

  9. Dry dilution refrigerator with 4He-1 K-loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlig, Kurt

    2015-03-01

    In this article we summarize experimental work on cryogen-free 3He/4He dilution refrigerators which, in addition to the dilution refrigeration circuit, are equipped with a 4He-1 K-stage. This type of DR becomes worth considering when high cooling capacities are needed at T ∼ 1 K to cool cold amplifiers and heat sink cables. In our application, the motivation for the construction of this type of cryostat was to do experiments on superconducting quantum circuits for quantum information technology and quantum simulations. In other work, DRs with 1 K-stage were proposed for astro-physical cryostats. For neutron scattering research, a top-loading cryogen-free DR with 1 K-stage was built which was equipped with a standard commercial dilution refrigeration insert. Cooling powers of up to 100 mW have been reached with our 1 K-stage, but higher refrigeration powers were achieved with more powerful pulse tube cryocoolers and higher 4He circulation rates in the 1 K-loop. Several different versions of a 1 K-loop have been tested in combination with a dilution refrigeration circuit. The lowest temperature of our DR was 4.3 mK.

  10. Hyperspherical coupled channel calculations of energy and structure of (4)He-(4)He-Li(+) and its isotopic combinations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min-Min; Wu, Meng-Shan; Han, Hui-Li; Shi, Ting-Yun

    2016-07-21

    The ground state vibrational energy and spatial features of (4)He-(4)He-Li(+) and its triatomic isotopic complexes are studied using the slow variable discretization (SVD) method in the hyperspherical coordinates for the zero total angular momentum. Our results show that the dominant structure of the system is an isosceles triangle with the shorter side associated with the two Li(+)-He distances using the sum-of-potential approximation. Corrections caused by the induced dipole-induced dipole interactions on the He atoms are also investigated. The effects are seen to be small and have a minor influence on the binding energy and the structure of present system. The results are also compared with the full ab initio calculations including all the three-body interactions and information of three-body corrections is obtained. PMID:27448884

  11. Hyperspherical coupled channel calculations of energy and structure of 4He-4He-Li+ and its isotopic combinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Min-min; Wu, Meng-Shan; Han, Hui-li; Shi, Ting-yun

    2016-07-01

    The ground state vibrational energy and spatial features of 4He-4He-Li+ and its triatomic isotopic complexes are studied using the slow variable discretization (SVD) method in the hyperspherical coordinates for the zero total angular momentum. Our results show that the dominant structure of the system is an isosceles triangle with the shorter side associated with the two Li+-He distances using the sum-of-potential approximation. Corrections caused by the induced dipole-induced dipole interactions on the He atoms are also investigated. The effects are seen to be small and have a minor influence on the binding energy and the structure of present system. The results are also compared with the full ab initio calculations including all the three-body interactions and information of three-body corrections is obtained.

  12. Solidification of 4He clusters adsorbed on graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markić, L. Vranješ; Stipanović, P.; Bešlić, I.; Zillich, R. E.

    2016-07-01

    We determined the ground state of He4N clusters adsorbed on one side of graphene for selected cluster sizes in the range from N =20 to N =127 . For all investigated clusters variational and diffusion Monte Carlo simulations were performed at T =0 K, and in addition for a selected subset finite temperature path integral Monte Carlo. At T =0 K the liquid or solid character of each cluster was investigated by restricting the phase using corresponding importance sampling trial-wave functions. The 4He-graphene interaction was modeled as a sum of individual 4He-C interactions, where both isotropic and anisotropic models were tested; also the effect of the substrate-mediated McLachlan interaction was investigated. We have found homogeneous crystallization in models of anisotropic interactions, starting from clusters with N =26 atoms in simulations without the McLachlan interaction, and between N =37 and 61 when it is included. The atoms become increasingly delocalized as one moves from the center of the cluster to the perimeter, evidenced by the Lindemann parameter. On the other hand, in the case of the isotropic interaction model, a liquidlike structure is more favorable for all considered cluster sizes. We use a liquid-drop model to extrapolate the energy per particle to the N →∞ limit, and the results are compared with the values obtained in studies of bulk 4He on graphene. Low-temperature path integral Monte Carlo simulations are in agreement with ground-state results.

  13. Vacancy distribution in a rotating solid 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushkarov, D. I.

    2012-03-01

    Vacancy distribution is considered in a rotating solid 4He immersed in a superfluid helium-II. Vacancies are considered as a quasiparticle gas of vacancions with a gap dispersion law. It is shown that the radial distribution depends on Poisson's ratio and practically not on Young's modulus. The treatment is based on a nonlinear theory unifying the elasticity theory equations and a Boltzmann-type transport equation valid for arbitrary angular velocities. The situation simulates, in a sense, the Kim and Chan rotational experiments where nonclassical inertia was observed. The model cannot be applied to solid 3He. We do not presuppose in this work any supersolid fraction.

  14. Classical Rotational Inertia of Solid {sup 4}He

    SciTech Connect

    Dash, J.G.; Wettlaufer, J.S.

    2005-06-17

    The observation of reduced rotational inertia in a cell containing solid {sup 4}He has been interpreted as evidence for superfluidity of the solid. We propose an alternative explanation: slippage of the solid, due to grain boundary premelting between the solid and dense adsorbed layers at the container wall. We calculate the range of film thickness, and determine the viscosity that will account for the missing rotational inertia. Grain boundary premelting also explains inertial anomalies in an earlier study of solid helium in porous glass and indicates that the liquid is partially superfluid.

  15. Ab initio many-body calculations of nucleon-4He scattering with three-nucleon forces

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hupin, Guillaume; Langhammer, Joachim; Navratil, Petr; Quaglioni, Sofia; Calci, Angelo; Roth, Robert

    2013-11-27

    We extend the ab initio no-core shell model/resonating-group method to include three-nucleon (3N) interactions for the description of nucleon-nucleus collisions. We outline the formalism, give algebraic expressions for the 3N-force integration kernels, and discuss computational aspects of two alternative implementations. The extended theoretical framework is then applied to nucleon-4He elastic scattering using similarity-renormalization-group (SRG)-evolved nucleon-nucleon plus 3N potentials derived from chiral effective field theory. We analyze the convergence properties of the calculated phase shifts and explore their dependence upon the SRG evolution parameter. We include up to six excited states of the 4He target and find significant effects from themore » inclusion of the chiral 3N force, e.g., it enhances the spin-orbit splitting between the 3/2– and 1/2– resonances and leads to an improved agreement with the phase shifts obtained from an accurate R-matrix analysis of the five-nucleon experimental data. As a result, we find remarkably good agreement with measured differential cross sections at various energies below the d+3H threshold, while analyzing powers manifest larger deviations from experiment for certain energies and angles.« less

  16. Compression-Driven Mass Flow in Bulk Solid 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Zhi Gang; Beamish, John

    2016-07-01

    Mass flow has been observed in solid 4He coexisting with superfluid confined in Vycor, but its physical mechanism remains an open question. Here we report observations of flow in experiments in which Vycor has been eliminated, allowing us to study the intrinsic flow in solid 4He without the complications introduced by the presence of superfluid and the associated solid-liquid interfaces. By growing crystals with 3He concentration as low as x3=5 ×10-12, we also avoided the low temperature flow suppression observed in previous experiments and found that the flow rate continued to increase down to at least 28 mK without saturation. In addition, 3He concentrations of 120 ppb, which suppressed most of the low temperature flow in previous experiments, had no effect in our samples. The larger 3He concentrations needed to block the bulk solid flow suggest that the mass flow involves a larger area, such as disordered liquid layer on solid surface and grain boundaries.

  17. Compression-Driven Mass Flow in Bulk Solid ^{4}He.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhi Gang; Beamish, John

    2016-07-01

    Mass flow has been observed in solid ^{4}He coexisting with superfluid confined in Vycor, but its physical mechanism remains an open question. Here we report observations of flow in experiments in which Vycor has been eliminated, allowing us to study the intrinsic flow in solid ^{4}He without the complications introduced by the presence of superfluid and the associated solid-liquid interfaces. By growing crystals with ^{3}He concentration as low as x_{3}=5×10^{-12}, we also avoided the low temperature flow suppression observed in previous experiments and found that the flow rate continued to increase down to at least 28 mK without saturation. In addition, ^{3}He concentrations of 120 ppb, which suppressed most of the low temperature flow in previous experiments, had no effect in our samples. The larger ^{3}He concentrations needed to block the bulk solid flow suggest that the mass flow involves a larger area, such as disordered liquid layer on solid surface and grain boundaries. PMID:27447513

  18. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering off ^4He nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Alaoui, Ahmed

    2010-02-01

    The recently developed formalism of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) provides a theoretical tool to reveal the internal structure of the nucleon. These objects can be obtained via Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) processes. They contain informations on the transverse spatial position and the longitudinal momentum of quarks inside the nucleon and they also give access to the contribution of the quark orbital angular momentum to the nucleon. In contrast to many DVCS experiments using a proton target, only few experiments are devoted to study GPDs in a nuclear target which is important because it allows to address medium modification of bound nucleon GPDs compared to free nucleon GPDs. One of the goals of the new EG6 experiment at Thomas Jefferson Laboratory is to extract the real and imaginary parts of the ^4He Compton form factor (HA(xB,t)) from measurement of beam spin asymmetries by scattering a polarized 6 GeV electron beam off a ^4He pressurized gaz target. Details on the experiment will be presented here. )

  19. Superfluidity, BEC, and dimensions of liquid 4He in nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markić, L. Vranješ; Glyde, H. R.

    2015-08-01

    We present path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) calculations of the superfluid fraction, ρS/ρ , and the one-body density matrix (OBDM) [Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC)] of liquid 4He confined in nanopores. Liquid 4He in nanopores represents a dense Bose liquid at reduced dimension and in disorder. The goal is to determine the effective dimensions of the liquid in the pores. It is to test whether observed properties, such as a very low onset temperature for superflow, Tc, can be predicted by a standard, static PIMC ρS/ρ . We simulate a cylinder of liquid of diameter dL surrounded by 5 Å of inert solid 4He in a nanopore of diameter d ; d =dL+10 Å . We find a PIMC ρS(T ) /ρ and OBDM that scales as a 1D fluid Luttinger liquid at extremely small liquid pore diameters only, dL=6 Å . At this dL, the liquid fills the pore in a 1D line at the center of the pore and there is no PIMC superflow. In the range 8 ≤dL≤22 Å the PIMC ρS(T ) /ρ scales as a 2D liquid. In this dL range the liquid fills the pores in 2D-like cylindrical layers. The crossover from no superflow at d =16 Å to superflow at d ≥18 Å agrees with experiment. There is a crossover to 3D scaling at larger dL≃22 Å . In the range 8 ≤dL≤22 Å , the Tc predicted using the Kosterlitz-Thouless 2D scaling criterion of the OBDM agrees well with that obtained from ρS(T ) /ρ . These results suggest that the superflow observed in small pore media is standard static superflow with the low Tc arising from its 2D character. An operational onset temperature, TBEC, for BEC can be defined as the temperature at which there is a crossover from exponential to algebraic decay in the OBDM. This definition leads to a TBEC≥Tc as observed in larger pore media.

  20. Quantized Vortex State in hcp Solid 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Minoru

    2012-11-01

    The quantized vortex state appearing in the recently discovered new states in hcp 4He since their discovery (Kim and Chan, Nature, 427:225-227, 2004; Science, 305:1941, 2004) is discussed. Special attention is given to evidence for the vortex state as the vortex fluid (VF) state (Anderson, Nat. Phys., 3:160-162, 2007; Phys. Rev. Lett., 100:215301, 2008; Penzev et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 101:065301, 2008; Nemirovskii et al., arXiv:0907.0330, 2009) and its transition into the supersolid (SS) state (Shimizu et al., arXiv:0903.1326, 2009; Kubota et al., J. Low Temp. Phys., 158:572-577, 2010; J. Low Temp. Phys., 162:483-491, 2011). Its features are described. The historical explanations (Reatto and Chester, Phys. Rev., 155(1):88-100, 1967; Chester, Phys. Rev. A, 2(1):256-258, 1970; Andreev and Lifshitz, JETP Lett., 29:1107-1113, 1969; Leggett, Phys. Rev. Lett., 25(22), 1543-1546, 1970; Matsuda and Tsuneto, Prog. Theor. Phys., 46:411-436, 1970) for the SS state in quantum solids such as solid 4He were based on the idea of Bose Einstein Condensation (BEC) of the imperfections such as vacancies, interstitials and other possible excitations in the quantum solids which are expected because of the large zero-point motions. The SS state was proposed as a new state of matter in which real space ordering of the lattice structure of the solid coexists with the momentum space ordering of superfluidity. A new type of superconductors, since the discovery of the cuprate high T c superconductors, HTSCs (Bednorz and Mueller, Z. Phys., 64:189, 1986), has been shown to share a feature with the vortex state, involving the VF and vortex solid states. The high T c s of these materials are being discussed in connection to the large fluctuations associated with some other phase transitions like the antiferromagnetic transition in addition to that of the low dimensionality. The supersolidity in the hcp solid 4He, in contrast to the new superconductors which have multiple degrees of freedom of

  1. Non-relativistic approximations to the pion production operator in 4He(p, n π+) 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greben, J. M.; Woloshyn, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    Various non-relativistic pion production operators are applied in the study of the 4He(p, nπ +) 4He process. We compare their predictions with fully covariant calculations of the external emission graphs both for pseudovector and pseudoscalar coupling. It is found that the non-relativistic pion production operators cannot reproduce the relativistic results quantitatively, in particular for the pseudoscalar case. The simple static pion production operator gives agreement with the relativistic pseudovector results to within a factor three or four. Adding recoil terms to this static operator has a significant effect on the cross section but does not improve the agreement with the relativistic results. The implications of PCAC and the soft-pion theorem for the relativistic calculation are studied. The uncertainty in the cross section in the soft-pion approach is found to be considerably smaller than the difference between pseudovector and pseudoscalar results or between the relativistic pseudovector result and its non-relativistic approximations.

  2. Theoretical modeling of electron mobility in superfluid 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aitken, Frédéric; Bonifaci, Nelly; von Haeften, Klaus; Eloranta, Jussi

    2016-07-01

    The Orsay-Trento bosonic density functional theory model is extended to include dissipation due to the viscous response of superfluid 4He present at finite temperatures. The viscous functional is derived from the Navier-Stokes equation by using the Madelung transformation and includes the contribution of interfacial viscous response present at the gas-liquid boundaries. This contribution was obtained by calibrating the model against the experimentally determined electron mobilities from 1.2 K to 2.1 K along the saturated vapor pressure line, where the viscous response is dominated by thermal rotons. The temperature dependence of ion mobility was calculated for several different solvation cavity sizes and the data are rationalized in the context of roton scattering and Stokes limited mobility models. Results are compared to the experimentally observed "exotic ion" data, which provides estimates for the corresponding bubble sizes in the liquid. Possible sources of such ions are briefly discussed.

  3. Theoretical modeling of electron mobility in superfluid (4)He.

    PubMed

    Aitken, Frédéric; Bonifaci, Nelly; von Haeften, Klaus; Eloranta, Jussi

    2016-07-28

    The Orsay-Trento bosonic density functional theory model is extended to include dissipation due to the viscous response of superfluid (4)He present at finite temperatures. The viscous functional is derived from the Navier-Stokes equation by using the Madelung transformation and includes the contribution of interfacial viscous response present at the gas-liquid boundaries. This contribution was obtained by calibrating the model against the experimentally determined electron mobilities from 1.2 K to 2.1 K along the saturated vapor pressure line, where the viscous response is dominated by thermal rotons. The temperature dependence of ion mobility was calculated for several different solvation cavity sizes and the data are rationalized in the context of roton scattering and Stokes limited mobility models. Results are compared to the experimentally observed "exotic ion" data, which provides estimates for the corresponding bubble sizes in the liquid. Possible sources of such ions are briefly discussed. PMID:27475346

  4. cap alpha. /sup 4/He elastic scattering at high energies

    SciTech Connect

    Usmani, A.A.; Ahmad, I.; Usmani, Q.N.

    1989-03-01

    Differential cross sections for ..cap alpha.. /sup 4/He elastic scattering have been calculated at incident ..cap alpha..-particle momenta of 4.32, 5.07, and 7.0 GeV/c within the framework of Glauber multiple scattering theory. The full Glauber amplitude has been calculated using the Monte Carlo method for evaluating multidimensional integrals. We found that, in general, the more realistic double-Gaussian model for the density brings theory closer to experiment as compared to the generally used single-Gaussian model in some momentum transfer regions. Our results with the double-Gaussian model and an acceptable set of NN parameters are in fairly good agreement with the experimental data at 4.32 and 5.07 GeV/c.

  5. Dislocation Structure and Mobility in hcp 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landinez Borda, Edgar Josué; Cai, Wei; de Koning, Maurice

    2016-07-01

    Using path-integral Monte Carlo simulations, we assess the core structure and mobility of the screw and edge basal-plane dislocations in hcp 4He. Our findings provide key insights into recent interpretations of giant plasticity and mass flow junction experiments. First, both dislocations are dissociated into nonsuperfluid Shockley partial dislocations separated by ribbons of stacking fault, suggesting that they are unlikely to act as one-dimensional channels that may display Lüttinger-liquid-like behavior. Second, the centroid positions of the partial cores are found to fluctuate substantially, even in the absence of applied shear stresses. This implies that the lattice resistance to motion of the partial dislocations is negligible, consistent with the recent experimental observations of giant plasticity. Further results indicate that both the structure of the partial cores and the zero-point fluctuations play a role in this extreme mobility.

  6. Dislocation Structure and Mobility in hcp ^{4}He.

    PubMed

    Landinez Borda, Edgar Josué; Cai, Wei; de Koning, Maurice

    2016-07-22

    Using path-integral Monte Carlo simulations, we assess the core structure and mobility of the screw and edge basal-plane dislocations in hcp ^{4}He. Our findings provide key insights into recent interpretations of giant plasticity and mass flow junction experiments. First, both dislocations are dissociated into nonsuperfluid Shockley partial dislocations separated by ribbons of stacking fault, suggesting that they are unlikely to act as one-dimensional channels that may display Lüttinger-liquid-like behavior. Second, the centroid positions of the partial cores are found to fluctuate substantially, even in the absence of applied shear stresses. This implies that the lattice resistance to motion of the partial dislocations is negligible, consistent with the recent experimental observations of giant plasticity. Further results indicate that both the structure of the partial cores and the zero-point fluctuations play a role in this extreme mobility. PMID:27494477

  7. Σ production from targets of ^4He and ^13C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrien, R. E.

    1996-10-01

    One of the abiding issues in hypernuclear research has been the question of the formation of nuclear bound states incorporating the Σ-hyperon. The recent increases in beam intensity at the Brookhaven AGS have enabled us to obtain a high statistics study on the production of Σ-hyperons on a ^4He target. Earlier research using stopped kaons at KEK indicated the presence of structure in the (K^-,π^-) reaction, and led to the postulate of a Σ bound state. That structure has now been definitely confirmed in the in-flight kaon experiment at the LESB2 beam line and Moby-Dick spectrometer. An improved measurement of the binding energy of the presumed state will be reported, together with a production cross section. In addition, both (K^-,π^-) and (K^-,π^+) reactions on ^13C have been studied and will be compared to similar measurements on ^9Be.

  8. Observation of melting of solid 4He by sound wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuda, Y.; Yamazaki, S.; Yoshida, T.; Fujii, H.; Matsumoto, K.

    1999-03-01

    We have observed the crystal melting, or the depletion of the solid/liquid interface where the strong pulsed sound beam was passing. The crystal was produced around 0.8 K with the atomically rough horizontal surface sitting in the middle of the sample cell. The interface was very mobile which was confirmed by an easy excitation of the crystallization/melting wave. When the received signal through the interface was monitored as a function of the input power, a sudden saturation of the received signal was observed at some power. For well above that power, the melting of the interface was visible through a video camera for both the cases of the sound emission from fluid-side and solid-side. This would be the first observation of sound induced melting of solid 4He.

  9. Metastable Helium Molecules as Tracers in Superfluid {sup 4}He

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, W.; Wright, J. D.; Cahn, S. B.; Nikkel, J. A.; McKinsey, D. N.

    2009-06-12

    Metastable helium molecules generated in a discharge near a sharp tungsten tip immersed in superfluid {sup 4}He are imaged using a laser-induced-fluorescence technique. By pulsing the tip, a small cloud of He{sub 2}* molecules is produced. We can determine the normal-fluid velocity in a heat-induced counterflow by tracing the position of a single molecule cloud. As we run the tip in continuous field-emission mode, a normal-fluid jet from the tip is generated and molecules are entrained in the jet. A focused 910 nm pump laser pulse is used to drive a small group of molecules to the first excited vibrational level of the triplet ground state. Subsequent imaging of the tagged molecules with an expanded 925 nm probe laser pulse allows us to measure the flow velocity of the jet. The techniques we developed provide new tools in quantitatively studying the normal fluid flow in superfluid helium.

  10. Metastable helium molecules as tracers in superfluid 4He.

    PubMed

    Guo, W; Wright, J D; Cahn, S B; Nikkel, J A; McKinsey, D N

    2009-06-12

    Metastable helium molecules generated in a discharge near a sharp tungsten tip immersed in superfluid 4He are imaged using a laser-induced-fluorescence technique. By pulsing the tip, a small cloud of He(2*) molecules is produced. We can determine the normal-fluid velocity in a heat-induced counterflow by tracing the position of a single molecule cloud. As we run the tip in continuous field-emission mode, a normal-fluid jet from the tip is generated and molecules are entrained in the jet. A focused 910 nm pump laser pulse is used to drive a small group of molecules to the first excited vibrational level of the triplet ground state. Subsequent imaging of the tagged molecules with an expanded 925 nm probe laser pulse allows us to measure the flow velocity of the jet. The techniques we developed provide new tools in quantitatively studying the normal fluid flow in superfluid helium. PMID:19658945

  11. The spectra of mixed 3He-4He droplets.

    PubMed

    Fantoni, S; Guardiola, R; Navarro, J; Zuker, A

    2005-08-01

    The diffusion Monte Carlo technique is used to calculate and analyze the excitation spectrum of 3He atoms bound to a cluster of 4He atoms by using a previously determined optimum filling of single-fermion orbits with well-defined orbital angular momentum L, spin S, and parity quantum numbers. The study concentrates on the energies and shapes of the three kinds of states for which the fermionic part of the wave function is a single Slater determinant: maximum L or maximum S states within a given orbit, and fully polarized clusters. The picture that emerges is that of systems with strong shell effects, whose binding and excitation energies are essentially determined by averages over configuration at fixed number of particles and spin, i.e., by the monopole properties of an effective Hamiltonian. PMID:16108665

  12. Excitations of Superfluid ^4He at Wavevectors Beyond the Roton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glyde, Henry; Sakhel, Asaad

    2002-03-01

    We present a Quantum Field Theoretical Model that reproduces the basic features of the temperature dependence of the dynamic structure factor S(Q,ω) of ^4He as observed in the inelastic-neutron scattering data taken at ISIS( J. V. Pierce, R. T. Azuah, B. F, A. R. Sakhel, H. R. Glyde, W. G. Stirling, J. Phys: Cond. Matter, 13(2001) 4421., UK. A range of the wavevectors Q beyond the roton (Q > 2.0 Åis considered. The model is able to reproduce the decrease in the intensity of the single-particle excitation peak with increase of T in the range 0.6 <= T <= 2.1 K. Also, it reproduces the second peak at higher energy representing the single excitation intensity lying in the two excitation band. The model is based on the formulation of S(Q,ω) of Gavoret and Nozières( J. Gavoret and P. Nozières, Ann. Phys., 28, 349-399 (1964). In this formulation, the dynamic susceptibility is separated into a singular part involving the condensate and a regular part involving states above the condensate \\chi = \\chiS + \\chi_R. Here \\chiS = n n_0(T) Λ G Λ, Λ is a vertex, G the renormalized single particle Green's function, n the density of ^4He at SVP and n_0(T) the condensate fraction as a function of T. \\chi_R(Q,ω) involves both a single particle-hole and a multiparticle component. All vertices and interactions are assumed T-independent, and only n0 changes with T. Also, the roton width is accounted for by a momentum (k) and temperature dependent width of the Landau-Khalatnikov form (H. R. Glyde, Excitations in Liquid and Solid helium), Oxford, Clarendron Press, (1994)..

  13. Coherent Propagation of Elementary Excitations in Solid ^4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodkind, John M.; Ho, Pei-Chun

    1998-03-01

    We have measured the interaction of heat pulses and acoustic pulses propagating along orthogonal paths in solid ^4He with small amounts of ^3He impurities. The interaction is revealed as a variation of the acoustic attenuation, alpha, and velocity, v, as a function of the delay between launching of the heat pulses and the acoustic pulses. alpha and v pass through extreema at delay times corresponding to the relative propagation velocities of the acoustic waves and the excitations created by the heat pulses. The propagation velocities of the various excitations, determined in this way, are between 50 and 150 m/sec and they increase with decreasing temperature. There are two distinct peaks and a long tail at temperatures above about 500 mK indicating that more than one mode is propagating. The peak effect occurs at a different delay time for alpha than for v at temperatures near the attenuation peak (PC HO, I. P. Bindloss, and J. M. Goodkind, J. Low Temp. Phys., November 1997), providing further evidence for more than one type of propagating mode. The sign of the effect reverses as T is decreased and the change of alpha is of opposite sign to that expected from the equilibrium T dependence of alpha. We will discuss the relation of this phenomenon to previous indications of propagating modes in solid ^4He (G.A. Lengua and J. M. Goodkind, J. Low Temp. Phys., 79), 251 (1990)and to the possible Bose-Einstein condensation (PC HO, I. P. Bindloss, and J. M. Goodkind, J. Low Temp. Phys., November 1997).

  14. Formation of the weakly bound muonic molecule (4Heμt) 01 2 + in the three-body (tμ) 1 s +4He +4He collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czapliński, Wilhelm; Rybski, Michał

    2016-02-01

    Formation of the weakly bound muonic molecule (4Heμt) 01 2 + in the excited rotational-vibrational state (J , ν) = (0 , 1) due to the three-body collision (tμ) 1 s +4He +4He is considered for the first time. It is assumed that the process occurs in T-4He gaseous mixture in thermal equilibrium containing thermalized muonic tritium atoms. The corresponding reaction rate is calculated in the frame of the distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) method using the dipole approximation for the interaction of tμ +4He system with the incoming helium atom. The obtained formation rate (normalized to helium density equal to the liquid hydrogen density) increases with temperature from 7.8 ṡ106 s-1 for 1000 K to 4.8 ṡ107 s-1 for 3000 K.

  15. Importance of the energy-dependent geometry in the 16O+ 16O optical model potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantis, G.; Ioannidis, K.; Poirier, P.

    1985-08-01

    Optical model potentials with various forms of energy-dependent geometry have been considered for the description of 16O+ 16O elastic scattering. It is shown that the variation with energy of the imaginary radius leads to a reasonable fit of the cross-section data, throughout the energy range.

  16. Creep in solid 4He at temperatures below 1 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuchkov, V. A.; Lisunov, A. A.; Maidanov, V. A.; Neoneta, A. S.; Rubanskyi, V. Yu.; Rubets, S. P.; Rudavskii, E. Ya.; Smirnov, S. N.

    2015-03-01

    Creep in solid 4He at temperatures of ˜100-1000 mK is studied experimentally by detecting the flow of helium through a frozen porous membrane under a constant external force. Creep curves are measured for different temperatures and mechanical stresses. This method has made it possible to detect low creep rates in helium down to the lowest temperatures in these experiments. It is found that throughout this temperature range, creep is thermally activated and the activation energy decreases with falling temperature and increasing mechanical stress. An analysis shows that for temperatures above ≈500 mK, Nabarro-Herring diffusive creep takes place in solid helium with mass transfer by self diffusion of atoms and a counterflow of vacancies. The experimental data have been used to obtain the self-diffusion coefficient as a function of temperature for different stresses. At temperatures below ≈500 mK creep takes place at a very low flow rate (˜10-13 cm/s) and a very low activation energy (˜0.5-0.7 K), while the creep mechanism remains unclear.

  17. Magnetic-field-assisted atomic polarization spectroscopy of 4 He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sheng; Wang, Haidong; Wu, Teng; Peng, Xiang; Guo, Hong; Cream Team

    2016-05-01

    Atomic polarization spectroscopy (PS) is a high resolution sub-Doppler atomic spectroscopic technique with free modulation. It is always desirable to obtain a PS signal with zero background as it can provide a more preferable laser frequency stabilization performance. There are many factors that can affect the PS signal background, i.e., the laser power, the laser polarization and the magnetic field. Here, we demonstrate a method for observing and analyzing the effects on the PS signal of 4 He under different magnetic fields. At the beginning, under nearly zero magnetic field, the large asymmetrical PS signal background has been observed and cannot be eliminated by only optically adjusting. Then, we find that the PS signal profile can be changed and controlled by varying the magnetic field with transverse or longitudinal direction and different intensity. The optimized PS signal with symmetrical dispersive profile and zero background is obtained when the magnetic field is chosen and controlled in the transverse direction and more than 20000nT intensity. Similar phenomenon cannot be observed under the longitudinal magnetic field. A theoretical model is also presented, which explains and agrees well with our experimental results.

  18. Stress induced roughening of superclimbing dislocation in solid 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleinikava, Darya; Kuklov, Anatoly

    2011-03-01

    We investigate numerically superclimb of dislocation in solid 4 He biased by externally imposed chemical potential μ . The effective action takes into account quantum phase slips in the core superfluid as well as the core displacement in Peierls potential within the Granato-Lücke string model. The bias produces stress on the core and this can result in dislocation roughening. Such roughening is characterized by hysteretic behavior at temperatures (T) below some threshold Thyst . At T >Thyst strongresonantpeaksdevelopinthedislocationdifferentialresponse . Thesepeaksexhibitperiodicbehaviorvs μ, with the period determined by Peierls potential and dislocation length. We explain these effects by thermally assisted tunneling of jog-antijog pairs across the barrier created by Peierls potential and the bias. Since superclimbing is controlled by core superflow, speed of sound along the superfluid core exhibits dip-like features at the peak positions. We propose that this effect is seen in the mass transport experiment. We acknowledge support by NSF, grants PHY1005527 and PHY0653135,and by CUNY, grant 63071-00 41.

  19. Critical behavior of liquid {sup 4}He at negative pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, C.E.; Folk, R.; Krotscheck, E.

    1996-10-01

    The authors examine the equation of state of liquid {sup 4}He at negative pressures close to the spinodal density {rho}{sub s} where the hydrodynamic speed of sound vanishes. The non-analytic behavior of the equation of state and the speed of sound in the vicinity of the spinodal density are calculated in two and in three dimensions; they find for the speed of sound the non-analytic behavior mc{sub s}{sup 2} {approximately} ({rho}-{rho}{sub s}){sup 2/5} in three dimensions and mc{sub s}{sup 2} {approximately} [({rho}-{rho}{sub s})/{vert_bar}ln({rho}-{rho}{sub s}){vert_bar}]{sup 1/2} in two dimensions. The authors then examine the low density regime numerically, using a semianalytic microscopic theory. It is found that non-analytic exponents are visible only in a negligible density regime around the spinodal point. Estimates for the spinodal densities, and the range of critical fluctations are provided.

  20. Correlation of Excess Enthalpy and ^4He Production: a Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, M. H.

    2004-03-01

    Three different sets of experiments conducted in the Navy Laboratory (NAWCWD) at China Lake, California (1990-1994) clearly established that helium-4 is the main fusion product in the Pd/D_2O+LiOD electrolysis system(P.A. Mosier-Boss, S.R. Chubb, M. Fleischmann, M. Imam, M. H. Miles, S. Szpak, TR 1862, SPAWAR Systems Center, San Diego; see http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/MosierBossthermaland.pdf). A correlation between excess enthalpy and excess helium-4 was measured in 18 out of 21 experiments. The observation of no excess enthalpy was correlated with no excess helium in 12 out of 12 experiments. Thus 30 out of 33 experiments agree with the hypothesis that the excess enthalpy produced in cold fusion studies is correlated with helium-4 production: d+darrow ^4He + 23.8 MeV. Furthermore, the measured rate of helium-4 production was always in the appropriate range of 10^1^0 to 10^1^2 atoms per second per watt of excess power.

  1. 4He Thermophysical Properties: New Ab Initio Calculations

    PubMed Central

    Hurly, John J.; Mehl, James B.

    2007-01-01

    Since 2000, atomic physicists have reduced the uncertainty of the helium-helium “ab initio” potential; for example, from approximately 0.6 % to 0.1 % at 4 bohr, and from 0.8 % to 0.1 % at 5.6 bohr. These results led us to: (1) construct a new inter-atomic potential ϕ07, (2) recalculate values of the second virial coefficient, the viscosity, and the thermal conductivity of 4He from 1 K to 10,000 K, and (3), analyze the uncertainties of the thermophysical properties that propagate from the uncertainty of ϕ07 and from the Born-Oppenheimer approximation of the electron-nucleon quantum mechanical system. We correct minor errors in a previous publication [J. J. Hurly and M. R. Moldover, J. Res. Nat. Inst. Standards Technol. 105, 667 (2000)] and compare our results with selected data published after 2000. The ab initio results tabulated here can serve as standards for the measurement of thermophysical properties. PMID:27110456

  2. Vortex emission from quantum turbulence in superfluid 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nago, Y.; Nishijima, A.; Kubo, H.; Ogawa, T.; Obara, K.; Yano, H.; Ishikawa, O.; Hata, T.

    2013-01-01

    An oscillating object can stretch quantized vortices attached to it in superfluids due to the relative superflow, steadily generating quantum turbulence, even in the zero-temperature limit. We report the emission and propagation of quantized vortices from quantum turbulence generated in superfluid 4He at low temperatures. A vortex-free vibrating wire enables us to detect the first collision of vortex rings and therefore to measure the time-of-flight of a vortex emitted from a generator to a detector. The detection times from the start of turbulence generation exhibit an exponential distribution, suggesting that the detection is a Poisson process. Vortices are emitted continuously, but each vortex has a random flight velocity and direction. We estimated the nondetection time and mean detection period from the distribution for two flight distances. By estimating the flight velocity, we find that only vortices with velocities lower than the detector velocity can be detected, even if the sizes of the emitted vortices are smaller than the wire thickness or the vibration amplitude. The ratio of the detection rate as a function of vortex velocity suggests anisotropic emission of vortices from the quantum turbulence.

  3. Pseudopotential theory of interacting roton pairs in superfluid 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedell, K.; Pines, D.; Zawadowski, A.

    1984-01-01

    A configuration-space pseudopotential, which is closely related to that used by Aldrich and Pines to describe the effective interaction between background particles in 3He and 4He, is constructed and used to calculate the roton-roton scattering amplitude. From that amplitude we obtain a theory that is completely congruent with the roton-liquid theory of Bedell, Pines, and Fomin. We calculate two-roton bound states, roton-liquid parameters, and roton lifetimes, as well as information about the hybridization of the two-roton bound state with excitations of higher and lower energy. Excellent agreement between theory and experiment is obtained for the l=2 bound state at zero pair momentum, the roton lifetime, the roton contribution to the normal-fluid viscosity and the normal-fluid density, and the temperature variation of the roton energy. The effective roton-roton coupling parameters at large pair momentum are found to be an order of magnitude larger than those for small or vanishing pair momentum. At SVP we find that a substantial number of two-roton bound states of varying symmetry exist for pair momentum up to ~ 3 Å -1; at standard pressure, however the roton-roton interaction for momenta ~ 1 Å -1 is found to become repulsive, so that both the l=2 bound state at zero pair momentum and bound states at intermediate momenta are predicted to disappear under pressure.

  4. 4He behavior in calcite filling viewed by (U-Th)/He dating, 4He diffusion and crystallographic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cros, Alexandre; Gautheron, Cécile; Pagel, Maurice; Berthet, Patrick; Tassan-Got, Laurent; Douville, Eric; Pinna-Jamme, Rosella; Sarda, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Fault-filling calcite crystals sampled from the Eocene/Oligocene Gondrecourt graben, Paris Basin, Eastern France, have been studied in order to test the potentiality of calcite (U-Th)/He dating, based on recognized He retention behavior in crystal lattice at surface temperature (Copeland et al., 2007). The samples have been selected because of their relatively old Eocene to Oligocene precipitation age and cold thermal history (<40 °C since precipitation). They were sorted into three main tectonic and morphological groups in order of precipitation, including (1) micro-fracture calcites, (2) breccia and associated geodic calcites, and (3) vein and associated geodic calcites. (U-Th)/He dating of 63 calcite fragments yields ages dispersed from 0.2 ± 0.02 to 35.8 ± 2.7 Ma, as well as two older dates of 117 ± 10 and 205 ± 28 Ma (1σ). These He ages correlate with grain chemistry, such as Sr, ΣREE concentrations or (La/Yb)N ratios, likely reflecting parent fluid evolution. Only the oldest He ages, which correspond to the most recently precipitated crystals, have preserved the total 4He budget since precipitation. To better understand both the age dispersion and why calcites precipitated earlier show younger ages, 4He diffusion experiments have been conducted on 10 Gondrecourt calcite fragments from 3 samples with He ages of ∼0.2-6 Ma. Additionally, a crystallographic investigation by X-ray diffraction (XRD) performed on similar samples reveals that crystal structure evolves with increasing temperature, beginning with micro-cracks and cleavage opening. These XRD results shed light on the (U-Th)/He data, indicating that, in fault-filling calcite, He retention is controlled by multiple diffusion domains (MDD) with various sizes, and therefore, evolves through time with strong consequences on (U-Th)/He age. We thus interpret the Gondrecourt calcite (U-Th)/He age scatter as a consequence of the production of defects due to successive calcite crystallization phases

  5. Systematics of pure and doped 4He clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, S. A.; Krotscheck, E.

    1995-10-01

    Optimized variational calculations have been carried out for pure and doped clusters of 4He atoms up to a cluster size of N=1000 particles. For small cluster sizes with less than or equal to 112 particles, where comparisions with existing diffusion Monte Carlo results are possible, we find excellent agreement for the ground-state energy, correlation, and structure functions. For larger clusters our ground-state energies extrapolate smoothly toward a bulk limit of -7.2 K with a surface energy of 0.272 K Å-2. The resulting ground-state densities show unmistakable oscillations, confirming our earlier conclusions based on diffusion Monte Carlo studies. The present study of large clusters allows us to bridge the gap between finite systems and the bulk limit. Specifically, we show how the bulk limit of collective energies is reached as well as how the bulk Feynman spectrum is reproduced in the S-wave component of the dynamic structure function in large droplets. By plotting the collective excitation energy of higher multipole modes as a function of an effective wave number k=√scrl(scrl+1)/R, we show that the resulting spectrum can be directly compared with experimental excitation energies determined for plane liquid surfaces and films. By summing up to scrl=50 partial wave components, we show that the full dynamic structure function simultaneously displays the phonon-roton and the ripplon excitation spectrum. In the case of helium droplets doped with impurities such as rare gas atoms or the SF6 molecule, we show that the dipole collective mode becomes unstable with increased droplet size, strongly indicating that these impurities are delocalized inside large droplets. The microscopic character of the instability is revealed in the excitation functions and transition densities of the dipole mode. The introduction of impurities also profoundly alters the dynamic structure function, severely ``fragments'' the Feynman spectrum, and obliterates landmark structures such

  6. Thermal properties of {sup 4}He surfaces and interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, B.E.; Krotscheck, E. |; Tymczak, C.J.

    1997-05-01

    A first-principle quantum statistical mechanical theory is used to study the properties of thick liquid {sup 4}He films absorbed to the weakly binding substrates: Li, Na, and Cs. Values for the liquid-gas and solid-liquid surface energies are determined. By fitting, at long wavelengths, the film`s lowest energy mode with the standard expression for the ripplon energy, which depends on the liquid-gas surface energy, the authors obtain excellent agreement with the liquid-vacuum surface energy from recent experiments and also the one previously extracted from quantum liquid droplet calculations. The full spectrum of excitations for wave vectors less than 0.50 {Angstrom}{sup {minus}1} is calculated using a dynamical correlated basis function theory developed in earlier work, which includes multi-phonon scattering processes. Particle currents and transition densities are used to elucidate the nature of the excitations. At a coverage of 0.40 {Angstrom}{sup {minus}2}, the lowest mode shows no significant substrate dependence, and is recognized as being a ripplon propagating in the liquid film at the liquid-gas surface. A new effect is observed for the Cs substrate; the second lowest mode is qualitatively different than found on the other substrates and is identified as interfacial ripplon. In the other substrates the second mode is a volume mode altered somewhat by the high density inner liquid layers. The linewidths of these modes are also calculated. The dynamic excitations provide the input for the thermodynamic theory and the effects on the free energy, heat capacity, and thermal surface broadening of these films are studied as function of the nature of the excitations, the number of modes, and variations in the substrate potentials.

  7. Physical and dosimetrical characterization of 4He and 16O beam interacting with tissue-like and candidates-shielding materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Tessa, Chiara; Zeitlin, Cary; Rusek, Adam; Durante, Marco; Schuy, Christoph; Sivertz, Michael

    2012-07-01

    The permanence of human in space has increased in the last decades with the establishment of space stations orbiting permanently around the Earth; furthermore, future plans are likely to include extended human missions in deep space outside the geomagnetosphere and settlements on other planets. The extensive exposure to the radiation environment represents one of the major limitations to space exploration due to its relation with severe health risks. The unfeasibility to stop the external radiation entirely motivates the investigation of shields able to minimize the total absorbed and equivalent dose to which the astronauts are exposed. The process of nuclear fragmentation plays a key role in this topic being the major responsible for modifying the radiation field that enters the spacecraft. Theoretical predictions on the dose received in a given scenario rely heavily on the accuracy of fragmentation cross sections and their uncertainties can be a central factor in limiting mission feasibility and duration. The interaction of 160 MeV/u Helium and 360 MeV/u Oxygen beams with water has been investigated in this work. The total charge-changing cross section has been estimated from the measurement of the attenuation of the primary ions in the target. For different target thicknesses, the yield and energy spectrum of charged and unchanged particles has been measured at several angles with respect to the primary beam direction. At the same position, microdosimetric spectra have been collected to characterize the quality of the radiation field and estimate the absorbed dose. Furthermore, total and partial-change-changing cross sections in candidate shielding materials are presented and compared with the results for water.

  8. Continental degassing of 4He by surficial discharge of deep groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, Pradeep K.; Matsumoto, Takuya; Sturchio, Neil C.; Chang, Hung K.; Gastmans, Didier; Araguas-Araguas, Luis J.; Jiang, Wei; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Mueller, Peter; Yokochi, Reika; Purtschert, Roland; Torgersen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Radiogenic 4He is produced by the decay of uranium and thorium in the Earth's mantle and crust. From here, it is degassed to the atmosphere and eventually escapes to space. Assuming that all of the 4He produced is degassed, about 70% of the total 4He degassed from Earth comes from the continental crust. However, the outgoing flux of crustal 4He has not been directly measured at the Earth's surface and the migration pathways are poorly understood. Here we present measurements of helium isotopes and the long-lived cosmogenic radio-isotope 81Kr in the deep, continental-scale Guarani aquifer in Brazil and show that crustal 4He reaches the atmosphere primarily by the surficial discharge of deep groundwater. We estimate that 4He in Guarani groundwater discharge accounts for about 20% of the assumed global flux from continental crust, and that other large aquifers may account for about 33%. Old groundwater ages suggest that 4He in the Guarani aquifer accumulates over half- to one-million-year timescales. We conclude that 4He degassing from the continents is regulated by groundwater discharge, rather than episodic tectonic events, and suggest that the assumed steady state between crustal production and degassing of 4He, and its resulting atmospheric residence time, should be re-examined.

  9. Evidence for tetrahedral symmetry in (16)O.

    PubMed

    Bijker, R; Iachello, F

    2014-04-18

    We derive the rotation-vibration spectrum of a 4α configuration with tetrahedral symmetry Td and show evidence for the occurrence of this symmetry in the low-lying spectrum of (16)O. All vibrational states with A, E, and F symmetry appear to have been observed as well as the rotational bands with LP=0+, 3-, 4+, 6+ on the A states and part of the rotational bands built on the E, F states. We derive analytic expressions for the form factors and B(EL) values of the ground-state rotational band and show that the measured values support the tetrahedral symmetry of this band. PMID:24785032

  10. Absolute decay width measurements in 16O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheldon, C.; Ashwood, N. I.; Barr, M.; Curtis, N.; Freer, M.; Kokalova, Tz; Malcolm, J. D.; Spencer, S. J.; Ziman, V. A.; Faestermann, Th; Krücken, R.; Wirth, H.-F.; Hertenberger, R.; Lutter, R.; Bergmaier, A.

    2012-09-01

    The reaction 126C(63Li, d)168O* at a 6Li bombarding energy of 42 MeV has been used to populate excited states in 16O. The deuteron ejectiles were measured using the high-resolution Munich Q3D spectrograph. A large-acceptance silicon-strip detector array was used to register the recoil and break-up products. This complete kinematic set-up has enabled absolute α-decay widths to be measured with high-resolution in the 13.9 to 15.9 MeV excitation energy regime in 16O; many for the first time. This energy region spans the 14.4 MeV four-α breakup threshold. Monte-Carlo simulations of the detector geometry and break-up processes yield detection efficiencies for the two dominant decay modes of 40% and 37% for the α+12C(g.s.) and a+12C(2+1) break-up channels respectively.

  11. Dependence of the 16O+16O nuclear potential on nuclear incompressibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, S.; Tariq, A. S. B.; Nilima, Athoy; Islam, M. Sujan; Majumder, R.; Sayed, M. A.; Billah, M. M.; Azad, M. M. B.; Uddin, M. A.; Reichstein, I.; Malik, F. B.; Basak, A. K.

    2015-06-01

    Nonmonotonic (NM) nucleus-nucleus potentials from the energy-density functional (EDF) theory including the Pauli principle have been considered for the nuclear incompressibility K in the range 188-266 MeV. The experimental cross sections of the 16O+16O elastic scattering over the 31-350 MeV incident energies have been analyzed in the optical model using the NM potentials. Sensitivity of K on the elastic scattering data is studied and its value for infinite cold nuclear matter deduced to be 222 ±5 MeV .

  12. Anisotropic superfluidity of (4)He on a C36 fullerene molecule.

    PubMed

    Park, Sungjin; Kim, Byeongjoon; Kwon, Yongkyung

    2015-09-14

    We have performed path-integral Monte Carlo calculations to study the adsorption of (4)He atoms on two different C36 isomers with the D6h and the D2d symmetries. The radial (4)He density distributions reveal layer-by-layer growth with the first layer being located at a distance of ∼5.5 Å from the C36 molecular center and the second layer at ∼8.3 Å. From the angular density profiles of (4)He, we find different quantum states as the number of (4)He adatoms N varies. For N = 20, we observe commensurate solid structures on both D6h and D2d isomers, where each of 8 hexagon and 12 pentagon centers of the fullerene surfaces is occupied by a single (4)He atom. The second-layer promotion starts beyond N = 38 on both isomers, where a compressible incommensurate structure is observed on the D6h isomer and another commensurate structure on D2d. Between N = 20 and N = 38, the (4)He monolayer on D6h shows several distinct rings of delocalized (4)He atoms along with strongly anisotropic superfluid responses at low temperatures, while isotropic but weak superfluid responses are observed in the (4)He layer on D2d. PMID:26374039

  13. Quantum effects in the sorption kinetics of 4He by mesoporous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolbin, A. V.; Khlistyuck, M. V.; Esel'son, V. B.; Gavrilko, V. G.; Vinnikov, N. A.; Basnukaeva, R. M.; Danchuk, V. V.

    2016-02-01

    Sorption and desorption of 4He by a mesoporous silicate material MCM-41 was studied in the temperature range of 1.5-290 K. It was shown that for T = 25-290 K the thermal activation mechanism is dominant in the sorption kinetics of 4He atoms by an MCM-41 sample. Its activation energy was estimated as Ea ≈ 164.8 K. For T = 12-23 K, the diffusion of 4He atoms in the MCM-41 was practically independent of temperature, which typically occurs when the tunnelling mechanism of diffusion dominates over the thermally activated one. A change in the mobility of 4He atoms in MCM-41 channels was observed at T = 6-12 K, which may be indicative of the formation upon cooling (or decay upon heating) of a 4He monolayer and subsequent multilayers on the inner surfaces of the channels. Below 6 K, the diffusion coefficients of 4He are only weakly temperature dependent, which may be attributed to the behavior of quantum 4He liquid in the MCM-41 channels covered with several layers of 4He atoms.

  14. Anisotropic superfluidity of {sup 4}He on a C{sub 36} fullerene molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sungjin; Kim, Byeongjoon; Kwon, Yongkyung

    2015-09-14

    We have performed path-integral Monte Carlo calculations to study the adsorption of {sup 4}He atoms on two different C{sub 36} isomers with the D{sub 6h} and the D{sub 2d} symmetries. The radial {sup 4}He density distributions reveal layer-by-layer growth with the first layer being located at a distance of ∼5.5 Å from the C{sub 36} molecular center and the second layer at ∼8.3 Å. From the angular density profiles of {sup 4}He, we find different quantum states as the number of {sup 4}He adatoms N varies. For N = 20, we observe commensurate solid structures on both D{sub 6h} and D{sub 2d} isomers, where each of 8 hexagon and 12 pentagon centers of the fullerene surfaces is occupied by a single {sup 4}He atom. The second-layer promotion starts beyond N = 38 on both isomers, where a compressible incommensurate structure is observed on the D{sub 6h} isomer and another commensurate structure on D{sub 2d}. Between N = 20 and N = 38, the {sup 4}He monolayer on D{sub 6h} shows several distinct rings of delocalized {sup 4}He atoms along with strongly anisotropic superfluid responses at low temperatures, while isotropic but weak superfluid responses are observed in the {sup 4}He layer on D{sub 2d}.

  15. Nuclear georeactor origin of oceanic basalt 3He/4He, evidence, and implications

    PubMed Central

    Herndon, J. Marvin

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear georeactor numerical simulation results yield substantial 3He and 4He production and 3He/4He ratios relative to air (RA) that encompass the entire 2-SD (2σ) confidence level range of tabulated measured 3He/4He ratios of basalts from along the global spreading ridge system. Georeactor-produced 3He/4He ratios are related to the extent of actinide fuel consumption at time of production and are high near the end of the georeactor lifetime. Georeactor numerical simulation results and the observed high 3He/4He ratios measured in Icelandic and Hawaiian oceanic basalts indicate that the demise of the georeactor is approaching. Within the present level of uncertainty, one cannot say precisely when georeactor demise will occur, whether in the next century, in a million years, or in a billion years from now. PMID:12615991

  16. Investigation of the reaction D(4He, γ)6Li at ultralow energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkatovskaya, Yu. B.; Bystritsky, V. M.; Dudkin, G. N.; Krylov, A. R.; Lysakov, A. S.; Gazi, S.; Huran, J.; Nechaev, B. A.; Padalko, V. N.; Sadovsky, A. B.; Tuleushev, Yu. G.; Filipowicz, M.; Philippov, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    The cross section of the reaction D(4He, γ)6Li with titanium and zirconium deuterides as targets is measured for incident 4He+ ion energies of 30 and 36 keV, respectively. The ion beam is generated by a Hall pulsed plasma accelerator. For the first time, upper limits on the cross section of the reaction D(4He, γ)6Li at ultralow energies are imposed (at 90% confidence level): σ ≤ 1.2 × 10-35 cm2 for the TiD2 target and E(4He+) = 30 keV, and σ ≤ 7 × 10-36 cm2 for the ZrD2 target and E(4He+) = 36 keV

  17. Two-neutron transfer analysis of the 16O(18O,16O)18O reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermamatov, M. J.; Cappuzzello, F.; Lubian, J.; Cubero, M.; Agodi, C.; Carbone, D.; Cavallaro, M.; Ferreira, J. L.; Foti, A.; Garcia, V. N.; Gargano, A.; Lay, J. A.; Lenzi, S. M.; Linares, R.; Santagati, G.; Vitturi, A.

    2016-08-01

    Recently a quantitative description of the two-neutron transfer reaction 12C(18O,16O)14C was performed and the measured cross sections were successfully reproduced [M. Cavallaro et al., Phys. Rev. C 88, 054601 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevC.88.054601]. This task was accomplished by combining nuclear structure calculations of spectroscopic amplitudes and a full quantum description of the reaction mechanism. Verification of such a theoretical approach to other heavy nuclear systems is mandatory in order to use (18O,16O ) reactions to assess pair configurations in nuclear states. In this work we apply this methodology to the 16O(18O,16O)18O reaction at 84 MeV. Experimental angular distributions for the two-neutron transfer to the ground state and 21+ state of 18O were obtained using the MAGNEX spectrometer at INFN-LNS. The roles of one- and two-step processes are analyzed under the exact finite range coupled reaction channel and the second order distorted wave Born approximation. We conclude that the one-step transfer mechanism is dominant in this system.

  18. Microscopic description of {sup 4}He + {sup 4}He elastic scattering over the energy range E=100-280 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    El-Azab Farid, M.

    2006-12-15

    Analysis of the differential cross sections for {sup 4}He +{sup 4}He elastic scattering is performed within the framework of the double-folding optical model. Two appropriate effective nucleon-nucleon interactions are employed to generate the {alpha}-{alpha} folded real potentials. The obtained potentials in conjunction with phenomenological Woods-Saxon (WS) derivative imaginary potentials are used to investigate six sets of the elastic scattering data through the energy range 100-280 MeV. Successful reproduction of the data is obtained by both considered interactions. In addition, real phenomenological potentials expressed in a squared WS form are successfully used to reproduce these data.

  19. T(T,2n)4He and 3He(3He,2p)4He: The Reaction Mechanism from Solar Energies to 10 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacher, A. D.; Brune, C. R.; Sayre, D. B.; Hale, G. M.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.

    2016-03-01

    We have studied the energy dependence of the reaction mechanism of the T(t,2n)4He reaction at stellar energies and of its charge symmetric analog reaction 3He(3He,2p)4He at energies up 10 MeV. We find that the reaction mechanism changes dramatically over this energy range in part due to the interference of the two identical fermions in the three-body final state. This contribution is dedicated to the memory of Tom Tombrello, my Ph.D. advisor at Cal Tech, who died in 2014.

  20. Interlayer correlation between two 4He monolayers adsorbed on both sides of α -graphyne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Jeonghwan; Park, Sungjin; Lee, Hoonkyung; Kwon, Yongkyung

    2015-07-01

    Path-integral Monte Carlo calculations have been performed to study the 4He adsorption on both sides of a single α -graphyne sheet. For investigation of the interlayer correlation between the upper and the lower monolayers of 4He adatoms, the 4He-substrate interaction is described by the sum of the 4He-C interatomic pair potentials for which we use both Lennard-Jones and Yukawa-6 anisotropic potentials. When the lower 4He layer is a C4 /3 commensurate solid, the upper-layer 4He atoms are found to form a kagome lattice structure at a Mott-insulating density of 0.0706 Å-2 and a commensurate solid at an areal density of 0.0941 Å-2 for both substrate potentials. The correlation between upper- and lower-layer pseudospins, which were introduced in Kwon et al. [Phys. Rev. B 88, 201403(R) (2013)], 10.1103/PhysRevB.88.201403 for two degenerate configurations of three 4He atoms in a hexagonal cell, depends on the substrate potential used; with the substrate potential based on the anisotropic Yukawa-6 pair potentials, the Ising pseudospins of both 4He layers are found to be antiparallel to each other whereas the parallel and antiparallel pseudospin alignments between the two 4He layers are nearly degenerate with the Lennard-Jones potentials. This is attributed to the difference in the interlayer distance, which is ˜4 Å with the Yukawa-6 substrate potential but as large as ˜4.8 Å with the Lennard-Jones potential.

  1. Radiogenic 4He as a conservative tracer in buried-valley aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Der Hoven, S. J.; Wright, R.E.; Carstens, D.A.; Hackley, Keith C.

    2005-01-01

    [1] The accumulation of 4He in groundwater can be a powerful tool in hydrogeologic investigations. However, the use of 4He often suffers from disagreement or uncertainty related to in situ and external sources of 4He. In situ sources are quantified by several methods, while external sources are often treated as calibration parameters in modeling. We present data from direct laboratory measurements of 4He release from sediments and field data of dissolved 4He in the Mahomet Aquifer, a well-studied buried-valley aquifer in central Illinois. The laboratory-derived accumulation rates (0.13-0.91 ??cm3 STP kgwater-1 yr-1) are 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than the accumulation rates based on the U and Th concentrations of the sediments (0.004-0.009 ??cm3 STP kgwater-1 yr -1). The direct measurement of accumulation rates are more consistent with dissolved concentrations of 4He in the groundwater. We suggest that the direct measurement method is applicable in a variety of hydrogeologic settings. The patterns of accumulation of 4He are consistent with the conceptual model of flow in the aquifer based on hydraulic and geochemical evidence and show areas where in situ production and external sources of 4He are dominant. In the southwestern part of the study area, Ne concentrations are less than atmospheric solubility, indicating gases have been lost from the groundwater. Available evidence indicates that the gases are lost as groundwater passes by pockets of CH4 in glacial deposits overlying the aquifer. However, the external flux from the underlying bedrock appears to dominate the accumulation of radiogenic 4He in the aquifer in the southwestern part of the study area, and the loss or gain of helium as groundwater passes through the overlying sediments is minor in comparison. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Viscosity of liquid {sup 4}He and quantum of circulation: Are they related?

    SciTech Connect

    L’vov, Victor S. E-mail: skrbek@fzu.cz; Skrbek, Ladislav E-mail: skrbek@fzu.cz; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R. E-mail: skrbek@fzu.cz

    2014-04-15

    In the vicinity of the superfluid transition in liquid {sup 4}He, we explore the relation between two apparently unrelated physical quantities—the kinematic viscosity, ν, in the normal state and the quantum of circulation, κ, in the superfluid state. The model developed here leads to the simple relationship ν ≈ κ/6, and links the classical and quantum flow properties of liquid {sup 4}He. We critically examine available data relevant to this relation and find that the prediction holds well at the saturated vapor pressure. Additionally, we predict the kinematic viscosity for liquid {sup 4}He along the λ-line at negative pressures.

  3. Triple oxygen isotopic composition of the high-3He/4He mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starkey, N. A.; Jackson, C. R. M.; Greenwood, R. C.; Parman, S.; Franchi, I. A.; Jackson, M.; Fitton, J. G.; Stuart, F. M.; Kurz, M.; Larsen, L. M.

    2016-03-01

    Measurements of Xe isotope ratios in ocean island basalts (OIB) suggest that Earth's mantle accreted heterogeneously, and that compositional remnants of accretion are sampled by modern, high-3He/4He OIB associated with the Icelandic and Samoan plumes. If so, the high-3He/4He source may also have a distinct oxygen isotopic composition from the rest of the mantle. Here, we test if the major elements of the high-3He/4He source preserve any evidence of heterogeneous accretion using measurements of three oxygen isotopes on olivine from a variety of high-3He/4He OIB locations. To high precision, the Δ17O value of high-3He/4He olivines from Hawaii, Pitcairn, Baffin Island and Samoa, are indistinguishable from bulk mantle olivine (Δ17OBulk Mantle - Δ17OHigh 3He/4He olivine = -0.002 ± 0.004 (2 × SEM)‰). Thus, there is no resolvable oxygen isotope evidence for heterogeneous accretion in the high-3He/4He source. Modelling of mixing processes indicates that if an early-forming, oxygen-isotope distinct mantle did exist, either the anomaly was extremely small, or the anomaly was homogenised away by later mantle convection. The δ18O values of olivine with the highest 3He/4He ratios from a variety of OIB locations have a relatively uniform composition (∼5‰). This composition is intermediate to values associated with the depleted MORB mantle and the average mantle. Similarly, δ18O values of olivine from high-3He/4He OIB correlate with radiogenic isotope ratios of He, Sr, and Nd. Combined, this suggests that magmatic oxygen is sourced from the same mantle as other, more incompatible elements and that the intermediate δ18O value is a feature of the high-3He/4He mantle source. The processes responsible for the δ18O signature of high-3He/4He mantle are not certain, but δ18O-87Sr/86Sr correlations indicate that it may be connected to a predominance of a HIMU-like (high U/Pb) component or other moderate δ18O components recycled into the high-3He/4He source.

  4. Kaonic 3He and 4He X-ray measurements in SIDDHARTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiwatari, Tomoichi; Bazzi, M.; Beer, G.; Berucci, C.; Bombelli, L.; Bragadireanu, A. M.; Cargnelli, M.; Clozza, A.; Corradi, G.; Curceanu (Petrascu), C.; d'Uffizi, A.; Fiorini, C.; Ghio, F.; Girolami, B.; Guaraldo, C.; Hayano, R. S.; Iliescu, M.; Iwasaki, M.; Kienle, P.; Levi Sandri, P.; Lucherini, V.; Marton, J.; Okada, S.; Pietreanu, D.; Piscicchia, K.; Poli Lener, M.; Ponta, T.; Quaglia, R.; Rizzo, A.; Romero Vidal, A.; Sbardella, E.; Scordo, A.; Shi, H.; Sirghi, D. L.; Sirghi, F.; Tatsuno, H.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Vazquez Doce, O.; Widmann, E.; Wünschek, B.; Zmeskal, J.

    2012-05-01

    The SIDDHARTA experiment measured the kaonic 3He and 4He 3 d →2 p X-ray transitions using gaseous targets for the first time. The strong-interaction shift both of the kaonic 3He and 4He 2 p states was determined with a precision of a few eV. The shift of kaonic 4He is much smaller than the values obtained in the experiments performed in 70's and 80's, while it is consistent with the recent result of the KEK E570 experiment, as well as the theoretical calculated values. Therefore, the problem on kaonic helium (the "kaonic helium puzzle") was definitely solved. The first observation of the kaonic 3He X-rays was also achieved in the SIDDHARTA experiment. The shift both of kaonic 3He and 4He was found to be as small as a few eV.

  5. Kaonic 3He and 4He X-ray measurements in SIDDHARTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiwatari, Tomoichi; Bazzi, M.; Beer, G.; Berucci, C.; Bombelli, L.; Bragadireanu, A. M.; Cargnelli, M.; Clozza, A.; Corradi, G.; Curceanu (Petrascu), C.; d'Uffizi, A.; Fiorini, C.; Ghio, F.; Girolami, B.; Guaraldo, C.; Hayano, R. S.; Iliescu, M.; Iwasaki, M.; Kienle, P.; Levi Sandri, P.; Lucherini, V.; Marton, J.; Okada, S.; Pietreanu, D.; Piscicchia, K.; Poli Lener, M.; Ponta, T.; Quaglia, R.; Rizzo, A.; Romero Vidal, A.; Sbardella, E.; Scordo, A.; Shi, H.; Sirghi, D. L.; Sirghi, F.; Tatsuno, H.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Vazquez Doce, O.; Widmann, E.; Wünschek, B.; Zmeskal, J.

    The SIDDHARTA experiment measured the kaonic 3He and 4He 3d →2p X-ray transitions using gaseous targets for the first time. The strong-interaction shift both of the kaonic 3He and 4He 2p states was determined with a precision of a few eV. The shift of kaonic 4He is much smaller than the values obtained in the experiments performed in 70's and 80's, while it is consistent with the recent result of the KEK E570 experiment, as well as the theoretical calculated values. Therefore, the problem on kaonic helium (the "kaonic helium puzzle") was definitely solved. The first observation of the kaonic 3He X-rays was also achieved in the SIDDHARTA experiment. The shift both of kaonic 3He and 4He was found to be as small as a few eV.

  6. Proposal for measurement of 4He II condensate - A reply to recent criticisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, F. W.; Hyland, G. J.; Rowlands, G.

    1981-11-01

    Recent criticisms of a method to measure the temperature-dependent condensate fraction in 4He II, proposed by the authors some time ago, are assessed and found to be insufficient to discredit our procedure.

  7. Lattice Relaxation of 4He with 3He Impurities: NMR Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candela, D.; Huan, C.; Kim, S. S.; Yin, L.; Xia, J. S.; Sullivan, N. S.

    2014-12-01

    Measurements of the 3He nuclear spin relaxation times of dilute 3He impurities in solid 4He have been used to explore the unusual dynamics of solid 4He at low temperatures. The 3He impurities move through the lattice by quantum mechanical exchange with neighboring 4He atoms. Because of the larger zero point motion of the 3He atoms, there is an appreciable lattice distortion that accompanies the tunneling 3 He atom and the tunneling motion depends on the elastic properties of the 4He lattice. This motion modulates the 3He-3He nuclear dipole- dipole interactions and thus determines the NMR relaxation rates. We compare the observed temperature dependence of the NMR relaxation rates with that expected from the measurements of the shear modulus by Syshchenko et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 195301 (2009)].

  8. The Triple Oxygen Isotopic Composition of High 3He/4He Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, C.; Parman, S. W.; Starkey, N.; Greenwood, R.; Franchi, I.; Jackson, M. G.; Fitton, J. G.; Stewart, F. M.; Larsen, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements of Xe isotope ratios in ocean island basalts (OIB) suggest that Earth's mantle accreted heterogeneously, and that compositional remnants of accretion are sampled by modern, high-3He/4He OIB associated with the Icelandic and Samoan plumes [1]. If so, the high-3He/4He source may also have a distinct oxygen isotopic composition from the rest of the mantle. Here, we test if the major elements of the high-3He/4He source preserve any evidence of heterogeneous accretion using measurements of three oxygen isotopes on olivine from a variety of high-3He/4He OIB locations. To high precision, the ∆17O value of high-3He/4He olivines from Hawaii, Pitcairn, Baffin Island and Samoa, are indistinguishable from bulk mantle olivine (Δ17OBulk Mantle - Δ17OHigh 3He/4He olivine = -0.002 ± 0.004 (2 x SEM) ‰). Thus, there is no resolvable oxygen isotope evidence for heterogeneous accretion in the high-3He/4He source. Modelling of mixing processes indicates that if an early-forming, oxygen-isotope distinct mantle did exist, either the anomaly was extremely small, or the anomaly was homogenised away by later mantle convection. The δ18O values of olivine with the highest 3He/4He ratios from a variety of OIB locations have a relatively uniform composition (~5 ‰). This composition is intermediate to values associated with the depleted MORB mantle and the average mantle. Similarly, δ18O values of olivine from high-3He/4He OIB correlate with radiogenic isotope ratios of He, Sr, and Nd. Combined, this suggests that oxygen remains coupled to the more incompatible elements during melt production and migration and that the intermediate δ18O value is a feature of the mantle source. The processes responsible for the δ18O signature of high-3He/4He mantle are not certain, but δ18O-87Sr/86Sr correlations indicate that it may be connected to a predominance of a HIMU-like (high U/Pb) component or other moderate δ18O components recycled into the high-3He/4He source. [1] S

  9. Effect of confinement on phase-separation and superfluid transition in ^3 He-^4 He mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenoy, V. B.; Saam, W. F.

    1996-03-01

    We derive the phase diagram of ^3 He - ^4 He mixtures confined between parallel plates within phenomelogical Landau theory. The analyses focus on the effect of the separation between the plates and the magnitude of surface field ( which is a measure of preference for ^4He rich phase) on phase-separation and superfluid transition in the confined mixtures. Connection to recent experiments on He mixtures in aerogel is made.

  10. Polarization of3He and3He-4He mixtures with the castaing-nozieres method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Woerkens, C. M. C. M.; Remeijer, P.; Steel, S. C.; Jochemsen, R.; Frossati, G.

    1996-01-01

    We describe experiments employing a strongly improved technique to prepare highly polarized3He and3He-4He mixtures. The polarization is obtained with the rapid melting method. A novel design cell using Vespel SP-1 (a sintered form of polyimide) can reach relative volume changes of 17%, which is required to decompress a completely solid3He-4He mixture to a completely liquid state at 23 bar.

  11. New Phenomenon of the Hysteresis of 4He in Vycor Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xin; Xu, Xiaonong; Yan, Yong; A, L. Thomson; D, F. Brewer; S, Haynes; N, Sharma

    1992-02-01

    The low temperature part of hysteresis curves of the freezing and melting processes of 4He in vycor glass with the lowest temperature 0.4K were measured, as the pressure ranged from 36.45 to 55.18 (105 Pa). Some novel characteristics of these curves were observed in such high temperature and pressure range. They may result from the existence of superfluid 4He.

  12. A high-temperature supersolid of 4He in a one-dimensional periodic potential

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Olsen, Raina J

    2015-01-01

    The search for robust experimental proof of supersolidity has encountered many complicating factors, such as temperature dependent changes in the mechanical properties of solid 4He which mimic the signature of superfluid flow. As a result, the physical existence and true nature of this unique state of matter are still under debate. Here we consider 4He stabilized by a one-dimensional periodic potential whose lattice spacing is similar to the length scale of the 4He-4He interaction. We use the Bogoliubov transformation to calculate the excitation spectrum, finding that when interactions between nearest or next-nearest neighbors are attractive, there is a finite positivemore » gap in energy between the delocalized ground state and the lowest energy excitations which, under certain conditions, is significantly larger than both the melting temperature and the lambda temperature. This means that it should be possible to observe a supersolid at a high enough temperature that superfluidity in bulk liquid 4He or changes in the mechanical properties of bulk solid 4He do not obscure it. The properties of experimentally achievable materials which could support this type of supersolid are also discussed.« less

  13. Study of Rainbow Scattering in 16O + 14C System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demyanova, A. S.; Glukhov, Yu. A.; Ogloblin, A. A.; Trzaska, W.; Bohlen, H. G.; Oertzen, W. Von; Goncharov, S. A.; Izadpanakh, A.; Maslov, V. A.; Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.; Sobolev, Yu. G.; Khlebnikov, S. V.; Tyurin, G. P.

    2005-09-01

    We carried out new measurements of the 16O+14C differential cross-sections at the 16O energy 281 MeV in the large angles interval at the Jyvaskyla University cyclotron and at the smallest angles at the cyclotron of Hahn-Meitner institute. The results of the experiment showed that clear rainbow structure in 16O + 14C scattering really takes place. The observed position of the main Airy minimum predicted but not observed in previous measurements fits well to the empirical systematization "angle - inverse energy", obtained for the system 16O + 12C.

  14. Elementary Excitations in Solid and Liquid 4He at the Melting Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todoshchenko, I. A.; Alles, H.; Junes, H. J.; Manninen, M. S.; Parshin, A. Y.; Tsepelin, V.

    2008-02-01

    Recent discovery of a nonclassical rotational inertia (NCRI) in solid 4He below 0.2 K by Kim and Chan has revived great interest in the problem of supersolidity and initiated intensive study on the properties of solid 4He. A direct proof that the onset of NCRI corresponds to the supersolid transition would be the observation of a corresponding drop of the entropy of solid 4He below the transition temperature. We have measured the melting pressure of ultrapure 4He in the temperature range from 0.01 to 0.45 K with several single crystals grown at different pressures and with the accuracy of 0.5 μbar. In addition, supplementary measurements of the pressure in liquid 4He at constant volume have been performed, which allowed us to eliminate the contribution of the temperature-dependent properties of the pressure gauge from the measured melting pressure data. With the correction to the temperature-dependent sensitivity of the pressure gauge, the variation of the melting pressure of 4He below 320 mK obeys the pure T 4 law due to phonons with the accuracy of 0.5 μbar, and no sign of the transition is seen (Todoshchenko et al. in JETP Lett. 85:454, 2007). This sets the upper limit of ˜5ṡ10-8 R for a possible excess entropy in high-quality 4He crystals below 320 mK. At higher temperatures the contribution from rotons in the superfluid 4He has been observed. The thermal expansion coefficient of the superfluid 4He has been measured in the range from 0.01 to 0.7 K with the accuracy of ˜10-7 1/K, or by two orders of magnitude better than in previous measurements. The roton contributions to the melting pressure and to the pressure in liquid at a constant volume are consistent and yield the value of 6.8 K for the roton gap, which is very close to the values obtained with other methods. As no contribution due to weakly interacting vacancies to the melting pressure of 4He has been observed, the lower limit of about 5.5 K for their activation energy can be set.

  15. Trojan horse particle invariance studied with the {sup 6}Li(d,{alpha}){sup 4}He and {sup 7}Li(p,{alpha}){sup 4}He reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.; Lamia, L.; Cherubini, S.; La Cognata, M.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Bertulani, C.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Blokhintsev, L.; Burjan, V.; Hons, Z.; Kroha, V.; Mrazek, J.; Piskor, S.; Kiss, G. G.; Li, C.; Tumino, A.

    2011-04-15

    The Trojan horse nucleus invariance for the binary reaction cross section extracted from the Trojan horse reaction was tested using the quasifree {sup 3}He({sup 6}Li,{alpha}{alpha})H and {sup 3}He({sup 7}Li,{alpha}{alpha}){sup 2}H reactions. The cross sections for the {sup 6}Li(d,{alpha}){sup 4}He and {sup 7}Li(p,{alpha}){sup 4}He binary processes were extracted in the framework of the plane wave approximation. They are compared with direct behaviors as well as with cross sections extracted from previous indirect investigations of the same binary reactions using deuteron as the Trojan horse nucleus instead of {sup 3}He. The very good agreement confirms the applicability of the plane wave approximation which suggests the independence of the binary indirect cross section on the chosen Trojan horse nucleus, at least for the investigated cases.

  16. Incomplete fusion in 16O+159Tb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Vijay R.; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Shuaib, Mohd.; Yadav, Abhishek; Bala, Indu; Sharma, Manoj K.; Gupta, S.; Singh, D. P.; Kumar, R.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P.; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R.; Bhowmik, R. K.

    2016-02-01

    In heavy-ion induced reactions, incomplete fusion (ICF) has been found to be a process of greater importance and of distinct nature even at slightly above the barrier energies where complete fusion (CF) is supposed to be dominant. However, the studies are limited to a few projectile target combinations only. To confirm the distinctly different decay patterns observed in case of CF and ICF residues, and to understand the role of high ℓ-values in the onset of ICF, a particle-γ-coincidence technique has been employed to measure spin-distributions and feeding intensity profiles of CF and ICF residues populated via xn / pxn / αxn-channels in 16O+159Tb interactions at Elab ≈ 83.5 ± 1.5, 88.5 ± 1.5, 93.5 ± 1.5 and 97.6 ± 1.4 MeV. The Gamma Detector Array and the Charged Particles Detector Array have been used to detect prompt γ-rays in coincidence with charged particles (p and α). CF-α and ICF-α channels have been identified from backward (B)- and forward (F)-α-gated-γ-spectra, respectively. Reaction dependent decay patterns (thus, the feeding intensity profiles) have been observed in different α emitting channels. The CF channels are found to be widely populated and strongly fed over a broad spin range. In case of ICF-α channels, narrow range feeding was observed only for high-spin states or the low spin states were not populated. The mean ℓ-values involved in the production of ICF- αxn-channels are found to be higher than those involved in the production of CF- αxn-channels associated with fusion-evaporation reactions.

  17. High-resolution measurement of absolute {alpha}-decay widths in {sup 16}O

    SciTech Connect

    Wheldon, C.; Ashwood, N. I.; Barr, M.; Curtis, N.; Freer, M.; Kokalova, Tz.; Malcolm, J. D.; Spencer, S. J.; Ziman, V. A.; Faestermann, Th.; Kruecken, R.; Wirth, H.-F.; Hertenberger, R.; Lutter, R.; Bergmaier, A.

    2011-06-15

    By using a large-acceptance position-sensitive silicon detector array in coincidence with the high-resolution Munich Q3D spectrograph, unambiguous measurements have been made of the absolute {alpha}-particle decay widths from excited states in {sup 16}O* in the energy range 13.85 to 15.87 MeV. Carbon targets have been bombarded with 42-MeV {sup 6}Li beams to induce {sub 6}{sup 12}C({sub 3}{sup 6}Li, d){sub 8}{sup 16}O* reactions. The deuteron ejectiles were measured in the Q3D and the results gated by {sup 4}He+{sup 12}C breakup products detected in the silicon array, the efficiency of which was modeled using Monte Carlo simulations. By comparing total population and breakup-gated spectra, the following absolute {alpha}-decay widths have been measured with high resolution: {Gamma}{sub {alpha}}0/{Gamma}{sub tot} = 0.87{+-}0.11 (13.980 MeV), 1.04{+-}0.15 (14.302 MeV), 0.92{+-}0.10 (14.399 MeV), 0.59{+-}0.04 (14.815 MeV), 0.88{+-}0.18 (15.785 MeV), and {Gamma}{sub {alpha}}1/{Gamma}{sub tot}=1.14{+-}0.08 (14.660 MeV), 0.46{+-}0.06 (14.815 MeV).

  18. Vibrational effects in a weakly-interacting quantum solvent: The CO molecule in 4He gas and in 4He droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paesani, F.; Gianturco, F. A.

    2002-06-01

    The coupling between the intermolecular motion and the internal vibrational coordinate in the He-CO system is computed at the post-Hartree-Fock level using the DFT+DISP model already employed by us for similar systems and reviewed here in the main text. The quality of the computation of such weak effects is compared with other, earlier model calculations and then used for the evaluation of the vibrational relaxation cross sections of the CO molecule diluted in 4He gas. A further assessment of the vibrational coupling is carried out by computing, with a stochastic approach that employs the Diffusion Monte Carlo method, the effects on the vibrational frequency of the CO impurity from its immersion in 4He droplets of variable size. Both sets of results are analyzed and discussed to gauge the reliability of the computed coupling vis-a-vis one of those suggested by earlier calculations. This study provides further evidence on the difficulty of quantitatively obtaining from calculations the extremely small effects connected with molecular vibrational features in this system and caused by the weak interaction between the title molecule and a quantum solvent like 4He.

  19. Measurements on the melting curve of ^4He down to 10 mK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alles, Harry

    2007-03-01

    Recent discovery of a nonclassical rotational inertia in solid ^4He below about 0.2 K by Kim and Chan has initiated an intensive study on the properties of solid ^4He. As Kim and Chan have interpreted their observation as the evidence of supersolid behavior, we have decided to measure very accurately the melting curve of ^4He because, as the slope of the melting curve is proportional to the difference in the entropy of the liquid and solid phases, there should be an anomaly at the possible supersolid transition. We have measured the melting curve of ^4He with the accuracy of about 0.5 microbar with ^4He crystals which had various concentration of defects. All our samples showed only the expected T^4 dependence due to phonons without any sign of the supersolid transition in the temperature range of 80400 mK. Below 80 mK we observed a small deviation from T^4 dependence which, however, cannot be attributed to the supersolid transition because our recent measurements with the cell containing liquid sample only suggest that this deviation is by the temperature variation of properties of BeCu membrane of our capacitive pressure gauge. In addition to our published data with ^4He of natural purity [Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 165302 (2006)] we also report our recent measurements of the melting curve with ultra pure ^4He (0.3 ppb of ^3He impurities). In these measurements we followed optically the shape of the sample crystals which had very good quality.

  20. 3H- 3He dating: A case for mixing of young and old groundwaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamensky, I. L.; Tokarev, I. V.; Tolstikhin, I. N.

    1991-10-01

    3He /4He and 20Ne /4He ratios were measured in shallow underground waters (opened by water-supplying wells) of the Large Vud-Javr intramountain artesian basin in the Khibiny alkaline massif, the Kola Peninsula. The ratios vary from 1.321 × 10 -6 to 2.065 × 10 -6 and from 1.412 to 2.941, respectively, and a well-defined correlation is observed between them. Both these ratios in aquifers are known to be time-dependent, the former increases with time due to accumulation of 3He, produced in waters by 3H β-decay; the latter decreases due to migration of helium from water-bearing rocks into the waters. The correlation is interpreted as a result of the mixing of two different types of waters. The approximation line enables us to estimate the isotopic ratios for the endmembers participating in the mixing and the mean residence time (τ) of tritigenic helium-3 in the water: (1) 3He /4He = 3.655 × 10 -6, 20Ne /4He = 4.03 , and taking into consideration 3H concentrations in the well waters, 3H = 31.1 TU (practically the same for all samples), τ = 15.8 ± 1.5 years for the young water; (2) 3He /4He = 0.20 × 10 -6, 20Ne /4He = 0.18 and T = 0.11 Ma for the old one, the contribution of the old water being less than 10%. In one well a considerable contribution of modern-day meteoric water, about 16%, is observed.

  1. On the origin of (4)He and (40)Ar in natural gold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eugster, O.; Hofmann, B.; Niedermann, S.; Thalmann, CH.

    1993-01-01

    In a first report on our investigations of noble gases in native gold we demonstrated that placer gold contains an excess of radiogenic (4)He and (40)Ar relative to the concentrations expected from in situ decay of U, Th, and K, respectively, during the geologic age of about 30 Ma of the samples. We also showed that the U/Th-(4)He age of 36 Ma of vein-type gold from the Southern Alps agrees with its K-Ar formation age derived from associated muscovite and biotite. We now studied the question of the origin of the (4)He and (40)Ar excesses of placer gold. We conclude that gold contains two components of noble gases, a low-temperature component from fluid inclusions or phases which release noble gases at less than 800 C and a high-temperature component released when gold melts (1064 C). In some samples extremely high U and K concentrations or an unreasonably high formation age would be required to explain the observed (4)He abundances. Thus, trapped (4)He and (40)Ar must be present in gold.

  2. Theoretical Basis for Anomalous Heat and ^4He in Deuterium-Metal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Scott; Chubb, Talbot

    2000-03-01

    Because electromagnetic (E.M.) forces have infinite range, reactions exist in which the degrees of freedom associated with nuclear- and atomic- scales are coupled. Although such non-separable reactions are possible in conventional D+D fusion, they rarely occur because the relevant E.M.-induced reaction (D+Darrow ^4He) violates the rules of energy-momentum conservation (EMC) at-a-point, except when a high momentum (HM) gamma ray is emitted. When D^+ and ^4He^+^+ occupy ion band states with low concentration, however, different forms of E.M. coupling become possible in which EMC is violated locally but conserved globally and D+Darrow ^4He reactions occur without HM particles(http: //www.aps.org/meet/CENT99/BAPS/abs/S9500.html). Using a generalized KKR-Multiple-Scattering theory, we have formulated Generalized Kadanoff-Baym Equations ( D.C. Langreth and J.W. Wilkins, Phys. Rev. B 6), 3189 (1972). that describe the associated non-local heat and ^4He release from the resulting coupling between nuclear interactions, D^+ and ^4He^+^+ ion band states, and electrons.

  3. Anomalous Elasticity of 4He Films at the Quantum Phase Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirahama, Keiya; Takahashi, Daisuke; Kogure, Takayuki; Yoshimura, Hitomi; Higashino, Rama

    4 He films on solid substrates exhibit a quantum phase transition between localized (nonsuperfluid) and superfluid states by changing coverage n. We have made torsional oscillator (TO) studies for 4He films adsorbed on nanoporous glasses. A TO with localized films showed an apparent ''supersolid'' behavior, an increase in TO frequency f with broad peak in Q-1. Combining with FEM analyses for TO's with different designs, we conclude that the behavior results from the softening of adsorbed 4He films at high temperatures. The features in f and Q-1 are fitted well to a Debye-like activation with a distributed energy gap Δ, so the elasticity is accounted by thermal excitation of localized atoms to an ''extended'' state. As the critical coverage nc approaches the gap decreases to zero with a powerlaw Δ ~(n -nc) 1 . 2 . Assuming that the 4He chemical potential μ (n) is located in the middle of the gap, we can estimate the elastic constant κ-1 =n2 ∂μ / ∂n . The elasticity agrees with shear moduli of 4He films obtained from the FEM analysis within factor of three. The energetics proposed from the elastic behavior naturally explains other properties of He films adsorbed on disordered substrates.

  4. Control of the wetting properties of ^{4}He crystals in superfluid.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, T; Minezaki, H; Suzuki, A; Obara, K; Itaka, K; Nomura, R; Okuda, Y

    2016-05-01

    To investigate whether it is possible to control the wetting of ^{4}He crystals on a wall in superfluid, the contact angles of ^{4}He crystals were measured on rough and smooth walls at very low temperatures. A rough wall was prepared in a simple manner in which a commercially available coating agent for car mirrors, which makes the glass surface superhydrophobic, was used to coat a glass plate. The contact angles of ^{4}He crystals were increased by approximately 10^{∘} on the rough wall coated with the agent. Therefore, the increase in the repellency of ^{4}He crystals in superfluid was demonstrated to be possible on a very rough surface. The enhancement of the contact angles and a scanning electron microscopy image of the coated surface both suggest that a Cassie-Baxter state of ^{4}He crystals was realized on the surface; the crystals did not have full contact with the wall, but entrapped superfluid was present beneath the crystals in the hollow parts of the rough wall. PMID:27300963

  5. Van der Waals correlation between two 4He monolayers on the opposite sides of graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Yongkyung

    2015-06-01

    Path-integral Monte Carlo calculations have been performed to study the correlation between two 4He monolayers adsorbed on opposite sides of a graphene sheet. Here, the 4He-substrate interaction is described by the pairwise sum of the 4He-C interatomic potentials. We employ two different anisotropic 4He-C pair potentials proposed to fit the helium scattering data on a graphite surface, namely, a 6-12 Lennard-Jones potential and a Yukawa-6 potential. With the Lennard-Jones substrate potential, we do not observe any noticeable correlation between two oppositeside 4He monolayers, which is consistent with the prediction of the previous theoretical studies based on the same substrate potential. When the Yukawa-6 substrate potential is used, however, two incommensurate triangular solids, which are realized at the first-layer completion density of 0.12 Å -2, are found to favor an AA stacking order, two triangular lattices on top of each other, over an AB stacking. Finally, the effects of this interlayer correlation on the formation of stable mobile vacancies are discussed.

  6. Torsional oscillator studies for possible supersolidity in two-dimensional 4He solid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibayama, Y.; Fukuyama, H.; Shirahama, K.

    2009-02-01

    The origin of "supersolidity" of solid 4He, which was reported by Kim and Chan, has not yet been clarified. Although Bose-Einstein condensation of zero-point vacancies (ZPVs) was initially considered to be a possible origin, recent studies imply that crystal imperfections in the solid samples are strongly associated with the observed supersolid behaviors. In two-dimensional (2D) 3He system on graphite, on the other hand, a novel phase due to quantum hopping of ZPVs has been found. This suggests that ZPVs form also in 2D 4He solid systems and their quantum hopping results in superfluidity of ZPVs, namely, supersolidity. In order to search for the possible 2D supersolid state, we perform torsional oscillator studies for 4He films adsorbed on graphite. At the 4He coverage of 18.7 nm-2 a positive frequency shift was observed below 300 mK. The size of the shift decreases with increasing the oscillation velocity. This behavior closely resembles to the supersolid behavior of bulk solid 4He.

  7. Control of the wetting properties of 4He crystals in superfluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, T.; Minezaki, H.; Suzuki, A.; Obara, K.; Itaka, K.; Nomura, R.; Okuda, Y.

    2016-05-01

    To investigate whether it is possible to control the wetting of 4He crystals on a wall in superfluid, the contact angles of 4He crystals were measured on rough and smooth walls at very low temperatures. A rough wall was prepared in a simple manner in which a commercially available coating agent for car mirrors, which makes the glass surface superhydrophobic, was used to coat a glass plate. The contact angles of 4He crystals were increased by approximately 10° on the rough wall coated with the agent. Therefore, the increase in the repellency of 4He crystals in superfluid was demonstrated to be possible on a very rough surface. The enhancement of the contact angles and a scanning electron microscopy image of the coated surface both suggest that a Cassie-Baxter state of 4He crystals was realized on the surface; the crystals did not have full contact with the wall, but entrapped superfluid was present beneath the crystals in the hollow parts of the rough wall.

  8. Green's function theory for the Cheng-Schick model of 3He-4He mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemann, R. P.; Boukahil, A.; Huber, D. L.

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we outline a theory for the thermodynamic properties of 3He-4He mixtures in the neighborhood of the critical line and the tricritical point (TCP). The theory utilizes the Cheng-Schick (CS) lattice gas model where both the 3He and 4He atoms are treated as quantum particles on a lattice. The analysis is based on Green's function approach. Results are presented for the ordering susceptibility and the thermal averages of the occupation numbers of 3He and 4He atoms. We derive a self-consistent equation for the ordering susceptibility and use it to calculate the critical line and locate the TCP. Our findings are compared with the predictions obtained from high temperature series expansions, mean field theory and the random phase approximation (RPA).

  9. Study of Supersolidity and Shear Modulus Anomaly of 4He in a Triple Compound Oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, Xiao; Mueller, Erich J.; Reppy, John D.

    2012-12-01

    The recently discovered shear modulus anomaly in solid 4He bears a strong similarity to the phenomenon of supersolidity in solid 4He and can lead to the period shift and dissipative signals in torsional oscillator experiments that are nearly identical to the classic NCRI signals observed by Kim and Chan. In the experiments described here, we attempt to isolate the effects of these two phenomena on the resonance periods of torsion oscillators. We have constructed a triple compound oscillator with distinct normal modes. We are able to demonstrate that, for this oscillator, the period shifts observed below 200 mK have their primary origin in the temperature dependence of the shear modulus of the solid 4He sample rather than the formation of a supersolid state.

  10. Upper bound on parity-violating neutron spin rotation in {sup 4}He

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, W. M.; Luo, D.; Walbridge, S. B.; Crawford, B. E.; Gan, K.; Micherdzinska, A. M.; Opper, A. K.; Heckel, B. R.; Swanson, H. E.; Sharapov, E. I.; Zhumabekova, V.

    2011-02-15

    We report an upper bound on parity-violating neutron spin rotation in {sup 4}He. This experiment is the most sensitive search for neutron-weak optical activity yet performed and represents a significant advance in precision in comparison to past measurements in heavy nuclei. The experiment was performed at the NG-6 slow-neutron beamline at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Center for Neutron Research. Our result for the neutron spin rotation angle per unit length in {sup 4}He is d{phi}/dz=[+1.7{+-}9.1(stat.){+-}1.4(sys.)]x10{sup -7} rad/m. The statistical uncertainty is smaller than current estimates of the range of possible values of d{phi}/dz in n+{sup 4}He.

  11. Indirect Study of the 16O+16O Fusion Reaction Toward Stellar Energies by the Trojan Horse Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, S.; Spitaleri, C.; Burtebayev, N.; Aimaganbetov, A.; Figuera, P.; Fisichella, M.; Guardo, G. L.; Igamov, S.; Indelicato, I.; Kiss, G.; Kliczewski, S.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Lattuada, M.; Piasecki, E.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; Sakuta, S. B.; Siudak, R.; Trzcińska, A.; Tumino, A.; Urkinbayev, A.

    2016-05-01

    The 16O+16O fusion reaction is important in terms of the explosive oxygen burning process during late evolution stage of massive stars as well as understanding of the mechanism of low-energy heavy-ion fusion reactions. We aim to determine the excitation function for the most major exit channels, α+28Si and p+31P, toward stellar energies indirectly by the Trojan Horse Method via the 16O(20Ne, α28Si)α and 16O(20Ne, p31P)α three-body reactions. We report preliminary results involving reaction identification, and determination of the momentum distribution of α-16O intercluster motion in the projectile 20Ne nucleus.

  12. Explosion of electron bubbles attached to quantized vortices in liquid {sup 4}He

    SciTech Connect

    Pi, Marti; Mayol, Ricardo; Hernando, Alberto; Barranco, Manuel; Ancilotto, Francesco

    2007-06-28

    Electron bubbles in superfluid {sup 4}He have been recently observed in low-temperature cavitation measurements under experimental conditions where quantized vortices are also present in the liquid, and which might be attached to the bubbles. We have calculated, within density functional theory, the structure and energetics of electron bubbles pinned to linear vortices in liquid {sup 4}He at low temperature, and the pressure at which such structures become mechanically unstable. Our results are in semiquantitative agreement with the experiments. We discuss dynamical effects not included in the theoretical model used in the present calculations, and which could explain some discrepancies between our results and the experimental data.

  13. Kosterlitz-Thouless Transition in 4He Films Adsorbed to Rough Calcium Fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Luhman, D. R.; Hallock, R. B.

    2006-09-07

    Previous measurements in our lab have shown that the onset of superfluidity at the KT transition, typically seen as a sharp change in the frequency of a smooth-surface quartz crystal microbalance, becomes less identifiable in the presence of increasing surface roughness or disorder, while the peak in the dissipation is unchanged. Using a series of microbalances coated with increasingly rough CaF2, we have extended our measurements to lower 4He film coverages and thus lower temperatures. We find at lower 4He coverages that the presence of disorder on the substrate has a diminished effect on the frequency shift.

  14. High-sensitivity measurement of 3He-4He isotopic ratios for ultracold neutron experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumm, H. P.; Huber, M. G.; Bauder, W.; Abrams, N.; Deibel, C. M.; Huffer, C. R.; Huffman, P. R.; Schelhammer, K. W.; Janssens, R.; Jiang, C. L.; Scott, R. H.; Pardo, R. C.; Rehm, K. E.; Vondrasek, R.; Swank, C. M.; O'Shaughnessy, C. M.; Paul, M.; Yang, L.

    2016-06-01

    Research efforts ranging from studies of solid helium to searches for a neutron electric dipole moment require isotopically purified helium with a ratio of 3He to 4He at levels below that which can be measured using traditional mass spectroscopy techniques. We demonstrate an approach to such a measurement using accelerator mass spectroscopy, reaching the 10-14 level of sensitivity, several orders of magnitude more sensitive than other techniques. Measurements of 3He/4He in samples relevant to the measurement of the neutron lifetime indicate the need for substantial corrections. We also argue that there is a clear path forward to sensitivity increases of at least another order of magnitude.

  15. Finding the Missing γ in D+Darrow ^4He Cold Fusion Excess Heat:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Scott

    2002-03-01

    The source of Cold Fusion (CF)Excess Heat is a novel form of D+Darrow ^4He reaction in which no high energy γ rays are emitted (http:// www.aps.org/meet/MAR01/baps/abs/S7640003.html) . An important source of confusion concerning this point is the apparent lack of consensus about known effects associated even with the conventional D+Darrow^4He+γ reaction. In fact, although little information about D+Darrow ^4He+γ appears in the conventional fusion literature, the photo-dissociation reaction ^4He+γarrowD+D not only has been widely studied but is known to occur through a quadrupolar (E2) transition in which the two particle wave function associated with the D-nuclei is required to preserve Bose symmetry, in the far field regions, where the Electromagnetic Interaction EMI is dominant. Also in this reaction coupling occurs between strong and EMI's that invalidates the separability requirements that are present in the remaining D+D fusion reactions. These facts lend credibility to the notion that coherent many-body effects, involving D-exchange can alter the reaction in such a way that γ ray emission is not required.

  16. The ABC Effect in the Double-Pionic Fusion to 4He.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pricking, A.

    2010-04-01

    The double-pionic fusion to 4He was measured exclusively and kinematically complete with the WASA 4π detector at COSY for the reactions dd →4Heπ0π0 and dd →4Heπ+π- . The measurements were performed over the full energy region, where the so-called ABC effect was observed previously in inclusive measurements. Whereas the latter exhibit not only a low-mass enhancement - the ABC-effect - in the 4He missing mass spectrum but also a prominent high-mass enhancement, we observe only a very strong low-mass enhancement and no pronounced high mass enhancement. This is in contrast to theoretical predictions based on t-channel ∆∆ excitation. Also the energy dependence of the observed total cross section does not fit to such predictions. Both features, however, agree very well with the observations in the most basic double-pionic fusion process in the isoscalar channel pn → dπ0π0.

  17. Electron screening in the {sup 3}He(d,p){sup 4}He reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, F. C.

    2007-02-15

    A reanalysis of data for the {sup 3}He(d,p){sup 4}He reaction obtained using the Trojan-horse method, together with data from a direct measurement, leads to an electron-screening potential that is not consistent with the adiabatic limit, but it is consistent with a previous value from different data.

  18. A non-perturbative approach to freezing of superfuid 4He in density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minoguchi, T.; Galli, De; Rossi, M.; Yoshimori, A.

    2012-12-01

    Freezing of various classical liquids is successfully described by density functional theory (DFT). On the other hand, so far no report has been published that DFT describes the freezing of superfuid 4He correctly. In fact, DFT gives too stable solid phase and the superfuid phase does not exist at finite positive pressures within a second order perturbation. In this paper we try a non-perturbative version of DFT, that is modified weighted density approximation (MWDA) to go beyond second order perturbation for the freezing of superfuid 4He. Via an exact zero temperature quantum Monte-Carlo (QMC) method we have computed the equation of state and the compressibility of superfuid 4He. By utilizing a recently introduced analytic continuation method (the GIFT method), we have obtained also density response functions at different densities from QMC imaginary time correlation functions. Contrary to second order perturbation, by employing these QMC data as DFT input we find a too stable superfuid phase, preventing freezing around the experimentally observed freezing pressure. We find the same pathological behavior by using another model energy functional of superfuid 4He (Orsay-Trento model). We conclude that the straightforward MWDA calculation gives such a poor result when liquid-gas transition is present.

  19. Third sound and stability of 3He-4He mixture films

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R. H.; Krotscheck, E.; Miller, M. D.

    2006-09-07

    We study third sound and the interaction between 3He adatoms in two thin 3He-4He mixture films from a first-principles, microscopic theory. Utilizing the variational, hypernetted-chain Euler-Lagrange (HNC-EL) theory as applied to inhomogeneous boson systems, we calculate chemical potentials for both the 4He superfluid film and the physisorbed 3He. Numerical density derivatives of the chemical potentials lead to the sought-after third sound speeds that clearly reflect a layered structure of at least seven oscillations. In this paper, we report third sound on model substrates: Nuclepore, and sodium. We find that the effect of the 3He depends sensitively on the particular 4He film coverage. Our most important result is that, with the addition of 3He, the third sound speed can either increase or decrease. In fact, in some regimes, the added 3He destabilizes the film and can drive ''layering transitions'', leading to fairly complicated geometric structures of the film in which the outermost layer is predicted to consist of phase-separated regions of 3He and 4He.

  20. Search for anisotropy in the Debye-Waller factor of HCP solid (4)He.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Ashleigh L; Hinde, Robert J

    2016-02-28

    The properties of hexagonal close packed (hcp) solid (4)He are dominated by large atomic zero point motions. An accurate description of these motions is therefore necessary in order to accurately calculate the properties of the system, such as the Debye-Waller (DW) factors. A recent neutron scattering experiment reported significant anisotropy in the in-plane and out-of-plane DW factors for hcp solid (4)He at low temperatures, where thermal effects are negligible and only zero-point motions are expected to contribute. By contrast, no such anisotropy was observed either in earlier experiments or in path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) simulations of solid hcp (4)He. However, the earlier experiments and the PIMC simulations were both carried out at higher temperatures where thermal effects could be substantial. We seek to understand the cause of this discrepancy through variational quantum Monte Carlo simulations utilizing an accurate pair potential and a modified trial wavefunction which allows for anisotropy. Near the melting density, we find no anisotropy in an ideal hcp (4)He crystal. A theoretical equation of state is derived from the calculated energies of the ideal crystal over a range of molar volumes from 7.88 to 21.3 cm(3), and is found to be in good qualitative agreement with experimental data. PMID:26931710

  1. The Quest for Bose-Einstein Condensation in Solid 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diallo, S. O.; Azuah, R. T.; Glyde, H. R.

    2011-03-01

    Ever since the seminal torsional oscillator (TO) measurements of Kim and Chan which suggested the existence of a phase transition in solid 4He, from normal to a `supersolid' state below a critical temperature T c = 200 mK, there has been an unprecedented amount of excitement and research activity aimed at better understanding this phase. Despite much work, this remarkable phase has yet to be independently confirmed by conventional scattering techniques, such as neutron scattering. We have carried out a series of neutron scattering measurements, which we here review, aimed at observing Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in solid 4He at temperatures below T c . In bulk liquid 4He, the appearance of BEC below T λ signals the onset of superfluidity. The observation of a condensate fraction in the solid would provide an unambiguous confirmation for `supersolidity'. Although, our measurements have not yet revealed a non-zero condensate fraction or algebraic off diagonal long-range order n 0 in solid 4He down to 65 mK, i.e. n 0=(0±0.3)%, our search for BEC and its corollaries continues with improved instrumentation.

  2. Search for supersolid 4He in neutron scattering experiments at ISIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirichek, O.

    2009-02-01

    The observation of a non-classical rotation inertia (NCRI) fraction in bulk solid 4He by M. Chan and E. Kim [1, 2] attracted significant interest as a possible manifestation of supersolid state of matter. Despite numerous experimental and theoretical studies inspired by this observation, an explicit explanation for this phenomenon is still missing. Neutron scattering experiments on solid helium may help to shed light on the physical grounds of NCRI and answer the question on whether this phenomenon could be caused by Bose-Einstein Condensation. In this paper we are going to discuss the results obtained in experiments involving neutron scattering on solid 4He. Microscopic quantitative data such as mean kinetic energy, mean square momentum and mean square displacement of helium atoms as well as the lattice parameter have been obtained for the first time for solid 4He in temperature range 70mK - 500 mK. No change was seen in the single atom kinetic energy (within statistical error better than 1%) as well as change in the lattice parameter (within 0.03%). The mean square displacement did not change in the region of expected supersolid transition either. All these results suggest that the NCRI transition is quite different from the superfluid transition in liquid 4He.

  3. Equilibrium shape of 4He crystal under zero gravity below 200 mK

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Takuya; Ohuchi, Haruka; Nomura, Ryuji; Okuda, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    Equilibrium crystal shape is the lowest energy crystal shape that is hardly realized in ordinary crystals because of their slow relaxation. 4He quantum crystals in a superfluid have been expected as unique exceptions that grow extremely fast at very low temperatures. However, on the ground, gravity considerably deforms the crystals and conceals the equilibrium crystal shape, and thus, gravity-free environment is needed to observe the equilibrium shape of 4He. We report the relaxation processes of macroscopic 4He crystals in a superfluid below 200 mK under zero gravity using a parabolic flight of a jet plane. When gravity was removed from a gravity-flattened 4He crystal, the crystal rapidly transformed into a shape with flat surfaces. Although the relaxation processes were highly dependent on the initial condition, the crystals relaxed to a nearly homothetic shape in the end, indicating that they were truly in an equilibrium shape minimizing the interfacial free energy. Thanks to the equilibrium shape, we were able to determine the Wulff’s origin and the size of the c-facet together with the vicinal surface profile next to the c-facet. The c-facet size was extremely small in the quantum crystals, and the facet-like flat surfaces were found to be the vicinal surfaces. At the same time, the interfacial free energy of the a-facet and s-facet was also obtained. PMID:26601315

  4. ^4 He Crystals in Reduced Gravity Obtained by Parabolic Flights of a Jet Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Takuya; Nomura, Ryuji; Okuda, Yuichi

    2016-03-01

    ^4 He crystals usually sink to the bottom of the container in a superfluid and are deformed into a flat shape by gravity when their size is much larger than the capillary length of 1 mm. When gravity is reduced to zero, the capillary length diverges and the gravity-flattened crystals are expected to relax into an equilibrium crystal shape determined by the interfacial free energy at low enough temperatures where the relaxation time is very short. We performed a reduced gravity experiment on ^4 He crystals at ultralow temperatures by developing a specially designed ^3 He-^4 He dilution refrigerator compatible with the experimental restrictions in a small jet plane. ^4 He crystals relaxed to the equilibrium crystal shape below 600 mK during a reduced gravity period of 20 s produced by a parabolic flight. The equilibrium crystal shape, however, was metastable in most cases, governed by the boundary conditions imposed by the wall. Utilizing acoustic radiation pressure, we deformed the crystal enough to allow it to escape from the metastable shape below 150 mK. After this large deformation, the crystal relaxed to a shape completely different from its initial shape, showing three types of facets, viz., c-, a-, and s-facets, which was concluded to be the lowest energy equilibrium shape.

  5. Search for anisotropy in the Debye-Waller factor of HCP solid 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Ashleigh L.; Hinde, Robert J.

    2016-02-01

    The properties of hexagonal close packed (hcp) solid 4He are dominated by large atomic zero point motions. An accurate description of these motions is therefore necessary in order to accurately calculate the properties of the system, such as the Debye-Waller (DW) factors. A recent neutron scattering experiment reported significant anisotropy in the in-plane and out-of-plane DW factors for hcp solid 4He at low temperatures, where thermal effects are negligible and only zero-point motions are expected to contribute. By contrast, no such anisotropy was observed either in earlier experiments or in path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) simulations of solid hcp 4He. However, the earlier experiments and the PIMC simulations were both carried out at higher temperatures where thermal effects could be substantial. We seek to understand the cause of this discrepancy through variational quantum Monte Carlo simulations utilizing an accurate pair potential and a modified trial wavefunction which allows for anisotropy. Near the melting density, we find no anisotropy in an ideal hcp 4He crystal. A theoretical equation of state is derived from the calculated energies of the ideal crystal over a range of molar volumes from 7.88 to 21.3 cm3, and is found to be in good qualitative agreement with experimental data.

  6. Equilibrium shape of (4)He crystal under zero gravity below 200 mK.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Takuya; Ohuchi, Haruka; Nomura, Ryuji; Okuda, Yuichi

    2015-10-01

    Equilibrium crystal shape is the lowest energy crystal shape that is hardly realized in ordinary crystals because of their slow relaxation. (4)He quantum crystals in a superfluid have been expected as unique exceptions that grow extremely fast at very low temperatures. However, on the ground, gravity considerably deforms the crystals and conceals the equilibrium crystal shape, and thus, gravity-free environment is needed to observe the equilibrium shape of (4)He. We report the relaxation processes of macroscopic (4)He crystals in a superfluid below 200 mK under zero gravity using a parabolic flight of a jet plane. When gravity was removed from a gravity-flattened (4)He crystal, the crystal rapidly transformed into a shape with flat surfaces. Although the relaxation processes were highly dependent on the initial condition, the crystals relaxed to a nearly homothetic shape in the end, indicating that they were truly in an equilibrium shape minimizing the interfacial free energy. Thanks to the equilibrium shape, we were able to determine the Wulff's origin and the size of the c-facet together with the vicinal surface profile next to the c-facet. The c-facet size was extremely small in the quantum crystals, and the facet-like flat surfaces were found to be the vicinal surfaces. At the same time, the interfacial free energy of the a-facet and s-facet was also obtained. PMID:26601315

  7. Phase-space analysis of convection in a /sup 3/He - superfluid /sup 4/He solution

    SciTech Connect

    Haucke, H.; Maeno, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Observations have been made on thermal convection below 1K in a dilute solution of /sup 3/He in superfluid /sup 4/He contained in a cylindrical cell of aspect ratio GAMMA = 1.20. Complicated oscillatory phenomena were observed with a high degree of reproducibility using two temperature sensors. Phase-space analysis suggests a description in terms of strange-attractor dynamics.

  8. Lieb-Liniger-like model of quantum solvation in CO-4HeN clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrelly, D.; Iñarrea, M.; Lanchares, V.; Salas, J. P.

    2016-05-01

    Small 4He clusters doped with various molecules allow for the study of "quantum solvation" as a function of cluster size. A peculiarity of quantum solvation is that, as the number of 4He atoms is increased from N = 1, the solvent appears to decouple from the molecule which, in turn, appears to undergo free rotation. This is generally taken to signify the onset of "microscopic superfluidity." Currently, little is known about the quantum mechanics of the decoupling mechanism, mainly because the system is a quantum (N + 1)-body problem in three dimensions which makes computations difficult. Here, a one-dimensional model is studied in which the 4He atoms are confined to revolve on a ring and encircle a rotating CO molecule. The Lanczos algorithm is used to investigate the eigenvalue spectrum as the number of 4He atoms is varied. Substantial solvent decoupling is observed for as few as N = 5 4He atoms. Examination of the Hamiltonian matrix, which has an almost block diagonal structure, reveals increasingly weak inter-block (solvent-molecule) coupling as the number of 4He atoms is increased. In the absence of a dopant molecule the system is similar to a Lieb-Liniger (LL) gas and we find a relatively rapid transition to the LL limit as N is increased. In essence, the molecule initially—for very small N—provides a central, if relatively weak, attraction to organize the cluster; as more 4He atoms are added, the repulsive interactions between the identical bosons start to dominate as the solvation ring (shell) becomes more crowded which causes the molecule to start to decouple. For low N, the molecule pins the atoms in place relative to itself; as N increases the atom-atom repulsion starts to dominate the Hamiltonian and the molecule decouples. We conclude that, while the notion of superfluidity is a useful and correct description of the decoupling process, a molecular viewpoint provides complementary insights into the quantum mechanism of the transition from a molecular

  9. Lieb-Liniger-like model of quantum solvation in CO-(4)HeN clusters.

    PubMed

    Farrelly, D; Iñarrea, M; Lanchares, V; Salas, J P

    2016-05-28

    Small (4)He clusters doped with various molecules allow for the study of "quantum solvation" as a function of cluster size. A peculiarity of quantum solvation is that, as the number of (4)He atoms is increased from N = 1, the solvent appears to decouple from the molecule which, in turn, appears to undergo free rotation. This is generally taken to signify the onset of "microscopic superfluidity." Currently, little is known about the quantum mechanics of the decoupling mechanism, mainly because the system is a quantum (N + 1)-body problem in three dimensions which makes computations difficult. Here, a one-dimensional model is studied in which the (4)He atoms are confined to revolve on a ring and encircle a rotating CO molecule. The Lanczos algorithm is used to investigate the eigenvalue spectrum as the number of (4)He atoms is varied. Substantial solvent decoupling is observed for as few as N = 5 (4)He atoms. Examination of the Hamiltonian matrix, which has an almost block diagonal structure, reveals increasingly weak inter-block (solvent-molecule) coupling as the number of (4)He atoms is increased. In the absence of a dopant molecule the system is similar to a Lieb-Liniger (LL) gas and we find a relatively rapid transition to the LL limit as N is increased. In essence, the molecule initially-for very small N-provides a central, if relatively weak, attraction to organize the cluster; as more (4)He atoms are added, the repulsive interactions between the identical bosons start to dominate as the solvation ring (shell) becomes more crowded which causes the molecule to start to decouple. For low N, the molecule pins the atoms in place relative to itself; as N increases the atom-atom repulsion starts to dominate the Hamiltonian and the molecule decouples. We conclude that, while the notion of superfluidity is a useful and correct description of the decoupling process, a molecular viewpoint provides complementary insights into the quantum mechanism of the transition from a

  10. 3H-Penciclovir (3H-PCV) Uptake Assay

    PubMed Central

    Sekar, Thillai V; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy

    2016-01-01

    Thymidine Kinase from human Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1-TK) in combination with specific substrate prodrug nucleotide analogue ganciclovir (GCV) has been widely used as suicidal therapeutic gene for cancer gene therapy. HSV1, and its mutant (HSV1-sr39TK) with improved substrate specificity, were used as reporter genes for PET-imaging of various biological functions in small animals, by combining with radiolabeled substrates such as 18F-FHBG and 124I-FIAU. 3H-Penciclovir (PCV) uptake assay is a method of choice used to determine the expression level of HSV1-TK in mammalian cells and tissues. HSV1-TK phosphorylate PCV and result in the formation of penciclovir monophosphate, and its subsequent phopsphorylation by cellular TK lead to the formation of penciclovir triphosphate, which is trapped selectively in cells expressing HSV-TK. 3H-Penciclovir enables the detection of penciclovir uptake of mammalian cells and tissues by radioactive procedures such as scintillation counting. Here we describe the protocol to carry out 3H-Penciclovir uptakes in mammalian cells.

  11. Search for supersolidity in solid 4He using multiple-mode torsional oscillators

    PubMed Central

    Eyal, Anna; Mi, Xiao; Talanov, Artem V.; Reppy, John D.

    2016-01-01

    In 2004, Kim and Chan (KC) reported a decrease in the period of torsional oscillators (TO) containing samples of solid 4He, as the temperature was lowered below 0.2 K [Kim E, Chan MHW (2004) Science 305(5692):1941–1944]. These unexpected results constituted the first experimental evidence that the long-predicted supersolid state of solid 4He may exist in nature. The KC results were quickly confirmed in a number of other laboratories and created great excitement in the low-temperature condensed-matter community. Since that time, however, it has become clear that the period shifts seen in the early experiments can in large part be explained by an increase in the shear modulus of the 4He solid identified by Day and Beamish [Day J, Beamish J (2007) Nature 450(7171):853–856]. Using multiple-frequency torsional oscillators, we can separate frequency-dependent period shifts arising from changes in the elastic properties of the solid 4He from possible supersolid signals, which are expected to be independent of frequency. We find in our measurements that as the temperature is lowered below 0.2 K, a clear frequency-dependent contribution to the period shift arising from changes in the 4He elastic properties is always present. For all of the cells reported in this paper, however, there is always an additional small frequency-independent contribution to the total period shift, such as would be expected in the case of a transition to a supersolid state. PMID:27222579

  12. Search for supersolidity in solid 4He using multiple-mode torsional oscillators.

    PubMed

    Eyal, Anna; Mi, Xiao; Talanov, Artem V; Reppy, John D

    2016-06-01

    In 2004, Kim and Chan (KC) reported a decrease in the period of torsional oscillators (TO) containing samples of solid (4)He, as the temperature was lowered below 0.2 K [Kim E, Chan MHW (2004) Science 305(5692):1941-1944]. These unexpected results constituted the first experimental evidence that the long-predicted supersolid state of solid (4)He may exist in nature. The KC results were quickly confirmed in a number of other laboratories and created great excitement in the low-temperature condensed-matter community. Since that time, however, it has become clear that the period shifts seen in the early experiments can in large part be explained by an increase in the shear modulus of the (4)He solid identified by Day and Beamish [Day J, Beamish J (2007) Nature 450(7171):853-856]. Using multiple-frequency torsional oscillators, we can separate frequency-dependent period shifts arising from changes in the elastic properties of the solid (4)He from possible supersolid signals, which are expected to be independent of frequency. We find in our measurements that as the temperature is lowered below 0.2 K, a clear frequency-dependent contribution to the period shift arising from changes in the (4)He elastic properties is always present. For all of the cells reported in this paper, however, there is always an additional small frequency-independent contribution to the total period shift, such as would be expected in the case of a transition to a supersolid state. PMID:27222579

  13. Search for supersolidity in solid 4He using multiple-mode torsional oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyal, Anna; Mi, Xiao; Talanov, Artem V.; Reppy, John D.

    2016-06-01

    In 2004, Kim and Chan (KC) reported a decrease in the period of torsional oscillators (TO) containing samples of solid 4He, as the temperature was lowered below 0.2 K [Kim E, Chan MHW (2004) Science 305(5692):1941–1944]. These unexpected results constituted the first experimental evidence that the long-predicted supersolid state of solid 4He may exist in nature. The KC results were quickly confirmed in a number of other laboratories and created great excitement in the low-temperature condensed-matter community. Since that time, however, it has become clear that the period shifts seen in the early experiments can in large part be explained by an increase in the shear modulus of the 4He solid identified by Day and Beamish [Day J, Beamish J (2007) Nature 450(7171):853–856]. Using multiple-frequency torsional oscillators, we can separate frequency-dependent period shifts arising from changes in the elastic properties of the solid 4He from possible supersolid signals, which are expected to be independent of frequency. We find in our measurements that as the temperature is lowered below 0.2 K, a clear frequency-dependent contribution to the period shift arising from changes in the 4He elastic properties is always present. For all of the cells reported in this paper, however, there is always an additional small frequency-independent contribution to the total period shift, such as would be expected in the case of a transition to a supersolid state.

  14. Airy structure in 16O+14C nuclear rainbow scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkubo, S.; Hirabayashi, Y.

    2015-08-01

    The Airy structure in 16 O +14 C rainbow scattering is studied with an extended double-folding (EDF) model that describes all the diagonal and off-diagonal coupling potentials derived from the microscopic realistic wave functions for 16 O by using a density-dependent nucleon-nucleon force. The experimental angular distributions at EL=132 , 281, and 382.2 MeV are well reproduced by the calculations. By studying the energy evolution of the Airy structure, the Airy minimum around θ =76∘ in the angular distribution at EL=132 MeV is assigned as the second-order Airy minimum A 2 in contrast to the recent literature which assigns it as the third order A 3 . The Airy minima in the 90∘ excitation function is investigated in comparison with well-known 16 O +16 O and 12 C +12 C systems. Evolution of the Airy structure into the molecular resonances with the 16 O +14 C cluster structure in the low-energy region around Ec .m .=30 MeV is discussed. It is predicted theoretically for the first time for a non-4 N 16O +14 C system that Airy elephants in the 90∘ excitation function are present.

  15. Testing the U-Th/4He dating method on carbonates I. Helium diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinti, D. L.; Ghaleb, B. G.; Sano, Y.; Blanchette, S.; Mathouchanh, E.; Takahata, N.

    2012-12-01

    Corals and other carbonates, such as speleothems, are important climatic-change proxies which need to be precisely dated for paleoclimatic reconstructions. Yet, U-Th disequilibrium method is applicable up to ca. 500 ka old carbonates. Calcite is difficult to date precisely by U-Pb method because of the low U amounts often found and difficulties in correcting for the common lead. Radiogenic 4He produced by decay of 238U and 235U incorporated into carbonates is a potential chronometer of Quaternary, and possibly Tertiary, corals and speleothems. However, several limitations exist for this method, related to the few data on the He diffusion [1] and on the alpha recoil effect in carbonate minerals. We decided to measure 4He by step heating in carbonate samples dated previously by U-Th disequilibrium: a coral (Scleractinia) from Cape Verde dated at 125 ka; a stalagmite from Patagonia dated at 128 ka; and two hydrothermal travertines from the Ziz Valley in Morocco with ages ≥ 500 ka. A one cm3 of each sample was cut by saw, crushed, washed and sieved to 80-100μm and 100-125μm fractions. Crushed samples (0.5 to 1 gram) were loaded in a vacuum crucible and 4He extracted by step heating. Previous step heating experiments on a sub-Arctic flowstone suggested that 4He is mainly released between 400 and 600°C [2]. However, the first coral sample heated at 100°C steps, showed a release pattern profile with 4He mainly released between 200 and 400°C. Measured 4He amount of 2.05 x 10-8 (±0.03% 1σ) ccSTP/g and U content of 2.7 ppm yield a U-4He age of 62.5 ka, lower than that obtained by U-Th disequilibrium. Data were not precise enough to calculate diffusion parameters using the Arrhenius diagram. The second step-heating pyrolysis of the coral using 50°C-steps indicated that all 4He is released between 250 and 350°C. The measured 4He amount was 2.27 x 10-8 (±0.04% 1σ) ccSTP/g, yielding an age of 83 ka, again lower compared to that obtained by U-Th disequilibrium. The

  16. Critical Casimir force in 4He films: confirmation of finite-size scaling.

    PubMed

    Ganshin, A; Scheidemantel, S; Garcia, R; Chan, M H W

    2006-08-18

    We present new capacitance measurements of critical Casimir force-induced thinning of 4He films near the superfluid transition, focused on the region below Tlambda where the effect is the greatest. 4He films of 238, 285, and 340 A thickness are adsorbed on atomically smooth, N-doped silicon substrates. The Casimir force scaling function theta, deduced from the thinning of these three films, collapses onto a single universal curve, attaining a minimum theta=-1.30+/-0.03 at x=td1/nu=-9.7+/-0.8 A1/nu. The collapse confirms the finite-size scaling origin of the dip in the film thickness. Separately, we also confirm the presence down to 2.13 K of the Goldstone or surface fluctuation force, which makes the superfluid film approximately 2 A thinner than the normal film. PMID:17026241

  17. Dislocation densities and lengths in solid 4He from elasticity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haziot, Ariel; Fefferman, Andrew D.; Beamish, John R.; Balibar, Sébastien

    2013-02-01

    Measurements on solid 4He show large softening of the shear modulus due to dislocations, behavior which has been described as giant plasticity. Dislocation networks may also be responsible for the unusual behavior seen in torsional oscillator and flow experiments. However, previous estimates of dislocation densities vary by many orders of magnitude, even in single crystals grown under similar conditions. By measuring the temperature and frequency dependencies of the elastic dissipation, we have determined dislocation densities and network lengths in 4He single crystals, both in coexistence with liquid and at higher pressures, and in polycrystals grown at constant density. In all cases, dislocation lengths are much longer and the networks are less connected than previous estimates. Even in polycrystals, the dislocation network is far too sparse to explain the torsional oscillator results in terms of superfluidity in a dislocation network.

  18. Apatite 4He/3He and (U-Th)/He evidence for an ancient Grand Canyon.

    PubMed

    Flowers, R M; Farley, K A

    2012-12-21

    The Grand Canyon is one of the most dramatic features on Earth, yet when and why it was carved have been controversial topics for more than 150 years. Here, we present apatite (4)He/(3)He thermochronometry data from the Grand Canyon basement that tightly constrain the near-surface cooling history associated with canyon incision. (4)He/(3)He spectra for eastern Grand Canyon apatites of differing He date, radiation damage, and U-Th zonation yield a self-consistent cooling history that substantially validates the He diffusion kinetic model applied here. Similar data for the western Grand Canyon provide evidence that it was excavated to within a few hundred meters of modern depths by ~70 million years ago (Ma), in contrast to the conventional model in which the entire canyon was carved since 5 to 6 Ma. PMID:23196906

  19. No Effect of Steady Rotation on Solid ^4He in a Torsional Oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fear, M. J.; Walmsley, P. M.; Zmeev, D. E.; Mäkinen, J. T.; Golov, A. I.

    2016-05-01

    We have measured the response of a torsional oscillator containing polycrystalline hcp solid 4He to applied steady rotation in an attempt to verify the observations of several other groups that were initially interpreted as evidence for macroscopic quantum effects. The geometry of the cell was that of a simple annulus, with a fill line of relatively narrow diameter in the centre of the torsion rod. Varying the angular velocity of rotation up to 2 rad s^{-1} showed that there were no step-like features in the resonant frequency or dissipation of the oscillator and no history dependence, even though we achieved the sensitivity required to detect the various effects seen in earlier experiments on other rotating cryostats. All small changes during rotation were consistent with those occurring with an empty cell. We thus observed no effects on the samples of solid ^4He attributable to steady rotation.

  20. Superheat Limit of 4He and Its Quantum Deviation from Classical Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishigaki, Kazu; Saji, Yoshiro

    1983-07-01

    The superheating of normal liquid 4He was investigated by means of continuous heating of liquid specimen in a small glass capillary over a temperature range 2.26 K to 4.88 K. The maximum superheating data obtained were compared with the prediction from the homogeneous nucleation theory and the data for various liquids in terms of the reduced coordinates. It is confirmed that the agreement between the homogeneous nucleation theory and experiment on 4He is satisfactory, and the scaled superheating depends parametrically on the quantum parameter \\varLambda*, i.e., the deviations of the data for quantum liquids from the classical behavior become pronounced as the parameter is increased.

  1. Apatite 4He/3He and (U-Th)/He Evidence for an Ancient Grand Canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flowers, R. M.; Farley, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Grand Canyon is one of the most dramatic features on Earth, yet when and why it was carved have been controversial topics for more than 150 years. Here, we present apatite 4He/3He thermochronometry data from the Grand Canyon basement that tightly constrain the near-surface cooling history associated with canyon incision. 4He/3He spectra for eastern Grand Canyon apatites of differing He date, radiation damage, and U-Th zonation yield a self-consistent cooling history that substantially validates the He diffusion kinetic model applied here. Similar data for the western Grand Canyon provide evidence that it was excavated to within a few hundred meters of modern depths by ~70 million years ago (Ma), in contrast to the conventional model in which the entire canyon was carved since 5 to 6 Ma.

  2. A discussion of the dispersion curve of energy excitations in liquid 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogoyavlenskii, I. V.; Puchkov, A. V.; Skomorokhov, A. N.; Karnatsevich, L. V.

    2004-10-01

    An investigation of the dispersion of excitations in a quantum liquid, superfluid 4He, is carried out. An attempt is made to systematize the published experimental data that indicate a substantially different nature of excitations with wave vectors corresponding to different parts of the dispersion curve of liquid 4He. Neutron spectroscopy data are analyzed in relation to a certain physical hypothesis concerning the formation of such a spectrum, and it is found that the majority of the known experimental facts can be explained in framework of that hypothesis. Particular attention is paid to a comparison of the experimental data obtained on the DIN-2PI time-of-flight spectrometer (at the IBR-2 Reactor, Dubna) with the results obtained at foreign research centers.

  3. Charge-induced instability of the /sup 4/He solid-superfluid interface

    SciTech Connect

    Savignac, D.; Leiderer, P.

    1982-12-20

    The interface between crystalline and superfluid /sup 4/He, when charged with negative ions, is deformed as a result of melting and crystallization processes. As long as the electric field normal to the interface is below a critical value, the deformation is stable and reversible. Above the critical field a charge-induced instability of the crystal is observed, which resembles the electrohydrodynamic instability of liquid surfaces.

  4. Competition between thermal fluctuations and disorder in the crystallization of 4He in aerogel.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Ryuji; Osawa, Aiko; Mimori, Tomohiro; Ueno, Ken-ichi; Kato, Haruko; Okuda, Yuichi

    2008-10-24

    The dynamical transition in the crystallization of 4He in aerogel has been investigated by direct visualization and dynamical phase diagrams have been determined. The crystal-superfluid interface in aerogel advances via creep at high temperatures and avalanches at low temperatures. The transition temperature is higher at a higher interface velocity and lower in higher porosity aerogels. The transition is due to competition between thermal fluctuations and disorder for the crystallization process. PMID:18999765

  5. Production of {sup 4}He and tritium from Be in the COBRA-1A2 irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, L.R.

    1998-03-01

    The production of {sup 4}He and tritium has been calculated for beryllium irradiated in the COBRA-1A2 experiment in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II. Reaction rates were based on adjusted neutron spectra determined from reactor dosimetry measurements at three different elevations in the region of the beryllium capsules. Equations are given so that gas production can be calculated for any specific capsule elevation.

  6. Electronically tunable fiber laser for optical pumping of {sup 3}He and {sup 4}He

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, E.F.; Patrick, H.; Gilbert, S.L.

    1996-03-01

    We present in this paper a low threshold, highly stable, integrated fiber laser cavity that uses an electronically tunable internal Bragg grating. The fiber laser produced over 5 mW with a spectral width of about 5 GHz at 1083 nm. The laser was used to achieve 30{percent} polarization of the 2{sup 3}{ital S}{sub 1} metastable states of {sup 4}He in a weak rf discharge cell. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Maximum supercoolign in liquid /sup 3/He-/sup 4/He mixtures near the tricritical point

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, D.N.; Hoffer, J.K.

    1984-01-01

    Measurements of supercooling in liquid /sup 3/He-/sup 4/He mixtures near the tricritical point are presented. The reduced temperature range 0.001 < epsilon identical to (1 - T/T/sub t/) < 0.01 was investigated for three different rates of cooling using a pressure-quench technique. For epsilon < 0.012, the maximum supercooling was found to be a function of the cooling rate. Comparisons with data in organic binary mixtures are given.

  8. Wave Turbulence in Superfluid {sup 4}He: Energy Cascades and Rogue Waves in the Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Efimov, V. B.; Ganshin, A. N.; McClintock, P. V. E.; Kolmakov, G. V.; Mezhov-Deglin, L. P.

    2008-11-13

    Recent work on second sound acoustic turbulence in superfluid {sup 4}He is reviewed. Observations of forward and inverse energy cascades are described. The onset of the inverse cascade occurs above a critical driving energy and it is accompanied by giant waves that constitute an acoustic analogue of the rogue waves that occasionally appear on the surface of the ocean. The theory of the phenomenon is outlined and shown to be in good agreement with the experiments.

  9. A new method for determining the 3He/4He ratio in the local interstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoine, M.; Vidal-Madjar, A.; Ferlet, R.

    1993-06-01

    We propose here an original method for estimating the 3He/4 Heratio in the local diffuse interstellar medium at a low cost from an observational point of view. The main idea is to measure the shift in radial velocity of the 4He λ537Å and λ584Å lines due to the presence of 3He in the red wing of these lines, and to compare the observed shift to the shifts obtained through numerical simulations for different 3He/4He ratios. We performed such simulations in order to reveal the efficiency of this method, using typical astrophysical conditions and instrumental parameters corresponding to the Lyman-FUSE mission. We find that this method should yield the 3He/4He ratio with a 1 σ uncertainty ˜50% at a spectral resolving power R=30 000 and a signal-to-noise ratio S/N=50. This method thus appears more adapted to a forehand estimation of the interstellar 3He/4He ratio than the standard profile fitting method, which should yield a 1 σ uncertainty of 10% at R=30 000 and S/N ≃ 290 (Hurwitz & Bowyer, t985). Finally, our method should be able to settle the evolutionary status of 3He if 3He has been significantly enhanced or depleted in the last 4.6 Gyr. Combined with the measurement of the deuterium abundance on the same line of sight (already programmed on HST), this might yield very important constraint on Big-Bang nucleosynthesis consistency.

  10. Combination of a 3He/ 4He dilution refrigerator and an ESR spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Spalden, Y.; Baberschke, K.

    1981-08-01

    We report the combination of a 3He/ 4He dilution refrigerator with ESR spectrometers of 1,3 and 9 GHz. Since only the sample is cooled down to Millikelvin, the microwave-frequency frequency setup can be changed very eaily during an experiment. The ESR intensities of a Au167 Er and a AuEr sample were used to calibrate the temperature of the sample.

  11. Primary populations of metastable antiprotonic (4)He and (3)He atoms.

    PubMed

    Hori, M; Eades, J; Hayano, R S; Ishikawa, T; Sakaguchi, J; Tasaki, T; Widmann, E; Yamaguchi, H; Torii, H A; Juhász, B; Horváth, D; Yamazaki, T

    2002-08-26

    Initial distributions of metastable antiprotonic (4)He and (3)He atoms over principal (n) and angular momentum (l) quantum numbers have been deduced using laser spectroscopy experiments. The regions n = 37-40 and n = 35-38 in the two atoms account for almost all of the observed fractions [(3.0 +/- 0.1)% and (2.4 +/- 0.1)%] of antiprotons captured into metastable states. PMID:12190401

  12. Selective adsorption of 4He on the NaCl(001) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, W. Y.; Larese, J. Z.; Frankl, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    The diffraction of 4He nozzle beams at several energies from cleaved (001) surfaces of NaCl has been studied. Resonance features are identified and give binding energies of 4.1 ± 0.1, 1.5 ± 0.1 and 0.3 ± 0.15 meV. One feature suggests an energy of 5 meV, but this is unsubstantiated. The resonance signatures are in disagreement with elastic scattering theories.

  13. Observation of a Dislocation-Related Interfacial Friction Mechanism in Mobile Solid 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyal, Anna; Livne, Ethan; Polturak, Emil

    2016-04-01

    We report a study of the temperature and stress dependence of the friction associated with a relative motion of crystallites of solid 4He in contact with each other. A situation where such motion exists emerges spontaneously during a disordering of a single crystal contained inside an annular sample space of a torsional oscillator (TO). Under the torque applied by the oscillating walls of the TO these crystallites move relative to each other, generating measurable dissipation at their interface. We studied this friction between 0.5 and 1.8 K in solid samples grown from commercially pure 4He and from a 100 ppm 3He-4He mixture. The data were analyzed by modeling the TO as a driven harmonic oscillator. In this model, an analysis of the resonant frequency and amplitude of the TO yields the temperature dependence of the friction coefficient. By fitting the data to specific forms, we found that over our temperature range, the dominant friction mechanism associated with the interfacial motion of the crystallites results from climb of individual dislocations. The characteristic energy scale associated with this friction can be 3 or 6 K, depending on the sample. The motion of the solid in the presence of such friction can perhaps be described as the low limit of "slip-stick" motion.

  14. Superfluid Onset of 4He Nanotube Depending on a One-Dimensional Length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, T.; Shinohara, A.; Hieda, M.; Wada, N.

    2016-05-01

    A 1D Bose fluid has been actually realized for the 4 He nanotubes formed in 1D nanochannels, and the superfluidity observed by a torsional oscillator. Dependence of the superfluid density on the channel diameter was qualitatively well explained by a theory that the superfluid onset temperature depends on an effective 1D length L_{eff} which is the ratio of the length to the circumference of the fluid nanotube. To examine this mechanism, we measured the superfluid of a new 4 He nanotube formed in the 1D channel with the diameter 3.1 nm and the length 10-20 \\upmu m, which is one order longer than that of the former channels. The observed superfluid is similar to that of the much smaller diameter, typically 2.2 or 1.8 nm, channel with the shorter length. This indicates that the superfluid onset observed for the present 4He nanotubes is determined by the finite effective 1D length L_{eff}, not by the channel diameter. In addition to this length dependence, dynamics at the 1D superfluid onset is indicated by a dissipation peak at 103 Hz measurement frequency.

  15. Observation of Non-Classical Rotational Inertia in Bulk Solid 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Motoshi; Takada, Shunichi; Shibayama, Yoshiyuki; Shirahama, Keiya

    2007-09-01

    In recent torsional oscillator experiments by Kim and Chan (KC), a decrease of rotational inertia has been observed in solid 4He in porous materials (Kim, E., Chan, M.H.W. in Nature 427:225, 2004; J. Low Temp. Phys. 138:859, 2005) and in a bulk annular channel (Kim, E., Chan, M.H.W. in Science 305:1941, 2004). This observation strongly suggests the existence of “non-classical rotational inertia” (NCRI), i.e. superflow, in solid 4He. In order to study such a possible “supersolid” phase, we perform torsional oscillator experiments for cylindrical solid 4He samples. We have observed decreases in rotational inertia below 200 mK for two solid samples (pressures P=4.1 and 3.0 MPa). The observed NCRI fraction at 70 mK is 0.14%, which is about 1/3 of the fraction observed in the annulus by KC. Our observation is the first experimental confirmation of the possible supersolid finding by KC.

  16. Capillary Condensation of Liquid 4He in Aerogel on Cooling Through {lambda} Point

    SciTech Connect

    Miyashita, W.; Yoneyama, K.; Kato, H.; Nomura, R.; Okuda, Y.

    2006-09-07

    Capillary condensation of liquid 4He in silica aerogel with a 90% porosity was investigated visually. The initial condition of the experiment was such that liquid 4He was present in the sample cell but not in the aerogel. This situation was realized by introducing the liquid into the cell at a fast rate to avoid liquefaction in the aerogel. The free surface of the liquid rose up in the cell with filling and eventually reached the bottom of the aerogel. Then, the aerogel absorbed the liquid by capillary condensation. The height of the liquid in the aerogel rose with time t roughly as t1/2 in the normal fluid phase. This behavior was consistent with the Washburn model. When the system was cooled through the {lambda} point during the condensation, the liquid height started to rise faster in the superfluid phase with a constant velocity of about 0.3 mm/sec. The dynamics of capillary condensation was strongly dependent on whether the liquid 4He was in the normal or the superfluid phase.

  17. New solar axion search using the CERN Axion Solar Telescope with 4He filling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arik, M.; Aune, S.; Barth, K.; Belov, A.; Bräuninger, H.; Bremer, J.; Burwitz, V.; Cantatore, G.; Carmona, J. M.; Cetin, S. A.; Collar, J. I.; Da Riva, E.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Dermenev, A.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Elias, N.; Fanourakis, G.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Galán, J.; García, J. A.; Gardikiotis, A.; Garza, J. G.; Gazis, E. N.; Geralis, T.; Georgiopoulou, E.; Giomataris, I.; Gninenko, S.; Gómez Marzoa, M.; Hasinoff, M. D.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Iguaz, F. J.; Irastorza, I. G.; Jacoby, J.; Jakovčić, K.; Karuza, M.; Kavuk, M.; Krčmar, M.; Kuster, M.; Lakić, B.; Laurent, J. M.; Liolios, A.; Ljubičić, A.; Luzón, G.; Neff, S.; Niinikoski, T.; Nordt, A.; Ortega, I.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M. J.; Raffelt, G.; Rodríguez, A.; Rosu, M.; Ruz, J.; Savvidis, I.; Shilon, I.; Solanki, S. K.; Stewart, L.; Tomás, A.; Vafeiadis, T.; Villar, J.; Vogel, J. K.; Yildiz, S. C.; Zioutas, K.; CAST Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) searches for a →γ conversion in the 9 T magnetic field of a refurbished LHC test magnet that can be directed toward the Sun. Two parallel magnet bores can be filled with helium of adjustable pressure to match the x-ray refractive mass mγ to the axion search mass ma. After the vacuum phase (2003-2004), which is optimal for ma≲0.02 eV , we used 4He in 2005-2007 to cover the mass range of 0.02-0.39 eV and 3He in 2009-2011 to scan from 0.39 to 1.17 eV. After improving the detectors and shielding, we returned to 4He in 2012 to investigate a narrow ma range around 0.2 eV ("candidate setting" of our earlier search) and 0.39-0.42 eV, the upper axion mass range reachable with 4He, to "cross the axion line" for the KSVZ model. We have improved the limit on the axion-photon coupling to ga γ<1.47 ×10-10 GeV-1 (95% C.L.), depending on the pressure settings. Since 2013, we have returned to the vacuum and aim for a significant increase in sensitivity.

  18. Active Inspection of Nuclear Materials Using {sup 4}He Scintillation Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Davatz, G.; Howard, A.; Chandra, R.; Gendotti, U.

    2011-12-13

    The detection of fissionable materials by neutron and high-energy photon active interrogation methods is explored using {sup 4}He scintillation detectors to search for prompt and delayed neutron signature. The low electron density of {sup 4}He in addition to its pulse shape discrimination capability allows strong rejection of gamma radiation. For the detection of the prompt neutron signatures, this capability is important as the signal produced by induced fission is accompanied by intense gamma radiation. The nanosecond time resolution of {sup 4}He scintillation detectors can be used for time-of-flight measurements aimed at determining the energy of the emitted neutrons. For delayed neutron detection, the insensitivity to the low energy neutrons present from non-signal reactions is inherent. Unlike detectors requiring a moderator, this technology can easily be collimated to reduce sensitivity to neutrons from outside the field of interest. The performance of the detectors for these applications is studied using GEANT4 computer modeling, based on measured detector parameters. A comparison is made with technologies typically used for these applications, i.e. heavily shielded organic scintillators for prompt neutron detection and Cd-lined {sup 3}He neutron detectors for the detection of delayed neutrons.

  19. On the Evolution of the Light Elements. I. D, 3He, and 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fields, Brian D.

    1996-01-01

    The light elements D, 3He, 4He, and 7Li are produced in big bang nucleosynthesis and undergo changes in their abundances due to Galactic processing. Since one may observe most of these elements only in contemporary environments, knowledge of the intervening evolution is necessary for determining the observational constraints on primordial nucleosynthesis Chemical and stellar evolution model dependences in light element evolution are systematically investigated via a comparison of 1460 possible chemical evolution scenarios and a comparison of stellar nucleosynthesis yields, all of which have been selected to fit solar neighborhood C, N, 0, and Fe abundances as well as the observed local gas density and gas mass fraction. The light element evolution and solar system yields in these models are found to span a wide range, explicitly demonstrating the model dependence. The range of model dependence for D, 3He, and 4He solar abundances is calculated, and its sensitivity to the heavy element constraints is noted. The chemical evolution contribution to the uncertainty in the observed primordial light element abundances is estimated, and the effects of this uncertainty on big bang nucleosynthesis results are discussed. The predictions for the light elements are found to be correlated; the extent and physical origin of these correlations is discussed. D and 3He evolution is found to have significant model dependence; however, the dominant factor determining their solar and interstellar abundances is their primordial abundance. In addition, 3He is found to be very sensitive to the details of processing in low-mass stars. 4He yields are shown to be very model dependent. In particular, both the introduction of mass loss and the possibly very high 4He stellar yields in the poorly understood mass range of ˜8-12Msun can lead to large enhancement of 4He production and can lead to large slopes of ΔY/ΔN and ΔY/ΔO. It is found that the inclusion of secondary nitrogen leads to

  20. Apatite 4He/3He thermochronometry evidence for an ancient Grand Canyon, Colorado Plateau, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flowers, R. M.; Farley, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    The very existence of Grand Canyon inspires questions about why canyons are carved, how drainage systems and landscapes evolve, and how these processes relate to the elevation gain of plateaus. Yet when and why Grand Canyon was carved have been extraordinarily controversial for more than 150 years. Over the last several decades, the dominant view for the origin of the canyon is one of rapid incision at 5-6 Ma, when detritus derived from the upstream reaches of the Colorado River system appeared in Grand Wash Trough at the Colorado River's western exit from the Colorado Plateau. The absence of such diagnostic deposits prior to 6 Ma has been used to argue that Grand Canyon was not yet excavated (e.g., Karlstrom et al., 2008). However, a variety of data hint at a more ancient age for part or all of the canyon, and it has been proposed that a smaller drainage basin in largely carbonate lithologies could explain the absence of pre-6 Ma Colorado River clastics in Grand Wash Trough even if a significant Grand Canyon were present. Most recently, apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) thermochronometry data from western Grand Canyon were used to infer excavation of this area to within several hundred meters of its modern depth by ca. 70 Ma (Wernicke, 2011), an interpretation in direct conflict with the young canyon model. The unexpected implications of the initial Grand Canyon AHe work motivated the apatite 4He/3He and U-Th zonation study presented here. Apatite 4He/3He thermochronometry provides information about the spatial distribution of radiogenic 4He in an apatite crystal that can better constrain a sample's cooling history. A key premise of AHe and 4He/3He spectra interpretation is that the He kinetic model used is accurate. We first investigate whether differing 4He/3He spectra for apatites of variable AHe date, radiation damage, and U-Th zonation from eastern Grand Canyon yield mutually consistent thermal history results using the RDAAM kinetic model, which must be true if the

  1. Shell-model description of the charge form factor and the first excited state in /sup 4/He

    SciTech Connect

    Bevelacqua, J.J.

    1982-09-01

    A /sup 4/He shell-model formalism, including two- and three-body forces, is used to calculate ground and first excited state properties. Inclusion of the three-body force improves the calculated ground state rms radius, ground state form factor, and position of the /sup 4/He first excited state.

  2. Use of correlated potential harmonic basis functions for the description of the {sup 4}He trimer and small clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Tapan Kumar; Chakrabarti, Barnali; Canuto, Sylvio

    2011-04-28

    A correlated many-body basis function is used to describe the {sup 4}He trimer and small helium clusters ({sup 4}He{sub N}) with N= 4 - 9. A realistic helium dimer potential is adopted. The ground state results of the {sup 4}He dimer and trimer are in close agreement with earlier findings. But no evidence is found for the existence of Efimov state in the trimer for the actual {sup 4}He-{sup 4}He interaction. However, decreasing the potential strength we calculate several excited states of the trimer which exhibit Efimov character. We also solve for excited state energies of these clusters which are in good agreement with Monte Carlo hyperspherical description.

  3. 16O + 16O molecular structures of positive- and negative-parity superdeformed bands in 34S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Yasutaka

    2016-05-01

    The structures of excited states in 34S are investigated using the antisymmetrized molecular dynamics and generator coordinate method(GCM). The GCM basis wave functions are calculated via energy variation with a constraint on the quadrupole deformation parameter β. By applying the GCM after parity and angular momentum projections, the coexistence of two positive- and one negative-parity super de formed(SD) bands are predicted, and low-lying states and other deformed bands are obtained. The SD bands have structures of 16O + 16O + two valence neutrons in molecular orbitals around the two 16O cores in a cluster picture. The configurations of the two valence neutrons are δ2 and π2 for the positive-parity SD bands and π1δ1 for the negative parity SD band.

  4. Precision prediction for the big-bang abundance of primordial 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Robert E.; Turner, Michael S.

    1999-05-01

    Within the standard models of particle physics and cosmology we have calculated the big-bang prediction for the primordial abundance of 4He to a theoretical uncertainty of less than 0.1% (δYP<+/-0.0002), improving the current theoretical precision by a factor of 10. At this accuracy the uncertainty in the abundance is dominated by the experimental uncertainty in the neutron mean lifetime, τn=885.4+/-2.0 sec. The following physical effects were included in the calculation: the zero and finite-temperature radiative, Coulomb and finite-nucleon-mass corrections to the weak rates; order-α quantum-electrodynamic correction to the plasma density, electron mass, and neutrino temperature; and incomplete neutrino decoupling. New results for the finite-temperature radiative correction and the QED plasma correction were used. In addition, we wrote a new and independent nucleosynthesis code designed to control numerical errors to be less than 0.1% . Our predictions for the 4He abundance are presented in the form of an accurate fitting formula. Summarizing our work in one number, YP(η=5×10-10)=0.2462+/-0.0004 (expt) +/-<0.0002 (theory). Further, the baryon density inferred from the Burles-Tytler determination of the primordial D abundance, ΩBh2=0.019+/-0.001, leads to the prediction YP=0.2464+/-0.0005 (D/H) +/-<0.0002 (theory) +/-0.0005 (expt). This ``prediction'' and an accurate measurement of the primeval 4He abundance will allow an important consistency test of primordial nucleosynthesis.

  5. Spatially Extended Avalanches in a Hysteretic Capillary Condensation System: Superfluid {sup {bold 4}}He in Nuclepore

    SciTech Connect

    Lilly, M.P.; Wootters, A.H.; Hallock, R.B.

    1996-11-01

    Capacitive studies of hysteretic capillary condensation of superfluid {sup 4}He in Nuclepore have shown that the initial draining of the pores occurs over a small range of the chemical potential with avalanches present as groups of pores drain. In the work reported here, the avalanches in this system are shown to be nonlocal events which involve pores distributed at low density across the entire sample. The nonlocal avalanche behavior is shown to be enabled by the presence of a superfluid film connection among the pores. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  6. Candidate Resonant Tetraneutron State Populated by the 4He (8H3, 8Be) ) Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisamori, K.; Shimoura, S.; Miya, H.; Michimasa, S.; Ota, S.; Assie, M.; Baba, H.; Baba, T.; Beaumel, D.; Dozono, M.; Fujii, T.; Fukuda, N.; Go, S.; Hammache, F.; Ideguchi, E.; Inabe, N.; Itoh, M.; Kameda, D.; Kawase, S.; Kawabata, T.; Kobayashi, M.; Kondo, Y.; Kubo, T.; Kubota, Y.; Kurata-Nishimura, M.; Lee, C. S.; Maeda, Y.; Matsubara, H.; Miki, K.; Nishi, T.; Noji, S.; Sakaguchi, S.; Sakai, H.; Sasamoto, Y.; Sasano, M.; Sato, H.; Shimizu, Y.; Stolz, A.; Suzuki, H.; Takaki, M.; Takeda, H.; Takeuchi, S.; Tamii, A.; Tang, L.; Tokieda, H.; Tsumura, M.; Uesaka, T.; Yako, K.; Yanagisawa, Y.; Yokoyama, R.; Yoshida, K.

    2016-02-01

    A candidate resonant tetraneutron state is found in the missing-mass spectrum obtained in the double-charge-exchange reaction 4He (8H3, 8Be) at 186 MeV /u . The energy of the state is 0.83 ±0.65 (stat ) ±1.25 (syst ) MeV above the threshold of four-neutron decay with a significance level of 4.9 σ . Utilizing the large positive Q value of the (8He, 8Be) reaction, an almost recoilless condition of the four-neutron system was achieved so as to obtain a weakly interacting four-neutron system efficiently.

  7. Inclusive proton polarization in. gamma. sup 3,4 He r arrow pX reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Zybalov, A.A.; Karasev, S.P.; Konovalov, O.G.; Marekhin, S.V.; Sorokin, P.V.; Storozhenko, Y.O.; Tenishev, A.E. )

    1989-05-01

    This paper presents the first measured data on the inclusive proton polarization in the interaction of photons with {sup 3}He and {sup 4}He nuclei. The proton energy (170 MeV) and emission angle (72{degree}) were chosen such that the proton yield from the meson photoproduction reaction on free nucleons should be kinematically forbidden, and the photon energy in the disintegration of the two-nucleon pair in the nucleus should be such that ensures an essential polarization of the proton from the deuteron photodisintegration. The measurements were performed using the Kharkov 2 GeV electron linac facilities. (AIP)

  8. Measurements of Vortex Line Density Generated by a Quartz Tuning Fork in Superfluid 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, M. J.; Kolosov, O.; Schmoranzer, D.; Skrbek, L.; Tsepelin, V.; Woods, A. J.

    2016-05-01

    We present proof-of-concept measurements of the vortex line density generated by a quartz tuning fork resonator probed by the attenuation of second sound in superfluid ^4He at 1.6 K. The force-velocity response of a quartz tuning fork operating at a frequency of 31 kHz exhibited the onset of extra damping at a velocity of 0.5 ms^{-1}. Attenuation of the 5th resonant mode of second sound was observed at the same velocity, indicating the production of vortex lines. Our measurements demonstrate that an increase of the drag coefficient corresponds to the development of quantum turbulence.

  9. Quantum Tunneling of ^3 He in Solid ^4 He: A New Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huan, C.; Kim, S. S.; Candela, D.; Sullivan, N. S.

    2016-06-01

    We discuss the analysis of the experimental values of the nuclear spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation times for the tunneling of ^3 He as isotopic impurities in solid ^4 He. These two relaxation times cannot be described quantitatively using a unique correlation time although it is often presented as such in the literature. In this paper, we discuss how to distinguish the high-frequency portion of the spectral densities that determine the spin-lattice relaxation rates from the low-frequency components which determine the spin-spin relaxation rates.

  10. Formation of a Mesa Shaped Phonon Pulse in Superfluid 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamenko, I. N.; Nemchenko, K. E.; Slipko, V. A.

    2010-05-01

    We present a theory for the formation of a mesa shaped phonon pulse in superfluid 4He. Starting from the hydrodynamic equations of superfluid helium, we obtain the system of equations which describe the evolution of strongly anisotropic phonon systems. Such systems can be created experimentally. The solution of the equations are simple waves, which correspond to second sound in the moving phonon pulse. Using these exact solutions, we describe the expansion of phonon pulses in superfluid helium at zero temperature. This theory gives an explanation for the mesa shape observed in the measured phonon angular distributions. Almost all dependencies of the mesa shape on the system parameters can be qualitatively understood.

  11. Communication: Nucleation of quantized vortex rings in {sup 4}He nanodroplets

    SciTech Connect

    Mateo, David; Leal, Antonio; Barranco, Manuel; Pi, Martí; Hernando, Alberto; Cargnoni, Fausto; Mella, Massimo; Zhang, Xiaohang; Drabbels, Marcel

    2014-04-07

    Whereas most of the phenomena associated with superfluidity have been observed in finite-size helium systems, the nucleation of quantized vortices has proven elusive. Here we show using time-dependent density functional simulations that the solvation of a Ba{sup +} ion created by photoionization of neutral Ba at the surface of a {sup 4}He nanodroplet leads to the nucleation of a quantized ring vortex. The vortex is nucleated on a 10 ps timescale at the equator of a solid-like solvation structure that forms around the Ba{sup +} ion. The process is expected to be quite general and very efficient under standard experimental conditions.

  12. Formation of 3He droplets in dilute 3He-4He solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huan, Chao; Candela, Don; Kim, Sung; Yin, Liang; Xia, Jiang-Sheng; Sullivan, Neil

    2015-03-01

    We review the different stages of the formation of 3He droplets in dilute solid 3He-4He solutions. The studies are interesting because the phase separation in isotopic helium mixtures is a first-order transition with a conserved order parameter. The rate of growth of the droplets as observed in NMR studies is compared with the rates expected for homogeneous nucleation followed by a period of coarsening known as Ostwald ripening. Work suported by the National Science Foundation - DMR-1303599 and DMR- 1157490 (National High Magnetic Field Laboratory).

  13. Measurements of Superfluid 4He Flow Through Sub-15 nm Aperture Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, J. A.; Hunt, B.; Wang, M.; Davis, J. C.; Black, C. T.

    2006-09-07

    We have constructed an experiment designed to study Josephson phenomena in 4He. Motivated by reports and our ideas for novel silicon nanofabrication techniques, we designed the experiment to study the possibility of a transition from stochastic to coherent phase slippage. Here we briefly describe the nanofabrication of sub-15 nm aperture arrays and show preliminary data. For temperatures below 2 K, these data show temperature dependence of the superfluid critical velocity through the weak link which is characteristic of phase-slip limited flow.

  14. Heat Capacity of Superfluid (sup 4)He in the Presence of a Heat Current Near T

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chui, Talso C. P.; Goodstein, David L.; Harter, Alexa W.; Mukhopadhyay, Ranjan

    1996-01-01

    The thermodynamic theory of superfluid helium in the presence of a heat current is presented. We show that there is a thermodynamic relation between the heat capacity and the expression ps(W), which describes the depression of the superfluid density with the counterflow velocity W. Using this relation we show that the heat capacity of superfluid super4He in the presence of a heat current diverges at a depressed lambda transition temperature, suggesting the possibility of a new second order phase transition where the superfluid wave function is not the order parameter.

  15. Superfluidity, Bose condensation and neutron scattering in liquid {sup 4}He

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, R.N.

    1997-04-01

    The relation between superfluidity and Bose condensation in {sup 4}He provides lessons that may be valuable in understanding the strongly correlated electron system of high {Tc} superconductivity. Direct observation of a Bose condensate in the superfluid by deep inelastic neutron scattering measurements has been attempted over many years. But the impulse approximation, which relates momentum distributions to neutron scattering structure functions, is broadened by final state effects. Nevertheless, the excellent quantitative agreement between ab initio quantum many body theory and high precision neutron experiments provides confidence in the connection between superfluidity and Bose condensation.

  16. Torsional oscillator and synchrotron x-ray experiments on solid {sup 4}He in aerogel.

    SciTech Connect

    Mulders, N.; West, J. T.; Chan, M. H. W.; Kodituwakku, C. N.; Burns, C. A.; Lurio, L. B.; Univ. of Delaware; Pennsylvania State Univ.; Western Michigan Univ.; Northern Illinois Univ.

    2008-01-01

    X-ray diffraction experiments show that solid {sup 4}He grown in aerogel is highly polycrystalline, with an hcp crystal structure (as in bulk) and a crystallite size of approximately 100 nm. In contrast to the expectation that the highly disordered solid will have a large supersolid fraction, torsional oscillator measurements show a behavior that is strikingly similar to high purity crystals grown from the superfluid phase. The low temperature supersolid fraction is only {approx}3 x 10{sup -4}, and the onset temperature is {approx}100 mK.

  17. Dynamics of the BCC-HCP transition of solid 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Hirosuke; Okumura, Yuji; Matsumoto, Koichi; Okuda, Yuichi

    2000-07-01

    We are optically studying the phase transition from BCC to HCP of solid 4He (1.43 K) at melting pressure to investigate how the crystal changes its structure when it is in equilibrium with superfluid. When the temperature was changed slowly through the transition, new phase seeds were nucleated somewhere and those seeds grew in the superfluid phase. The interesting point is that growth of the new seeds is more favorable than the direct solid-solid Martensitic transition. Whereas at the transition of 1.78 K where the solid is in equilibrium with the normal fluid, the transition occurred as an ordinary Martensitic transition.

  18. Self-consistent continuum random-phase approximation calculations of {sup 4}He electromagnetic responses

    SciTech Connect

    De Donno, V.; Co', G.; Anguiano, M.; Lallena, A. M.

    2011-09-15

    We study the electromagnetic responses of {sup 4}He within the framework of the self-consistent continuum random-phase approximation theory. In this approach, the ground-state properties are described by a Hartree-Fock calculation. The single-particle basis constructed in this manner is used in the calculations of the continuum responses of the system. Finite-range interactions are considered in the calculations. We compare our results with photon-absorption cross sections and electron-scattering quasielastic data. From this comparison, and also from the comparison with the results of microscopic calculations, we deduce that our approach describes well the continuum excitation.

  19. Properties of 4He and 6Li with improved chiral EFT interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maris, P.; Binder, S.; Calci, A.; Epelbaum, E.; Furnstahl, R. J.; Golak, J.; Hebeler, K.; Kamada, H.; Krebs, H.; Langhammer, J.; Liebig, S.; Meißner, U.-G.; Minossi, D.; Nogga, A.; Potter, H.; Roth, R.; Skibiński, R.; Topolnicki, K.; Vary, J. P.; Witala, H.

    2016-03-01

    We present recent results for 4He and 6Li obtained with improved NN interactions derived from chiral effective field theory up to N4LO. The many-body calculations are performed order-by-order in the chiral expansion. At N3LO and N4LO additional renormalization using the Similarity Renormalization Group is adopted to improve numerical convergence of the many-body calculations. We discuss results for the ground state energies, as well as the magnetic moment and the low-lying spectrum of 6Li.

  20. Dissociation of relativistic {sup 7}Be nuclei through the {sup 3}He+{sup 4}He channel on a proton target

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandrov, Yu. A.; Peresadko, N. G. Gerasimov, S. G.; Dronov, V. A.; Pisetskaya, A. V.; Fetisov, V. N.; Kharlamov, S. P.; Shesterkina, L. N.

    2015-05-15

    The differential cross section for the interaction of {sup 7}Be nuclei with protons was measured in the momentum-transfer region extending up to a value of 0.5 GeV/c at which {sup 7}Be decay to {sup 3}He and {sup 4}He fragments was not accompanied by the emergence of other charged particles. In the momentum-transfer region extending up to about 100 MeV/c, the cross section is strongly suppressed in just the same way as in the case of the dissociation of {sup 7}Li nuclei on a proton target through the {sup 3}H+{sup 4}He channel. The total reaction cross section is 10 ± 4 mb. The mean transverse-momentum transfer in observed events is 233 ± 6 MeV/c, the dispersion of its distribution being about 63 MeV/c. The interactions in question were detected in photoemulsion irradiated with {sup 7}Be nuclei originating from a charge-exchange process involving {sup 7}Li nuclei accelerated to the momentum of 1.7 GeV/c per nucleon at the nuclotron of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna)

  1. Spectroscopic Parameters for Ozone and its Isotopes: Current Status, Prospects for Improvement, and the Identification of 16O16O17O and O-16O-16O-17 and O-16O-17O-16 Lines in Infrared Ground-Based and Stratospheric Solar Absorption Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Flaud, J.-M.; Goldman, A.; Perrin, A.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Smith, M. A. H.; Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. C.; Barbe, A.; Stephens, T. M.; Murcray, F. J.

    1998-01-01

    We describe the updates to the spectroscopic parameters of ozone and its isotopes in the 1996 HITRAN compilation. Recent published studies not included in HITRAN are also summarized. Finally, we report the identification of infrared lines of the v(sub 3) bands of O-16O-16O-17 and O-16O-17O-16 in high-resolution solar spectra recorded by stratospheric balloon-borne and ground-based Fourier transform spectrometers.

  2. Pion absorption on {sup 3}He and {sup 4}He with emission of three energetic protons

    SciTech Connect

    LADS Collaboration

    1997-06-01

    Results from a 4{pi} solid angle measurement of the reactions {sup 3}He({pi}{sup +},ppp) and {sup 4}He({pi}{sup +},ppp)n at incident pion energies of T{sub {pi}{sup +}}=70, 118, 162, 239, and 330 MeV are presented. For {sup 3}He the total absorption cross sections and their decomposition into two-proton and three-proton components are evaluated; for {sup 4}He the three-proton absorption cross sections are given. The differential distributions of the three-proton multinucleon absorption mode of both nuclei are analyzed and compared to each other by making use of a complete set of variables. The data are investigated for signatures of initial and final state interactions: it is found that more than half of the three-proton yield cannot be accounted for by cascade mechanisms. The remaining strength shows dependence on the incident pion angular momentum, but also structures that are not explained by simple semiclassical models. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  3. Study on the Turbulent Flow of Superfluid 4He Generated by a Vibrating Wire

    SciTech Connect

    Yano, H.; Handa, A.; Obara, K.; Ishikawa, O.; Hata, T.; Nakagawa, M.

    2006-09-07

    We have studied the flow of superfluid 4He generated by a vibrating wire. As the drive force increases, the velocity of the wire grows in the laminar-flow regime, until it suddenly drops at the onset of the turbulent-flow regime. As the drive force decreases, the turbulence disappears at a critical velocity. This result suggests that the vortices on the wire are confined within a finite size, even in turbulence. We have measured the critical velocity of seven vibrating wires, whose resonance frequencies range from 0.5 kHz to 9 kHz, at 1.4 K and found that the critical velocity is almost constant below an oscillation frequency of 2 kHz and increases above this frequency. We have also observed the response of a vibrating wire in superfluid 4He at a low temperature of 30 mK. We find that the resonance frequency jumps upward at the same moment as the entry of the flow to a turbulent state. The frequency jump may be caused by vortex dynamics such as expansion, entanglement, and reconnection occurring in the turbulence.

  4. Spin-polarized hydrogen adsorbed on the surface of superfluid {sup 4}He

    SciTech Connect

    Marín, J. M.; Boronat, J.; Markić, L. Vranješ

    2013-12-14

    The experimental realization of a thin layer of spin-polarized hydrogen H↓ adsorbed on top of the surface of superfluid {sup 4}He provides one of the best examples of a stable, nearly two-dimensional (2D) quantum Bose gas. We report a theoretical study of this system using quantum Monte Carlo methods in the limit of zero temperature. Using the full Hamiltonian of the system, composed of a superfluid {sup 4}He slab and the adsorbed H↓ layer, we calculate the main properties of its ground state using accurate models for the pair interatomic potentials. Comparing the results for the layer with the ones obtained for a strictly 2D setup, we analyze the departure from the 2D character when the density increases. Only when the coverage is rather small the use of a purely 2D model is justified. The condensate fraction of the layer is significantly larger than in 2D at the same surface density, being as large as 60% at the largest coverage studied.

  5. Excitations in a thin liquid {sup 4}He film from inelastic neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, B.E. |; Godfrin, H.; Krotscheck, E. |; Lauter, H.J.; Leiderer, P.; Passiouk, V. |; Tymczak, C.J.

    1996-05-01

    We perform a thorough analysis of the experimental dynamic structure function measured by inelastic neutron scattering for a low-temperature ({ital T}=0.65 K) four-layer liquid {sup 4}He film. The results are interpreted in light of recent theoretical calculations of the (nonvortex) excitations in thin liquid Bose films. The experimental system consists of four outer liquid layers, adsorbed to two solid inner {sup 4}He layers, which are themselves adsorbed to a graphite substrate. Relatively intense surface (ripplon) and bulklike modes are observed. The analysis of the experimental data gives strong evidence for still other modes and supports the long-standing theoretical predictions of layerlike modes (layer phonons) associated with excitations propagating primarily within the liquid layers comprising the film. The results of the analysis are consistent with the occurrence of level crossings between modes, and the existence of a layer modes for which the theory predicts will propagate in the vicinity of the solid-liquid interface. The theory and experiment agree on the detailed nature of the ripplon; its dispersion at low momenta, its fall off in intensity at intermediate momenta, and the level crossings at high momentum. Similar to experiment, the theory yields an intense mode in the maxon-roton region which is intrepreted as the formation of the bulklike excitation. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  6. Depression of the Superfluid Transition Temperature in 4He by a Heat Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Liang; Lin, Peng; Qi, Xin

    2014-11-01

    The depression of the superfluid transition temperature Tλ in 4He by a heat flow Q is studied. A small sealed cell with a capillary is introduced and a stable and flat superfluid transition temperature plateau is easily obtained by controlling the temperature of the variable-temperature platform and the bottom chamber of the sealed cell. Owing to the depression effect of the superfluid transition temperature by the heat flow, the heat flow through the capillary is changed by the temperature control to obtain multiple temperature plateaus of different heat flows. The thermometer self-heating effect, the residual heat leak of the 4.2 K environment, the temperature difference on the He II liquid column, the Kapiza thermal resistance between the liquid helium and the copper surface of the sealed cell, the temperature gradient of the sealed cell, the static pressure of the He II liquid column and other factors have influence on the depression effect and the influence is analyzed in detail. Twenty experiments of the depression of the superfluid transition temperature in 4He by heat flow are made with four sealed cells in one year. The formula of the superfluid transition temperature pressured by the heat flow is Tλ (Q) = -0.00000103Q + 2.1769108, and covers the range 229 <= Q <= 6462 μW/cm2.

  7. Unusual behavior of 3He-4He mixtures in connected OD boxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimball, M. O.; Gasparini, F. M.

    2009-02-01

    We report on measurements of the specific heat of 3He-4He mixtures confined to boxes connected with fill channels 1 μm wide and 19 nm high. These data were meant as a study of mixtures to test universality of finite-size scaling along the lambda-line. We find instead that the mixtures have very unusual behavior relative to mixtures studied in geometries for 2D and 1D crossover. These latter data can be scaled successfully as long as one does not include data for pure 4He. In contrast, the 0D crossover data do not scale on either side of the bulk transition temperature Tλ and have rather different overall behavior: They show a dramatically larger temperature shift of the specific heat maximum Cmax relative to data for 2D and ID, the value of the specific heat at Tλ is substantially smaller than that observed for the other dimensionalities, and the value of Cmax exceeds the magnitude of the bulk specific heat at the same temperature. This overall behavior is so unusual that it suggests there is a role being played by the connecting channels even though the liquid within them remains in the normal state over the temperature range in which the specific heat is measured.

  8. Giant isochoric compressibility of solid 4He: The bistability of superclimbing dislocations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuklov, A. B.

    2015-10-01

    A significant accumulation of matter in solid 4He observed during a superflow event, dubbed the giant isochoric compressibility (or the syringe effect), is discussed within the model of dislocations with superfluid core. It is shown that solid 4He in contact with a superfluid reservoir can develop a bistability with respect to the syringe fraction, with the threshold for the bias by chemical potential determined by a typical free length of dislocations with superfluid core. The main implications of this effect are hysteresis and strongly nonlinear dynamical behavior leading to growth, proliferation, and possibly exiting from a crystal of superclimbing dislocations. Three major channels for such dynamics are identified: (i) injection and inflation of the prismatic loops from the boundary, (ii) Bardeen-Herring generation of the loops in the bulk, and (iii) helical instability of the screw dislocations. It is argued that the syringe instability may have already been observed in the experiments on the superflow through solid Helium-4. Several testable predictions for the time and the bias dependencies of the dynamics are suggested.

  9. Observations of Vortex Emissions from Superfluid 4He Turbulence at High Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, S.; Wakasa, Y.; Kubo, H.; Obara, K.; Yano, H.; Ishikawa, O.; Hata, T.

    2014-04-01

    An immersed object with high velocity oscillations causes quantum turbulence in superfluid 4He, even at very low temperatures. The continuously generated turbulence may emit vortex rings from a turbulent region. In the present work, we report vortex emissions from quantum turbulence in superfluid 4He at high temperatures, by using three vibrating wires as a turbulence generator and vortex detectors. Two detector wires were mounted beside a generator wire: one in parallel and the other in perpendicular to the oscillation direction of the generator. The detection times of vortex rings represent an exponential distribution with a delay time t 0 and a mean detection period t 1. The delay time includes the generation time of a fully developed turbulence and the time-of-flight of a vortex ring. At high temperatures, vortices are dissipated by relative motion between a normal fluid component and the vortices, resulting that only large vortex rings are reachable to the detectors. Using this method, we detected vortex rings with a diameter of 100 μm, comparable to a peak-to-peak vibration amplitude of 104 μm of the generator. The large vortices observed here are emitted anisotropically from the generator. The emissions parallel to the vibrating direction are much less than those perpendicular to the direction.

  10. Missing Lead and High 3He/4He in Ancient Sulfides Associated with Continental Crust Formation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shichun; Lee, Cin-Ty A.; Yin, Qing-Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Major terrestrial reservoirs have Pb isotopes more radiogenic than the bulk silicate Earth. This requires a missing unradiogenic Pb reservoir, which has been argued to reside in the lower continental crust or dissolved in the core. Chalcophile element studies indicate that continent formation requires the formation of sulfide-bearing mafic cumulates in arcs. Because Pb, but not U, partitions into sulfides, we show that continent formation must have simultaneously generated time-integrated unradiogenic Pb reservoirs composed of sulfide-bearing cumulates, now recycled back into the mantle or stored deep in the continental lithosphere. The generation of such cumulates could also lead to coupled He-Pb isotopic systematics because 4He is also produced during U-Th-Pb decay. Here, we show that He may be soluble in sulfide melts, such that sulfide-bearing cumulates would be enriched in both Pb and He relative to U and Th, “freezing” in He and Pb isotopes of the ambient mantle at the time of sulfide formation. This implies that ancient sulfide-bearing cumulates would be characterized by unradiogenic Pb and He isotopes (high-3He/4He). These primitive signatures are usually attributed to primordial, undifferentiated mantle, but in this case, they are the very imprint of mantle differentiation via continent formation. PMID:24937103

  11. Experiments on the rapid mechanical expansion of liquid 4He through its superfluid transition.

    PubMed

    Efimov, V B; Griffiths, O J; Hendry, P C; Kolmakov, G V; McClintock, P V E; Skrbek, L

    2006-11-01

    Phenomena following a rapid mechanical quench of liquid 4He from its normal to its superfluid phase are reported and discussed. The mechanical expansion apparatus is an improved version of that described previously. It uses a double-cell geometry to effect a partial separation of the sample from the convolutions of the bellows that form the outer wall of the cell. Consistent with earlier work, no evidence is found for the production of quantized vortices via the Kibble-Zurek (KZ) mechanism. Although the expansion is complete within 15ms , the second-sound velocity and attenuation continue to increase for a further approximately 60ms ; correspondingly the temperature decreases. Subsequently, the temperature rises again toward its final value as the second-sound velocity and attenuation decrease. It is shown that this unexpected behavior is apparently associated with a large-amplitude second-sound oscillation produced by the expansion, and it is suggested that the observed vortices are created by the normal fluid-superfluid counterflow that constitutes the second-sound wave. If production of large-amplitude second sound is inherent to the mechanical expansion of liquid 4He through the superfluid transition, as appears to be the case for final temperatures more than 3mK from the lambda transition, the phenomenon sets a lower bound on the density of KZ vortices that can be detected in this type of experiment. PMID:17279991

  12. Communication: Unraveling the {sup 4}He droplet-mediated soft-landing from ab initio-assisted and time-resolved density functional simulations: Au@{sup 4}He{sub 300}/TiO{sub 2}(110)

    SciTech Connect

    Lara-Castells, María Pilar de Aguirre, Néstor F.; Stoll, Hermann; Mitrushchenkov, Alexander O.; Mateo, David; Pi, Martí

    2015-04-07

    An ab-initio-based methodological scheme for He-surface interactions and zero-temperature time-dependent density functional theory for superfluid {sup 4}He droplets motion are combined to follow the short-time collision dynamics of the Au@{sup 4}He{sub 300} system with the TiO{sub 2}(110) surface. This composite approach demonstrates the {sup 4}He droplet-assisted sticking of the metal species to the surface at low landing energy (below 0.15 eV/atom), thus providing the first theoretical evidence of the experimentally observed {sup 4}He droplet-mediated soft-landing deposition of metal nanoparticles on solid surfaces [Mozhayskiy et al., J. Chem. Phys. 127, 094701 (2007) and Loginov et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 115, 7199 (2011)].

  13. Absolute partial decay branching-ratios in 16O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheldon, C.; Ashwood, N. I.; Barr, M.; Curtis, N.; Freer, M.; Kokalova, Tz; Malcolm, J. D.; Spencer, S. J.; Ziman, V. A.; Faestermann, Th; Krücken, R.; Wirth, H.-F.; Hertenberger, R.; Lutter, R.; Bergmaier, A.

    2013-04-01

    The a-transfer reaction 126C(63Li, d)168O* has been performed at a 6Li bombarding energy of 42 MeV to populate excited states in 13C and 16O. Absolute branching ratios have been unambiguously determined for states in the excitation energy range 13.85 to 15.87 MeV and reduced widths are extracted.

  14. Dynamic structure factor of liquid 4He across the normal-superfluid transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferré, G.; Boronat, J.

    2016-03-01

    We have carried out a microscopic study of the dynamic structure factor of liquid 4He across the normal-superfluid transition temperature using the path integral Monte Carlo method. The ill-posed problem of the inverse Laplace transform, from the imaginary-time intermediate scattering function to the dynamic response, is tackled by stochastic optimization. Our results show a quasiparticle peak and a small and broad multiphonon contribution. In spite of the lack of strength in the collective peaks, we clearly identify the rapid dropping of the roton peak amplitude when crossing the transition temperature Tλ. Other properties such as the static structure factor, static response, and one-phonon contribution to the response are also calculated at different temperatures. The changes of the phonon-roton spectrum with the temperature are also studied. An overall agreement with available experimental data is achieved.

  15. Development of Experiments to Measure D and 4He Charge Radii with Elastic Electron Scattering Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saudi, Sheikh

    Charge radii are one of the important physical characteristics to understand the electromagnetic structure of nuclei. For light nuclei, they are playing a more critical role to better understand the nucleon-nucleon interaction and test the existing models for bound states. Recent measurements of proton radius, done with muonic hydrogen spectroscopy, showed about 7 standard deviation lower than previous experimental results. This discrepancy triggered the so called "Proton Radius Puzzle" in physics world. Several groups are preparing to perform new experiments to extract the proton radius with better precision and model independent methods. It is equally important to perform new experiments for light nuclei, like deuteron (D) and helium-4 (4He), to verify the existing results for their radii. In this thesis work, we have developed an experimental method based on coincidence detection of the scattered electrons and recoiled light nuclei to measure the charge radii of deuteron and helium-4 with high accuracy.

  16. {sup 3}He+{sup 4}He {yields} {sup 7}Be astrophysical S factor

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T. A. D.; Bordeanu, C.; Snover, K. A.; Storm, D. W.; Melconian, D.; Sallaska, A. L.; Sjue, S. K. L.; Triambak, S.

    2007-11-15

    We present precision measurements of the {sup 3}He+{sup 4}He {yields} {sup 7}Be reaction in the range E{sub c.m.}=0.33 to 1.23 MeV using a small gas cell and detection of both prompt {gamma} rays and {sup 7}Be activity. Our prompt and activity measurements are in good agreement within the experimental uncertainty of several percent. We find S(0)=0.595{+-}0.018 keV b from fits of the Kajino theory to our data. We compare our results with published measurements, and we discuss the consequences for Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and for solar neutrino flux calculations.

  17. A predictive theory for elastic scattering and recoil of protons from 4He

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hupin, Guillaume; Quaglioni, Sofia; Navratil, Petr

    2014-12-08

    Low-energy cross sections for elastic scattering and recoil of protons from 4He nuclei (also known as α particles) are calculated directly by solving the Schrodinger equation for five nucleons interacting through accurate two- and three-nucleon forces derived within the framework of chiral effective field theory. Precise knowledge of these processes at various proton backscattering/recoil angles and energies is needed for the ion-beam analysis of numerous materials, from the surface layers of solids, to thin films, to fusion-reactor materials. Indeed, the same elastic scattering process, in two different kinematic configurations, can be used to probe the concentrations and depth profiles ofmore » either hydrogen or helium. Furthermore, we compare our results to available experimental data and show that direct calculations with modern nuclear potentials can help to resolve remaining inconsistencies among data sets and can be used to predict these cross sections when measurements are not available.« less

  18. Predictive theory for elastic scattering and recoil of protons from 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hupin, Guillaume; Quaglioni, Sofia; Navrátil, Petr

    2014-12-01

    Low-energy cross sections for elastic scattering and recoil of protons from 4He nuclei (also known as α particles) are calculated directly by solving the Schrödinger equation for five nucleons interacting through accurate two- and three-nucleon forces derived within the framework of chiral effective field theory. Precise knowledge of these processes at various proton backscattering/recoil angles and energies is needed for the ion-beam analysis of numerous materials, from the surface layers of solids, to thin films, to fusion-reactor materials. Indeed, the same elastic scattering process, in two different kinematic configurations, can be used to probe the concentrations and depth profiles of either hydrogen or helium. We compare our results to available experimental data and show that direct calculations with modern nuclear potentials can help to resolve remaining inconsistencies among data sets and can be used to predict these cross sections when measurements are not available.

  19. A Continuous 4He Refrigerator for Use in a Superfluid Helium Bath

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Suwen; Avaloff, D.; Nissen, J. A.; Stricker, D. A.; Lipa, J. A.

    2006-09-07

    In cryogenic applications in space, the base temperature, Tmin of the helium bath in the dewar is typically determined by the design of the porous plug and the associated plumbing. For certain experiments, the required operating temperature of the instrument is lower than the bath temperature. In the laboratory, temperatures below 1.2 K require very large pumps or the use of 3He systems. We have demonstrated a modified 4He refrigerator with a continuous fill from a superfluid helium bath with a base temperature more than 0.5 K below the bath temperature. We describe the operation as well as the mechanism of such a refrigerator. For operation in space the refrigerator would need to be equipped with a porous plug to retain the fluid.

  20. Experimental study of nanofluidics and phase transitions of normal and superfluid 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco, Angel Enriques

    This thesis addresses the experimental results of two different research topics. The first is the experimental work of pressure driven flows in the smallest, single nanotubes ever investigated. The nanotube boundary conditions and slip lengths from argon, nitrogen, water, and helium experiments were analyzed and compared to macroscopic boundary conditions. The second research topic discusses the work on ellipsometric and quartz microbalance measurements of the 2D superfluid phase diagram of 4He on alkali substrates. Ellipsometric results of sodium on HOPG provide the first evidence of the existence of the 2D critical point on an intermediate strength substrate. Pressure driven flows through single nanopores and microtubes were measured with a calibrated mass spectrometer with pressure drops up to 30 Atm. The nanopores were between 30 nm to 600 nm in diameter and etched in mica and PET membranes of several microns thickness. Microtubes several inches long of fused quartz and nickel material were tested with diameters between 1.8 micron and 25 micron. For 4He and argon gas we observed the flow transition between the free molecular and continuum regimes at 293 K and 77 K. No discrepancy between the macroscopic theory and the 30 nm nanopore data was found. Because of the exceptionally low viscosity of gaseous helium the laminar-turbulent transition could also be observed within these submicron channels. The small viscosity of 4He was too small to dampen inertial effects at a Reynolds number of 2000. In addition to single phase gas flows, our experimental technique also allows us to investigate flows in which the nano or micro scale pipe is either partially or completely filled with liquids. The position of the intrinsic liquid/vapor interface was important for understanding this type of flow. Strong evaporation and cooling at the liquid-vapor interface can lead to freezing for conventional fluids such as nitrogen and water, which in turn leads to complex intermittent

  1. Dynamics of {sup 3}He impurities in {sup 4}He films

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, B.E. |; Krotscheck, E. |; Saarela, M.

    1995-08-01

    Using a microscopic variational theory the authors calculate the binding energy of {sup 3}He impurities in films of {sup 4}He absorbed to a graphite substrate. Without adjustable parameters, they obtain excellent agreement with the experimental binding energies for the ground state of the {sup 3}He impurity. To calculate excited states, they then introduce a time-dependent variational wave function. In that way, the impurity acquires a hydrodynamic effective mass for its motion parallel to the surface due to hydrodynamic backflow. Excited states have a finite lifetime. When these effects are included, both the energy of the first excited state of the impurity, and the effective mass of the ground state, also agree well with experimental data.

  2. Relaxation dynamics of spindodal decomposition in superfluid ^3He-^4He mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chay, Terrence Y.; Goldenfeld, Nigel; Bauer, Gregory H.; Ceperley, David M.

    1998-03-01

    We study the dynamics of the Hohenberg-Nelson system(P.C. Hohenberg and David R. Halperin, Phys. Rev. B 20):2665 (1979). for ^3He-^4He mixtures after a quench using a mesoscopic cell dynamical systems (CDS) model. The spinodal region is characterized by maximal growth at a single nonzero wave vector which scales with time. Because CDS exploits universality to avoid taking Δ x and Δ t to infinitesimals, rapid simulations are possible on large systems making it an ideal way to find such scaling behavior. Using thermodynamic properties obtained from experiement and exactly calculated from path integral monte carlo studies, one can obtain the workable CDS phenomenological parameters to do time evolution studies of large-scale mixtures.

  3. Nuclear Transparency with the gamma + n -> pi- + p Process in 4He

    SciTech Connect

    Dipangkar Dutta; Feng Xiong; Lingyan Zhu; John Arrington; Todd Averett; Elizabeth Beise; John Calarco; Ting Chang; Jian-Ping Chen; Eugene Chudakov; Marius Coman; Benjamin Clasie; Christopher Crawford; Sonja Dieterich; Frank Dohrmann; Kevin Fissum; Salvatore Frullani; Haiyan Gao; Ronald Gilman; Charles Glashausser; Javier Gomez; Kawtar Hafidi; Jens-Ole Hansen; Douglas Higinbotham; R.J. Holt; Cornelis De Jager; Xiaochao Zheng; X. Jiang; Edward Kinney; Kevin Kramer; Gerfried Kumbartzki; John LeRose; Nilanga Liyanage; David Mack; Pete Markowitz; Kathy McCormick; Zein-Eddine Meziani; Robert Michaels; J. Mitchell; Sirish Nanda; David Potterveld; Ronald Ransome; Paul Reimer; Bodo Reitz; Arunava Saha; Elaine Schulte; Charles Seely; Simon Sirca; Steffen Strauch; Vincent Sulkosky; Branislav Vlahovic; Lawrence Weinstein; Krishni Wijesooriya; Claude Williamson; Bogdan Wojtsekhowski; Hong XIANG; Wang Xu; J. Zeng

    2003-08-01

    We have measured the nuclear transparency of the fundamental process {gamma} n {yields} {pi}{sup -} p in {sup 4}He. These measurements were performed at Jefferson Lab in the photon energy range of 1.6 to 4.5 GeV and at {theta}{sub cm}{sup {pi}} = 70{sup o} and 90{sup o}. These measurements are the first of their kind in the study of nuclear transparency in photoreactions. They also provide a benchmark test of Glauber calculations based on traditional models of nuclear physics. The transparency results suggest deviations from the traditional nuclear physics picture. The momentum transfer dependence of the measured nuclear transparency is consistent with Glauber calculations which include the quantum chromodynamics phenomenon of color transparency.

  4. A two-stage 3He- 4He fridge for bolometric photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiani, T.; de Bernardis, P.; De Petris, M.; Granata, S.; Masi, S.; Orlando, A.; Aquilini, E.; Cardoni, P.; Martinis, L.; Scaramuzzi, F.

    1999-09-01

    We describe the design, construction and performance of a double stage 3He- 4He refrigerator, built to cool down a multiband bolometric photometer at the MITO telescope. The fridge was optimized to work without external pumps, with the main cryostat providing a 4.2 K thermostat at sea level and a 4.0 K one at high mountain pressure conditions. The measured ultimate temperature of the fridge is 290 mK, with a hold time of 81 h. The external heat input on the cold flange is ˜35 μW, with the main bath at 4.0 K. The recycle time is 8 h with a heat input on the thermostat during recycling of ˜6800 J. The cryostat can operate without any relevant changes to performance tilted down to 50° from the vertical position, as needed at the telescope focal plane.

  5. Disappearance of Roton Propagation in Superfluid {sup 4}He at T{sub {lambda}}

    SciTech Connect

    Svensson, E.C.; Montfrooij, W.; de Schepper, I.M.

    1996-11-01

    Using neutron scattering, we determine the dynamic structure factor {ital S}({ital q},{nu}) of liquid {sup 4}He for the roton wave number {ital q}=2.0{sup {minus}1} as a function of frequency {nu} at constant density 0.1715 gcm{sup {minus}3} and for ten temperatures in the range 1.08{le}{ital T}{le}2.00 K, primarily near the superfluid transition temperature {ital T}{sub {lambda}}=1.9202 K. The {lambda} transition is marked by a complete softening of the roton mode and a rapid decrease in lifetime. This change is continuous with temperature, and we find no evidence for a new mode appearing as one enters the superfluid phase, as has been proposed on the basis of theoretical considerations. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  6. Response functions of imaging plates to photons, electrons and {sup 4}He particles

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnet, T.; Denis-Petit, D.; Gobet, F.; Hannachi, F.; Tarisien, M.; Versteegen, M.; Aléonard, M. M.

    2013-10-15

    Imaging plates from Fuji (BAS-SR, MS, and TR types) are phosphor films routinely used in ultra high intensity laser experiments. However, few data are available on the absolute IP response functions to ionizing particles. We have previously measured and modeled the IP response functions to protons. We focus here on the determination of the responses to photons, electrons, and {sup 4}He particles. The response functions are obtained on an energy range going from a few tens of keV to a few tens of MeV and are compared to available data. The IP sensitivities to the different ionizing particles demonstrate a quenching effect depending on the particle stopping power.

  7. Critical Scaling Properties at the Superfluid Transition of {sup 4}He in Aerogel

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaou, Marios; Wallin, Mats; Weber, Hans

    2006-12-01

    We study the superfluid transition of {sup 4}He in aerogel by Monte Carlo simulations and finite size scaling analysis. Aerogel is a highly porous silica glass, which we model by a diffusion limited cluster aggregation model. The superfluid is modeled by a three dimensional XY model, with excluded bonds to sites on the aerogel cluster. We obtain the correlation length exponent {nu}=0.73{+-}0.02, in reasonable agreement with experiments and with previous simulations. For the heat capacity exponent {alpha}, both experiments and previous simulations suggest deviations from the Josephson hyperscaling relation {alpha}=2-d{nu}. In contrast, our Monte Carlo results support hyperscaling with {alpha}=-0.2{+-}0.05. We suggest a reinterpretation of the experiments, which avoids scaling violations and is consistent with our simulation results.

  8. Rapid glacial erosion at 1.8 Ma revealed by 4He/3He thermochronometry.

    PubMed

    Shuster, David L; Ehlers, Todd A; Rusmoren, Margaret E; Farley, Kenneth A

    2005-12-01

    Alpine glaciation and river incision control the topography of mountain ranges, but their relative contributions have been debated for years. Apatite 4He/3He thermochronometry tightly constrains the timing and rate of glacial erosion within one of the largest valleys in the southern Coast Mountains of British Columbia, Canada. Five proximate samples require accelerated denudation of the Klinaklini Valley initiating 1.8 +/- 0.2 million years ago (Ma). At least 2 kilometers of overlying rock were removed from the valley at >/=5 millimeters per year, indicating that glacial valley deepening proceeded >/=6 times as fast as erosion rates before approximately 1.8 Ma. This intense erosion may be related to a global transition to enhanced climate instability approximately 1.9 Ma. PMID:16339442

  9. Heat capacity of {sup 4}He in Vycor near the critical coverage

    SciTech Connect

    Van Keuls, F.W.; Crowell, P.A.; Reppy, J.D.

    1993-04-01

    The authors report heat capacity measurements of {sup 4}He films in Vycor near the critical coverage. The goal of these studies is to determine whether the low temperature phase at coverages below the onset of superfluidity is a glass or an insulator with a gap. The data cover a temperature range of 5 mK to 600 mK. At the lowest temperatures, a CMN DC-SQUID thermometer is used. This thermometer contains 3 mg of CMN to minimize its heat capacity. The sensitivity at 10 mK is better than 500 pK/{radical}Hz. The CMN powder is mixed with a Ag sinter to improve thermal conductivity. The resistance thermometers mounted on the cell are found to be reliable down to 14 mK.

  10. Russell Donnelly's last legacy: Pursuing grid turbulence in superfluid 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihas, Gary; Yang, Jihee

    2015-11-01

    Quantum turbulence, a tangle of quantized vortex lines in a superfluid, may hold significant keys to understanding all types of turbulence. Russell Donnelly pioneered this line of research, beginning with studies of grid turbulence probed by second sound. The apparatus built by Russell and his students, with significant up-grades, is now being used at the University of Florida to continue his work on decaying grid turbulence in superfluid 4He. The Oregon work used a 1cm wide square channel, while the Florida work has been in both 1 cm and 5 cm square channels. The larger channel allows detailed study of the increase in eddy size before saturation at the channel walls during the decay process. Power law fits of the turbulence decay in time allow comparison with theory, work intended to be Russell Donnelly's last experiment. Supported in part by US NSF #1007937.

  11. Studies of the 4He Nucleus in the (e,e'p) Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Bodo Reitz

    2003-10-01

    Jefferson Lab experiment E97-111 measured the unseparated cross section for the (e,e'p) reaction on {sup 4}He at recoil momenta up to 530 {approx} MeV/c. In the plane-wave impulse approximation, many calculations predict a sharp minimum in the cross section for recoil momenta around 450 {approx} MeV/c and show that its location is sensitive to the short-range part of the internucleon potential. However, reaction dynamic effects such as final-state interactions and meson-exchange currents can obscure such a minimum. To distinguish and study these effects data were taken at several different kinematics. The preliminary results of the experiment are presented and compared to recent model calculations.

  12. Selective-adsorption line shapes in the scattering of 4He by LiF(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesner, David A.; Frankl, Daniel R.

    1981-08-01

    Selective-adsorption line shapes were experimentally studied in 17-meV 4He-atom scattering from a LiF(001) crystalline surface. The specular and several diffracted beams were measured for a variety of incidence conditions. Specular line shapes obey the three rules put forth by Wolfe and Weare. The specular and diffracted-beam line shapes obey the rules formulated recently by Celli, Garcia, and Hutchison in all cases except for the specular Wolfe-Weare rule-2 case. In this case the mixed-extrema structure predicted by Wolfe and Weare is seen. This line shape is very sensitive to surface temperature and age, confirming a recent prediction of Wolfe and Weare concerning inelastic effects on the selective-adsorption line shapes.

  13. LiCe9Mo16O35

    PubMed Central

    Gougeon, Patrick; Gall, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    The structure of lithium nona­cerium hexa­deca­molybdenum penta­trideca­oxide, LiCe9Mo16O35, is isotypic with LiNd9Mo16O35 [Gougeon Gall, Cuny, Gautier, Le Polles, Delevoye & Trebosc (2011 ▶). Chem. Eur. J. 17, 13806–13813]. It is characterized by Mo16O26 iO10 a units (where i = inner and a = apical) containing Mo16 clusters that share some of their O atoms to form infinite molybdenum cluster chains running parallel to the b axis and separated by Li+ and Ce3+ cations. The Mo16 cluster units are centred at Wyckoff positions 2c and have point-group symmetry 2/m. The Li+ atom, in a flattened octa­hedron of O atoms, is in a 2a Wyckoff position with 2/m symmetry. The Ce3+ cations have coordination numbers to the O atoms of 6, 9 or 10. Two Ce, two Mo and five O atoms lie on sites with m symmetry (Wyckoff site 4i), and one Ce and one O atom on sites with 2/m symmetry (Wyckoff sites 2b and 2d, respectively). PMID:22412396

  14. Probing Liquid ^4He with Quartz Tuning Forks Using a Novel Multifrequency Lock-in Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, D. I.; Haley, R. P.; Kafanov, S.; Noble, M. T.; Pickett, G. R.; Tsepelin, V.; Vonka, J.; Wilcox, T.

    2016-09-01

    We report on a novel technique to measure quartz tuning forks, and possibly other vibrating objects, in a quantum fluid using a multifrequency lock-in amplifier. The multifrequency technique allows to measure the resonance curve of a vibrating object much faster than a conventional single frequency lock-in amplifier technique. Forks with resonance frequencies of 12 kHz and 16 kHz were excited and measured electro-mechanically either at a single frequency or at up to 40 different frequencies simultaneously around the same mechanical mode. The response of each fork was identical for both methods and validates the use of the multifrequency lock-in technique to probe properties of liquid helium at low fork velocities. Using both methods we measured the resonance frequency and drag of two 25-μ m-wide quartz tuning forks immersed in liquid ^4He in the temperature range from 4.2 K to 1.5 K at saturated vapour pressure. The damping and shift of resonance frequency experienced by both tuning forks at low velocities are well described by hydrodynamic contributions in the framework of the two-fluid model. The sensitivity of the 25-μ m-wide tuning forks is larger compared to similar 75-μ m-wide forks and in combination with the faster multifrequency lock-in technique could be used to improve thermometry in liquid ^4He. The multifrequency technique could also be used for studies of the onset of non-linear phenomena such as quantum turbulence and cavitation in superfluids.

  15. Probing Liquid ^4 He with Quartz Tuning Forks Using a Novel Multifrequency Lock-in Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, D. I.; Haley, R. P.; Kafanov, S.; Noble, M. T.; Pickett, G. R.; Tsepelin, V.; Vonka, J.; Wilcox, T.

    2016-06-01

    We report on a novel technique to measure quartz tuning forks, and possibly other vibrating objects, in a quantum fluid using a multifrequency lock-in amplifier. The multifrequency technique allows to measure the resonance curve of a vibrating object much faster than a conventional single frequency lock-in amplifier technique. Forks with resonance frequencies of 12 kHz and 16 kHz were excited and measured electro-mechanically either at a single frequency or at up to 40 different frequencies simultaneously around the same mechanical mode. The response of each fork was identical for both methods and validates the use of the multifrequency lock-in technique to probe properties of liquid helium at low fork velocities. Using both methods we measured the resonance frequency and drag of two 25-μ m-wide quartz tuning forks immersed in liquid ^4 He in the temperature range from 4.2 K to 1.5 K at saturated vapour pressure. The damping and shift of resonance frequency experienced by both tuning forks at low velocities are well described by hydrodynamic contributions in the framework of the two-fluid model. The sensitivity of the 25-μ m-wide tuning forks is larger compared to similar 75-μ m-wide forks and in combination with the faster multifrequency lock-in technique could be used to improve thermometry in liquid ^4 He. The multifrequency technique could also be used for studies of the onset of non-linear phenomena such as quantum turbulence and cavitation in superfluids.

  16. Distinguishing 3He and 4He with the Electron Proton Telescope (EPT) on Solar Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boden, S.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Steinhagen, J.; Tammen, J.; Martin-Garcia, C.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Boettcher, S. I.; Seimetz, L.; Ravanbakhsh, A.; Elftmann, R.; Schuster, B.; Kulemzin, A.; Kolbe, S.; Mahesh, Y.; Knieriem, V.; Yu, J.; Kohler, J.; Panitzsch, L.; Terasa, C.; Boehm, E.; Rodriguez-Pacheco, J.; Prieto, M.; Gomez-Herrero, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Electron Proton Telescope (EPT) is one of the sensors of the Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) for the Solar Orbiter mission, which will provide key measurements to address particle acceleration at and near the Sun. The EPD suite consists of four different sensors (STEP, SIS, EPT and HET) which together will resolve the energetic particle spectrum from 2 keV to 20 MeV for electrons, 3 keV to 100 MeV for protons and circa 100 keV/nuc to 100 MeV/nuc for heavier ions.EPT itself is primarily designed to cleanly separate and measure electrons in the energy range from 20 - 400 keV and protons from 20 - 7000 keV. To achieve this, EPT uses two back-to-back solid state detectors with a magnet system to deflect electrons on one side and a Polyimide foil to stop protons below ~400 keV on the other side. The two detectors then serve as each other's anti-coincidence. Additionally this setup also allows us to measure penetrating particles with deposited energies in the 1 MeV to 40 MeV range. Looking at the ratio of deposited energy in the two detectors versus total deposited energy allows us to differentiate between protons and alpha particles. Distinguishing 3He from 4He will be challenging, but possible provided good knowledge of the instrument, high-fidelity modeling and a precise calibration of EPT. Here, we will present feasibility studies leading to a determination of the 3He / 4He ratio with EPT.

  17. Transport in ultradilute solutions of 3He in superfluid 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baym, Gordon; Beck, D. H.; Pethick, C. J.

    2015-07-01

    We calculate the effect of a heat current on transporting 3He dissolved in superfluid 4He at ultralow concentration, as will be utilized in a proposed experimental search for the electric dipole moment of the neutron (nEDM). In this experiment, a phonon wind will be generated to drive (partly depolarized) 3He down a long pipe. In the regime of 3He concentrations ≲10-9 and temperatures ˜0.5 K, the phonons comprising the heat current are kept in a flowing local equilibrium by small angle phonon-phonon scattering, while they transfer momentum to the walls via the 4He first viscosity. On the other hand, the phonon wind drives the 3He out of local equilibrium via phonon-3He scattering. For temperatures below 0.5 K, both the phonon and 3He mean free paths can reach the centimeter scale, and we calculate the effects on the transport coefficients. We derive the relevant transport coefficients, the phonon thermal conductivity, and the 3He diffusion constants from the Boltzmann equation. We calculate the effect of scattering from the walls of the pipe and show that it may be characterized by the average distance from points inside the pipe to the walls. The temporal evolution of the spatial distribution of the 3He atoms is determined by the time dependent 3He diffusion equation, which describes the competition between advection by the phonon wind and 3He diffusion. As a consequence of the thermal diffusivity being small compared with the 3He diffusivity, the scale height of the final 3He distribution is much smaller than that of the temperature gradient. We present exact solutions of the time dependent temperature and 3He distributions in terms of a complete set of normal modes.

  18. Phonon-roton modes of liquid 4He beyond the roton in MCM-41

    SciTech Connect

    Azuah, Richard T; Omar Diallo, Souleymane; Adams, Mark A.; Kirichek, Oleg; Glyde, Henry R

    2013-01-01

    We present neutron scattering measurements of the phonon-roton (P-R) mode of superfluid 4He confined in 47 A MCM-41 at T = 0.5 K at wave vectors, Q, beyond the roton wave vector (QR = 1.92 A-1). Measurements beyond the roton require access to high wave vectors (up to Q = 4 A-1) with excellent energy resolution and high statistical precision. The present results show for the first time that at T = 0.5 K the P-R mode in MCM-41 extends out to wave-vector Q 3.6 A-1 with the same energy and zero width (within precision) as observed in bulk superfluid 4He. Layer modes in the roton region are also observed. Specifically, the P-R mode energy, !Q, increases with Q for Q > QR and reaches a plateau at a maximum energy !Q = 2 where is the roton energy, = 0.74 0.01 meV in MCM-41. This upper limit means the P-R mode decays to two rotons when its energy exceeds 2 . It also means that the P-R mode does not decay to two layers modes. If the P-R could decay to two layer modes, !Q would plateau at a lower energy, !Q = 2 L where L = 0.60 meV is the energy of the roton like minimum of the layer mode. The observation of the P-R mode with energy up to 2 shows that the P-R mode and the layer modes are independent modes with apparently little interaction between them.

  19. Comparative analysis of anodized, implanted and sputtered tantalum oxide targets for the study of 16O+16O fusion reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, H.; Cruz, J.; Redondo-Cubero, A.; Santos, C.; Fonseca, M.; Luis, H.; Jesus, A. P.

    2014-07-01

    Measuring the total cross section of a fusion reaction in the region of astrophysical interest, such as the 16O+16O fusion reaction, is a real challenge due the very small cross sections involved and the large number of possible exit channels. Taking into account these difficulties, the use of targets with known thickness, stoichiometry and minimal contamination that can withstand high beam currents is required. In this study, we report the comparison between three different types of targets for the study of this fusion reaction, such as anodized, implanted and sputtered tantalum oxide targets and the results show that the anodized and sputtered targets are more suitable for this study due to their higher oxygen density and to the formation of a stable oxide compound, tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5).

  20. Copper dimer interactions on a thermomechanical superfluid {sup 4}He fountain

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, Evgeny; Eloranta, Jussi

    2015-05-28

    Laser induced fluorescence imaging and frequency domain excitation spectroscopy of the copper dimer (B{sup 1}Σ{sub g}{sup +}←X{sup 1}Σ{sub u}{sup +}) in thermomechanical helium fountain at 1.7 K are demonstrated. The dimers penetrate into the fountain provided that their average propagation velocity is ca. 15 m/s. This energy threshold is interpreted in terms of an imperfect fountain liquid-gas interface, which acts as a trap for low velocity dimers. Orsay-Trento density functional theory calculations for superfluid {sup 4}He are used to characterize the dynamics of the dimer solvation process into the fountain. The dimers first accelerate towards the fountain surface and once the surface layer is crossed, they penetrate into the liquid and further slow down to Landau critical velocity by creating a vortex ring. Theoretical lineshape calculations support the assignment of the experimentally observed bands to Cu{sub 2} solvated in the bulk liquid. The vibronic progressions are decomposed of a zero-phonon line and two types of phonon bands, which correlate with solvent cavity interface compression (t < 200 fs) and expansion (200 < t < 500 fs) driven by the electronic excitation. The presented experimental method allows to perform molecular spectroscopy in bulk superfluid helium where the temperature and pressure can be varied.

  1. One-Dimensional Liquid ^{4}He: Dynamical Properties beyond Luttinger-Liquid Theory.

    PubMed

    Bertaina, G; Motta, M; Rossi, M; Vitali, E; Galli, D E

    2016-04-01

    We compute the zero-temperature dynamical structure factor of one-dimensional liquid ^{4}He by means of state-of-the-art quantum Monte Carlo and analytic continuation techniques. By increasing the density, the dynamical structure factor reveals a transition from a highly compressible critical liquid to a quasisolid regime. In the low-energy limit, the dynamical structure factor can be described by the quantum hydrodynamic Luttinger-liquid theory, with a Luttinger parameter spanning all possible values by increasing the density. At higher energies, our approach provides quantitative results beyond the Luttinger-liquid theory. In particular, as the density increases, the interplay between dimensionality and interaction makes the dynamical structure factor manifest a pseudo-particle-hole continuum typical of fermionic systems. At the low-energy boundary of such a region and moderate densities, we find consistency, within statistical uncertainties, with predictions of a power-law structure by the recently developed nonlinear Luttinger-liquid theory. In the quasisolid regime, we observe a novel behavior at intermediate momenta, which can be described by new analytical relations that we derive for the hard-rods model. PMID:27081985

  2. Improvement of the Spatial Amplitude Isotropy of a ^4He Magnetometer Using a Modulated Pumping Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chéron, B.; Gilles, H.; Hamel, J.; Moreau, O.; Noël, E.

    1997-08-01

    Optically pumped magnetometers are scalar magnetometers. Contrary to vectoriel magnetometers, they measure the total magnetic field whatever the direction of the sensor. However, for some orientations of the magnetometer with respect to the magnetic field direction, the resonant signal vanishes and the measurement is impossible. In this paper we present a simple solution to reduce the amplitude spatial anisotropy and apply it to a ^4He magnetometer developed in our Laboratory. Les magnétomètres à pompage optique sont des magnétomètres scalaires. Contrairement aux magnétomètres vectoriels, ils mesurent le module du champ magnétique quelle que soit l'orientation du capteur dans l'espace. Cependant, pour certaines orientations du magnétomètre par rapport à la direction du champ à mesurer, l'amplitude du signal de résonance s'annule et la mesure devient impossible. Dans cet article, nous présentons une solution simple pour réduire l'anisotropie spatiale d'amplitude et nous l'appliquons à un magnétomètre à hélium-4 développé dans notre Laboratoire.

  3. Interaction of Ions, Atoms and Small Molecules with Quantized Vortex Lines in Superfluid 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eloranta, Jussi; Matteo, David; Williams, Gary

    2015-03-01

    The interaction of a number of impurities (H2, Ag, Cu, Ag2, Cu2, Li, He3+,He* (3 S), He2*(3Σu) and e-) with quantized rectilinear vortex lines in superfluid 4He is calculated using density functional methods at 0 K. The technique yields the impurity radius as well as the vortex line core parameter. The core parameter at 0 K (0.74 Å) obtained either directly from the vortex line geometry or from the trapping potential fitting is smaller than previously suggested but is compatible with a re-analysis of the Rayfield-Reif experiment. All of the impurities have significant binding energies to the vortex lines below 1 K where the thermally assisted escape process becomes very inefficient. Even at higher temperatures the trapping times, especially for larger clusters, are sufficiently long that the observed metal nanowire assembly in superfluid helium can take place at vortex lines. The binding energy of the electron bubble is predicted to decrease as a function of both temperature and pressure, which allows adjusting the trap depth for either permanent trapping or thermally assisted escape. A new scheme for determining the trapping of impurities on vortex lines by optical absorption spectroscopy is outlined and demonstrated for He*. Work supported by the NSF, Grants CHE-1262306 and DMR-1205734, and the Interdisciplinary Research Institute for the Sciences.

  4. Development of low temperature solid state detectors for ultra-cold neutrons within superfluid 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, C. A.; Balashov, S. N.; Green, K.; van der Grinten, M. G. D.; Iaydjiev, P. S.; Ivanov, S. N.; Pendlebury, J. M.; Shiers, D. B.; Tucker, M. A. H.; Yoshiki, H.; Geltenbort, P.

    2003-04-01

    As part of an R&D programme for the development of a next-generation experiment to measure the neutron electric dipole moment, in which ultra-cold neutrons (UCN) are produced and stored in superfluid 4He (superthermal source), we have developed cryogenic detectors of UCN that can operate in situ within the superfluid. Surface barrier detectors and PIN diode detectors have been tested and proven to work well at temperatures as low as 80 mK. When combined with a layer of 6LiF which converts neutrons to charged particles, these detectors form a reliable UCN detection system which has been tested in liquid helium down to 430 mK. The detectors have operated within superfluid helium for periods of up to 30 days with no signs of degradation. The development of this detection system has enabled us to measure the flux of UCN from a superthermal UCN source with no intervening transmission windows which can attenuate the flux. The addition of thin films of magnetically aligned iron also enables these detectors to be used in situ for neutron spin-polarisation analysis.

  5. Operator evolution for ab initio electric dipole transitions of 4He

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Schuster, Micah D.; Quaglioni, Sofia; Johnson, Calvin W.; Jurgenson, Eric D.; Navartil, Petr

    2015-07-24

    A goal of nuclear theory is to make quantitative predictions of low-energy nuclear observables starting from accurate microscopic internucleon forces. A major element of such an effort is applying unitary transformations to soften the nuclear Hamiltonian and hence accelerate the convergence of ab initio calculations as a function of the model space size. The consistent simultaneous transformation of external operators, however, has been overlooked in applications of the theory, particularly for nonscalar transitions. We study the evolution of the electric dipole operator in the framework of the similarity renormalization group method and apply the renormalized matrix elements to the calculationmore » of the 4He total photoabsorption cross section and electric dipole polarizability. All observables are calculated within the ab initio no-core shell model. Furthermore, we find that, although seemingly small, the effects of evolved operators on the photoabsorption cross section are comparable in magnitude to the correction produced by including the chiral three-nucleon force and cannot be neglected.« less

  6. 4He+n+n continuum within an ab initio framework

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Romero-Redondo, Carolina; Quaglioni, Sofia; Navratil, Petr; Hupin, Guillaume

    2014-07-16

    In this study, the low-lying continuum spectrum of the 6He nucleus is investigated for the first time within an ab initio framework that encompasses the 4He+n+n three-cluster dynamics characterizing its lowest decay channel. This is achieved through an extension of the no-core shell model combined with the resonating-group method, in which energy-independent nonlocal interactions among three nuclear fragments can be calculated microscopically, starting from realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions and consistent ab initio many-body wave functions of the clusters. The three-cluster Schrödinger equation is solved with three-body scattering boundary conditions by means of the hyperspherical-harmonics method on a Lagrange mesh. Using amore » soft similarity-renormalization-group evolved chiral nucleon-nucleon potential, we find the known Jπ = 2+ resonance as well as a result consistent with a new low-lying second 2+ resonance recently observed at GANIL at ~2.6 MeV above the He6 ground state. We also find resonances in the 2–, 1+, and 0– channels, while no low-lying resonances are present in the 0+ and 1– channels.« less

  7. Operator evolution for ab initio electric dipole transitions of 4 He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Micah; Quaglioni, Sofia; Johnson, Calvin; Jurgenson, Eric; Navratil, Petr

    2015-04-01

    A goal of nuclear theory is to make quantitative predictions of low-energy nuclear observables starting from accurate microscopicinternucleon forces. Modern effective interaction theory, applying unitary transformations to soften the nuclear Hamiltonian and hence accelerate the convergence of ab initio calculations as a function of the model space size, is a major element of such an effort. The consistent simultaneous transformation of external operators, however, has been overlooked in applications of the theory, particularly for non-scalar transitions. We study the evolution of the electric dipole operator in the framework of the similarity-renormalization group method and apply the renormalized matrix elements to the calculation of the 4 He total photo absorption cross section and electric dipole polarizability. All observables are calculated within the ab initio no-core shell model. We find that, although seemingly small, the effects of induced operators on the photo absorption cross section are comparable in magnitude to the correction produced by including the three-nucleon force and cannot be neglected. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  8. Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) in laboratory medicine and an algorithm in renal disorders.

    PubMed

    Kappelmayer, János; Antal-Szalmás, Péter; Nagy, Béla

    2015-01-01

    Over the past three decades, cancer antigen (CA) 125 has been utilized for monitoring women who were treated for ovarian cancer. However, this tumor marker showed several limitations such as false elevation in benign pelvic diseases and, in turn, no alterations in ovarian tumors at early stages with a relatively high ratio. For more than ten years, the human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) has become available for the routine laboratory repertoire, showing a higher sensitivity and specificity compared to that of CA125 in ovarian malignancies, but also in other types of tumors based on recently accumulated clinical data. Despite its remarkable diagnostic characteristics, in certain cases, the evaluation of HE4 results may be problematic when patients suffer from additional conditions that may alter HE4 level. Besides the direct effects of age and smoking, menopause status and decreased renal function also show a substantial impact on HE4 values, which should be considered in each patient. For this purpose, we attempted to create a new formula and an algorithm that may be helpful to predict the probability of the presence of ovarian tumor by using the concentrations of HE4 and CA125. PMID:25127713

  9. One-Dimensional Liquid 4He: Dynamical Properties beyond Luttinger-Liquid Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertaina, G.; Motta, M.; Rossi, M.; Vitali, E.; Galli, D. E.

    2016-04-01

    We compute the zero-temperature dynamical structure factor of one-dimensional liquid 4He by means of state-of-the-art quantum Monte Carlo and analytic continuation techniques. By increasing the density, the dynamical structure factor reveals a transition from a highly compressible critical liquid to a quasisolid regime. In the low-energy limit, the dynamical structure factor can be described by the quantum hydrodynamic Luttinger-liquid theory, with a Luttinger parameter spanning all possible values by increasing the density. At higher energies, our approach provides quantitative results beyond the Luttinger-liquid theory. In particular, as the density increases, the interplay between dimensionality and interaction makes the dynamical structure factor manifest a pseudo-particle-hole continuum typical of fermionic systems. At the low-energy boundary of such a region and moderate densities, we find consistency, within statistical uncertainties, with predictions of a power-law structure by the recently developed nonlinear Luttinger-liquid theory. In the quasisolid regime, we observe a novel behavior at intermediate momenta, which can be described by new analytical relations that we derive for the hard-rods model.

  10. Theory of deep inelastic neutron scattering. II. Application to normal and superfluid 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, Richard N.

    1989-03-01

    The hard-core perturbation theory (HCPT) predictions for high-momentum-transfer neutron scattering from liquid 4He are numerically evaluated. The input to the calculations are Monte Carlo and variational momentum distributions, the radial distribution function, and the Jeffreys-Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin phase shifts for the He potential. Consistent with the ω2 sum rule, the Gaussian width of the dynamic structure function S(Q,ω) is the same in HCPT and in the impulse approximation (IA). However, where the IA predicts structure in S(Q,ω) below Tλ due to the Bose condensate, HCPT predicts that S(Q,ω) is smoothed by final-state broadening. The final-state effects are negligible for the normal fluid above Tλ. The approach to the IA at high Q is shown to be O(logQ) for the He-He potential, which implies that S(Q,ω) satisfies approximate Y scaling and that final-state broadening is significant for all feasible experiments. Extensions of HCPT to lower Q and to other systems are qualitatively discussed. The problem of extracting momentum distributions in quantum fluids and solids from high-Q neutron scattering is addressed.

  11. Theory of deep inelastic neutron scattering. II. Application to normal and superfluid /sup 4/He

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, R.N.

    1989-03-01

    The hard-core perturbation theory (HCPT) predictions for high-momentum-transfer neutron scattering from liquid /sup 4/He are numerically evaluated. The input to the calculations are Monte Carlo and variational momentum distributions, the radial distribution function, and the Jeffreys-Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin phase shifts for the He potential. Consistent with the ..omega../sup 2/ sum rule, the Gaussian width of the dynamic structure function S(Q,..omega..) is the same in HCPT and in the impulse approximation (IA). However, where the IA predicts structure in S(Q,..omega..) below T/sub lambda/ due to the Bose condensate, HCPT predicts that S(Q,..omega..) is smoothed by final-state broadening. The final-state effects are negligible for the normal fluid above T/sub lambda/. The approach to the IA at high Q is shown to be O(logQ) for the He-He potential, which implies that S(Q,..omega..) satisfies approximate Y scaling and that final-state broadening is significant for all feasible experiments. Extensions of HCPT to lower Q and to other systems are qualitatively discussed. The problem of extracting momentum distributions in quantum fluids and solids from high-Q neutron scattering is addressed.

  12. Time-of-Flight Measurements of Vortices Emitted from Quantum Turbulence in Superfluid 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, H.; Nago, Y.; Nishijima, A.; Obara, K.; Yano, H.; Ishikawa, O.; Hata, T.

    2013-06-01

    An oscillating obstacle generates quantum turbulence in superfluids, when vortices remained attached to obstacle surfaces or vortex rings collided with it during oscillation. Turbulence provides a source of vortices; however, the characteristics of these vortices are not clear. In the present work, we report the flight of vortices emitted from quantum turbulence in superfluid 4He at low temperatures, using vibrating wires as a generator and a detector of vortices. A vortex-free vibrating wire can detect only the first colliding vortex ring, though it will be refreshed after low vibration and be able to detect a vortex ring again. By measuring a period from the start of turbulence generation to the vortex detection repeatedly, we find an exponential distribution of time-of-flights with a non-detection period t 0 and a mean detection period t 1, suggesting a Poisson process. Both periods t 0 and t 1 increase with increasing distance between a generator and a detector. A vortex flight velocity estimated from period t 0 suggests that the sizes of the emitted vortex rings distribute to a range smaller than a generator thickness or a generator vibration amplitude. Vortices are emitted radially from a turbulence region, at least in the direction of oscillator vibration.

  13. Generation and detection of vortex rings in superfluid 4He at very low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, H.; Nishijima, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Ogawa, T.; Nago, Y.; Obara, K.; Ishikawa, O.; Tsubota, M.; Hata, T.

    2012-12-01

    Motions of vortices are fundamental characteristics of quantum turbulence. These motions are expected to be governed only by quantized circulations in superfluids at the zero temperature limit. In the present paper, we report the motions of vortex rings emitted from a quantum turbulence in superfluid 4He, by detecting vortex rings using a vortex-free vibrating wire as a detector. The time of flights of vortex rings are distributed, because vortex rings are emitted in any direction from a turbulent region and the detector can respond only to a reachable vortex ring. By measuring time-of-flights many times, we find an exponential distribution of time-of-flights with a non-detection period, which corresponds to the fastest time of flights of vortex rings. For a larger generation power of vortex rings, a distribution of time-of-flights still shows a single exponential distribution, but a non-detection period becomes shorter. This result implies that sizes of emitted vortex rings are distributed dependently on the generation power of turbulence. The observed exponential distributions are confirmed by numerical simulations of the dynamics of vortex rings.

  14. Third Sound Generation in Superfluid 4He Films Adsorbed on Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iaia, Vito; Menachekanian, Emin; Williams, Gary

    2014-03-01

    A technique is developed for generating third sound in superfluid 4He films coating the surface of multiwall carbon nanotubes. Third sound is a thickness and temperature wave of the helium film, and in our case we detect the temperature oscillations with a carbon resistance bolometer. The nanotubes are packed in an annular resonator that is vibrated with a mechanical shaker assembly consisting of a permanent magnet mounted on springs, and surrounded by a superconducting coil. The coil is driven with an oscillating current, vibrating the cell at that frequency. Sweeping the drive frequency over the range 100-200 Hz excites the resonant third sound mode of the cell, seen as a high-Q signal in the FFT analysis of the bolometer signal. A problem with our original cell was that the mechanical drive would also shake the dilution refrigerator cooling the cell to low temperatures, and increasing the drive would start to heat up the refrigerator and the cell, which were rigidly coupled together. A new configuration now suspends the cell as a pendulum on a string, with thermal contact made by copper wires. Piezo sensor measurements show this reduces the vibration reaching the refrigerator by two orders of magnitude, which should allow measurements at lower temperatures.

  15. Third Sound in Superfluid 4He Films Adsorbed on Packed Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menachekanian, Emin

    Third sound is studied for superfluid films of 4He adsorbed on multiwall carbon nanotubes packed into an annular resonator. The third sound is generated with mechanical oscillation of the cell, and detected with carbon bolometers. A filling curve at temperatures near 250 mK shows oscillations in the third sound velocity, with maxima at the completion of the 4th and 5th atomic layers. Sharp changes in the Q factor of the third sound are found at partial layer fillings. Temperature sweeps at a number of fill points show strong broadening effects on the Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) transition, and rapidly increasing dissipation, in qualitative agreement with the predictions of Machta and Guyer. At the 4th layer completion there is a sudden reduction of the transition temperature TKT , and then a recovery back to linear variation with fill, although the slope is considerably smaller than the KT prediction. These effects might be related to changes in the gas-liquid coexistence regions.

  16. Photon scattering from 12C and 4He nuclei near the Δ(1232) resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, R.; Bergstrom, J. C.; Caplan, H. S.; Doss, K. G. E.; Hallin, E. L.; Skopik, D. M.; Delli Carpini, D.; Booth, E. C.; McIntyre, E. K.; Miller, J. P.; Lucas, M. A.; MacGibbon, B. E.; Nathan, A. M.; Wells, D.

    1995-08-01

    Angular distributions for photon scattering from 12C and 4He have been measured using continuous wave bremsstrahlung from the Saskatchewan Accelerator Laboratory pulse stretcher ring. Data for carbon were taken at 158.8, 195.2, 197.2, 247.2, and 290.2 MeV end-point energies, and for helium were taken at an end-point energy of 158.8 MeV. A large NaI(Tl) gamma ray spectrometer with 1.7% resolution was used to detect the scattered photons at laboratory scattering angles ranging from 20° to 150°. The excellent energy resolution of the NaI detector allowed a separation of elastic from inelastic photon scattering for the first time at these energies. The angular distributions for elastic scattering are in only fair agreement with delta-hole theory and theory based on the optical theorem at forward angles, and completely disagree with theory at backward angles. Measured cross sections for inelastic scattering leading to the 4.43 MeV state in carbon are small compared to the elastic scattering at forward angles, but are dominant at backward angles. This experiment is the first to separate elastic from inelastic photon scattering at these energies.

  17. Investigation of Grid Turbulence in Superfluid 4He with Improved Measurement Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jihee; Ihas, Gary G.

    Quantum turbulence(QT), a tangle of quantized vorticity in a macroscopically correlated quantum fluid, can have many analogous aspects to classical turbulence. Understanding QT can give us insights into classical turbulence as well as fluids in general. We generate QT by pulling a grid through a 4.6 cm x 4.6 cm cross-section channel in superfluid 4He. Second sound, a temperature/entropy wave, is used to monitor vorticity, ω. A resonant technique with high (3000) Q increases greatly the sensitivity of the measurement, but it requires a phase and amplitude locked tracking system which adheres to the resonant peak independent of frequency shifts. According to theories, the vorticity decays as ω ~ t- 11 / 10 or ω ~ t- 17 / 14 when the energy containing eddies are growing. When they saturate at the channel size, the vorticity begins decaying as ω ~ t3/2. These different decaying regions are examined in this large channel and compared to previous experiments that have been performed in 1 cm2 square channels. US NSF DMR#1007937.

  18. The reflection of low energy phonons at the free surface of liquid4He. II. Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baddar, H.; Edwards, D. O.

    1996-09-01

    Using a heater and bolometer as source and detector, the reflection of a pulsed beam of phonons at the free surface of liquid4He at ˜ 0.05 K has been measured for angles of incidence between 30 ° and 80 °. The energy distribution of the incident beam was obtained from the theory of phonon decay in the accompanying paper (I). The average incident phonon energy was ˜ 0.3 K, corresponding to an effective beam temperature of about 0.1 K. Both heater and bolometer were made from graphite resistor board with a layer of poly aniline fibers to increase the absorptivity for rotons. The angular distribution of the phonons from the heater is quite broad, approximately (cosn π+cosm θ)/2 with n ≈ 0.65 and m ≈ 3.4. However, the receiver response has a broad component with n ≈ 2.2 and an extraordinarily narrow one with m ≈ 106. In agreement with the theory in I, the reflection appears to be specular within the accuracy of the experiment. The reflection coefficient is unity within the experimental error; the weighted mean value is 1.001±0.025. During the experiment, the free surface became contaminated with ˜ 0.034 of a monolayer of3He, but no effect from the3He impurity was observed.

  19. Polarization Induced Spin Wave Damping in Spin Polarized Liquid 3He 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perisanu, Sorin; Vermeulen, Gerard

    2007-08-01

    We have measured the temperature and polarization dependence of Silin spin wave spectra in a saturated 3He 4He mixture with a concentration of 9.4% at a pressure of 8 bars. The mixture has been cooled and polarized by a Leiden dilution refrigerator to temperatures in the range 10 15 mK and polarizations as high as 9.2% corresponding to 3.4 times the equilibrium polarization of 2.7% in the external magnetic field of 11.36 T. The analysis takes into account the dipolar interactions and results in the relaxation time τ ⊥ and spin diffusion constant D ⊥ . We find that τ ⊥ and D ⊥ are proportional to 1/(T2+mathcal{A}2T_{a0}2) where T is the temperature, mathcal{A} is the polarization enhancement factor and T a0 is the anisotropy temperature for the mixture at equilibrium in the external field. Our result T a0=3.66±0.14 mK is 30% higher than the theoretical prediction for very dilute mixtures and is evidence for the existence of polarization induced relaxation of transverse spin currents.

  20. First-principles modeling of quantum nuclear effects and atomic interactions in solid 4He at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazorla, Claudio; Boronat, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    We present a first-principles computational study of solid 4He at T =0 K and pressures up to ˜160 GPa. Our computational strategy consists in using van der Waals density functional theory (DFT-vdW) to describe the electronic degrees of freedom in this material, and the diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) method to solve the Schrödinger equation describing the behavior of the quantum nuclei. For this, we construct an analytical interaction function based on the pairwise Aziz potential that closely matches the volume variation of the cohesive energy calculated with DFT-vdW in dense helium. Interestingly, we find that the kinetic energy of solid 4He does not increase appreciably with compression for P ≥85 GPa. Also, we show that the Lindemann ratio in dense solid 4He amounts to 0.10 almost independently of pressure. The reliability of customary quasiharmonic DFT (QH DFT) approaches in describing quantum nuclear effects in solids is also studied. We find that QH DFT simulations, although provide a reasonable equation of state in agreement with experiments, are not able to reproduce correctly these critical effects in compressed 4He. In particular, we disclose huge discrepancies of at least ˜50 % in the calculated 4He kinetic energies using both the QH DFT and present DFT-DMC methods.

  1. Electron screening and stellar rates in the {sup 3}He({sup 3}He,2p){sup 4}He and {sup 3}He(d,p){sup 4}He fusion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Messahel, L.; Ouichaoui, S.; Belhout, A.; Fouka, M.; Trabelsi, A.

    2008-05-12

    The astrophysical S(E) factor experimental data available over the energy region E (C.M.)<1.0 MeV for the {sup 3}He({sup 3}He,2p){sup 4}He and {sup 3}He(d,p){sup 4}He fusion reactions are analyzed using a polynomial expression and the R-Matrix formalism, respectively. The reaction thermonuclear rates for bare nuclei are determined and compared to previous ones after a precise assessment of the electron screening factors. New level parameter values are deduced for the {sup 5}Li nucleus.

  2. Geometrical symmetries of nuclear systems: {{ D }}_{3h} and {{ T }}_{d} symmetries in light nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijker, Roelof

    2016-07-01

    The role of discrete (or point-group) symmetries in α-cluster nuclei is discussed in the framework of the algebraic cluster model which describes the relative motion of the α-particles. Particular attention is paid to the discrete symmetry of the geometric arrangement of the α-particles, and the consequences for the structure of the corresponding rotational bands. The method is applied to study cluster states in the nuclei 12C and 16O. The observed level sequences can be understood in a simple way as a consequence of the underlying discrete symmetry that characterizes the geometrical configuration of the α-particles, i.e. an equilateral triangle with {{ D }}3h symmetry for 12C, and a tetrahedron with {{ T }}d symmetry for 16O. The structure of rotational bands provides a fingerprint of the underlying geometrical configuration of α-particles.

  3. Measurements of the strong-interaction widths of the kaonic 3He and 4He 2p levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SIDDHARTA Collaboration; Bazzi, M.; Beer, G.; Bombelli, L.; Bragadireanu, A. M.; Cargnelli, M.; Curceanu (Petrascu), C.; d'Uffizi, A.; Fiorini, C.; Frizzi, T.; Ghio, F.; Guaraldo, C.; Hayano, R. S.; Iliescu, M.; Ishiwatari, T.; Iwasaki, M.; Kienle, P.; Levi Sandri, P.; Longoni, A.; Marton, J.; Okada, S.; Pietreanu, D.; Ponta, T.; Rizzo, A.; Romero Vidal, A.; Sbardella, E.; Scordo, A.; Shi, H.; Sirghi, D. L.; Sirghi, F.; Tatsuno, H.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Vazquez Doce, O.; Wünschek, B.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.

    2012-07-01

    The kaonic 3He and 4He X-rays emitted in the 3d→2p transitions were measured in the SIDDHARTA experiment. The widths of the kaonic 3He and 4He 2p states were determined to be Γ2p(He3)=6±6(stat.)±7 (syst.) eV, and Γ2p(He4)=14±8 (stat.)±5 (syst.) eV, respectively. Both results are consistent with the theoretical predictions. The width of kaonic 4He is much smaller than the value of 55±34 eV determined by the experiments performed in the 70's and 80's, while the width of kaonic 3He was determined for the first time.

  4. Search of Superfluidity of Solid 4He in a Porous Vycor Glass by Means of the Ultrasound Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Fukazawa, S.; Taniguchi, J.; Suzuki, M.; Shirahama, K.

    2006-09-01

    Kim and Chan have reported that solid 4He shows a reduction of the rotational moment of inertia below 0.2 K, which suggests an onset of superfluidity. Ultrasound should be sensitive to mass decoupling caused by superfluidity. If a superfluid component exists, the sound velocity of a porous material filled with solid 4He could increase. We have carried out ultrasonic measurements for a porous Vycor glass filled with solid 4He. Since the reported "critical velocity" is very low, we have adopted a continuous wave resonance technique which realizes the oscillating velocity less than 1 × 10-7 m/s. The resolution of the sound velocity is 10-5 for small oscillating velocities, and is enough to detect the expected mass decoupling. Although the present experimental conditions are rather limited, no signature of supersolid has been observed.

  5. Kaonic 3He and 4He measurements in the SIDDHARTA experiment at the DAΦNE collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatsuno, H.; Bazzi, M.; Beer, G.; Bombelli, L.; Bragadireanu, A. M.; Cargnelli, M.; Curceanu (Petrascu), C.; d'Uffizi, A.; Fiorini, C.; Frizzi, T.; Ghio, F.; Guaraldo, C.; Hayano, R. S.; Iliescu, M.; Ishiwatari, T.; Iwasaki, M.; Kienle, P.; Levi Sandri, P.; Longoni, A.; Marton, J.; Okada, S.; Pietreanu, D.; Ponta, T.; Rizzo, A.; Romero Vidal, A.; Sbardella, E.; Scordo, A.; Shi, H.; Sirghi, D. L.; Sirghi, F.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Vazquez Doce, O.; Widmann, E.; Wünschek, B.; Zmeskal, J.

    2012-12-01

    The SIDDHARTA collaboration measured kaonic 3He and 4He 3d → 2p X-rays with gaseous targets at the DAΦNE e+e- collider. The 2p-state strong-interaction shifts and widths were precisely determined by using 144 high-resolution silicon drift detectors. The shift of K-4He is in good agreement with theoretical calculations and consistent with the recent experimental result of KEK-PS E570. The shift of K-3He is also determined for the first time. The newly determined widths are in agreement with optical model calculations.

  6. Mass Flux Stability in the Presence of Temperature Excursions and Perturbations in Solid ^3 He-^4 He Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vekhov, Ye.; Hallock, R. B.

    2016-03-01

    The DC superfluid ^4 He mass flux through a cell filled with solid ^4 He diluted by ppm amounts of ^3 He is susceptible to flux changes when perturbations of the solid sample are imposed. We report on the details of the reproducibility of the flux following excursions in temperature and cryostat helium transfer-induced apparatus vibration, particularly including excursions to temperatures above which the flux is immeasurably small. And we report on behavior following an annealing, partial melting, and re-freezing of the sample at temperatures and pressures close to and on the melting curve.

  7. Mass Flux Stability at the T_d Conductance Transition in Solid ^3He-^4He Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vekhov, Yegor; Hallock, R. B.

    2016-05-01

    Measurements of the ^4He mass flux through a cell filled with solid ^3He-^4He mixtures in the ^3He concentration range 0.17-220 ppm have demonstrated a reversible dramatic decrease in the flux on cooling through a concentration-dependent temperature T_d, close to the mixture phase separation temperature. For low ^3He concentrations, the flux change transition is complete within 2 mK. We report on the stability of the flux for fixed temperatures in this transition region.

  8. Pole approximation validation in the study of the {sup 6}Li(d,{alpha}){sup 4}He reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Pizzone, R. G.; Kiss, G. G.; Spitaleri, C.; Lamia, L.; Cherubini, S.; La Cognata, M.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Burjan, V.; Hons, Z.; Kroha, V.; Mrazek, J.; Piskor, S.; Li, C.; Tumino, A.

    2010-11-24

    The Trojan Horse Method (THM) was applied to the {sup 3}He+{sup 6}Li interaction in order to investigate the quasi-free {sup 6}Li(d,{alpha}){sup 4}He reaction. The experiment was performed at 17 MeV at the Cyclotron Institute of the Czech Academy of Science. The extracted {sup 6}Li(d,{alpha}){sup 4}He quasi-free cross-section was compared with the behavior of direct data. A good agreement between data sets shows up throughout the energy range investigated, providing a very important validity test of the pole approximation for the THM above the Coulomb barrier.

  9. Multinucleon pion absorption on {sup 4}He into the pppn final state

    SciTech Connect

    Lehmann, A.; Backenstoss, G.; Koehler, J.; Kroedel, M.; Weyer, H.J.; Wildi, M.; Hoffart, A.; Trezeciak, R.; Ullrich, H.; Gram, P.A.; Breuer, H.; Gregory, N.K.; Mateos, A.O.; Redwine, R.P.; Rowntree, D.; Simicevic, N.; Wilson, K.E.; Kyle, G.; Wang, M.; Wang, M.H.; Dooling, T.; Klein, A.; Lehmann, A.; Doebbeling, H.; Hoffart, A.; Ingram, C.H.; Koch, K.; Kotlinski, B.; Michaelian, K.; Sennhauser, U.; Weyer, H.J.; Androic, D.; Bosnar, D.; Furic, M.; Petkovic, T.; Planinic, M.

    1997-10-01

    Results from a 4{pi} solid angle measurement of the reaction {pi}{sup +4}He{r_arrow}pppn at incident pion energies of T{sub {pi}{sup +}}= 70, 118, 162, 239, and 330 MeV are presented. Integrated cross sections are given for the reactions where three nucleons participate, leading to energetic (ppp) or (ppn) final states, and for states where four nucleons are involved (pppn). The two three-nucleon absorption modes were investigated in particular, and an energy dependent isospin ratio of the cross sections of {sigma}{sub ppn}/ {sigma}{sub ppp}=3.6{plus_minus}1.3, 2.6 {plus_minus}0.5, 1.8{plus_minus}0.3, 1.4{plus_minus} 0.2, and 1.8{plus_minus}0.6 was determined from 70 to 330 MeV. The differential cross sections were described by a complete set of eight independent variables and compared to simple cascade and phase space models. From this analysis the contributions from initial state interactions to the multinucleon absorption cross sections were found to be more important at higher pion energies, while those from final state interactions are stronger at lower energies. However, both mechanisms combined were found to account for not more than one-third of the total pppn multinucleon yield. The remaining strength is reasonably well reproduced by phase space models, but shows a dependence on the incident pion{close_quote}s orbital angular momentum. The isospin structure of the (ppp) and (ppn) final states is not understood, nor are some structures in their distributions. The four-nucleon yield (pppn) was found to be weak (1{endash}8{percent} of the total absorption cross section) and shows no evidence for a {open_quotes}double- {Delta}{close_quotes} excitation. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  10. Second-sound studies of coflow and counterflow of superfluid {sup 4}He in channels

    SciTech Connect

    Varga, Emil; Skrbek, L.; Babuin, Simone

    2015-06-15

    We report a comprehensive study of turbulent superfluid {sup 4}He flow through a channel of square cross section. We study for the first time two distinct flow configurations with the same apparatus: coflow (normal and superfluid components move in the same direction), and counterflow (normal and superfluid components move in opposite directions). We realise also a variation of counterflow with the same relative velocity, but where the superfluid component moves while there is no net flow of the normal component through the channel, i.e., pure superflow. We use the second-sound attenuation technique to measure the density of quantised vortex lines in the temperature range 1.2 K ≲ T ≲ T{sub λ} ≈ 2.18 K and for flow velocities from about 1 mm/s up to almost 1 m/s in fully developed turbulence. We find that both the steady-state and temporal decay of the turbulence significantly differ in the three flow configurations, yielding an interesting insight into two-fluid hydrodynamics. In both pure superflow and counterflow, the same scaling of vortex line density with counterflow velocity is observed, L∝V{sub cf}{sup 2}, with a pronounced temperature dependence; in coflow instead, the vortex line density scales with velocity as L ∝ V{sup 3/2} and is temperature independent; we provide theoretical explanations for these observations. Further, we develop a new promising technique to use different second-sound resonant modes to probe the spatial distribution of quantised vortices in the direction perpendicular to the flow. Preliminary measurements indicate that coflow is less homogeneous than counterflow/superflow, with a denser concentration of vortices between the centre of the channel and its walls.

  11. Interaction of ions, atoms, and small molecules with quantized vortex lines in superfluid {sup 4}He

    SciTech Connect

    Mateo, David; Eloranta, Jussi; Williams, Gary A.

    2015-02-14

    The interaction of a number of impurities (H{sub 2}, Ag, Cu, Ag{sub 2}, Cu{sub 2}, Li, He{sub 3}{sup +}, He{sup *} ({sup 3}S), He{sub 2}{sup ∗} ({sup 3}Σ{sub u}), and e{sup −}) with quantized rectilinear vortex lines in superfluid {sup 4}He is calculated by using the Orsay-Trento density functional theory (DFT) method at 0 K. The Donnelly-Parks (DP) potential function binding ions to the vortex is combined with DFT data, yielding the impurity radius as well as the vortex line core parameter. The vortex core parameter at 0 K (0.74 Å) obtained either directly from the vortex line geometry or through the DP potential fitting is smaller than previously suggested but is compatible with the value obtained from re-analysis of the Rayfield-Reif experiment. All of the impurities have significantly higher binding energies to vortex lines below 1 K than the available thermal energy, where the thermally assisted escape process becomes exponentially negligible. Even at higher temperatures 1.5-2.0 K, the trapping times for larger metal clusters are sufficiently long that the previously observed metal nanowire assembly in superfluid helium can take place at vortex lines. The binding energy of the electron bubble is predicted to decrease as a function of both temperature and pressure, which allows adjusting the trap depth for either permanent trapping or to allow thermally assisted escape. Finally, a new scheme for determining the trapping of impurities on vortex lines by optical absorption spectroscopy is outlined and demonstrated for He{sup *}.

  12. L-series X-ray yields of kaonic 3He and 4He atoms in gaseous targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazzi, M.; Beer, G.; Berucci, C.; Bragadireanu, A. M.; Cargnelli, M.; Curceanu, C.; d'Uffizi, A.; Fiorini, C.; Ghio, F.; Guaraldo, C.; Hayano, R. S.; Iliescu, M.; Ishiwatari, T.; Iwasaki, M.; Sandri, P. Levi; Marton, J.; Okada, S.; Pietreanu, D.; Ponta, T.; Quaglia, R.; Romero Vidal, A.; Sbardella, E.; Scordo, A.; Shi, H.; Sirghi, D. L.; Sirghi, F.; Tatsuno, H.; Vazquez Doce, O.; Wünschek, B.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.

    2014-05-01

    The SIDDHARTA experiment measured X-rays from kaonic helium atoms using, for the first time, gaseous 3He and 4He targets. Clear patterns of the L-series X-rays of kaonic 3He and 4He atoms were observed. By using accurate Monte Carlo simulations, the absolute yields of these X-ray transitions were determined to be Y(3 d → 2 p) = 25.0{-5.8/+6.7}% for 3He (0.96 g/l), Y(3 d → 2 p) = 23.1{-4.2/+6.0}% for 4He (1.65 g/l), and Y(3 d → 2 p) = 17.2{-9.5/+2.6}% for 4He (2.15g/l). In addition, the yields Y ( nd → 2 p), with n > 3 were also determined. The measured yields provide valuable information for understanding the cascade processes of kaonic helium atoms as a function of the target density.

  13. Near-threshold search for the isospin-forbidden d+darrow^4He+π^0 reaction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, E. J.; Allgower, C.; Bacher, A. D.; Doskow, J.; Lavelle, C.; Nann, H.; Olmsted, J.; Rinckel, T.; Pickar, M. A.; Pancella, P. V.; Smith, A.; Spinka, H. M.; Rapaport, J.

    2002-10-01

    We will discuss our search at 228.5 MeV for the isospin-forbidden ddarrow^4Heπ^0 reaction, which constrains charge symmetry breaking contributions from the down-up quark mass difference and electromagnetic effects. The forward-going ^4He nuclei, which lie inside a θ_lab=1.2^rc cone, are separated from the deuteron beam in a 6^rc bending magnet and captured and identified in a magnetic channel. Separation of ^4Heπ^0 events depends on a reconstruction of the pion missing mass from channel position and time of flight in order to distinquish them from double radiative capture ^4Heγγ events. Two detector systems observe d+d elastic scattering at θ_c.m.=9.1^rc and 90^rc as a monitor of the luminosity ( ˜ 2× 10^31 /cm^2/s) given by the circulating IUCF Cooler beam and a cold D2 jet target. The d+d cross sections are scaled from p+d elastic cross sections by observing both during a run with a molecular HD target. Following two d+d commissioning runs, production began in early June 2002 and is planned to continue in July.

  14. Energy spectra of single neutrons and charged particles emitted following the absorption of stopped negative pions in 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cernigoi, C.; Gabrielli, I.; Grion, N.; Pauli, G.; Saitta, B.; Ricci, R. A.; Boccaccio, P.; Viesti, G.

    1981-02-01

    Energy spectra have been measured of single neutrons, protons and deuterons emitted following the capture at rest of negative pions in 4He. The neutron energy spectrum has been measured with an energy resolution of 4% at 90 MeV. The absolute number of stopped pions has been measured.

  15. Incorporating 3-D parent nuclide zonation for apatite 4He/3He thermochronometry: An example from the Appalachian Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Matthew; McKeon, Ryan E.; Shuster, David L.

    2014-11-01

    ability to constrain km-scale exhumation with apatite 4He/3He thermochronometry is well established and the technique has been applied to a range of tectonic and geomorphic problems. However, multiple sources of uncertainty in specific crystal characteristics limit the applicability of the method, especially when geologic problems require identifying small perturbations in a cooling path. Here we present new 4He/3He thermochronometric data from the Appalachian Mountains, which indicate significant parent nuclide zonation in an apatite crystal. Using LA-ICPMS measurements of U and Th in the same crystal, we design a 3-D model of the crystal to explore the effects of intracrystal variability in radiation damage accumulation. We describe a numerical approach to solve the 3-D production-diffusion equation. Using our numerical model and a previously determined time temperature path for this part of the Appalachians, we find excellent agreement between predicted and observed 4He/3He spectra. Our results confirm this time-temperature path and highlight that for complex U and Th zonation patterns, 3-D numerical models are required to infer an accurate time-temperature history. In addition, our results provide independent and novel evidence for a radiation damage control on diffusivity. The ability to exploit intracrystal differences in 4He diffusivity [i.e., temperature sensitivity) greatly increases the potential to infer complex thermal histories.

  16. Prediction of stable C7 /12 and metastable C4 /7 commensurate solid phases for 4He on graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Jeonghwan; Lee, Hoonkyung; Kwon, Yongkyung

    2016-02-01

    Using a substrate potential described by a pairwise sum of empirical 4He-C interatomic potentials, we have performed path-integral Monte Carlo calculations for 4He adatoms on graphite. It is found that a second-layer commensurate structure is not stable above an incommensurate first-layer triangular solid. This is consistent with the conclusion of the previous theoretical study of Corboz et al. [Phys. Rev. B 78, 245414 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevB.78.245414] that was based on a laterally averaged one-dimensional potential. On the other hand, we observe a new stable C7 /12 commensurate solid in the first 4He layer at the areal density of 0.111 Å-2, which is close to the second-layer promotion density. This high-density commensurate solid exhibits a √{12 }×√{12 } structure registered to the graphite surface that is not disrupted by the development of the second 4He layer. Furthermore, a second-layer 4/7 commensurate structure relative to the first-layer C7 /12 solid is found to be at least metastable, opening the possibility of two-dimensional supersolidity.

  17. Correlated wave functions and hyperfine splittings of the 2 s state of muonic sup 3,4 He atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, M. )

    1992-02-01

    The correlated wave functions of the 2{ital s} state, (1{ital s}){sub {ital e}}(2{ital s}){sub {mu}} of muonic {sup 4}He and {sup 3}He atoms are calculated by the variational approach, employing an improved set of the Hylleraas-type basis functions to study the 2{ital s} state of muonic He atoms. The energy and radial expectation values are calculated. Our proposed wave functions for the muonic {sup 4}He and {sup 3}He atoms are good enough to describe the electron and muon at small, intermediate, and large values of radial coordinates. The hyperfine splittings of the (1{ital s}){sub {ital e}}(2{ital s}){sub {mu}} muonic {sup 4}He and {sup 3}He atoms are also presented. Including relativistic, QED, and other corrections up to {ital O}({alpha}{sup 2}), we arrive at the values {Delta}{nu}= 4287.01{plus minus}0.10 and 4052.64{plus minus}0.10 MHz for the total hyperfine splittings of the 2{ital s} state of muonic {sup 4}He and {sup 3}He atoms, respectively.

  18. A finite-temperature density functional study of electron self-trapping in 3He and 4He.

    PubMed

    Jin, Dafei; Guo, Wei

    2012-06-28

    We introduce a compact finite-temperature density functional model to study electron self-trapping in both liquid and vapor (3)He and (4)He. This model can quantitatively reproduce the most essential thermodynamic properties of (3)He and (4)He along their liquid-vapor coexistence lines. The structures and energetics of self-trapped electron bubbles on the 1S ground state and 1P excited state are particularly investigated. Our results show that 1S and 1P bubbles exist in liquid at any temperature, whereas 1S bubbles exist in vapor only above 1.6 K in (3)He and above 2.8 K in (4)He, 1P bubbles exist in vapor only above 2.5 K in (3)He and 4.0 K in (4)He. An initially spherical 1P bubble is unstable against deformation towards a peanut shape. In liquid, a peanut-shaped 1P bubble is held from fission by surface tension until reaching the liquid-vapor critical point, whereas in vapor it always splits into two smaller bubbles. The existence of 1P bubbles in finite-temperature liquid helium and their fission instability in helium vapor reveal interesting physics in this system. PMID:22755590

  19. Spectroscopic information of 6Li from elastic scattering of deuterons, 3He and 4He by 6Li

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amar, A.

    2014-07-01

    The elastic scattering of deuterons, 3He and 4He on 6Li at different incident energies have been analyzed in the framework of the optical model (OM) using ECIS88 as well as SPI GENOA codes. The optical potential parameters were extracted in the phenomenological treatment. A good agreement between theoretical and experimental differential cross-sections was obtained in whole angular range. Parameters for real part of potential have been also calculated microscopically with double-folding model for the d, 3He and 4He scattering, respectively, using DFPOT code. The elastic transfer mechanism has been studied by coupled reaction channel (CRC) method using FRESCO code. Spectroscopic amplitudes of 6Li ≡ t + 3He and 6Li ≡ α + d configurations have been extracted from d, 3He and 4He scattering on 6Li at wide energy range. A comparison between spectroscopic amplitudes obtained from deuteron and α elastically scattering from 6Li has been made. The extracted spectroscopic amplitudes of 6Li ≡ 4He + d(SF = SA2) from 6Li(d, 6Li)d and 6Li(α, 6Li)α are not the same as expected theoretically.

  20. The helium flux from the continents and ubiquity of low-3He/4He recycled crust and lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, James M. D.; Barry, Peter H.; Hilton, David R.; Burgess, Ray; Pearson, D. Graham; Taylor, Lawrence A.

    2015-03-01

    New helium isotope and trace-element abundance data are reported for pyroxenites and eclogites from South Africa, Siberia, and the Beni Bousera Massif, Morocco that are widely interpreted to form from recycled oceanic crustal protoliths. The first He isotope data are also presented for Archaean peridotites from the Kaapvaal (South Africa), Slave (Canada), and Siberian cratons, along with recently emplaced off-craton peridotite xenoliths from Kilbourne Hole, San Carlos (USA) and Vitim (Siberia), to complement existing 3He/4He values obtained for continental and oceanic peridotites. Helium isotope compositions of peridotite xenoliths vary from 7.3 to 9.6 RA in recently (<10 kyr) emplaced xenoliths, to 0.05 RA in olivine from cratonic peridotite xenoliths of the 1179 Ma Premier kimberlite, South Africa. The helium isotope compositions of the peridotites can be explained through progressive sampling of 4He produced from radiogenic decay of U and Th in the mineral lattice in the older emplaced peridotite xenoliths. Ingrowth of 4He is consistent with generally higher 4He concentrations measured in olivine from older emplaced peridotite xenoliths relative to those from younger peridotite xenoliths. Collectively, the new data are consistent with pervasive open-system behaviour of He in peridotite xenoliths from cratons, mobile belts and tectonically-active regions. However, there is probable bias in the estimate of the helium isotope composition of the continental lithospheric mantle (6.1 ± 2.1 RA), since previously published databases were largely derived from peridotite xenoliths from non-cratonic lithosphere, or phenocrysts/xenocrysts obtained within continental intraplate alkaline volcanics that contain a contribution from asthenospheric sources. Using the new He isotope data for cratonic peridotites and assuming that significant portions (>50%) of the Archaean and Proterozoic continental lithospheric mantle are stable and unaffected by melt or fluid infiltration on

  1. Photodisintegration of /sup 3/H and /sup 3/He. [Threshold to 25 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Faul, D.D.

    1980-09-01

    The photoneutron cross sections for /sup 3/H and /sup 3/He have been measured from threshold to approx. 25 MeV with monoenergetic photons from the annihilation in flight of fast positrons at the LLL Electron-Positron Linear Accelerator facility. These reactions include the two-body breakup of /sup 3/H and the three-body breakup of both /sup 3/H and /sup 3/He; these measurements for /sup 3/H are the first to span the energy region across the peaks of the cross sections. An efficient BF/sub 3/-tube-and-paraffin neutron detector and high-pressure gaseous samples of several moles each (the activity of the /sup 3/H sample was approx. 200,000 Ci) were employed in these measurements. Measurements on /sup 16/O and /sup 2/H also were performed to verify the absolute cross-section scale. The results, when compared with each other and with results for the two-body breakup cross section for /sup 3/He from the literature, show that the two-body breakup cross sections for /sup 3/H and /sup 3/He have nearly the same shape, but the one for /sup 3/He lies lower in magnitude; the three-body breakup cross section for /sup 3/He lies higher in magnitude and is broader in the peak region and also rises less sharply from threshold than that for /sup 3/H; and these measured differences between the cross sections for the breakup modes largely compensate in their sum, so that the total photon absorption cross sections for /sup 3/H and /sup 3/He are nearly the same in both size and shape at energies near and above their peaks. Theoretical results from the literature disagree with the experimental results to a certain extent over the entire photon-energy region for which the photoneutron cross sections were measured. 50 figures, 7 tables.

  2. Analyses of FT spectra of C2V ozone isotopologues in the 4500-5700 cm-1 region: 16O18O16O, 18O16O18O and 18O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbe, A.; De Backer, M.-R.; Starikova, E.; Thomas, X.; Tyuterev, Vl. G.

    2014-12-01

    This work continues the systematic investigation of high resolution infrared spectra of 18O enriched ozone isotopologues in the 4500-6300 cm-1 spectral range. So far, the 16O18O16O and 18O16O18O spectra have been recorded and analysed using Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) below 5000 cm-1 and using high sensitivity Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy above 6000 cm-1. In order to fill the gap between 5000 and 6000 cm-1, new infrared spectra were recorded with the Reims FTS. The analyses of the 2ν1+ν2+3ν3 band of 16O18O16O and of the 5ν3, ν1+2ν2+3ν3 and ν1+5ν3 bands of 18O16O18O are reported. New ν1+2ν2+3ν3 and ν1+5ν3 bands of 18O3 were also observed and analysed. Observed line positions were fitted using effective Hamiltonian models accounting for the dark state perturbations. The derived band centres and rotational constants are in a good agreement with new theoretical calculations from the molecular potential function.

  3. A HETEROGENEOUS CHEMICAL ORIGIN FOR THE {sup 16}O-ENRICHED AND {sup 16}O-DEPLETED RESERVOIRS OF THE EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Dominguez, Gerardo

    2010-04-10

    The oldest solids formed in the solar system, calcium-aluminum inclusions, are {sup 16}O-enriched compared to chondrules, asteroids, Earth, and Mars. Based on the preliminary measurements of the solar wind by Genesis, the Sun also appears to be {sup 16}O-enriched. This distribution of oxygen isotopes in the solar system cannot be reconciled via conventional mass-dependent isotopic fractionation processes and instead require the existence and/or production of distinct {sup 16}O-enriched and {sup 16}O-depleted reservoirs in the early solar system. The origin of these distinct reservoirs is unknown, although several mechanisms have been proposed to date including the following: (1) the injection of pure {sup 16}O by a supernova into the protoplanetary disk or parent molecular cloud, (2) self-shielding of CO in the parent molecular cloud or protoplanetary disk, (3) symmetry-dependent chemical fractionation processes in the protoplanetary disk, and (4) Galactic chemical evolution. While some of these proposals have been ruled out, the validity of others is still open. Here I propose that the {sup 16}O-enriched and {sup 16}O-depleted reservoirs present in the early solar system originated in the parent molecular cloud via the heterogeneous chemical processes that form H{sub 2}O, a significant oxygen reservoir, on the surface of interstellar (IS) dust grains in dense molecular clouds, the astrophysical setting where star formation is observed to occur. As a consequence, this model predicts that molecular cloud H{sub 2}O and possibly other IS solids inherited from the molecular cloud were depleted in {sup 16}O compared to the bulk gas-phase O present, thus providing distinct {sup 16}O reservoirs at the earliest stages of planetary formation.

  4. Four-body calculation of 12C(α, γ)16O radiative capture reaction at stellar energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, H.; Firoozabadi, M. M.

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of the four-alphamodel, the 12C(α, γ)16Oradiative capture process is investigated by using the four-body Faddeev-Yakubovsky equations as well as the two- and three-body electromagnetic currents. The present calculation is an application of our current conservation realistic potentials method for the 12C(α, γ)16Oradiative capture process. This work clears the way formore refinedmodels of radiative capture based on two- and three-body realistic potentials and current conservation. The calculation is carried out by considering the 4He + 12C (1 + 3) and the 8Be + 8Be (2 + 2) subamplitudes, respectively. Radiative capture 12C(α, γ)16Oreaction is one of the most important reactions in nuclear astrophysics. For this reaction, the electric dipole transitions between states with the same isospin are forbidden in the first order. Because the state 1+ and 0+ ground state nuclei 16O have zero isospin, thus the electric dipole radiations are not at the first order between two levels and electric dipole radiation will be the second order and electric dipole radiation is the same order as the electric quadrupole radiation. Therefore, we must consider the effects of both radiations. In comparison with other theoretical methods and available experimental data, good agreement is achieved for the E 1 and E 2 contribution to the cross section and the astrophysical S factor for this process.

  5. Communication: A combined periodic density functional and incremental wave-function-based approach for the dispersion-accounting time-resolved dynamics of {sup 4}He nanodroplets on surfaces: {sup 4}He/graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Lara-Castells, María Pilar de; Stoll, Hermann; Civalleri, Bartolomeo; Causà, Mauro; Voloshina, Elena; Mitrushchenkov, Alexander O.; Pi, Martí

    2014-10-21

    In this work we propose a general strategy to calculate accurate He–surface interaction potentials. It extends the dispersionless density functional approach recently developed by Pernal et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 263201 (2009)] to adsorbate-surface interactions by including periodic boundary conditions. We also introduce a scheme to parametrize the dispersion interaction by calculating two- and three-body dispersion terms at coupled cluster singles and doubles and perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) level via the method of increments [H. Stoll, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 8449 (1992)]. The performance of the composite approach is tested on {sup 4}He/graphene by determining the energies of the low-lying selective adsorption states, finding an excellent agreement with the best available theoretical data. Second, the capability of the approach to describe dispersionless correlation effects realistically is used to extract dispersion effects in time-dependent density functional simulations on the collision of {sup 4}He droplets with a single graphene sheet. It is found that dispersion effects play a key role in the fast spreading of the {sup 4}He nanodroplet, the evaporation-like process of helium atoms, and the formation of solid-like helium structures. These characteristics are expected to be quite general and highly relevant to explain experimental measurements with the newly developed helium droplet mediated deposition technique.

  6. Simultaneous investigation of shear modulus and torsional resonance of solid 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jaeho; Choi, Jaewon; Shirahama, Keiya; Kim, Eunseong

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the origin of a resonant period drop of a torsional oscillator (TO) containing solid 4He by inspecting its relation to a change in elastic modulus. To understand this relationship directly, we measure both phenomena simultaneously using a TO with a pair of concentric piezoelectric transducers inserted in its annulus. We confirm experimentally that both anomalies are directly related. Although the temperature, 3He concentration, and frequency dependence are essentially the same, a marked discrepancy in the drive amplitude dependence is observed. We find that this discrepancy originates from the anisotropic response of polycrystalline solid 4He connected with low-angle grain boundaries by studying the shear modulus parallel to and perpendicular to the driving direction.

  7. Tensor analyzing powers T20(θ) and T22(θ) in the 2H(darrow,γ) 4He reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyler, R. G.; Weller, H. R.

    1985-05-01

    Reaction theory expressions are used to prove that the tensor analyzing powers T20(θ) and T22(θ) for the 2H(darrow,γ) 4He reaction are isotropic if the reaction is pure E2 and terms quadratic in channel-spin-2 matrix elements are neglected. Experimental departures from isotropy can be expected near θ-0°, 90°, and 189°.

  8. Quasifree Lambda, Sigma^0, and Sigma^- electroproduction from 1,2H, 3,4He, and Carbon

    SciTech Connect

    F. Dohrmann; A. Ahmidouch; C.S. Armstrong; J. Arrington; R. Asaturyan; S. Avery; K. Bailey; H. Bitao; H. Breuer; D.S. Brown; R. Carlini; J. Cha; N. Chant; E. Christy; A. Cochran; L. Cole; J. Crowder; S. Danagoulian; M. Elaasar; R. Ent; H. Fenker; Y. Fujii; L. Gan; K. Garrow; D.F. Geesaman; P. Gueye; K. Hafidi; W. Hinton; H. Juengst; C. Keppel; Y. Liang; J.H. Liu; A. Lung; D. Mack; P. Markowitz; J. Mitchell; T. Miyoshi; H. Mkrtchyan; S.K. Mtingwa; B. Mueller; G. Niculescu; I. Niculescu; D. Potterveld; B.A. Raue; P.E. Reimer; J. Reinhold; J. Roche; M. Sarsour; Y. Sato; R.E. Segel; A. Semenov; S. Stepanyan; V. Tadevosyan; S. Tajima; L. Tang; A. Uzzle; S. Wood; H. Yamaguchi; C. Yan; L. Yuan; B. Zeidman; M. Zeier; B. Zihlmann

    2007-07-30

    Kaon electroproduction from light nuclei and hydrogen, using 1H, 2H, 3He, 4He, and Carbon targets has been measured at Jefferson Laboratory. The quasifree angular distributions of Lambda and Sigma hyperons were determined at Q^2= 0.35(GeV/c)^2 and W= 1.91GeV. Electroproduction on hydrogen was measured at the same kinematics for reference.

  9. Production of {sup 4}He, {sup 3}He, and tritium from Be irradiated in FFTF-MOTA-2B

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, L.R.

    1998-03-01

    The production of {sup 4}He, {sup 3}He, and tritium has been calculated for beryllium irradiated in the Materials Open Test Assembly (MOTA)-2B experiment in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). Reaction rates were based on adjusted neutron spectra determined from reactor dosimetry measurements at seven different elevations in the irradiation assembly. Equations are given so that gas production, dpa, and neutron fluences can be calculated for any specific elevation in the MOTA-2B assembly.

  10. Motion of a helical vortex filament in superfluid 4He under the extrinsic form of the local induction approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Gorder, Robert A.

    2013-08-01

    Very recently, Shivamoggi ["Vortex motion in superfluid 4He: Reformulation in the extrinsic vortex-filament coordinate space," Phys. Rev. B 84, 012506 (2011)], 10.1103/PhysRevB.84.012506 studied the extrinsic form of the local induction approximation (LIA) for the motion of a Kelvin wave on a vortex filament in superfluid 4He, and obtained some results in a cubic approximation. Presently, we study the motion of helical vortex filaments in superfluid 4He under the exact fully nonlinear LIA considered in potential form by Van Gorder ["Fully nonlinear local induction equation describing the motion of a vortex filament in superfluid 4He," J. Fluid Mech. 707, 585 (2012)], 10.1017/jfm.2012.308 and obtained from the Biot-Savart law through the equations of Hall and Vinen ["The rotation of liquid helium II. I. Experiments on the propagation of second sound in uniformly rotating helium II," Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 238, 204 (1956)], 10.1098/rspa.1956.0214 including superfluid friction terms. Nonlinear dispersion relations governing the helical Kelvin wave on such a vortex filament are derived in exact form, from which we may exactly calculate the phase and group velocity of the Kelvin wave. With this, we classify the motion of a helical Kelvin wave on a vortex filament under the LIA. The dispersion relations and results, which follow are exact in nature, in contrast to most results in the literature, which are usually numerical approximations. As such, our results accurately capture the qualitative behavior of the Kelvin waves under the LIA. Extensions to other frameworks are discussed.

  11. The structure of mixed {sup 3}He-{sup 4}He droplets doped with OCS: A density functional approach

    SciTech Connect

    Leal, Antonio; Mateo, David; Pi, Martí; Barranco, Manuel; Navarro, Jesús

    2013-11-07

    We have investigated the structure and energetics of mixed {sup 3}He-{sup 4}He droplets doped with a carbonyl sulfide molecule within a density functional approach considering a small but finite temperature of 0.1 K. The molecule is treated as an external field to which the helium droplet is attached. The energetics and appearance of these droplets are discussed for selected numbers of helium atoms, identifying the first magic numbers of the fermionic component.

  12. Exclusive measurements of mean pion multiplicities in 4He-nucleus reactions from 200 to 800 MeV/nucleon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    L'Hote, D.; Alard, J. P.; Augerat, J.; Babinet, R.; Brochard, F.; Fodor, Z.; Fraysse, L.; Girard, J.; Gorodetzky, P.; Gosset, J.; Laspalles, C.; Lemaire, M. C.; Lucas, B.; Montarou, G.; Parizet, M. J.; Poitou, J.; Racca, C.; Schimmerling, W.; Tamain, J. C.; Terrien, Y.; Valero, J.; Cugnon, J.; Vandermeulen, J.

    1987-01-01

    Mean multiplicities of pi+ and pi- in 4He collisions with C, Cu, and Pb at 200, 600, and 800 MeV/u, and with C and Pb at 400 MeV/u have been measured using the large solid angle detector Diogene. The independence of pion multiplicity on projectile incident energy, target mass and proton multiplicity is studied in comparison with intra-nuclear cascade predictions. The discrepancy between experimental results and theory is pointed out and discussed.

  13. Measurement of the sup 3 He( n ,. gamma. ) sup 4 He cross section at thermal neutron energies

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfs, F.L.H.; Freedman, S.J.; Nelson, J.E. ); Dewey, M.S.; Greene, G.L. )

    1989-12-18

    We have measured the cross section for radiative capture of thermal neutrons on {sup 3}He. The measured cross section of 54{plus minus}6 {mu}b is used to estimate the astrophysical {ital S} factor for the reaction {sup 3}He({ital p},{ital e}{sup +}{nu}){sup 4}He which gives rise to high-energy neutrinos from the Sun.

  14. Are high 3He/4He ratios in oceanic basalts an indicator of deep-mantle plume components?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meibom, A.; Anderson, D.L.; Sleep, N.H.; Frei, R.; Chamberlain, C.P.; Hren, M.T.; Wooden, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    The existence of a primordial, undegassed lower mantle reservoir characterized by high concentration of 3He and high 3He/4He ratios is a cornerstone assumption in modern geochemistry. It has become standard practice to interpret high 3He/4He ratios in oceanic basalts as a signature of deep-rooted plumes. The unfiltered He isotope data set for oceanic spreading centers displays a wide, nearly Gaussian, distribution qualitatively similar to the Os isotope (187Os/188 Os) distribution of mantle-derived Os-rich alloys. We propose that both distributions are produced by shallow mantle processes involving mixing between different proportions of recycled, variably aged radiogenic and unradiogenic domains under varying degrees of partial melting. In the case of the Re-Os isotopic system, radiogenic mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB)-rich and unradiogenic (depleted mantle residue) endmembers are constantly produced during partial melting events. In the case of the (U+Th)-He isotope system, effective capture of He-rich bubbles during growth of phenocryst olivine in crystallizing magma chambers provides one mechanism for 'freezing in' unradiogenic (i.e. high 3He/4He) He isotope ratios, while the higher than chondritic (U+Th)/He elemental ratio in the evolving and partially degassed MORB melt provides the radiogenic (i.e. low 3He/4He) endmember. If this scenario is correct, the use of He isotopic signatures as a fingerprint of plume components in oceanic basalts is not justified. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  15. A direct measurement of the 6Li(n,t)4He cross section at sub-thermal neutron energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, A.; Dewey, M.; Gilliam, D.; Nico, J.; Greene, G.; Laptev, A.

    2014-09-01

    The thermal neutron capture cross section for the 6Li(n,t)4He reaction is an important neutron cross section standard. Yet few measurements of it have been performed and the ENDF/B-VII recommended value of (938 . 5 +/- 1 . 3) b is based heavily on measurements performed at higher energies. The first absolute, direct measurement of the 6Li(n,t)4He cross section at sub-thermal neutron energy has been performed at the NIST Center for Neutron Research. An alpha-gamma counter was used to measure the absolute neutron fluence of a monoenergetic neutron beam to sub-0.1% precision. The alpha-gamma counter used a thick, totally absorbing target of 10B-enriched boron carbide. The rate of absorbed neutrons was determined by counting the 478 keV 10B(n, γ)7Li gamma rays with calibrated high-purity germanium detectors. Simultaneously, the absolute rate of neutron-induced charged particles was measured for three thin 6Li targets of known density with a defined solid-angle counter. Using the known density of the 6Li targets and measurements of the rate of charged particles from the 6Li targets, the fluence of the neutron beam, and the energy of the neutron beam, we determine the 6Li(n,t)4He cross section at En = 3 . 3 meV to 0.3% uncertainty.

  16. Multichannel study of the {sup 13}C({alpha},n){sup 16}O and {sup 16}O(n,{gamma}){sup 17}O reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Dufour, M.; Descouvemont, P.

    2005-07-01

    The {sup 13}C({alpha},n){sup 16}O reaction is investigated in a microscopic two-cluster model with an effective interaction recently developed for transfer reactions. The wave functions are defined in the generator coordinate method. The basis includes all {sup 13}C+{alpha} and {sup 16}O+n channels with {sup 13}C and {sup 16}O described in the p shell. Particle-hole excitations in the sd shell are also taken into account in order to include the {sup 16}O(3{sup -})+n channel. The {sup 17}O spectroscopy is in good agreement with experiment. In particular, the width of the astrophysically relevant 1/2{sub 2}{sup +} state is well reproduced ({gamma}=121 keV as compared to the experimental value {gamma}=124{+-}12 keV). The calculation of the {sup 13}C({alpha},n){sup 16}O S factor shows the importance of the 3/2{sub 3}{sup +} resonance, and provides S(0.2 MeV)=2.1x10{sup 6} MeV b, slightly lower than the NACRE recommended value (2.5x10{sup 6} MeV b). The same model is applied to the {sup 16}O(n,{gamma}){sup 17}O radiative-capture reaction at thermal and astrophysical energies.

  17. The A2Πi˜X2Σ+ interaction in CO +: Deperturbation analyses of B- A and A- X bands of 12C 16O +, 13C 16O + and 14C 16O +

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coxon, John A.; Kępa, Ryszard; Piotrowska, Izabela

    2010-08-01

    The 1-0, 6-0 and 6-1 bands of the A2Πi→X2Σ+ system of 13C 16O + and the 2-0 and 2-1 bands of the A2Πi→X2Σ+ system of 14C 16O + have been recorded at high resolution for the first time. The 0-2 and 5-0 bands of the A → X system of 12C 16O + have also been recorded at higher resolution than in previous work. The spectra were excited in an air-cooled hollow cathode discharge and photographed using a 2-m plane grating spectrograph. The spectral resolution and the Doppler-broadened line widths are both ˜0.12 cm -1, and the experimental measurement precision of resolved lines is ˜0.02 cm -1. The measured line positions, sometimes in combination with literature data on the B2Σ+→A2Πi transition, have been employed in deperturbation analyses of level crossings in the near-degenerate A(0)˜ X(10) and A(5)˜ X(14) interactions in 12C 16O +, the A(1)˜ X(11) and A(6)˜ X(15) interactions in 13C 16O +, and the A(2)˜ X(12) interaction in 14C 16O +. No radial dependence of the electronic perturbation matrix elements HSO( r) and HRE( r) could be detected over the narrow range of r-centroids (1.477-1.501 Å), and the mean values of these parameters are HSO = -49.06(15) cm -1 and HRE = 0.211(2). Using iteratively improved RKR potentials and FC-overlap integrals, the mean HSO and HRE were employed in least-squares analyses of A → X literature data involving A( υ) levels of the three isotopologues that are affected by interactions with one or two distant X( υ∗) levels. The fitted parameters of the A2Πi state ( B υ, A υ, A Dυ, p υ, q υ) exhibit υ-dependences that are much smoother than those employing perturbed parameters determined in previous investigations. In addition, a significant electronic isotope effect has been characterized. The separations Te( A)- Te( X) of the minima of the A and X states of 13C 16O + and 14C 16O + are less than that of 12C 16O + by 0.39 and 0.73 cm -1, respectively. Although Born-Oppenheimer breakdown of this magnitude is

  18. Laser spectroscopy of thulium atoms implanted in liquid and solid {sup 4}He

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, K.; Hatakeyama, A.; Gosyono-o, K.; Wada, S.; Takahashi, Y.; Yabuzaki, T.

    1997-07-01

    The excitation, emission spectra, and decay curves of the emission intensity of thulium atoms implanted in liquid and solid helium were observed in the presence and absence of an external magnetic field. The observed narrow line (width {approximately}0.1 nm) of the excitation spectrum at 590.60 nm is assigned as a zero-phonon transition from the electronic ground state 4f{sup 13}({sup 2}F{sub 7/2}{sup o})6s{sup 2}, which indicates that the transition between the inner shells is weakly perturbed by surrounding helium atoms. The pressure dependence of the emission wavelength suggests that the symmetry of helium atoms distributed around a thulium atom in the solid phase is similar to that in the liquid phase. The emission intensity was stable and large in the solid phase since thulium atoms were trapped at a density of 10{sup 10}{endash}10{sup 11} atoms/cm{sup 3}. The lifetime of the excited state was measured to be 7.09{plus_minus}0.04 {mu}s, which was longer than that of the 4f{sup 12}({sup 3}H{sub 6})5d{sub 5/2}6s{sup 2} (6,5/2){sub 7/2} state of free thulium atoms. The excited state is expected to be a mixed state of the 4f{sup 12}5d6s{sup 2} and 4f{sup 13}6s6p configurations. The metastable state 4f{sup 13}({sup 2}F{sub 5/2}{sup o})6s{sup 2} is populated by a radiative transition from this excited state and relaxes to the ground state through a magnetic dipole transition. The lifetime of the metastable state of a neutral thulium atom was measured to be 75{plus_minus}3 ms. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  19. Assessing the use of 3H-3He dating to determine the subsurface transit time of cave drip waters.

    PubMed

    Kluge, Tobias; Wieser, Martin; Aeschbach-Hertig, Werner

    2010-09-01

    (3)H-(3)He measurements constitute a well-established method for the determination of the residence time of young groundwater. However, this method has rarely been applied to karstified aquifers and in particular to drip water in caves, despite the importance of the information which may be obtained. Besides the determination of transfer times of climate signals from the atmosphere through the epikarst to speleothems as climate archives, (3)H-(3)He together with Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe data may also help to give new insights into the local hydrogeology, e.g. the possible existence of a perched aquifer above a cave. In order to check the applicability of (3)H-(3)He dating to cave drips, we collected drip water samples from three adjacent caves in northwestern Germany during several campaigns. The noble gas data were evaluated by inverse modelling to obtain recharge temperature and excess air, supporting the calculation of the tritiogenic (3)He and hence the (3)H-(3)He age. Although atmospheric noble gases were often found to be close to equilibrium with the cave atmosphere, several drip water samples yielded an elevated (3)He/(4)He ratio, providing evidence for the accumulation of (3)He from the decay of (3)H. No significant contribution of radiogenic (4)He was found, corresponding to the low residence times mostly in the range of one to three years. Despite complications during sampling, conditions of a perched aquifer could be confirmed by replicate samples at one drip site. Here, the excess air indicator ΔNe was about 10 %, comparable to typical values found in aquifers in mid-latitudes. The mean (3)H-(3)He age of 2.1 years at this site presumably refers to the residence time in the perched aquifer and is lower than the entire transit time of 3.4 years estimated from the tritium data. PMID:20812118

  20. Analysis of the scintillation mechanism in a pressurized 4He fast neutron detector using pulse shape fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, R. P.; Murer, D.; Ray, H.; Jordan, K. A.

    2015-03-01

    An empirical investigation of the scintillation mechanism in a pressurized 4He gas fast neutron detector was conducted using pulse shape fitting. Scintillation signals from neutron interactions were measured and averaged to produce a single generic neutron pulse shape from both a 252Cf spontaneous fission source and a (d,d) neutron generator. An expression for light output over time was then developed by treating the decay of helium excited states in the same manner as the decay of radioactive isotopes. This pulse shape expression was fitted to the measured neutron pulse shape using a least-squares optimization algorithm, allowing an empirical analysis of the mechanism of scintillation inside the 4He detector. A further understanding of this mechanism in the 4He detector will advance the use of this system as a neutron spectrometer. For 252Cf neutrons, the triplet and singlet time constants were found to be 970 ns and 686 ns, respectively. For neutrons from the (d,d) generator, the time constants were found to be 884 ns and 636 ns. Differences were noted in the magnitude of these parameters compared to previously published data, however the general relationships were noted to be the same and checked with expected trends from theory. Of the excited helium states produced from a 252Cf neutron interaction, 76% were found to be born as triplet states, similar to the result from the neutron generator of 71%. The two sources yielded similar pulse shapes despite having very different neutron energy spectra, validating the robustness of the fits across various neutron energies.

  1. Analysis of the scintillation mechanism in a pressurized {sup 4}He fast neutron detector using pulse shape fitting

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, R.P. Ray, H.; Jordan, K.A.; Murer, D.

    2015-03-15

    An empirical investigation of the scintillation mechanism in a pressurized {sup 4}He gas fast neutron detector was conducted using pulse shape fitting. Scintillation signals from neutron interactions were measured and averaged to produce a single generic neutron pulse shape from both a {sup 252}Cf spontaneous fission source and a (d,d) neutron generator. An expression for light output over time was then developed by treating the decay of helium excited states in the same manner as the decay of radioactive isotopes. This pulse shape expression was fitted to the measured neutron pulse shape using a least-squares optimization algorithm, allowing an empirical analysis of the mechanism of scintillation inside the {sup 4}He detector. A further understanding of this mechanism in the {sup 4}He detector will advance the use of this system as a neutron spectrometer. For {sup 252}Cf neutrons, the triplet and singlet time constants were found to be 970 ns and 686 ns, respectively. For neutrons from the (d,d) generator, the time constants were found to be 884 ns and 636 ns. Differences were noted in the magnitude of these parameters compared to previously published data, however the general relationships were noted to be the same and checked with expected trends from theory. Of the excited helium states produced from a {sup 252}Cf neutron interaction, 76% were found to be born as triplet states, similar to the result from the neutron generator of 71%. The two sources yielded similar pulse shapes despite having very different neutron energy spectra, validating the robustness of the fits across various neutron energies.

  2. Precision measurement of the 3 d → 2 p x-ray energy in kaonic 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, S.; Beer, G.; Bhang, H.; Cargnelli, M.; Chiba, J.; Choi, Seonho; Curceanu, C.; Fukuda, Y.; Hanaki, T.; Hayano, R. S.; Iio, M.; Ishikawa, T.; Ishimoto, S.; Ishiwatari, T.; Itahashi, K.; Iwai, M.; Iwasaki, M.; Juhász, B.; Kienle, P.; Marton, J.; Matsuda, Y.; Ohnishi, H.; Outa, H.; Sato, M.; Schmid, P.; Suzuki, S.; Suzuki, T.; Tatsuno, H.; Tomono, D.; Widmann, E.; Yamazaki, T.; Yim, H.; Zmeskal, J.

    2007-09-01

    We have measured the Balmer-series x-rays of kaonic 4He atoms using novel large-area silicon drift x-ray detectors in order to study the low-energy Kbar-nucleus strong interaction. The energy of the 3 d → 2 p transition was determined to be 6467 ± 3 (stat) ± 2 (syst) eV. The resulting strong-interaction energy-level shift is in agreement with theoretical calculations, thus eliminating a long-standing discrepancy between theory and experiment.

  3. Measurements of the T(t,2n)4He neutron spectrum at low reactant energies from inertial confinement implosions.

    PubMed

    Casey, D T; Frenje, J A; Gatu Johnson, M; Manuel, M J-E; Sinenian, N; Zylstra, A B; Séguin, F H; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Yu; Radha, P B; Meyerhofer, D D; Sangster, T C; McNabb, D P; Amendt, P A; Boyd, R N; Hatchett, S P; Quaglioni, S; Rygg, J R; Thompson, I J; Bacher, A D; Herrmann, H W; Kim, Y H

    2012-07-13

    Measurements of the neutron spectrum from the T(t,2n)4He (tt) reaction have been conducted using inertial confinement fusion implosions at the OMEGA laser facility. In these experiments, deuterium-tritium (DT) gas-filled capsules were imploded to study the tt reaction in thermonuclear plasmas at low reactant center-of-mass (c.m.) energies. In contrast to accelerator experiments at higher c.m. energies (above 100 keV), these results indicate a negligible n + 5He reaction channel at a c.m. energy of 23 keV. PMID:23030170

  4. HCHO in a cold, quantum solvent: size and shape of its "bubbles" in (4)He droplets from stochastic simulations.

    PubMed

    Marinetti, F; Yurtsever, E; Gianturco, F A

    2010-09-16

    The full interaction between formaldehyde and (4)He atoms has been obtained from a first-principle calculation of the forces at play. In order to describe the nanoscopic features of HCHO being solvated in a quantum liquid, further Monte Carlo calculations for the system HCHO@He(N) with N up to 20 have been carried out. The energetics and structure of the systems, as N changes, are extensively analyzed, and the excluded volume ("bubble") created by the inner cage that surrounds the solvated molecule is described and discussed to provide molecular microsolvation details for the title system. PMID:20462179

  5. Lowest vibrational states of {sup 4}He{sup 3}He{sup +}: Non-Born-Oppenheimer calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Stanke, Monika; Bubin, Sergiy; Kedziera, Dariusz; Molski, Marcin; Adamowicz, Ludwik

    2007-11-15

    Very accurate quantum mechanical calculations of the first five vibrational states of the {sup 4}He{sup 3}He{sup +} molecular ion are reported. The calculations have been performed explicitly including the coupling of the electronic and nuclear motions [i.e., without assuming the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) approximation]. The nonrelativistic non-BO wave functions were used to calculate the {alpha}{sup 2} relativistic mass velocity, Darwin, and spin-spin interaction corrections. For the lowest vibrational transition, whose experimental energy is established with high precision, the calculated and the experimental results differ by only 0.16 cm{sup -1}.

  6. Astrophysical SE2 factor of the 12C(α, γ)16O reaction through the 12C(11B, 7Li)16O transfer reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, B.; Du, X. C.; Li, Z. H.; Li, Y. J.; Pang, D. Y.; Su, J.; Yan, S. Q.; Fan, Q. W.; Gan, L.; Han, Z. Y.; Li, E. T.; Li, X. Y.; Lian, G.; Liu, J. C.; Pei, C. J.; Qiao, L. H.; Shen, Y. P.; Su, Y.; Wang, Y. B.; Zeng, S.; Zhou, Y.; Liu, W. P.

    2016-02-01

    The 12C(α, γ)16O reaction plays a key role in the evolution of stars with masses of M > 0.55 M⊙. At the Gamow peak (Ec.m. = 300 ke V, T9 = 0.2), the cross section of the 12C(α, γ)16O reaction is so small (about 10-17 barn) that the direct measurement in ground laboratory is not feasible with the existing technology. Up to now, the cross sections at lower energies can only be extrapolated from the data at higher energies. However, two subthreshold resonances, locating at Ex = 7.117 MeV and Ex = 6.917 MeV, make this extrapolation more complicated. In this work the 6.917 MeV subthreshold resonance in the 12C(α, γ)16O reaction was investigated via the 12C(11B, 7Li)16O reaction. The experiment was performed using the Q3D magnetic spectrograph at HI-13 tandem accelerator. We measured the angular distribution of the 12C(11B, 7Li)16O transfer reaction leading to the 6.917 MeV state. Based on DWBA analysis, we derived the square of ANC of the 6.917 MeV level in 16O to be (2.45± 0.28) ×1010 fm-1, with which the reduced-α width can be computed. Finally, we calculated the astrophysical SE2 factor of the 6.917 MeV resonance to be 67.6 ± 7.7 ke V b.

  7. Unified description of 6Li structure and deuterium-4He dynamics with chiral two- and three-nucleon forces

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hupin, Guillaume; Quaglioni, Sofia; Navratil, Petr

    2015-05-29

    Here, we provide a unified ab initio description of the 6Li ground state and elastic scattering of deuterium (d) on 4He (α) using two- and three-nucleon forces from chiral effective field theory. We analyze the influence of the three-nucleon force and reveal the role of continuum degrees of freedom in shaping the low-lying spectrum of 6Li. The calculation reproduces the empirical binding energy of 6Li, yielding an asymptotic D- to S-state ratio of the 6Li wave function in the d+α configuration of –0.027, in agreement with a determination from 6Li–4He elastic scattering, but overestimates the excitation energy of the 3+more » state by 350 keV. The bulk of the computed differential cross section is in good agreement with data. These results endorse the application of the present approach to the evaluation of the 2H(α,γ)6Li radiative capture, responsible for the big-bang nucleosynthesis of 6Li.« less

  8. Unified description of ^{6}Li structure and deuterium-^{4}He dynamics with chiral two- and three-nucleon forces.

    PubMed

    Hupin, Guillaume; Quaglioni, Sofia; Navrátil, Petr

    2015-05-29

    We provide a unified ab initio description of the ^{6}Li ground state and elastic scattering of deuterium (d) on ^{4}He (α) using two- and three-nucleon forces from chiral effective field theory. We analyze the influence of the three-nucleon force and reveal the role of continuum degrees of freedom in shaping the low-lying spectrum of ^{6}Li. The calculation reproduces the empirical binding energy of ^{6}Li, yielding an asymptotic D- to S-state ratio of the ^{6}Li wave function in the d+α configuration of -0.027, in agreement with a determination from ^{6}Li-^{4}He elastic scattering, but overestimates the excitation energy of the 3^{+} state by 350 keV. The bulk of the computed differential cross section is in good agreement with data. These results endorse the application of the present approach to the evaluation of the ^{2}H(α,γ)^{6}Li radiative capture, responsible for the big-bang nucleosynthesis of ^{6}Li. PMID:26066431

  9. Studies of kinetic processes in a concentrated 3He-4He solution using an oscillating tuning fork

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhvalova, V. A.; Gritsenko, I. A.; Rudavskii, E. Ya.; Chagovets, V. K.; Sheshin, G. A.

    2015-07-01

    The dissipative processes causing the damping of quartz tuning fork vibrations in a solution of 15% 3He in 4He, are studied in a temperature range of 0.5-2.3 K. The resonance curves of the tuning forks are measured in the laminar flow region of the liquid, and their width is determined by the width of the dissipative processes. We examined tuning forks with a resonance frequency of 32 kHz, located inside a flask ("enclosed") and tuning forks without a flask ("unenclosed"). The results of the experiment are compared to existing theories. It was found that a significant contribution to the damping of tuning fork oscillations for a solution, as opposed to pure 4He, is from the second sound radiation, the contribution of which exceeds the input of viscous dissipation at low temperatures. The radiation of the first sound does not contribute to the damping of the oscillations of the "enclosed" fork due to the small size of the cell versus the wavelength. In the case of the "unenclosed" fork, the damping is determined by three processes: viscous dissipation and radiation of the first and second sounds.

  10. Frequency-dependent Study of Ultrapure Solid 4He by Using Rigid Double-pendulum Torsional Oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jaewon; Shin, Jaeho; Kim, Eunseong

    2015-03-01

    The physical origin of the period drop found in the torsional oscillator (TO) containing solid 4He was previously interpreted as the appearance of supersolidity. The current consensus is that the increase in the shear modulus leads to the period anomaly. Further studies show that the stiffening effect in TO can be amplified if a TO is not properly designed to be ``rigid.'' In this study, we designed a rigid double-pendulum TO. High purity solid 4He sample (0.6ppb) was grown by the block capillary method. The resonant period of TO starts to decrease from the empty cell data at 80mK. The ratio of the resonant period changes to the total mass loading are 3 . 8 ×10-5 and 2 . 6 ×10-4 for 1st and 2nd mode, respectively. Unlike recent experiment, we could not found a frequency-independent period drop. The upper bound for the putative supersolid fraction is less than 4 ×10-6 . The dissipation peak accompanied with the period drop was also analyzed with Cole-Cole plot and ωτ plot. We conclude that major contribution for the anomalous TO responses comes from the elastic effect.

  11. Two- and Three-Body Photodisintegration of ^4He at E_γ=150-250 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, B. J.; Canon, R. S.; Wulf, E. A.; Weller, H. R.; Keeter, K.; Kolb, N. R.; Mueller, C.; Pywell, R. E.; Retzlaff, G. R.; Skopik, D. M.; Feldman, G.

    1997-10-01

    The reactions ^4He(γ,dd) and ^4He(γ,npd) with E_γ=150-250 MeV have been studied using tagged and untagged bremsstrahlung γ rays from the electron accelerator at the Saskatchewan Accelerator Laboratory (SAL). Angular distributions and energy dependences of the cross sections have been measured at six angles from 45^circ to 141^circ in the center-of-mass frame. Preliminary results indicate that the (γ,dd) cross section is peaked near 45^circ and 135^circ with a minimum at 90^circ, consistent with an E2 angular distribution. This contradicts the suggestion by Silverman [1] that the distribution is peaked at 90^circ. Our preliminary absolute cross sections favor the lower values of previous reports (see references in [1]). In order to extract the amplitudes and phases of the contributing multipoles, a transition-matrix element analysis will be performed. Implications of these two- and three-body results for current few-body theories will be discussed. * Research supported in part by DOE grant DE-FG02-97ER41033. [1] B. H. Silverman et al., Phys. Rev. C 29, 35 (1984).

  12. Low-3He/4He sublithospheric mantle source for the most magnesian magmas of the Karoo large igneous province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinonen, Jussi S.; Kurz, Mark D.

    2015-09-01

    The massive outpourings of Karoo and Ferrar continental flood basalts (CFBs) ∼180 Ma ago mark the initial Jurassic rifting stages of the Gondwana supercontinent. The origin and sources of these eruptions have been debated for decades, largely due to difficulties in defining their parental melt and mantle source characteristics. Recent findings of Fe- and Mg-rich dikes (depleted ferropicrite suite) from Vestfjella, western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, have shed light on the composition of the deep sub-Gondwanan mantle: these magmas have been connected to upper mantle sources presently sampled by the Southwest Indian Ocean mid-ocean ridge basalts (SWIR MORBs) or to high 3He/4He plume-entrained non-chondritic primitive mantle sources formed early in Earth's history. In an attempt to determine their He isotopic composition and relative contributions from magmatic, cosmogenic, and radiogenic He sources, we performed in-vacuo stepwise crushing and melting analyses of olivine mineral separates, some of which were abraded to remove the outer layer of the grains. The best estimate for the mantle isotopic composition is given by a sample with the highest amount of He released (>50%) during the first crushing step of an abraded coarse fraction. It has a 3He/4He of 7.03 ± 0.23 (2σ) times the atmospheric ratio (Ra), which is indistinguishable from those measured from SWIR MORBs (6.3-7.3 Ra; source 3He/4He ∼6.4-7.6 Ra at 180 Ma) and notably lower than in the most primitive lavas from the North Atlantic Igneous Province (up to 50 Ra), considered to represent the epitome magmas from non-chondritic primitive mantle sources. Previously published trace element and isotopic (Sr, Nd, and Pb) compositions do not suggest a direct genetic link to any modern hotspot of Indian or southern Atlantic Oceans. Although influence of a mantle plume cannot be ruled out, the high magma temperatures and SWIR MORB-like geochemistry of the suite are best explained by supercontinent insulation

  13. Parity-Violating Electron Scattering from {sup 4}He and the Strange Electric Form Factor of the Nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Aniol, K.A.; Margaziotis, D.J.; Armstrong, D.S.; Averett, T.; Finn, J.M.; Holmstrom, T.; Kelleher, A.; Moffit, B.; Sulkosky, V.; Benaoum, H.; Holmes, R.; Souder, P.A.; Bertin, P.Y.; Ferdi, C.

    2006-01-20

    We have measured the parity-violating electroweak asymmetry in the elastic scattering of polarized electrons from {sup 4}He at an average scattering angle <{theta}{sub lab}>=5.7 deg. and a four-momentum transfer Q{sup 2}=0.091 GeV{sup 2}. From these data, for the first time, the strange electric form factor of the nucleon G{sub E}{sup s} can be isolated. The measured asymmetry of A{sub PV}=(6.72{+-}0.84{sub (stat)}{+-}0.21{sub (syst)})x10{sup -6} yields a value of G{sub E}{sup s}=-0.038{+-}0.042{sub (stat)}{+-}0.010{sub (syst)}, consistent with zero.

  14. The influence of embedded atoms, molecules, and clusters on the lifetimes of electron bubbles in large 4He droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fárník, Michal; Toennies, J. Peter

    2003-03-01

    The lifetimes of electrons injected into large (≈106atoms) superfluid 4He droplets have been measured in the presence of different prior embedded rare gas atoms, their clusters, and the molecules O2, H2O, and SF6. For the light rare gas atoms Ne and Ar the lifetimes of about 6ṡ10-2 s, found previously for pure droplets, are reduced to between 1-2ṡ10-2 s. Single molecules with large electron affinities, such as SF6 and O2 and small clusters of H2O lead to a significant increase in the lifetimes. In the case of Kr and Xe, larger clusters with n¯>14 are needed before the lifetimes increase. A simple model, which takes account of the energy levels occupied by the electrons in the corresponding molecules or the clusters, assumed to be solid, can qualitatively explain the observations.

  15. Determination of thicknesses and impurities of targets by measuring backscattered particles from 2 MeV 4He +-bombardment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guoji, Xu; Yuhua, Zhao; Shengnan, Zheng; Yongchang, Xu

    1985-06-01

    The measurement of target thicknesses and impurity contents using backscattering, as well as the principle of this technique are briefly described. The targets are irradiated in a beam of 2 MeV 4He + ions. The backscattered ions are detected using a Si(Au) solid-state detector. Gold and calcium fluoride on thin carbon backing and selfsupporting silicon foils were determined from peak width measurements. Oxygen and tungsten impurities in a silicon target being prepared by vacuum evaporation from a tungsten boat were determined using the same method. The thickness of a thin aluminium deposit on thick tantalum backing was obtained from the energy shift of the tantalum peak between two spectra recorded with respectively the aluminium and the tantalum facing the ion beam. Copper contamination on the surface on an iron layer electroplated on copper foil was determined by comparison of the copper peak area with the iron peak height in the backscattering spectrum.

  16. Electric breakdown and ionization detection in normal liquid and superfluid 4He for the SNA nEDM experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karcz, Maciej

    A new experiment to search for the neutron electric dipole moment (nEDM) is under construction at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The SNS nEDM experiment is a national collaboration spanning over 20 universities and laboratories with more than 100 physicists and engineers contributing to the research and development. The search for a nEDM is a precision test of time reversal symmetry in particle physics, in the absence of a discovery, the SNS nEDM experiment seeks to improve the present limit on the nEDM value by two orders of magnitude. A non-zero value of the nEDM would help to explain the asym- metry between matter and anti-matter in the universe by providing an additional source of charge conjugation and parity symmetry violation, a necessary ingredient in the theory of baryogenesis in the early universe. The nEDM experiment will measure the Larmor precession frequency of neutrons by detecting scintillation from neutron capture by a dilute concentration of 3He inside a bath of superfluid 4He. Neutron capture by 3He is spin-dependent and the magnetic moments of the neutron and the 3He nucleus are comparable. A direct measurement of the precession frequency of polarized 3He and scintillation from neutron capture allows for the relative precession frequencies of 3He and the neutron to be determined. The experiment will then look for changes in the relative precession of 3He and neutrons under the influence of strong electric fields. 3He has negligible EDM and therefore any deviation due to an applied electric field would be from a nEDM. The nEDM experiment will need to apply strong electric fields inside superfluid (SF) 4He and it was necessary to investigate the ability of SF 4He to sustain electric fields. An experiment to study electric breakdown in superfluid 4He was constructed at the Indiana University Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter (CEEM). The experiment studied the electric breakdown behavior of liquid

  17. The 4He1H ratios in the chemical compositions of solar flare particles and the primordial solar nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakurai, K.

    1985-01-01

    The chemical abundances of solar flare particles are similar to those of galactic cosmic rays at their sources. In order to infer the 4He/1H ratio in the solar atmosphere, this ratio as observed in the interstellar gases was considered in addition to those which were contained of galactic cosmic rays and the stars classified as the early types. Since it is clear that the most of these ratios ever deduced for both of the Sun and solar flare particles are lower than those for the interstellar gases, this ratio suggests that hydrogens are relatively overabundant in the chemical abundances of the Sun and the primordial solar nebula as compared to those of the interstellar gases currently observed.

  18. Frequency stabilization of a 1083 nm fiber laser to {sup 4}He transition lines with optical heterodyne saturation spectroscopies

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, W.; Peng, X. Li, W.; Guo, H.

    2014-07-15

    Two kinds of optical heterodyne saturation spectroscopies, namely, frequency modulation spectroscopy (FMS) and modulation transfer spectroscopy (MTS), are demonstrated for locking a fiber laser to the transition lines of metastable {sup 4}He atoms around 1083 nm. The servo-loop error signals of FMS and MTS for stabilizing laser frequency are optimized by studying the dependence of the peak-to-peak amplitude and slope on the optical power of pump and probe beams. A comparison of the stabilization performances of FMS/MTS and polarization spectroscopy (PS) is presented, which shows that MTS exhibits relatively superior performance with the least laser frequency fluctuation due to its flat-background dispersive signal, originated from the four-wave mixing process. The Allan deviation of the stabilized laser frequency is 5.4 × 10{sup −12}@100 s with MTS for data acquired in 1000 s, which is sufficiently applicable for fields like laser cooling, optical pumping, and optical magnetometry.

  19. Frequency stabilization of a 1083 nm fiber laser to 4He transition lines with optical heterodyne saturation spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, W.; Peng, X.; Li, W.; Guo, H.

    2014-07-01

    Two kinds of optical heterodyne saturation spectroscopies, namely, frequency modulation spectroscopy (FMS) and modulation transfer spectroscopy (MTS), are demonstrated for locking a fiber laser to the transition lines of metastable 4He atoms around 1083 nm. The servo-loop error signals of FMS and MTS for stabilizing laser frequency are optimized by studying the dependence of the peak-to-peak amplitude and slope on the optical power of pump and probe beams. A comparison of the stabilization performances of FMS/MTS and polarization spectroscopy (PS) is presented, which shows that MTS exhibits relatively superior performance with the least laser frequency fluctuation due to its flat-background dispersive signal, originated from the four-wave mixing process. The Allan deviation of the stabilized laser frequency is 5.4 × 10-12@100 s with MTS for data acquired in 1000 s, which is sufficiently applicable for fields like laser cooling, optical pumping, and optical magnetometry.

  20. Acceptance Studies for 4He(e,e'p)X Reaction up to High Missing Energies and Momenta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finton, Drew; Benmokhtar, Fatiha

    2014-03-01

    Data collected from the Helium-4 target in Hall A at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF) in Newport News, Virginia, was analyzed using the object-oriented data analysis software ROOT and used to create Missing Energy Spectra for Missing Momenta ranging from 150 MeV/c to 755 MeV/c for 4He(e,e'p)X reaction channels. Jefferson Lab is a continuous electron beam accelerator facility, and Hall A contains two high resolution spectrometers as well as the cryogenic Helium-4 target. Acceptance cuts were made to six measured variables to remove background noise, and then applied to produce a Missing Energy Spectrum showing two- and three-body break up channels as well as pion electro-production energy threshold. The analysis of these missing energy spectra will be used to understand the contributions of one-, two-, and three-body interactions.

  1. A Survey of Beam Asymmetries in Semi-exclusive Electron Scattering on {sup 4}He and {sup 12}C

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Protopopescu

    2002-12-01

    A study of the polarized electron beam asymmetry in semi-exclusive (e,e{prime}p) reactions on {sup 4}He and {sup 12}C over a large kinematic range has been performed. The beam asymmetry A{prime}{sub LT} is related to the imaginary part of the longitudinal-transverse interference and therefore it vanishes in reactions proceeding through a channel with a single dominant mechanism. In quasifree nucleon knockout, the helicity asymmetry provides an unambiguous signature for the interference between direct knockout and rescattering amplitudes. The data were taken in April-May 1999 using polarized beams of energies between 2.2 and 4.4 GeV, with the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) detector located in Hall B at the Jefferson Laboratory, VA. The measured asymmetries compare well with the theoretical predictions.

  2. Time-of-Flight Experiments of Vortex Rings Propagating from Turbulent Region of Superfluid 4He at High Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nago, Y.; Ogawa, T.; Obara, K.; Yano, H.; Ishikawa, O.; Hata, T.

    2011-02-01

    We report the time-of-flight of quantized vortex rings generated by a vibrating wire in superfluid 4He which contains normal fluid component. A cover box of vibrating wires and slow cooling of superfluid reduce the number of vortices attached to wire surfaces, enabling us to study vortex rings propagating from a turbulent region. Using two vibrating wires as a generator and a detector of vortices, the time-of-flight of vortices propagating a distance of 0.88 mm was measured at 1.25 K. We find that the time-of-flights distribute from 0.06 s to 27.4 s, much larger than the lifetimes of circular vortex rings limited in the size of a generator amplitude. These results imply that large vortex rings with non-circular shape or vortex tangles are created by the generator, propagating slowly and colliding with the detector before complete disappearance.

  3. Parity-Violating Electron Scattering from {sup 4}He and the Strange Electric Form Factor of the Nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Aniol, Konrad; Armstrong, David; Averett, Todd; Benaoum, Hachemi; Bertin, Pierre; Burtin, Etienne; Cahoon, Jason; Cates, Gordon; Chang, C; Chao, Yu-Chiu; Chen, Jian-Ping; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, Eugene; Craver, Brandon; Cusanno, Francesco; Decowski, Piotr; Deepa, Deepa; Ferdi, Catherine; Feuerbach, Robert; Finn, John; Frullani, Salvatore; Fuoti, Kirsten; Garibaldi, Franco; Gilman, Ronald; Glamazdin, Oleksandr; Gorbenko, V; Grames, Joseph; Hansknecht, John; Higinbotham, Douglas; Holmes, Richard; Holmstrom, Timothy; Humensky, Thomas; Ibrahim, Hassan; Jager, Cornelis De; Jiang, Xiaodong; Kaufman, Lisa; Kelleher, Aidan; Kolarkar, Ameya; Kowalski, Stanley; Kumar, Krishna; Lambert, Daniel; Laviolette, Peter; LeRose, John; Lhuillier, David; Liyanage, Nilanga; Margaziotis, Demetrius; Mazouz, Malek; McCormick, Kathy; Meekins, David; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Michaels, Robert; Moffit, Bryan; Monaghan, Peter; Camacho, Carlos Munoz; Nanda, Sirish; Nelyubin, Vladimir; Neyret, Damien; Paschke, Kent; Poelker, Benard; Pomatsalyuk, Roman; Qiang, Yi; Reitz, Bodo; Roche, Julie; Saha, Arunava; Singh, Jaideep; Snyder, Ryan; Souder, Paul; Subedi, Ramesh; Suleiman, Riad; Sulkosky, Vincent; Tobias, William; Urciuoli, Guido; Vacheret, Antonin; Voutier, Eric; Wang, Kebin; Wilson, R; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Zheng, Xiaochao

    2005-06-01

    We have measured the parity-violating electroweak asymmetry in the elastic scattering of polarized electrons from {sup 4}He at an average scattering angle {theta}{sub lab} = 5.7 degrees and a four-momentum transfer Q{sup 2} = 0.091 GeV{sup 2}. From these data, for the first time, the strange electric form factor of the nucleon G{sub E}{sup s} can be isolated. The measured asymmetry of A{sub PV} = 6.72 {+-} 0.84 (stat) {+-} 0.21 (syst) parts per million yields a value of G{sub E}{sup s} = -0.038 {+-} 0.042 (stat) {+-} 0.010 (syst), consistent with zero.

  4. Frequency-dependent study of solid 4He contained in a rigid double-torus torsional oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jaewon; Shin, Jaeho; Kim, Eunseong

    2015-10-01

    The rigid double-torus torsional oscillator (TO) is constructed to reduce any elastic effects inherent to complicated TO structures, allowing explicit probing for a genuine supersolid signature. We investigated the frequency- and temperature-dependent response of the rigid double-torus TO containing solid 4He with 0.6-ppb 3He and 300-ppb 3He . We did not find evidence to support the frequency-independent contribution proposed to be a property of supersolid helium. The frequency-dependent contribution which comes from the simple elastic effect of solid helium coupled to the TO is essentially responsible for the entire response. The magnitude of the period drop is linearly proportional to f2, indicating that the responses observed in this TO are mostly caused by the overshoot of "soft" solid helium against the wall of the torus. Dissipation of the rigid TO is vastly suppressed compared to that of nonrigid TOs.

  5. Low-energy R -matrix fits for the 6Li(d ,α ) 4HeS factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grineviciute, J.; Lamia, L.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Spitaleri, C.; La Cognata, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Information about the 6Li(d ,α ) 4He reaction rates of astrophysical interest can be obtained by extrapolating direct data to lower energies, or by indirect methods. The indirect Trojan horse method, as well as various R -matrix and polynomial fits to direct data, estimate electron screening energies much larger than the adiabatic limit. Calculations that include the subthreshold resonance estimate smaller screening energies. Purpose: Obtain the 6Li(d,α ) 4He reaction R -matrix parameters and the bare astrophysical S factor for energies relevant to the stellar plasmas by fitting R -matrix formulas for the subthreshold resonances to the S -factor data above 60 keV. Methods: The bare S factor is calculated using the single- and the two-level R -matrix formulas for the closest to the threshold 0+ and 2+ subthreshold states at 22.2 ,20.2 , and 20.1 MeV. The electron screening potential U e is then obtained by fitting it as a single parameter to the low-energy data. The calculations are also done by fitting U e simultaneously with other parameters. Results: The low-energy S factor is dominated by the 2+ subthreshold resonance at 22.2 MeV. The influence of the other two subthreshold states is small. The resultant electron screening is smaller than the adiabatic value. The fits that neglect the electron screening above 60 keV produce a significantly smaller electron screening potential. The calculations show a large ambiguity associated with a choice of the initial channel radius. Conclusions: The R -matrix fits do not show a significantly larger Ue than predicted by the atomic physics models. The R -matrix best fit provides U e=149.5 eV and Sb(0 ) =21.7 MeV b.

  6. Isotopic separation of sup 3 He/ sup 4 He from solar wind gases evolved from the lunar regolith

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkes, W.R. ); Wittenberg, L.J. )

    1992-01-01

    The potential benefits of {sup 3}He when utilized in a nuclear fusion reactor to provide clean, safe electricity in the 21st century for the world's inhabitants has been documented. Unfortunately, He is scarce on earth. Large quantities of {sup 3}He, perhaps a million tonnes, are embedded in the lunar regolith, presumably implanted by the solar wind together with other elements, notably {sup 4}He, H, C and N. Several studies have suggested processing the lunar regolith and recovering these valuable solar wind gases. Once released, these gases can be separated for use. The separation of helium isotopes is described in this paper. {sup 3}He constitutes only 400 at{center dot}ppm of lunar He, too dilute to separate economically by distillation alone. A superfluid'' separator is being considered to preconcentrate the {sup 3}He. The superfluid separator consists of a porous filter in a tube maintained at a temperature of 2.17 K or less. Although the {sup 4}He, which is superfluid below 2.17 K, flows readily through the filter, the He is blocked by the filter, and becomes enriched at the feed end. He can be enriched to about 10% in such a system. The enriched product from the superfluid separation serves as a feed to a distillation apparatus operating at a pressure of 9 kPa, with a boiler temperature of 2.4 K, and a condenser temperature of 1.6 K. Under constant flow conditions, a 99.9% enriched He product can be produced in this apparatus. The heat rejection load of the refrigeration equipment necessary to cool the separation operations would be conducted during the lunar nights.

  7. Isotopic separation of {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He from solar wind gases evolved from the lunar regolith

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkes, W.R.; Wittenberg, L.J.

    1992-09-01

    The potential benefits of {sup 3}He when utilized in a nuclear fusion reactor to provide clean, safe electricity in the 21st century for the world`s inhabitants has been documented. Unfortunately, He is scarce on earth. Large quantities of {sup 3}He, perhaps a million tonnes, are embedded in the lunar regolith, presumably implanted by the solar wind together with other elements, notably {sup 4}He, H, C and N. Several studies have suggested processing the lunar regolith and recovering these valuable solar wind gases. Once released, these gases can be separated for use. The separation of helium isotopes is described in this paper. {sup 3}He constitutes only 400 at{center_dot}ppm of lunar He, too dilute to separate economically by distillation alone. A ``superfluid`` separator is being considered to preconcentrate the {sup 3}He. The superfluid separator consists of a porous filter in a tube maintained at a temperature of 2.17 K or less. Although the {sup 4}He, which is superfluid below 2.17 K, flows readily through the filter, the He is blocked by the filter, and becomes enriched at the feed end. He can be enriched to about 10% in such a system. The enriched product from the superfluid separation serves as a feed to a distillation apparatus operating at a pressure of 9 kPa, with a boiler temperature of 2.4 K, and a condenser temperature of 1.6 K. Under constant flow conditions, a 99.9% enriched He product can be produced in this apparatus. The heat rejection load of the refrigeration equipment necessary to cool the separation operations would be conducted during the lunar nights.

  8. Comparison of the effectiveness of exposure to low LET helium particles (4He) and gamma rays (137Cs) on the disruption of cognitive performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rats were exposed to either Helium (4He) particles (1000 MeV/n; 0.1 – 10 cGy; head-only) or Cesium 137Cs gamma rays (50 – 400 cGy; whole body) and the effects of irradiation on cognitive performance evaluated. The results indicated that exposure to doses of 4He particles as low as 0.1 cGy disrupted...

  9. Correlation of gold in siliceous sinters with 3He 4He in hot spring waters of Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, R.O.; Kennedy, B.M.; Aoki, M.; Thompson, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    temperatures may contain waters with different [H2S] and [Au]. The [H2S] in a subsurface reservoir water is difficult to assess on the basis of analyses of hot spring waters because of uncertainties about steam loss during fluid ascent. However, the same processes that result in low [H2S] in reservoir waters also tend to result in decreases in the ratio of 3He 4He(R) dissolved in that water. Values of R relative to this ratio in air (Ra) attain values > 15 in YNP thermal waters. To date, all of the thermal waters at YNP that have R Ra values <9 have been found to deposit sinters with relatively low gold concentrations. These include all of the thermal waters that discharge from 180-215??C reservoirs at Upper, Midway, and Lower Geyser Basins within the western part of the Yellowstone caldera, and thermal waters at Norris Geyser Basin, outside the Yellowstone caldera, where some of the waters flow directly to the surface from a reservoir where the temperature is about 300??C. A high 3He 4He ratio in thermal water discharged at the surface does not guarantee high gold concentrations in the sinter deposited by this water. Boiling with loss of steam (the gas phase takes a separate route to the surface) during rapid upflow from the shallowest reservoir to the surface decreases the [H2S] and total He dissolved in the residual liquid without appreciably changing the 3He 4He ratio. This is because the isotopic composition of the He of the initial bulk fluid is unchanged and there is too little time for much radiogenic 4He to build back into the liquid during this rapid ascent from the near-surface reservoir. However, if boiling with phase separation and loss of steam occurs deep in the system, the 3He 4He ratio in the residual liquid, now depleted in H2S and total He, will be susceptible to dilution with radiogenic 4He that is acquired during the longer residence time underground. Some or all of the Au that comes out of solution when an initial gold bisulfide complex breaks

  10. The Production of (26)Al in the Early Solar System by the (16)O((16)O, X)(26)Al(Gs) and (14)N((16)O, X)(26)Al(Gs) Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildiz, Kazim Orhan

    1998-12-01

    The astrophysically short half life (0.74 Myr) of 26Al isotope makes it one of the more important extinct nuclides whose abundances in the early solar system can be used as a probe of the environment in which the solar system formed. The abundance of 26Al in the present galaxy deduced from the gamma ray observations ( (Mah84) and (Die95)) is about an order of magnitude lower than its meteoritic abundances measured in the form of an enhancement in the abundance of 26Mg (daughter of 26Al) over the solar system level (Was85). The existence of 26Al in the meteorites is an indication that some sort of nucleosynthesis event occurred less than a few million years before the collapse of the proto-solar cloud, perhaps during that collapse. The most widely accepted explanation is that a nearby stellar explosion (such as a supernova) injected large amounts of 26Al and some other extinct nuclides into the proto-solar cloud, possibly triggering the collapse of the cloud in the process (e.g., (Cam77), (Cam92) and (Cam95)). Motivated by the COMPTEL observation (Blo94) of unexpectedly high fluxes of gamma rays in the energy range of 3-7 MeV from the direction of the Orion complex, Clayton and Jin ( (Cla94), (Cla95a) and (Cla95b)) proposed several cosmic-ray scenarios for the production of 26Al in the early solar system. One of their scenarios is that the meteoritic 26Al was produced by the irradiation of the proto-solar material by oxygen-rich cosmic rays (with energies up to 10 MeV/nucleon) through the 12C(16O,x)26Algs reaction. In order to test this proposal Bateman et al. (Bat96b) measured the yield of the 12C(16O,x)26Al reaction and determined that the yield of this reaction alone is not large enough to produce the meteoritic abundances of 26Al. Even though Clayton and Jin (Cla95a) assumed the contribution to the yield from the 16O(16O,x)26Algs would not be significant, the yield of this reaction was measured in the experimental work of this thesis. Due to higher solar system

  11. Construction of a Newly Designed Small-Size Mass Spectrometer for Helium Isotope Analysis: Toward the Continuous Monitoring of 3He/4He Ratios in Natural Fluids

    PubMed Central

    Bajo, Ken-ichi; Sumino, Hirochika; Toyoda, Michisato; Okazaki, Ryuji; Osawa, Takahito; Ishihara, Morio; Katakuse, Itsuo; Notsu, Kenji; Igarashi, George; Nagao, Keisuke

    2012-01-01

    The construction of a small-size, magnetic sector, single focusing mass spectrometer (He-MS) for the continuous, on-site monitoring of He isotope ratios (3He/4He) is described. The instrument is capable of measuring 4He/20Ne ratios dissolved in several different types of natural fluids of geochemical interest, such as groundwater and gas from hot springs, volcanoes and gas well fields. The ion optics of He-MS was designed using an ion trajectory simulation program “TRIO,” which permits the simultaneous measurement of 3He and 4He with a double collector system under a mass resolution power (M/ΔM) of >700. The presently attained specifications of He-MS are; (1) a mass resolving power of ca. 430, sufficient to separate 3He+ from interfering ions, HD+ and H3+, (2) ultra-high vacuum conditions down to 3×10−8 Pa, and (3) a sufficiently high sensitivity to permit amounts of 3He to be detected at levels as small as 10−13 cm3 STP (3×106 atoms). Long term stability for 3He/4He analysis was examined by measuring the 3He/4He standard gas (HESJ) and atmospheric He, resulting in ∼3% reproducibility and ≤5% experimental error for various amounts of atmospheric He from 0.3 to 2.3×10−6 cm3 STP introduced into the instrument. A dynamic range of measurable 3He/4He ratios with He-MS is greater than 103 which was determined by measuring various types of natural fluid samples from continental gas (with a low 3He/4He ratio down to 2×10−8) to volcanic gas (with a high 3He/4He ratio up to 3×10−5). The accuracy and precision of 3He/4He and 4He/20Ne ratios were evaluated by comparing the values with those measured using well established noble gas mass spectrometers (modified VG5400/MS-III and -IV) in our laboratory, and were found to be in good agreement within analytical errors. Usefulness of the selective extraction of He from water/gas using a high permeability of He through a silica glass wall at high temperature (700°C) is demonstrated. PMID:24349910

  12. Construction of a newly designed small-size mass spectrometer for helium isotope analysis: toward the continuous monitoring of (3)he/(4)he ratios in natural fluids.

    PubMed

    Bajo, Ken-Ichi; Sumino, Hirochika; Toyoda, Michisato; Okazaki, Ryuji; Osawa, Takahito; Ishihara, Morio; Katakuse, Itsuo; Notsu, Kenji; Igarashi, George; Nagao, Keisuke

    2012-01-01

    The construction of a small-size, magnetic sector, single focusing mass spectrometer (He-MS) for the continuous, on-site monitoring of He isotope ratios ((3)He/(4)He) is described. The instrument is capable of measuring (4)He/(20)Ne ratios dissolved in several different types of natural fluids of geochemical interest, such as groundwater and gas from hot springs, volcanoes and gas well fields. The ion optics of He-MS was designed using an ion trajectory simulation program "TRIO," which permits the simultaneous measurement of (3)He and (4)He with a double collector system under a mass resolution power (M/ΔM) of >700. The presently attained specifications of He-MS are; (1) a mass resolving power of ca. 430, sufficient to separate (3)He(+) from interfering ions, HD(+) and H3 (+), (2) ultra-high vacuum conditions down to 3×10(-8) Pa, and (3) a sufficiently high sensitivity to permit amounts of (3)He to be detected at levels as small as 10(-13) cm(3) STP (3×10(6) atoms). Long term stability for (3)He/(4)He analysis was examined by measuring the (3)He/(4)He standard gas (HESJ) and atmospheric He, resulting in ∼3% reproducibility and ≤5% experimental error for various amounts of atmospheric He from 0.3 to 2.3×10(-6) cm(3) STP introduced into the instrument. A dynamic range of measurable (3)He/(4)He ratios with He-MS is greater than 10(3) which was determined by measuring various types of natural fluid samples from continental gas (with a low (3)He/(4)He ratio down to 2×10(-8)) to volcanic gas (with a high (3)He/(4)He ratio up to 3×10(-5)). The accuracy and precision of (3)He/(4)He and (4)He/(20)Ne ratios were evaluated by comparing the values with those measured using well established noble gas mass spectrometers (modified VG5400/MS-III and -IV) in our laboratory, and were found to be in good agreement within analytical errors. Usefulness of the selective extraction of He from water/gas using a high permeability of He through a silica glass wall at high

  13. Differential binding of /sup 3/H-imipramine and /sup 3/H-mianserin in rat cerebral cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Dumbrille-Ross, A.; Tang, S.W.; Coscina, D.V.

    1981-11-16

    Drug competition profiles, effect of raphe lesion, and sodium dependency of the binding of two antidepressant drugs /sup 3/H-imipramine and /sup 3/H-mianserin to rat cerebral cortex homogenate were compared to examine whether the drugs bound to a common ''antidepressant receptor.'' Of the neurotransmitters tested, only serotonin displaced binding of both /sup 3/H-imipramine and /sup 3/H-mianserin. /sup 3/H-Mianserin binding was potently displaced by serotonin S/sub 2/ antagonists and exhibited a profile similar to that of /sup 3/H-spiperone binding. In the presence of the serotonin S/sub 2/ antagonist spiperone, antihistamines (H/sub 1/) potently displaced /sup 3/H-mianserin binding. /sup 3/H-Imipramine binding was displaced potently by serotonin uptake inhibitors. The order of potency of serotonergic drugs in displacing /sup 3/H-imipramine binding was not similar to their order in displacing /sup 3/H-spiperone or -3H-serotonin binding. Prior midbrain raphe lesions greatly decreased the binding of /sup 3/H-imipramine but did not alter binding of /sup 3/H-mianserin. Binding of /sup 3/H-imipramine but not /sup 3/H-mianserin was sodium dependent. These results show that /sup 3/H-imipramine and /sup 3/H-mianserin bind to different receptors. /sup 3/H-Imipramine binds to a presynaptic serotonin receptor which is probably related to a serotonin uptake recognition site, the binding of which is sodium dependent. /sup 3/H-Mianserin binds to postsynaptic receptors, possibly both serotonin S/sub 2/ and histamine H/sub 1/ receptors, the binding of which is sodium independent.

  14. {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O and {sup 17}O/{sup 16}O ratios in atmospheric nitrous oxide: A mass-independent anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Cliff, S.S.; Thiemens, M.H.

    1997-12-05

    Measurements of the oxygen isotope ratios ({sup 18}O/{sup 16}O and {sup 17}O/{sup 16}O) in atmospheric nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) from La Jolla, Pasadena, and the White Mountain Research Station (elevation, 3801 meters) in California and the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico show that N{sub 2}O has a mass-independent composition. These data suggest the presence of a previously undefined atmospheric process. The La Jolla samples can be explained by a mixing between an atmospherically derived source of mass-independent N{sub 2}O and biologically derived mass-dependent N{sub 2}O. Possible origins of the mass-independent anomally in N{sub 2}O are discussed. 32 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Characterization of helium diffusion behavior from continuous heating experiments: Sample screening and identification of multiple 4He components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDannell, K. T.; Idleman, B. D.; Zeitler, P. K.

    2015-12-01

    Old, slowly cooled apatites often yield overdispersed helium ages due to factors such as parent zonation, He implantation, radiation damage, crystal defects, and fluid inclusions. Careful mineral selection and many replicate analyses can mitigate the impact of some of these effects. However, this approach adds unnecessary costs in time and resources when dating well-behaved apatites and is generally ineffective at identifying the root cause of age dispersion and providing suitable age corrections for poorly behaved samples. We assess a new technique utilizing static-gas measurement during continuous heating as a means to rapidly screen apatite samples. In about the time required for a conventional total-gas analysis, this method can discriminate between samples showing the volume-diffusion behavior expected for apatite and those showing anomalous release patterns, inconsistent with their use in thermochronologic applications. This method may also have the potential to quantify and discriminate between the radiogenic and extraneous 4He fractions released by a sample. Continuously heated samples that outgas by volume diffusion during a linear heating schedule should produce a characteristic sigmoidal 4He fractional loss profile, with the exact shape and position of these profiles (in loss vs. heating time space) controlled by sample kinetics, grain size, and heating rate. Secondary factors such as sample zoning and alpha-loss distribution have a relatively minor impact on such profiles. Well-behaved examples such as the Durango standard and other apatites with good age reproducibility show the expected smooth, sigmoidal gas release with complete exhaustion by temperatures predicted for volume diffusion using typical apatite kinetics (e.g., by ~900˚C for linear heating at 20˚C/minute). In contrast, "bad actor" samples that do not replicate well show significant degrees of helium release deferred to higher temperatures. We report on screening results for a range of

  16. The (4)He(gamma,dd) reaction at E(gamma) = 150--250 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Bryan Joseph

    1998-09-01

    We have performed a measurement of the cross section for the 4He(/gamma,d)2H reaction with Eγ=150[-]250 MeV at the Saskatchewan Accelerator Laboratory (SAL). The experiment was performed using bremsstrahlung γ rays produced by a 273 MeV electron beam. The target was liquid helium contained in a simple cryostat. Two detector arms consisting of plastic scintillator telescopes were utilized to detect both reaction particles in coincidence. We obtained relative and absolute cross sections at six angles in two energy bins (150-190 and 190-250 MeV). The angular distribution of the cross section shows peaking behavior at 90o in the center-of-mass frame. A Legendre polynomial fit to the data shows this distribution can be described by a sin2/theta angular distribution. This distribution suggests the presence of electric dipole or E1 radiation, but isospin selection rules and identical bosons in the exit channel forbid the dominant /Delta S=0 E1 transition. Performing a transition-matrix element (TME) analysis using only strictly allowed transitions, we found that the observed angular distribution could be described by the constructive interference of just two TME's: electric quadrupole (E2) s- and d-wave capture to the D-state of 4He. We performed a direct-capture calculation in order to determine if the D-state could contribute to such a high degree to the cross section. Our calculations, which used an optical model potential from elastic scattering data at lower energies, yielded the result that 90% of the cross section arises from capture to the D-state. The calculation, however, places all capture strength to the D-state into g-wave capture and, as a result, fails to reproduce the observed sin2/theta angular distribution. The lack of existing theoretical work for this system at these energies conspires to keep the mechanism for this angular distribution unclear, but we hope this result will motivate four-body theorists to extend their calculations to this energy

  17. R-Matrix Analysis of the 13C(α,n)16O Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kock, Arthur; Rogachev, Grigory

    2015-10-01

    The 13C(α,n)16O reaction plays a crucial role in the main s-process occurring in low-mass thermally-pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) stars, which produces about half of all nuclei heavier than iron. However, direct measurements of this reaction cross section near the Gamow-peak energy are currently not possible due to very small reaction cross sections. Additionally, available cross-section data at higher energy have some inconsistencies, leading to significant uncertainties in low energy extrapolations. A global R-matrix fit was conducted, using all available data for the 13C(α,n)16O, 13C(α, α)13C, and 16O(n,n)16O reactions. Of particular importance was the inclusion of the fixed ANC for the 1 / 2 + state at 6 . 356 MeV in 17O, which was measured recently using the sub-Coulomb α-transfer reaction, as well as the new 13C+ α elastic-scattering data measured in the low-energy region 1 . 6 - 3 . 8 MeV. Important constraining information on various resonances was found, and the uncertainty for the astrophysical 13C(α,n)16O reaction rate was dramatically reduced. Much work on the analysis was done by A. K. Nurmukhanbetova from National Laboratory Astana in Astana, Kazakhstan.

  18. Holmium target fragmentation induced by intermediate energy /sup 12/C and /sup 16/O ions

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, R.H. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Target fragment (40 < A < 180) production cross sections were measured using off-line gamma-ray spectroscopy for the interaction of 208 MeV /sup 12/C, 272 MeV /sup 16/O, 442 MeV/sup 12/C, 1020 MeV /sup 12/C, and 1635 MeV /sup 16/O with /sup 165/Ho. Target fragment isobaric yields were deduced from these measurements. Trans-target nuclides were identified for all reaction systems. Nuclides up to 4 Z-units above the target were identified for 208 MeV /sup 12/C and 272 MeV /sup 16/O induced reactions, to 3 Z-units above the target for 442 MeV /sup 12/C and 1020 MeC /sup 12/C induced reactions, and to 2 Z-units above the target for 1635 MeV /sup 16/O induced reactions. Fission was observed to decrease between 17 MeV/A and 37 MeV/A from 13% of the reaction cross section to 4% for /sup 12/C induced reactions. No fission contribution was observed for 1020 MeV /sup 12/C and 1635 MeV /sup 16/O induced interactions.

  19. tetra neutron system studied by exothermic double-charge exchange reaction 4He(8He, 8Be)4n

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisamori, Keiichi; Sharaq06 Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    A possible existence of the tetra-neutron system as a resonance state is still an open and fascinating question, while theoretical papers using ab-initio calculation suggests that the bound tetra-neutron does not exist. We have performed a missing-mass spectroscopy of the 4n system via the exothermic double-charge exchange reaction 4He(8He,8Be)4n. The experiment was carried out at the RIBF at RIKEN using the SHARAQ spectrometer and the liquid He target system. Since the secondary beam, 8He at 190A MeV, has a large internal energy, it is possible to produce the 4n system in small momentum transfers of less than 20 MeV/c. In the present analysis, a new analytical framework to treat multi-particles under high beam rate condition (2 MHz) was developed for good statistics. At the SHARAQ spectrometer, 8Be can be identified by measuring the invariant mass of the coincident two-alpha particle with a good signal-to-noise ratio. About several tens of candidate events are obtained above the 4n threshold. We will show the preliminary result of missing-msss spectrum and discuss the shape of spectrum.

  20. Study of astrophysically important resonant states in 26Si by the 28Si(4He,6He)26Si reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Young Kwan; Lee, C. S.; Moon, J. Y.; Lee, J. H.; Kim, J. Y.; Kubono, S.; Iwasa, N.; Inafiki, K.; Yamaguchi, H.; He, J. J.; Saito, A.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Fukijawa, H.; Amadio, G.; Khiem, L. H.; Tanaka, M.; Chen, A.; Kato, S.

    PoS(NIC-IX)024 , b, H. Yamaguchia, J. J. Hea , A. Saitoa , Y. Wakabayashia, H. Fujikawaa, G. The emission of 1.809 MeV gamma-ray from the first excited state of 26 Mg followed by beta- decay of 26 Al in its ground state (denoted as 26 Alg.s. ) has been identified by gamma-ray telescopes such the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) [1]. To resolve controversy over the pos- sible sources of the observational 1.809 MeV gamma-rays, one needs accurate knowledge of the production rate of 26 Al. The 25 Al(p,γ)26Si reaction which is the competition reaction for produc- tion of 26 Alg.s. is one of the important subjects to be investigated. In this work, the astrophysically important 26 Si states above the proton threshold were studied via the 28 Si(4 He,6 He)26 Si reaction. We have preformed an angular distribution measurement using the high resolution QDD spectro- graph (PA) at Center for Nuclear Study (CNS), University of Tokyo. The experimental results and data analysis will be presented.

  1. Electron scattering from 4He and Ne clusters: determination of the cluster density from the electronic surface barrier potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, K.; Toennies, J. P.; Winkler, C.

    1991-03-01

    A monoenergetic beam of electrons is scattered from a beam of 4He clusters. The angular distribution of the scattered electronically excited atoms and clusters is measured by an open Venetian-blind multiplier, which is rotatable in the plane of both beams. The threshold electron energy for excitation of the clusters shows a shift to higher energies with respect to the atom component by between 0.6 and 1.1 eV depending on the cluster source temperature T0 ( P0 = 20 bar in all experiments). The observed potential shift Eb is attributed to the surface barrier for penetration of the electrons into the cluster. From the known dependence of Eb on density the core densities of the helium clusters is estimated to vary between n = 1.2 × 10 22 cm -3 and n = 2.2 × 10 22 cm -3 for T0 = 14.9 and 11 K, respectively. The latter values agree with those for bulk liquid helium. For Ne clusters, Eb = 0.7 ± 0.3 eV independent of the source conditions.

  2. Simultaneous measurements of the torsional oscillator and shear modulus of solid 4He diluted with various 3He concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jaeho; Choi, Wonsuk; Choi, Jaewon; Jang, Seong; Shirahama, Keiya; Kim, Eunseong

    2013-03-01

    In 2004, Kim and Chan observed the non-classical rotational inertia (NCRI) of solid helium-4 by using a torsional oscillator (TO). Below 200mK, the resonance period of solid helium dropped, which was originally interpreted as the mass decoupling of the fraction of solid helium. Recently, anomalous increase in the shear modulus of solid helium was found and showed striking similarity in temperature, frequency, 3He concentration, and drive dependence to those of the NCRI. To understand the connection between the NCRI and the shear modulus anomaly, we simultaneously measure the change in the resonance frequency and the stiffness of solid helium below 200mK. The torsion cell contains a pair of the concentric piezoelectric transducers (PZT) which defines an annular channel for the simultaneous measurements. We will report the interference between the motion of the TO at resonance and AC motion of the PZT in solid 4He with different 3He concentration. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support by the National Research Foundation of Korea through the Creative Research Initiatives.

  3. A "high 4He/3He" mantle material detected under the East Pacific Rise (15°4'N)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mougel, Berengere; Moreira, Manuel; Agranier, Arnaud

    2015-03-01

    We investigate in details helium isotope data reported in Mougel et al. (2014) for 14 basaltic samples collected on the East Pacific Rise by submersible (15°4'N) where the ridge interacts with the Mathematician seamounts. Samples locations are separated by only few hundred meters across a 15 km along-axis profile. The data reveal a strong geochemical variability that has never been observed at such high spatial resolution for helium isotope compositions. Moreover, they reveal an unusually high 4He/3He mantle component also characterized by unradiogenic lead, atypical in oceanic basalts. He-Pb systematics suggests a mixture between a nonradiogenic lead and radiogenic helium pyroxenitic component, recycled from the deep continental lithosphere and the ambient peridotitic mantle. The He isotope difference between these two end-members can be interpreted as a time evolution of two distinct mantle sources after a slight (U + Th)/3He fractionation, likely due to some ancient degassing during the formation of deep continental pyroxenites.

  4. High momentum transfer R{sub T,L} response functions for {sup 3,4}He.

    SciTech Connect

    Filippone, Bradley; Jones Woodward, Cathleen; Potterveld, David; Day, Donal; Beck, Douglas; Boyd, G.; Dodge, Gail; Sick, Ingo; McCarthy, James; Mougey, Jean; Chen, Jian-Ping; Morgenstern, Joseph; Jourdan, Juerg; Giovanetti, Kevin; Kemper, Kirby; Dennis, Lawrence; Smith, Lee; Chinitz, Leigh; Minehart, Ralph; Milner, Richard; Sealock, Richard; Walker, Richard; McKeown, Robert; Thornton, Stephen; Koh, T.; Lorenzon, Wolfgang; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Meziani, Zein-Eddine

    1992-07-01

    The tantalizing problem of the 'quenching' of the Coulomb sum rule observed in medium weight nuclei is investigated in light nuclei at high momentum transfer. Inclusive electron scattering cross sections for {sup 3,4}He have been measured in the quasielastic region at electron energies between 0.9 GeV and 4.3 GeV, and scattering angles of 15deg and 85deg. Longitudinal (R{sub L}) and transverse (R{sub T}) response functions have been extracted using a Rosenbluth separation at constant vertical strokeq vectorvertical stroke of 1.050 (GeV/c). The ratio of the longitudinal to the transverse reduced response functions in the negative y region reaches unity. The experimental Coulomb sum rule although with large uncertainty and conversly to the case of medium weight nuclei, saturates at high momentum to the He nucleus total charge namely Z=2. (orig.). INDEX TERMS: coulomb excitation; differential cross sections; electron spectra; electrons; experimental data; gev range 01-10;

  5. An Experimental Study on What Controls the Ratios of 18O/16O and 17O/16O of O2 During Microbial Respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolper, D. A.; Ward, B. B.; Fischer, W. W.; Bender, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    18O/16O and 17O/16O ratios of atmospheric and dissolved oceanic O2 are key biogeochemical tracers of total photosynthesis and respiration on global to local length scales and glacial/interglacial time scales (Luz et al., 1999). Critical to the use of these ratios as biogeochemical tracers is knowledge of how they are affected by production, consumption, and transport of O2. We present new measurements of O2 respiration by E. coli and N. oceanus, an ammonia oxidizing bacterium, to test three assumptions of isotopically enabled models of the O2 cycle: (i) laboratory-measured respiratory 18O/16O isotope effects (18α) of microorganisms are constant under all experimental and natural conditions (e.g., temperature and growth rate); (ii) the respiratory 'mass law' relationship between 18O/16O and 17O/16O [17α = (18α)β] is universal; and (iii) 18α and β for aerobic ammonia and organic carbon oxidation are identical. For E. coli, we find that both 18α and β are variable. From 37°C to 15°C, 18α varies linearly with temperature from 17 to 14‰, and β varies linearly from 0.513 to 0.508. 18α and β do not appear to vary with growth rate (as tested using different carbon sources). Both 18α and β are lower than previous observations for bacteria: 18α = 17-20‰ (Kiddon et al., 1993) and β = 0.515 (Luz and Barkan, 2005). We were able to simulate the observed temperature dependence of 18α and β using a model of respiration with two isotopically discriminating steps: O2 binding to cytochrome bo oxidase (the respiratory enzyme) and reduction of O2 to H2O. Finally, initial results on N. oceanus suggest it has similar values for 18α and β as previously studied aerobic bacteria that consume organic carbon, providing the first support for assumption (iii). Based on these results, isotopically constrained biogeochemical models of O2 cycling may need to consider a temperature dependence for 18α and β for microbial respiration. For example, these results may

  6. 4. 4-. mu. m cascade /sup 13/C /sup 16/O/sub 2/ laser

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.P.; Cornelison, D.; Buzcek, C.J.

    1984-01-15

    An in-cavity hot /sup 13/C /sup 16/O/sub 2/ cell is used to obtain a 4.4-..mu..m lasing from a cascade process in a sealed off /sup 13/C /sup 16/O/sub 2/ laser. The 4.4-..mu..m laser is tunable and operates on the P branch (near 4.44 ..mu..m) and the R branch (near 4.39 ..mu..m) of the ((10/sup 0/1)/sub I/--(10/sup 0/0)/sub I/) band of /sup 13/C /sup 16/O/sub 2/. The laser is mechanically Q switched producing peak powers in excess of 10 W with repetition rates greater than 500 Hz.

  7. Analysis of the response of silicon detectors to α particles and 16O ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirsebom, O. S.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Riisager, K.; Raabe, R.; Roger, T.

    2014-09-01

    We clarify basic concepts concerning the response of silicon detectors to ionizing radiation, focusing on light ions with energies ranging from a few hundred keV to a few MeV. Through reanalysis of existing experimental data, we quantify the difference in the response of silicon detectors to α particles and 16O ions, and we determine the correction that must be made before an energy calibration obtained with α particles can be applied to the measurement of 16O ions. Finally, we show that an apparent disagreement among three recent measurements of the decay spectrum of 8B can be explained by a failure to correctly take into account the different response of silicon detectors to α particles and 16O ions.

  8. The 3H(d,γ)5He Reaction for Ec.m. ≤ 300 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, C. E.; Brune, C. R.; Massey, T. N.; O'Donnell, J. E.; Richard, A. L.; Sayre, D. B.

    2016-03-01

    The 3H(d, γ)5He reaction has been measured using a 500-keV pulsed deuteron beam incident on a stopping titanium tritide target at Ohio University's Edwards Accelerator Laboratory. The time-of-flight (TOF) technique has been used to distinguish the γ-rays from neutrons detected in the bismuth germinate (BGO) γ-ray detector. A stilbene scintillator and an NE-213 scintillator have been used to detect the neutrons from the 3H(d, n)4He reaction using both the pulse-shape discrimination and TOF techniques. A newly-designed target holder with a silicon surface barrier detector to simultaneously measure α-particles to normalize the neutron count was incorporated for subsequent measurements. The γ-rays have been measured at laboratory angles of 0°, 45°, 90°, and 135°. Information about the γ-ray energy distribution for the unbound ground state and first excited state of 5He can be obtained experimentally by comparing the BGO data to Monte Carlo simulations. The 3H(d, γ)/3H(d, n) branching ratio has also been determined.

  9. Spectral linelist of HD16O molecule based on VTT calculations for atmospheric application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronin, B. A.

    2014-11-01

    Three version line-list of dipole transition for isotopic modification of water molecule HD16O are presented. Line-lists have been created on the basis of VTT calculations (Voronin, Tennyson, Tolchenov et al. MNRAS, 2010) by adding air- and self-broadening coefficient, and temperature exponents for HD16O-air case. Three cut-of values for the line intensities were used: 1e-30, 1e-32 and 1e-35 cm/molecule. Calculated line-lists are available on the site ftp://ftp.iao.ru/pub/VTT/VTT-296/.

  10. Bare-nucleus astrophysical factor of the {sup 3}He(d,p){sup 4}He reaction via the 'Trojan horse' method

    SciTech Connect

    La Cognata, M.; Spitaleri, C.; Tumino, A.; Cherubini, S.; Lamia, L.; Musumarra, A.; Pizzone, R.G.; Rinollo, A.; Romano, S.; Typel, S.; Rolfs, C.; Schuermann, D.; Strieder, F.

    2005-12-15

    The {sup 3}He(d,p){sup 4}He reaction has been studied from E{sub c.m.}=600 keV down to astrophysical energies by means of the 'Trojan horse' method using the {sup 6}Li({sup 3}He,p{alpha}){sup 4}He three-body reaction at E{sub lab}=5 and 6 MeV. Coincidence spectra were measured in kinematic conditions favoring the quasifree {sup 3}He+{sup 2}H process. The bare astrophysical factor S{sub b}(E) for the {sup 3}He(d,p){sup 4}He reaction was extracted from the three-body cross section in the modified plane-wave Born approximation. Comparison with the S{sub b} extrapolation from the free two-body data is presented. The independent estimate of the screening potential as obtained with the present work seems to confirm the theoretical adiabatic limit.

  11. Elastic {sup 16}O{sup 16}O scattering at E({sup 16}O) = 350 MeV and new method for a model-independent determination of the scattering matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Korda, V. Yu.; Molev, A. S.; Korda, L. P.

    2007-06-15

    A new approach that can be used to extract the scattering matrix S(l) as a complex-valued function of the orbital angular momentum l directly from experimental data on elastic nucleus-nucleus scattering at intermediate energies without resort to additional model assumptions is developed on the basis of the evolutionary algorithm. Owing to the fact that the behavior of the derivatives of S(l) is automatically monitored within this approach, the scattering matrix obtained for {sup 16}O{sup 16}O interaction at an energy of 350 MeV is determined by its absolute value and the nuclear phase shift, which are smooth monotonic functions of the orbital angular momentum. Moreover, the result involves no distortions, the form of the quantum deflection function being typical of the nuclear-rainbow pattern. It is shown that the ultimate form of S(l) is independent of input representations of the scattering matrix, which were usually taken on the basis of various phenomenological models.

  12. A method for investigation of the D(4He, γ)6Li reaction in the Ultralow energy region under a high background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bystritsky, V. M.; Dudkin, G. N.; Krylov, A. R.; Gazi, S.; Huran, J.; Nechaev, B. A.; Padalko, V. N.; Sadovsky, A. B.; Tuleushev, Yu. Zh.; Filipowicz, M.; Philippov, A. V.

    2016-07-01

    The cosmological lithium problem, that is, a noticeable discrepancy between the predicted and observed abundances of lithium, is in conflict with the Standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis model. For example, the abundance of 7Li is 2-4 times smaller than predicted by the Standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. As to the abundance of 6Li, recent more accurate optical investigations have yielded only the upper limit on the 6Li/7Li ratio, which makes the problem of 6Li abundance and accordingly of disagreement with the Standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis predictions less acute. However, experimental study of the D(4He, γ)6Li reaction cross section is still of current importance because there is a theoretical approach predicting its anomalously large value in the region of energies below the Standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis energy. The work is dedicated to the measurement of the cross section for the D(4He, γ)6Li reaction proceeding in zirconium deuteride at the incident 4He+ion energy of 36 keV. The experiment is performed at a pulsed Hall plasma accelerator with an energy spread of 20% FWHM. A method for direct measurement of the background from the reaction chain D(4He, 4He)D→D(D, n)3He→(n, γ) and/or (n, n‧γ) ending with activation of the surrounding material by neutrons is proposed and implemented in the work. An upper limit on the D(4He, γ)6Li reaction cross section σ≤7·10-36 cm2 at the 90% confidence level is obtained.

  13. Total cross section of the 3H(p,n)3He reaction from threshold to 4.5 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brune, C. R.; Hahn, K. I.; Kavanagh, R. W.; Wrean, P. R.

    1999-07-01

    We report new measurements of the total cross section for the 3H(p,n)3He reaction from threshold (Ep=1.02 MeV) to Ep=4.5 MeV. The experiment utilized specially prepared Ti-3H targets, and neutrons were detected using a 4π detector. A weak resonant structure due to an excited state in 4He is observed which was not seen in previous cross section measurements. A new expression for the 3He(n,p)3H thermonuclear reaction rate for temperatures below 10 GK is presented which will allow for more accurate calculations of the yields of light elements produced by big-bang nucleosynthesis.

  14. Anomalously High Isotope Ratio 3He/4He and Tritium in Deuterium-Loaded Metal: Evidence for Nuclear Reaction in Metal Hydrides at Low Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Song-Sheng; He, Ming; Wu, Shao-Yong; Qi, Bu-Jia

    2012-01-01

    Anomalous 3He/4He ratios in deuterium-loaded titanium samples are observed to be about 1-4 × 10-1, much greater than the values (<=10-4) in natural objects. Control experiments with the deuterium-unloaded titanium sample and original industrial deuterium gas are also carried out, but no anomalous 3He/4He values are observed. In addition, anomalous tritium in deuterium-loaded titanium samples are also observed. To explain the excess 3He and tritium in the deuterium-loaded titanium samples, it is required that the deuteron-induced nuclear reaction occurs in the samples at low temperature.

  15. Theory for supersolid 4He : Vacancy condensation facilitated by a low-energy bound state of a vacancy and an interstitial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Xi; Ma, Michael; Zhang, Fu-Chun

    2005-10-01

    Although both vacancies and interstitials have relatively high activation energies in the normal solid, we propose that a lower energy bound state of a vacancy and an interstitial may facilitate vacancy condensation to give supersolidity in 4He . We use a phenomenological two-band boson lattice model to demonstrate this new mechanism and discuss the possible relevance to the recently observed superfluidlike, nonclassical rotational inertial experiments of Kim and Chan in solid 4He . Some of our results may also be applicable to trapped bosons in optical lattices.

  16. Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) plays a key role in ovarian cancer cell adhesion and motility

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Renquan; Sun, Xinghui; Xiao, Ran; Zhou, Lei; Gao, Xiang; Guo, Lin

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We generated stable transduced HE4 overexpression and knockdown cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HE4 was associated with EOC cell adhesion and motility. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HE4 might have some effects on activation of EGFR-MAPK signaling pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HE4 play an important role in EOC tumorigenicity. -- Abstract: Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) is a novel and specific biomarker for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We previously demonstrated that serum HE4 levels were significantly elevated in the majority of EOC patients but not in subjects with benign disease or healthy controls. However, the precise mechanism of HE4 protein function is unknown. In this study, we generated HE4-overexpressing SKOV3 cells and found that stably transduced cells promoted cell adhesion and migration. Knockdown of HE4 expression was achieved by stable transfection of SKOV3 cells with a construct encoding a short hairpin DNA directed against the HE4 gene. Correspondingly, the proliferation and spreading ability of HE4-expressed cells were inhibited by HE4 suppression. Mechanistically, impaired EGFR and Erk1/2 phosphorylation were observed in cells with HE4 knockdown. The phosphorylation was restored when the knockdown cells were cultured in conditioned medium containing HE4. Moreover, in vivo tumorigenicity showed that HE4 suppression markedly inhibited the growth of tumors. This suggests that expression of HE4 is associated with cancer cell adhesion, migration and tumor growth, which can be related to its effects on the EGFR-MAPK signaling pathway. Our results provide evidence of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that may underlie the motility-promoting role of HE4 in EOC progression. The role of HE4 as a target for gene-based therapy might be considered in future studies.

  17. Experimental investigation of the dynamics of a vibrating grid in superfluid 4He over a range of temperatures and pressures.

    PubMed

    Charalambous, D; Skrbek, L; Hendry, P C; McClintock, P V E; Vinen, W F

    2006-09-01

    In an earlier paper [Nichol, Phys. Rev. E, 70, 056307 (2004)] some of the present authors presented the results of an experimental study of the dynamics of a stretched grid driven into vibration at or near its resonant frequency in isotopically pure superfluid 4He over a range of pressures at a very low temperature, where the density of normal fluid is negligible. In this paper we present the results of a similar study, based on a different grid, but now including the temperature range where the normal fluid density is no longer insignificant. The new grid is very similar to the old one except for a small difference in the character of its surface roughness. In many respects the results at low temperature are similar to those for the old grid. At low amplitudes the results are somewhat history dependent, but in essence there is no damping greater than that in vacuo. At a critical amplitude corresponding to a velocity of about 50 mms(-1) there is a sudden and large increase in damping, which can be attributed to the generation of new vortex lines. Strange shifts in the resonant frequency at intermediate amplitudes observed with the old grid are no longer seen, however they must therefore have been associated with the different surface roughness, or perhaps were due simply to some artifact of the old grid, the details of which we are currently unable to determine. With the new grid we have studied both the damping at low amplitudes due to excitations of the normal fluid, and the dependence of the supercritical damping on temperature. We present evidence that in helium at low amplitudes there may be some enhancement in the effective mass of the grid in addition to that associated with potential flow of the helium. In some circumstances small satellite resonances are seen near the main fundamental grid resonance, which are attributed to coupling to some other oscillatory system within the experimental cell. PMID:17025743

  18. Comparison of (/sup 3/H)nicotine and (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine binding in mouse brain: regional distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Sershen, H.; Reith, M.E.; Hashim, A.; Lajtha, A.

    1985-06-01

    In a continuing study of nicotine binding sites, the authors determined the relative amount of nicotine binding and acetylcholine binding in various brain regions of C57/BL and of DBA mice. Although midbrain showed the highest and cerebellum the lowest binding for both (/sup 3/H)nicotine and (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine, the ratio of nicotine to acetylcholine binding showed a three-fold regional variation. Acetylcholine inhibition of (/sup 3/H)nicotine binding indicated that a portion of nicotine binding was not inhibited by acetylcholine. These results indicate important differences between the binding of (+/-)-(/sup 3/H)nicotine and that of (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine.

  19. Calculation of photo-nuclear reaction cross sections for 16O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arasoglu, Ali; Faruk Ozdemir, Omer

    2015-07-01

    Because of the high thermal expansion coefficient of uranium, the fuel used in nuclear power plants is usually in the form of UO2 which has ceramic structure and small thermal expansion coefficient. UO2 include one uranium atom and two oxygen atoms. After fission progress, total energy values of emitted gamma are about 14 MeV. This gamma energy may cause transmutation of 16O isotopes. Transmutation of 16O isotopes changes physical properties of nuclear fuel. Due to above explanations, it is very important to calculate photo-nuclear reaction cross sections of 16O. In this study; for (γ,p), (γ,np), (γ,n) and (γ,2n) reactions of 16O, photo-nuclear reaction cross-sections were calculated using different models for pre-equilibrium and equilibrium effects. Taking incident gamma energy values up to 40 MeV, Hybrid and Cascade Exciton Models were used for pre-equilibrium calculations and Weisskopf-Ewing (Equilibrium) Model was used for equilibrium model calculations. Calculation results were compared with experimental and theoretical data. While experimental results were obtained from EXFOR, TENDL-2013, JENDL/PD-2004 and ENDF/B VII.1 data base were used to get theoretical results.

  20. Angular correlation measurements for 4-{alpha} decaying states in {sup 16}O

    SciTech Connect

    Wuosmaa, A.H.; Back, B.B.; Betts, R.R.

    1995-08-01

    Previous measurements of the {sup 12}C({sup 12}C,{sup 8}Be){sup 16}O{sup *}(4 {alpha}) reaction identified discrete levels in {sup 16}O which decay by breakup into 4 {alpha} particles through a number of different decay sequences, including {sup 16}O{sup *} {yields} {sup 8}Be + {sup 8}Be and {alpha} + {sup 12}C (O{sub 2}{sup +}). These states are observed in a range of excitation energies where resonances are observed in inelastic {alpha} + {sup 12}C scattering leading to the {sup 8}Be + {sup 8}Be and {alpha} + {sup 12}C final states. These resonances were associated with 4 {alpha}-particle chain configurations in {sup 16}O. Should the states populated in the {sup 12}C + {sup 12}C reaction possess this same extended structure, it would serve as an important piece of evidence supporting the idea that even more deformed structures are formed in the {sup 24}Mg compound system. In order to more firmly make this association, it is important to determine the spins of the states populated in the {sup 12}C + {sup 12}C reaction.

  1. High performance cobalt-free Cu1.4Mn1.6O4 spinel oxide as an intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhen, Shuying; Sun, Wang; Li, Peiqian; Tang, Guangze; Rooney, David; Sun, Kening; Ma, Xinxin

    2016-05-01

    In this work Cu1.4Mn1.6O4 (CMO) spinel oxide is prepared and evaluated as a novel cobalt-free cathode for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). Single phase CMO powder with cubic structure is identified using XRD. XPS results confirm that mixed Cu+/Cu2+ and Mn3+/Mn4+ couples exist in the CMO sample, and a maximum conductivity of 78 S cm-1 is achieved at 800 °C. Meanwhile, CMO oxide shows good thermal and chemical compatibility with a 10 mol% Sc2O3 stabilized ZrO2 (ScSZ) electrolyte material. Impedance spectroscopy measurements reveals that CMO exhibits a low polarization resistance of 0.143 Ω cm2 at 800 °C. Furthermore, a Ni-ScSZ/ScSZ/CMO single cell demonstrates a maximum power density of 1076 mW cm-2 at 800 °C under H2 (3% H2O) as the fuel and ambient air as the oxidant. These results indicate that Cu1.4Mn1.6O4 is a superior and promising cathode material for IT-SOFCs.

  2. High performance cobalt-free Cu1.4Mn1.6O4 spinel oxide as an intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhen, Shuying; Sun, Wang; Li, Peiqian; Tang, Guangze; Rooney, David; Sun, Kening; Ma, Xinxin

    2016-05-01

    In this work Cu1.4Mn1.6O4 (CMO) spinel oxide is prepared and evaluated as a novel cobalt-free cathode for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). Single phase CMO powder with cubic structure is identified using XRD. XPS results confirm that mixed Cu+/Cu2+ and Mn3+/Mn4+ couples exist in the CMO sample, and a maximum conductivity of 78 S cm-1 is achieved at 800 °C. Meanwhile, CMO oxide shows good thermal and chemical compatibility with a 10 mol% Sc2O3 stabilized ZrO2 (ScSZ) electrolyte material. Impedance spectroscopy measurements reveals that CMO exhibits a low polarization resistance of 0.143 Ω cm2 at 800 °C. Furthermore, a Ni-ScSZ/ScSZ/CMO single cell demonstrates a maximum power density of 1076 mW cm-2 at 800 °C under H2 (3% H2O) as the fuel and ambient air as the oxidant. These results indicate that Cu1.4Mn1.6O4 is a superior and promising cathode material for IT-SOFCs.

  3. Large and unexpected enrichment in stratospheric 16O13C18O and its meridional variation

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Laurence Y.; Affek, Hagit P.; Hoag, Katherine J.; Guo, Weifu; Wiegel, Aaron A.; Atlas, Elliot L.; Schauffler, Sue M.; Okumura, Mitchio; Boering, Kristie A.; Eiler, John M.

    2009-01-01

    The stratospheric CO2 oxygen isotope budget is thought to be governed primarily by the O(1D)+CO2 isotope exchange reaction. However, there is increasing evidence that other important physical processes may be occurring that standard isotopic tools have been unable to identify. Measuring the distribution of the exceedingly rare CO2 isotopologue 16O13C18O, in concert with 18O and 17O abundances, provides sensitivities to these additional processes and, thus, is a valuable test of current models. We identify a large and unexpected meridional variation in stratospheric 16O13C18O, observed as proportions in the polar vortex that are higher than in any naturally derived CO2 sample to date. We show, through photochemical experiments, that lower 16O13C18O proportions observed in the midlatitudes are determined primarily by the O(1D)+CO2 isotope exchange reaction, which promotes a stochastic isotopologue distribution. In contrast, higher 16O13C18O proportions in the polar vortex show correlations with long-lived stratospheric tracer and bulk isotope abundances opposite to those observed at midlatitudes and, thus, opposite to those easily explained by O(1D)+CO2. We believe the most plausible explanation for this meridional variation is either an unrecognized isotopic fractionation associated with the mesospheric photochemistry of CO2 or temperature-dependent isotopic exchange on polar stratospheric clouds. Unraveling the ultimate source of stratospheric 16O13C18O enrichments may impose additional isotopic constraints on biosphere–atmosphere carbon exchange, biosphere productivity, and their respective responses to climate change. PMID:19564595

  4. Determination of the delta(18O/16O)of Water: RSIL Lab Code 489

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Revesz, Kinga; Coplen, Tyler

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the technique described by the Reston Stable Isotope Laboratory (RSIL) lab code 489 is to present a method to determine the delta(180/160), abbreviated as delta-180, of water. This delta-18O measurement of water also is a component of National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL in USGS) schedules 1142 and 1172. Water samples are loaded into glass sample containers on a vacuum manifold to equilibrate gaseous CO2 at constant temperature (25 deg C) with water samples. After loading water samples on the vacuum manifold, air is evacuated through capillary to avoid evaporation, and CO2 is added. The samples are shaken to increase the equilibration rate of water and CO2. When isotopic equilibrium has been attained, an aliquot of CO2 is extracted sequentially from each sample container, separated from water vapor by means of a dry ice trap, and introduced into a dual-inlet isotope-ratio mass spectrometer (DI-IRMS) for determination of the delta-18O value. There is oxygen isotopic fractionation between water and CO2, but it is constant at constant temperature. The DI-IRMS is a DuPont double-focusing mass spectrometer. It has a double collector. One ion beam passes through a slit in a forward collector and is collected in the rear collector. The other ion beams are collected in the front collector. The instrument is capable of measuring mass/charge (m/z) 44 and 45 or 44 and 46 by changing the ion-accelerating voltage under computer control. The ion beams from these m/z values are as follows: m/z 44=CO2=12C16O16O, m/z 45=CO2=13C16O16O primarily, and m/z 46 = CO2=12C16O18O primarily. The data acquisition and control software calculates delta-18O values.

  5. Fractionation of Oxygen Isotopes by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry Inferred from Simultaneous Measurement of (17)O/(16)O and (18)O/(16)O Ratios and Implications for the (182)Hf-(182)W Systematics.

    PubMed

    Trinquier, Anne

    2016-06-01

    Accurate (182)Hf-(182)W chronology of early planetary differentiation relies on highly precise and accurate tungsten isotope measurements. WO3(-) analysis by negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry requires W(17)O(16)O2(-), W(17)O2(16)O(-), W(18)O(16)O2(-), W(17)O3(-), W(17)O(18)O(16)O(-), and W(18)O2(16)O(-) isotopologue interference corrections on W(16)O3(-) species ( Harper et al. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 1996 , 60 , 1131 ; Quitté et al. Geostandard. Newslett. 2002 , 26 , 149 ; Trinquier et al. Anal. Chem. 2016 , 88 , 1542 ; Touboul et al. Nature 2015 , 520 , 530 ; Touboul et al. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 2012 , 309 , 109 ). In addition, low ion beam intensity counting statistics combined with Faraday cup detection noise limit the precision on the determination of (18)O/(16)O and (17)O/(16)O relative abundances. Mass dependent variability of (18)O/(16)O over the course of an analysis and between different analyses calls for oxide interference correction on a per integration basis, based on the in-run monitoring of the (18)O/(16)O ratio ( Harper et al. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 1996 , 60 , 1131 ; Quitté et al. Geostandard. Newslett. 2002 , 26 , 149 ; Trinquier et al. Anal. Chem. 2016 , 88 , 1542 ). Yet, the (17)O/(16)O variation is normally not being monitored and, instead, inferred from the measured (18)O/(16)O variation, assuming a δ(17)O-δ(18)O Terrestrial Fractionation Line ( Trinquier et al. Anal. Chem. 2016 , 88 , 1542 ). The purpose of the present study is to verify the validity of this assumption. Using high resistivity amplifiers, (238)U(17)O2 and (238)U(18)O2 ion beams down to 1.6 fA have been monitored simultaneously with (235,238)U(16)O2 species in a uranium certified reference material. This leads to a characterization of O isotope fractionation by thermal ionization mass spectrometry in variable loading and running conditions (additive-to-sample ratio, PO2 pressure, presence of ionized metal and oxide species). Proper determination of O

  6. Probing the Repulsive Core of the Nucleon-Nucleon Interaction via the 4He(e,e`pN) Triple-Coincidence Reaction

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Korover, Igor; Muangma, Navaphon; Hen, Or; Shneor, Ran; Sulkosky, Vincent; Kelleher, Aidan; Gilad, Shalev; Higinbotham, Douglas; Piasetzky, Eliazer; Wood, Stephen; et al

    2014-07-01

    We studied simultaneously the 4He(e,e'p), 4He(e,e'pp), and 4He(e,e'pn) reactions at Q2=2 [GeV/c]2 and xB >1, for a (e,e'p) missing-momentum range of 400 to 830 MeV/c. The knocked-out proton was detected in coincidence with a proton or neutron recoiling almost back to back to the missing momentum, leaving the residual A=2 system at low excitation energy. These data were used to identify two-nucleon short-range correlated pairs and to deduce their isospin structure as a function of missing momentum in a region where the nucleon-nucleon force is expected to change from predominantly tensor to repulsive. Neutron-proton pairs dominate the high-momentum tail ofmore » the nucleon momentum distributions, but their abundance is reduced as the nucleon momentum increases beyond ~500 MeV/c. The extracted fraction of proton-proton pairs is small and almost independent of the missing momentum in the range we studied. Our data are compared with ab-initio calculations of two-nucleon momentum distributions in 4He.« less

  7. Search for the enhancement of the thermal expansion coefficient of superfluid 4HE Near T_Lambada by a heat current

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Y.; Israelsson, U.; Larson, M.

    2001-01-01

    Presentation on the transition in 4He in the presence of a heat current (Q) provides an ideal system for the study of phase transitions under non-equlibrium, dynamical conditions. Many physical properties become nonlinear and Q-dependant near the transition temperature, T_Lambada.

  8. Probing the repulsive core of the nucleon-nucleon interaction via the (4)He(e,e'pN) triple-coincidence reaction.

    PubMed

    Korover, I; Muangma, N; Hen, O; Shneor, R; Sulkosky, V; Kelleher, A; Gilad, S; Higinbotham, D W; Piasetzky, E; Watson, J W; Wood, S A; Aguilera, P; Ahmed, Z; Albataineh, H; Allada, K; Anderson, B; Anez, D; Aniol, K; Annand, J; Armstrong, W; Arrington, J; Averett, T; Badman, T; Baghdasaryan, H; Bai, X; Beck, A; Beck, S; Bellini, V; Benmokhtar, F; Bertozzi, W; Bittner, J; Boeglin, W; Camsonne, A; Chen, C; Chen, J-P; Chirapatpimol, K; Cisbani, E; Dalton, M M; Daniel, A; Day, D; de Jager, C W; De Leo, R; Deconinck, W; Defurne, M; Flay, D; Fomin, N; Friend, M; Frullani, S; Fuchey, E; Garibaldi, F; Gaskell, D; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, O; Gu, C; Gueye, P; Hamilton, D; Hanretty, C; Hansen, J-O; Hashemi Shabestari, M; Holmstrom, T; Huang, M; Iqbal, S; Jin, G; Kalantarians, N; Kang, H; Khandaker, M; LeRose, J; Leckey, J; Lindgren, R; Long, E; Mammei, J; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Marti Jimenez-Arguello, A; Meekins, D; Meziani, Z; Michaels, R; Mihovilovic, M; Monaghan, P; Munoz Camacho, C; Norum, B; Nuruzzaman; Pan, K; Phillips, S; Pomerantz, I; Posik, M; Punjabi, V; Qian, X; Qiang, Y; Qiu, X; Rakhman, A; Reimer, P E; Riordan, S; Ron, G; Rondon-Aramayo, O; Saha, A; Schulte, E; Selvy, L; Shahinyan, A; Sirca, S; Sjoegren, J; Slifer, K; Solvignon, P; Sparveris, N; Subedi, R; Tireman, W; Wang, D; Weinstein, L B; Wojtsekhowski, B; Yan, W; Yaron, I; Ye, Z; Zhan, X; Zhang, J; Zhang, Y; Zhao, B; Zhao, Z; Zheng, X; Zhu, P; Zielinski, R

    2014-07-11

    We studied simultaneously the (4)He(e,e'p), (4)He(e,e'pp), and (4)He(e,e'pn) reactions at Q(2)=2(GeV/c)(2) and x(B)>1, for an (e,e'p) missing-momentum range of 400 to 830  MeV/c. The knocked-out proton was detected in coincidence with a proton or neutron recoiling almost back to back to the missing momentum, leaving the residual A=2 system at low excitation energy. These data were used to identify two-nucleon short-range correlated pairs and to deduce their isospin structure as a function of missing momentum, in a region where the nucleon-nucleon (NN) force is expected to change from predominantly tensor to repulsive. The abundance of neutron-proton pairs is reduced as the nucleon momentum increases beyond ∼500  MeV/c. The extracted fraction of proton-proton pairs is small and almost independent of the missing momentum. Our data are compared with calculations of two-nucleon momentum distributions in (4)He and discussed in the context of probing the elusive repulsive component of the NN force. PMID:25062168

  9. Elastic scattering of {sup 16}O+{sup 16}O at energies E/A between 5 and 8 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Nicoli, M. P.; Haas, F.; Freeman, R. M.; Aissaoui, N.; Beck, C.; Elanique, A.; Nouicer, R.; Morsad, A.; Szilner, S.; Basrak, Z.

    1999-12-01

    The elastic scattering of {sup 16}O+{sup 16}O has been measured at nine energies between E{sub lab}=75 and 124 MeV. The data cover up to 100 degree sign in the c.m. and can be described in terms of phenomenological and folding model potentials which reproduce the main features observed. In agreement with studies at higher energies in this and similar systems, refractive effects are present in the angular distributions at all energies. In particular, the passage of Airy minima through 90 degree sign at E{sub c.m.}=40, 47.5, and 62 MeV explains the deep minima observed in the excitation function. The real part of the optical potential is found to vary very little with energy over the studied interval, but the imaginary part shows a rapid change in its shape at incident energy about 90 MeV. Nonetheless, the energy dependence of the volume integral of the real and imaginary parts is in agreement with dispersion relation predictions. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.

  10. A comparison of groundwater dating with 81Kr, 36Cl and 4He in four wells of the Great Artesian Basin, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, B. E.; Love, A.; Purtschert, R.; Collon, P.; Loosli, H. H.; Kutschera, W.; Beyerle, U.; Aeschbach-Hertig, W.; Kipfer, R.; Frape, S. K.; Herczeg, A.; Moran, J.; Tolstikhin, I. N.; Gröning, M.

    2003-06-01

    The isotopic ratios 81Kr/Kr and 36Cl/Cl and the 4He concentrations measured in groundwater from four artesian wells in the western part of the Great Artesian Basin (GAB) in Australia are discussed. Based on radioactive decay along a water flow path the 81Kr/Kr ratios are directly converted to groundwater residence times. Results are in a range of 225-400 kyr with error bars in the order of 15% primarily due to counting statistics in the cyclotron accelerator mass spectrometer measurement. Additional uncertainties from subsurface production and/or exchange with stagnant porewaters in the confining shales appear to be of the same order of magnitude. These 81Kr ages are then used to calibrate the 36Cl and the 4He dating methods. Based on elemental analyses of rock samples from the sandstone aquifer as well as from the confining Bulldog shale the in situ flux of thermal neutrons and the corresponding 3He/ 4He and 36Cl/Cl ratios are calculated. From a comparison of: (i) the 3He/ 4He ratios measured in the groundwater samples with the calculated in situ ratios in rocks and (ii) the measured δ 37Cl ratios with the 4He concentrations measured in groundwater it is concluded that both helium and chloride are most likely added to the aquifer from sources in the stagnant porewaters of the confining shale by diffusion and/or mixing. Based on this 'working hypothesis' the 36Cl transport equation in groundwater is solved taking into account: (i) radioactive decay, (ii) subsurface production in the sandstone aquifer (with an in situ 36Cl/Cl ratio of 6×10 -15) and (iii) addition of chloride from a source in the confining shale (with a 36Cl/Cl ratio of 13×10 -15). Lacking better information it is assumed that the chloride concentration increased linearly with time from an (unknown) initial value Ci to its measured present value C= Ci+ Ca, where Ca represents the (unknown) amount of chloride added from subsurface sources. Using the 81Kr ages of the four groundwater samples and a

  11. Synthesis and characterization of 3H-labelled tetrahydrobiopterin.

    PubMed Central

    Werner, E R; Schmid, M; Werner-Felmayer, G; Mayer, B; Wachter, H

    1994-01-01

    We synthesized [3'-3H]-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin from [8,5'-3H]guanosine 5'-triphosphate ([8,5'-3H]GTP) using GTP cyclohydrolase (EC 3.5.4.16), 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase and sepiapterin reductase (EC 1.1.1.153). After purification by cation-exchange h.p.l.c. a solution of radiochemically pure (> 95%) [3'-3H]-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin with a specific activity of 9.2 Ci/mmol was obtained. The product proved well suited for studying the binding of tetrahydrobiopterin to nitric-oxide synthase. PMID:7528005

  12. Partial chemical characterization of cyclopyrrolones ((/sup 3/H) suriclone) and benzodiazepines ((/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam) binding site: Differences

    SciTech Connect

    Zundel, J.L.; Blanchard, J.C.; Julou, L.

    1985-06-10

    Rat hippocampus membranes were treated with several protein modifying reagents (iodoacetamide, N-ethylmaleimide, tetranitromethane and N-acetylimidazole). The effects of these treatments on the binding sites of cyclopyrrolones ((/sup 3/H) suriclone), a new chemical family of minor tranquilizers, and benzodiazepines ((/sup 3/H) flunitrazepam) were investigated. Here the authors show that both ligands are similarly sensitive to cysteine alkylation: (/sup 3/H) suriclone and (/sup 3/H) flunitrazepam binding are reduced by iodoacetamide and slightly increased by N-ethylmaleimide. On the contrary they are clearly differentiated by tyrosine modification: (/sup 3/H) suriclone binding is not changed whereas (/sup 3/H) flunitrazepam binding is increased by tetranitromethane and decreased by N-acetylimidazole. The present findings and published evidence suggest cyclopyrrolones and benzodiazepines bind to distinct sites or to different allosteric forms of the benzodiazepine receptor. 28 references, 6 figures.

  13. Parkinson's disease: decreased density of /sup 3/H-imipramine and /sup 3/H-paroxetine binding sites in putamen

    SciTech Connect

    Raisman, R.; Cash, R.; Agid, Y.

    1986-04-01

    The density of high-affinity /sup 3/H-imipramine and /sup 3/H-paroxetine binding sites (two serotonin-uptake blockers) was decreased in the putamen of parkinsonian patients. The correlation between serotonin levels and the number of /sup 3/H-imipramine and /sup 3/H-paroxetine binding sites suggests that they are located on serotoninergic nerve terminals and could be used to study serotoninergic innervation in the human brain. Since imipramine and paroxetine are powerful antidepressants, these results furthermore suggest that decreased serotoninergic transmission may be implicated in the pathophysiology of depression in Parkinson's disease.

  14. Comparison of ( sup 3 H)Phencyclidine (( sup 3 H)PCP) and ( sup 3 H) N-(1-(2-thienyl) cyclohexyl)piperidine (( sup 3 H)TCP) binding properties to rat and human brain membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Vignon, J.; Chaudieu, I.; Allaoua, H.; Journod, L.; Javoy-Agid, F.; Agid, Y.; Chicheportiche, R.

    1989-01-01

    The investigation of ({sup 3}H)PCP and ({sup 3}H)TCP binding properties to rat cerebrum and cerebellum resulted in the demonstration of multiple binding sites for the two drugs. In the two tissue preparations PCP had a lower affinity than TCP. In membranes from the cerebrum an equal number of high affinity binding sites were present for ({sup 3}H)PCP and ({sup 3}H)TCP. However, low affinity binding sites were two times more numerous for ({sup 3}H)PCP than for ({sup 3}H)TCP. In the cerebellum, the number of high and low affinity sites labeled by the two radioligands was identical, but the number of high affinity sites was about 7 fold lower than in cerebrum. In human cerebral cortex samples ({sup 3}H)TCP also bound to two different sites. The number of high and low affinity sites were 12 and 3 times, respectively, less abundant than in the rat cerebrum. Low affinity sites were of higher affinity than corresponding sites in the rat brain. In the human cerebellum ({sup 3}H)TCP binding parameters were identical to those measured in the same region in the rat.

  15. Background considerations for the 2H(7Be,3H)6Be experimental data II: Three-body continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, K. Y.; Guimarães, V.

    2015-11-01

    The present article reports second background considerations for the experimentally obtained 2H(7Be,3H)6Be differential cross sections. The one-neutron transfer reaction was measured in inverse kinematics by using radioactive 7Be ( t 1/2 = 53.2 days) beams at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 2004 in order to search for the resonances in the unbound 6Be nucleus. Resonances in this nucleus would affect the 3He(3He,2 p)4He reaction rate of the proton-proton chain occurring in stars such as our sun. The result shows, however, that the direct transfer to 6Be resonances is not particularly strong compared to other reaction channels that can produce tritons in the exit channels. The goals of the present work is to better understand the cross section data from transfer reaction measurements by adopting background considerations using the three-body continuum.

  16. Two-neutron stripping in ({sup 18}O, {sup 16}O) and (t,p) reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallaro, M.; Agodi, A.; Carbone, D.; Cunsolo, A.; Bondì, M.; Cappuzzello, F.; Nicolosi, D.; Tropea, S.; Borello-Lewin, T.; Rodrigues, M. R. D.; De Napoli, M.; Garcia, V. N.

    2014-11-11

    The {sup 12}C({sup 18}O,{sup 16}O){sup 14}C reactions has been investigated at 84 MeV incident energy. The charged ejectiles produced in the reaction have been momentum analyzed and identified by the MAGNEX magnetic spectrometer. Q-value spectra have been extracted with an energy resolution of 160 keV (Full Width at Half Maximum) and several known bound and resonant states of {sup 14}C have been identified up to 15 MeV. In particular, excited states with dominant 2p - 4h configuration are the most populated. The absolute values of the cross sections have been extracted showing a striking similarity with those measured for the same transitions by (t,p) reactions. This indicates that the effect of the {sup 16}O core is negligible in the reaction mechanism.

  17. Isotopic diversity in interplanetary dust particles and preservation of extreme 16O-depletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starkey, N. A.; Franchi, I. A.; Lee, M. R.

    2014-10-01

    Two interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) investigated by NanoSIMS reveal diverse oxygen isotope compositions at the micrometre-scale. The oxygen isotope values recorded at different locations across the single IDP fragments cover a wider range than the bulk values available from all IDPs and bulk meteorites measured to date. Measurement of H, C, and N isotopes by NanoSIMS, and the use of scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) to determine elemental compositions and textural information allows for a better understanding of the lithologies and organic signatures associated with the oxygen isotope features. IDP Balmoral, a ∼15 μm-sized fragment with a chondritic porous (CP)-IDP-like texture, contains a region a few micrometres in size characterised by 16O-depleted isotope signatures in the range δ17O, δ18O = +80‰ to +200‰. The remainder of the fragment has a more 16O-rich composition (δ18O = 0-20‰), similar to many other IDPs and bulk meteorites. Other than in discrete pre-solar grains, such extreme 16O-depletions have only been observed previously in rare components within the matrix of the Acfer 094 meteorite. However, TEM imaging and FeO/MgO/Si ion ratios indicate that the 16O-depleted regions in Balmoral did not form by the same mechanism as that proposed for the 16O-depleted phases in Acfer 094. As the level of 16O depletion is consistent with that expected from isotope selective self-shielding, it is likely that the 16O-depleted reservoir was located close to that where oxygen self-shielding effects were most pronounced (i.e., the outer solar nebula or even interstellar medium). Individual regions within IDP Lumley cover a range in δ18O from -30‰ to +19‰, with the oxygen isotope values broadly co-varying with δD, δ13C, δ15N, light-element ratios and texture. The relationships observed in Lumley indicate that the parent body incorporated material at the micrometre-scale from discrete diverse isotopic reservoirs, some of

  18. States of {sup 15}C via the ({sup 18}O,{sup 16}O) reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Cappuzzello, F.; Carbone, D.; Cavallaro, M.; Cunsolo, A.; Orrigo, S. E. A.; Foti, A.; Rodrigues, M. R. D.

    2010-04-30

    A study of the {sup 15}C states was pursued in 2008 at the Catania INFN-LNS laboratory by the {sup 13}C({sup 18}O,{sup 16}O){sup 15}C reaction at 84 MeV incident energy. The {sup 16}O ejectiles were detected at forward angles by the MAGNEX magnetic spectrometer. The spectra show several known low lying states up to about 7 MeV excitation energy as well as two unknown resonant structures at about 11.4 and 13.5 MeV. The strong excitation of these latter together with the measured width of about 2 MeV FWHM could indicate the presence of collective modes of excitation connected to the transfer of a correlated neutron pair.

  19. An ab initio variationally computed room-temperature line list for (32)S(16)O3.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Daniel S; Tennyson, Jonathan; Yurchenko, Sergei N

    2013-07-01

    Ab initio potential energy and dipole moment surfaces are computed for sulfur trioxide (SO3) at the CCSD(T)-F12b level of theory with appropriate triple-zeta basis sets. The analytical representations of these surfaces are used, with a slight correction, to compute pure rotational and rotation-vibration spectra of (32)S(16)O3 using the variational nuclear motion program TROVE. The calculations considered transitions in the region 0-4000 cm(-1) with rotational states up to J = 85. The resulting line list of 174,674,257 transitions is appropriate for modelling room temperature (32)S(16)O3 spectra. Good agreement is found with the observed infrared absorption spectra and the calculations are used to place the measured relative intensities on an absolute scale. A list of 10,878 experimental transitions is provided in a form suitable for inclusion in standard atmospheric and planetary spectroscopic databases. PMID:23579443

  20. One-two step transfer observed in 16O+11B nuclear system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Sh.; Burtebayev, N.

    2015-06-01

    The angular distribution measurements for 16O ion beam elastically scattered from 11B target of thickness 32.9μg/cm2 at energy 22.4 MeV had been performed in the cyclotron DC-60 INP NNC RK. The previous measurements for 16O+11B nuclear system at energies 27, 30, 32.5 and 35 MeV showed an increase in the differential cross-section at backward angles due to the contribution of cluster transfer. Such transfer process could not be described in terms of optical model (OM); it could be described within the framework of distorted wave Born approximation method implemented in FRESCO code. Both one (5Li) and two-step transfer (proton transfer followed by Alpha transfer) were taken into considerations. We have extracted the spectroscopic amplitude (SA) for the configuration 16O→11B+5Li.

  1. 186Os and 187Os enrichments and high-3He/4He sources in the Earth’s mantle: Evidence from Icelandic picrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandon, Alan D.; Graham, David W.; Waight, Tod; Gautason, Bjarni

    2007-09-01

    Picrites from the neovolcanic zones in Iceland display a range in 187Os/ 188Os from 0.1297 to 0.1381 (γ Os = + 2.1 to +8.7) and uniform 186Os/ 188Os of 0.1198375 ± 32 (2 σ). The value for 186Os/ 188Os is within uncertainty of the present-day value for the primitive upper mantle of 0.1198398 ± 16. These Os isotope systematics are best explained by ancient recycled crust or melt enrichment in the mantle source region. If so, then the coupled enrichments displayed in 186Os/ 188Os and 187Os/ 188Os from lavas of other plume systems must result from an independent process, the most viable candidate at present remains core-mantle interaction. While some plumes with high 3He/ 4He, such as Hawaii, appear to have been subjected to detectable addition of Os (and possibly He) from the outer core, others such as Iceland do not. A positive correlation between 187Os/ 188Os and 3He/ 4He from 9.6 to 19 Ra in Iceland picrites is best modeled as mixtures of 1 Ga or older ancient recycled crust mixed with primitive mantle or incompletely degassed depleted mantle isolated since 1-1.5 Ga, which preserves the high 3He/ 4He of the depleted mantle at the time. These mixtures create a hybrid source region that subsequently mixes with the present-day convecting MORB mantle during ascent and melting. This multistage mixing scenario requires convective isolation in the deep mantle for hundreds of million years or more to maintain these compositionally distinct hybrid sources. The 3He/ 4He of lavas derived from the Iceland plume changed over time, from a maximum of 50 Ra at 60 Ma, to approximately 25-27 Ra at present. The changes are coupled with distinct compositional gaps between the different aged lavas when 3He/ 4He is plotted versus various geochemical parameters such as 143Nd/ 144Nd and La/Sm. These relationships can be interpreted as an increase in the proportion of ancient recycled crust in the upwelling plume over this time period. The positive correlation between 187Os/ 188Os and

  2. Asthenosphere-lithosphere interactions in Western Saudi Arabia: Inferences from 3He/4He in xenoliths and lava flows from Harrat Hutaymah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konrad, Kevin; Graham, David W.; Thornber, Carl R.; Duncan, Robert A.; Kent, Adam J. R.; Al-Amri, Abdullah M.

    2016-04-01

    Extensive volcanic fields on the western Arabian Plate have erupted intermittently over the last 30 Ma following emplacement of the Afar flood basalts in Ethiopia. In an effort to better understand the origin of this volcanism in western Saudi Arabia, we analyzed 3He/4He, and He, CO2 and trace element concentrations in minerals separated from xenoliths and lava flows from Harrat Hutaymah, supplemented with reconnaissance He isotope data from several other volcanic fields (Harrat Al Birk, Harrat Al Kishb and Harrat Ithnayn). Harrat Hutaymah is young (< 850 ka) and the northeasternmost of the volcanic fields. There is a remarkable homogeneity of 3He/4He trapped within most xenoliths, with a weighted mean of 7.54 ± 0.03 RA (2σ, n = 20). This homogeneity occurs over at least eight different xenolith types (including spinel lherzolite, amphibole clinopyroxenite, olivine websterite, clinopyroxenite and garnet websterite), and encompasses ten different volcanic centers within an area of ~ 2500 km2. The homogeneity is caused by volatile equilibration between the xenoliths and fluids derived from their host magma, as fluid inclusions are annealed during the infiltration of vapor-saturated magmas along crystalline grain boundaries. The notable exceptions are the anhydrous spinel lherzolites, which have a lower weighted mean 3He/4He of 6.8 ± 0.3 RA (2σ, n = 2), contain lower concentrations of trapped He, and have a distinctly depleted light rare earth element signature. 3He/4He values of ~ 6.8 RA are also commonly found in spinel lherzolites from harrats Ithnayn, Al Birk, and from Zabargad Island in the Red Sea. Olivine from non-xenolith-bearing lava flows at Hutaymah spans the He isotope range of the xenoliths. The lower 3He/4He in the anhydrous spinel lherzolites appears to be tied to remnant Proterozoic lithosphere prior to metasomatic fluid overprinting. Elevated 3He/4He in the western harrats has been observed only at Rahat (up to 11.8 RA; Murcia et al., 2013), a

  3. Preresidue'' light charged particles from [sup 28]Si+[sup 165]Ho, [sup 16]O+[sup 197]Au, and [sup 16]O+[sup 208]Pb fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Fineman, B.J.; Brinkmann, K.; Caraley, A.L.; Gan, N.; McGrath, R.L.; Velkovska, J. )

    1994-10-01

    Proton and [alpha]-particle spectral shapes and multiplicities have been measured in coincidence with evaporation residues from 145 to 220 MeV [sup 28]Si+[sup 165]Ho and 115 and 140 MeV [sup 16]O+[sup 197]Au,[sup 208]Pb fusion reactions. Evaporation residues were separated using an electrostatic deflector and detected with large area surface barrier detectors. Light charged particles were detected at forward and backward angles with 14 single NaI detectors. In the context of the statistical model, the charged particle spectra provide information about the shapes and level densities of the emitting systems. Deformed emitters are inferred, and to a varying degree, an energy-dependent level density parameter is compatible with the data in each of the three cases. Implications for current fusion and fission dynamics studies are discussed.

  4. The ({sup 18}O, {sup 16}O) reaction as a probe for nuclear spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Cappuzzello, F.; Bondì, M.; Nicolosi, D.; Tropea, S.; Agodi, A.; Carbone, D.; Cavallaro, M.; Cunsolo, A.; Borello-Lewin, T.; Rodrigues, M. R. D.; De Napoli, M.; Linares, R.

    2014-11-11

    The response of nuclei to the ({sup 18}O, {sup 16}O) two-neutron transfer reaction at 84 MeV incident energy has been systematically studied at the Catania INFN-LNS laboratory. The experiments were performed using several solid targets from light ({sup 9}Be, {sup 11}B, {sup 12,13}C, {sup 16}O, {sup 28}Si) to heavy ones ({sup 58,64}Ni, {sup 120}Sn, {sup 208}Pb). The {sup 16}O ejectiles were detected at forward angles by the MAGNEX magnetic spectrometer. Exploiting the large momentum acceptance (−10%, +14%) and solid angle (50 msr) of the spectrometer, energy spectra were obtained with a relevant yield up to about 20 MeV excitation energy. The application of the powerful trajectory reconstruction technique did allow to get energy spectra with energy resolution of about 150 keV and angular distributions with angular resolution better than 0.3°. A common feature observed with light nuclei is the appearance of unknown resonant structures at high excitation energy. The strong population of these latter together with the measured width can reveal the excitation of a collective mode connected with the transfer of a pair.

  5. A non-terrestrial 16O-rich isotopic composition for the protosolar nebula.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Ko; Chaussidon, Marc

    2005-03-31

    The discovery in primitive components of meteorites of large oxygen isotopic variations that could not be attributed to mass-dependent fractionation effects has raised a fundamental question: what is the composition of the protosolar gas from which the host grains formed? This composition is probably preserved in the outer layers of the Sun, but the resolution of astronomical spectroscopic measurements is still too poor to be useful for comparison with planetary material. Here we report a precise determination of the oxygen isotopic composition of the solar wind from particles implanted in the outer hundreds of nanometres of metallic grains in the lunar regolith. These layers of the grains are enriched in 16O by >20 +/- 4 per thousand relative to the Earth, Mars and bulk meteorites, which implies the existence in the solar accretion disk of reactions--as yet unknown--that were able to change the 17O/16O and 18O/16O ratios in a way that was not dependent strictly on the mass of the isotope. Photochemical self-shielding of the CO gas irradiated by ultraviolet light may be one of these key processes, because it depends on the abundance of the isotopes, rather than their masses. PMID:15800617

  6. Contraband detection using high-energy gamma rays from {sup 16}O*

    SciTech Connect

    Micklich, B.J.; Fink, C.L.; Sagalovsky, L.; Smith, D.L.

    1996-12-01

    High-energy monoenergetic gamma rays (6.13 and 7.12 MeV) from the decay of excited states of the {sup 16}O* nucleus are highly penetrating and thus offer potential for non-intrusive inspection of loaded containers for narcotics, explosives, and other contraband items. These excited states can be produced by irradiation of water with 14-MeV neutrons from a DT neutron generator or through the {sup 19}F(p,{alpha}){sup 16}O* reaction. Resonances in {sup 19}F(p,{alpha}){sup 16}O* at proton energies between 340 keV and 2 MeV allow use of a low-energy accelerator to provide a compact, portable gamma source of reasonable intensity. The present work provides estimates of gamma source parameters and suggests how various types of contraband could be detected. Gamma rays can be used to perform transmission or emission radiography of containers or other objects. Through the use of ({gamma}, n) and ({gamma}, fission) reactions, this technique is also capable of detecting special nuclear materials such as deuterium, lithium, beryllium, uranium, and plutonium. Analytic and Monte Carlo techniques are used to model empty and loaded container inspection for accelerator-produced gamma, radioisotope, and x-ray sources.

  7. Measurements and Modeling of (16)O(12)C(17)O Spectroscopic Parameters at 2µm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquemart, D.; Sung, K.; Brown, L. R.; Coleman, M.; Mantz, A. W.; Smith, M. A. H.

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, line-intensity measurements for 16O12C17O were performed using a high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer (Bruker IFS-125HR) together with a Herriott cell allowing a 20.956 m absorption path. For this, a 17O-enriched CO2 gas sample mixture was used. The 16O12C17O isotopologue abundance in the sample was determined to be 0.3991 by mass spectrometry. Since a collisional narrowing effect has been observed, the Rautian profile was systematically used instead of the Voigt profile. Finally, around 1000 transitions were studied between 4604 and 5126 cm-1 involving 15 bands of the 16O12C17O isotopologue. For each of the 15 bands, transition dipole moments and Herman-Wallis factors were derived, which also enabled a global comparison with theoretical calculations and predictions achieved for carbon dioxide. For the measured and calculated line positions, the accuracy is between 0.1 - 1×10-3 cm-1. For line intensities, depending on the intensity of the band, accuracies are between 2 - 3 % for 5 cold bands and 2 hot bands and between 6 - 30 % for 8 weaker hot bands. Results from this work are compared to previous works and to HITRAN 2012. Complete line lists were generated to support atmospheric remote sensing for the Earth (e.g. GOSAT, OCO-2 ...), Mars and Venus.

  8. Tensor analyzing powers and energy dependence of the {sup 7}Li+{sup 16}O interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Rudchik, A. T.; Rudchik, A. A.; Chesnokova, V. D.; Kyryanchuk, V. M.; Ponkratenko, O. A.; Kemper, K. W.; Crisp, A. M.; Marechal, F.; Roeder, B. T.; Momotyuk, O. A.; Rusek, K.

    2007-02-15

    The differential cross section angular distribution and the analyzing powers {sup T}T{sub 10},{sup T}T{sub 20}, for {sup 7}Li+{sup 16}O elastic scattering were measured at E{sub lab}({sup 7}Li(vector sign)) = 42 MeV. These and previously published {sup 7}Li+{sup 16}O scattering data measured at E{sub c.m.} = 6.26-34.78 MeV were analyzed with the optical model and coupled-reaction channels (CRC) methods to determine the energy dependence of the parameters of the scattering potential. It was found that the optical model potentials are energy independent for {sup 7}Li laboratory bombarding energies above 28 MeV, except for a slight decrease in the real potential strength as the bombarding energy increases. The calculations presented show that the tensor analyzing power {sup T}T{sub 20} arises from a coherent combination of contributions from the ground-state reorientation and central scattering potential. The energy-dependent CRC potentials were shown to describe the data for the {sup 16}O({sup 7}Li,t){sup 20}Ne reaction.

  9. Contraband detection using high-energy gamma rays from 16O*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micklich, Bradley J.; Fink, Charles L.; Sagalovsky, Leonid; Smith, Donald L.

    1997-02-01

    High-energy monoenergetic gamma rays (6.13 and 7.12 MeV) from the decay of excited states of the 16O* nucleus are highly penetrating and thus offer potential for non- intrusive inspection of loaded containers for narcotics, explosives, and other contraband items. These excited states can be produced by irradiation of water with 14-MeV neutrons from a DT neutron generator or through the 19F(p,alpha)16O* reaction. Resonances in 19F(p,alpha)16O* at proton energies between 340 keV and 2 MeV allow use of a low-energy accelerator to provide a compact, portable gamma source of reasonable intensity. The present work provides estimates of gamma source parameters and suggests how various types of contraband could be detected. Gamma rays can be used to perform transmission or emission radiography of containers or other objects. Through the use of (gamma,n) and (gamma,fission) reactions, this technique is also capable of detecting special nuclear materials such as deuterium, lithium, beryllium, uranium, and plutonium. Analytic and Monte Carlo techniques are used to model empty and loaded container inspection for accelerator-produced gamma, radioisotope, and x-ray sources.

  10. 16O(n,α) cross section investigation using LENZ instrument at LANSCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H. Y.; Mosby, S.; Haight, R. C.; White, M. C.

    2016-06-01

    Importance of studying the 16O(n,α) reaction is motivated by multiple nuclear applications. The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) produces a white neutron spectrum ranging from thermal to several hundreds of MeV energies. We have recently developed the LENZ (Low Energy NZ-neutron induced charged particle detection) capability to measure high-precision (n,α) cross sections. In order to provide more reliable data, we have enhanced solid angle coverage, and improved signal-to-noise ratios and time-of-flight resolution by implementing digitizer waveform analysis. The LENZ was commissioned by studying the 59Co(n,α) reaction with neutron beams in early 2015. For the 16O(n,α) reaction, we investigate solid oxygen targets and make a relative measurement to a better known cross section, such as the 6Li(n,α) reaction in order to further reduce systematic uncertainty. We will discuss the progress of the 16O(n,α) study at LANSCE and the outlook for improving Hauser-Feshbah prediction on (n,p) reaction cross sections.

  11. Fallout /sup 3/H ingestion in Akita, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Hisamatsu, S.; Takizawa, Y.; Abe, T.; Katsumata, T.

    1987-09-01

    To study fallout /sup 3/H ingestion in Japan, 16 separate food group samples were collected from Akita during 1985. The /sup 3/H concentration in free water and that in a tissue-bound form were determined separately. The average /sup 3/H concentration in the tissue-bound form was 2.2 Bq L-1, 1.7 times higher than in the free water of the food. The ingestions of /sup 3/H in the tissue-bound form and as free water in the diet were 0.60 Bq d-1 and 1.0 Bq d-1, respectively. Cereals represented the food group that contributed the most to the ingestion of tissue-bound /sup 3/H. Total /sup 3/H ingestion was estimated to be 4.1 Bq d-1. The contribution of the tissue-bound form to the total ingestion was 15%, considerably lower than reported for Italian diets. The ratio of /sup 3/H ingestion in the tissue-bound form to the free water form in the diet was similar to the ratio reported for New York City.

  12. Systematic Vibration Studies on a Cryogen-Free ^3 He/^4 He Dilution Refrigerator for X-ray Spectroscopy at Storage Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, P. A.; Kraft-Bermuth, S.; Andrianov, V.

    2016-01-01

    High-precision X-ray spectroscopy of highly charged ions at storage rings provides a sensitive test of quantum electrodynamics in strong Coulomb fields. To increase the precision of such experiments, silicon microcalorimeters have already been applied successfully. To minimize the interruption of beam times due to maintenance, a new cryogen-free ^3 He/^4 He dilution refrigerator has been designed and is under commissioning. However, in cryogen-free systems microphonic noise due to vibrations contributes considerably to the overall noise and may limit the detector energy resolution. Therefore, we report on systematic vibration studies on a cryogen-free ^3 He/^4 He dilution refrigerator which is specially adapted for experiments at storage rings.

  13. The 2014 effusive eruption at Stromboli volcano (Italy): Inferences from soil CO2 flux and 3He/4He ratio in thermal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, Andrea Luca; Federico, Cinzia; Inguaggiato, Salvatore; Sollami, Aldo; Tantillo, Mariano; Vita, Fabio; Bellomo, Sergio; Longo, Manfredi; Grassa, Fausto; Liuzzo, Marco

    2015-04-01

    A new eruption started at Stromboli on 6 August 2014, which had been preceded by 2 months of increased Strombolian activity and several lava overflows from the craters. The eruption was characterized by a lava effusion in Sciara del Fuoco from a fracture at 650 m above sea level that lasted until 13-17 November. Here we present the first geochemical observations of this eruption, based on the soil CO2 flux in the summit area and on 3He/4He ratios in the thermal waters near Stromboli village. We infer that this eruption was triggered by the gradual replenishment of the feeding system by a CO2- and 3He-rich magma at the end of 2013 and after June 2014, suggested by the increase in 3He/4He ratio before eruption, which reached its highest value since 2007. We thus infer that this eruption was unusual, and we finally speculate on the evolutionary scenario of posteruption.

  14. 40Ar/39Ar and (U-Th)/He - 4He/3He geochronology of landscape evolution and channel iron deposit genesis at Lynn Peak, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasconcelos, Paulo M.; Heim, Jonathan A.; Farley, Kenneth A.; Monteiro, Hevelyn; Waltenberg, Kathryn

    2013-09-01

    (U-Th)/He geochronology of authigenic goethite cements from the Lynn Peak channel iron deposit (CID), Hamersley Province, Western Australia, reveals a history of mineral precipitation ranging from ca. 33 to 14 Ma. Massive goethites from nearby weathering profiles at Roy Hill North, a possible source of detrital material during the aggradation of the Lynn Peak channels, yield (U-Th)/He results as old as ca. 64 Ma. The combination of (U-Th)/He geochronology with incremental outgassing 4He/3He studies on proton-irradiated samples reveals that Lynn Peak goethites host radiogenic 4He in low retentivity (LRD) and high retentivity (HRD) domains and that the HRDs account for most of the sample mass and have lost very little of their original 4He over geologic time. Such high retentivity is especially notable given the goethites were collected from the surface, where they were subject to significant heating by solar irradiation. Minor contamination by detrital fragments of potentially 4He-rich primary phases (e.g., rutile, ilmenite, zircon) occurs in some samples. Fortunately, the 4He/3He method permits characterization of this extraneous 4He component, which is small (<10 wt.% of the total 4He in the goethite) and can be corrected out in estimating the goethite formation age. These results indicate that the Lynn Peak channel was already aggraded and undergoing goethite cementation by ca. 33 Ma. The history of aggradation and channel cementation independently measured through 40Ar/39Ar geochronology is consistent with that obtained from the (U-Th)/He and 4He/3He record. Laser incremental-heating 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of detrital and authigenic Mn oxides, primarily cryptomelane (KMn8O16·xH2O), from the same locality in the Lynn Peak channel reveals that detrital oxides are older than ca. 44 Ma (and as old as ca. 65 Ma) and authigenic oxides are younger than ca. 35 Ma and as young as ca. 16 Ma. Authigenic cryptomelane precipitation and channel cementation occurred

  15. Solving the Large Discrepancy Between Inclusive and Exclusive Measurements of the 8Li + 4He → 11B + n Reaction Cross Section at Astrophysical Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Cognata, M.; Del Zoppo, A.; Alba, R.; Cherubini, S.; Colonna, N.; Di Pietro, A.; Figuera, P.; Gulino, M.; Lamia, L.; Musumarra, A.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Pizzone, R. G.; Rolfs, C.; Romano, S.; Spitaleri, C.; Tumino, A.

    2009-12-01

    A solution of the large discrepancy existing between inclusive and exclusive measurements of the 8Li + 4He → 11B + n reaction cross section at E cm < 3 MeV is evaluated. This problem has profound astrophysical relevance for this reaction is of great interest in big bang and r-process nucleosynthesis. By means of a novel technique, a comprehensive study of all existing 8Li + 4He → 11B + n cross section data is carried out, setting up a consistent picture in which all the inclusive measurements provide the reliable value of the cross section. New unambiguous signatures of the strong branch pattern non-uniformities, near the threshold of higher 11B excited levels, are presented and their possible origin, in terms of the cluster structure of the involved excited states of 11B and 12Bnuclei, is discussed.

  16. Systematic Vibration Studies on a Cryogen-Free ^3He/^4He Dilution Refrigerator for X-ray Spectroscopy at Storage Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, P. A.; Kraft-Bermuth, S.; Andrianov, V.

    2016-08-01

    High-precision X-ray spectroscopy of highly charged ions at storage rings provides a sensitive test of quantum electrodynamics in strong Coulomb fields. To increase the precision of such experiments, silicon microcalorimeters have already been applied successfully. To minimize the interruption of beam times due to maintenance, a new cryogen-free ^3He/^4He dilution refrigerator has been designed and is under commissioning. However, in cryogen-free systems microphonic noise due to vibrations contributes considerably to the overall noise and may limit the detector energy resolution. Therefore, we report on systematic vibration studies on a cryogen-free ^3He/^4He dilution refrigerator which is specially adapted for experiments at storage rings.

  17. Effect of the variation of the Higgs vacuum expectation value upon the deuterium binding energy and primordial abundances of D and 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosquera, M. E.; Civitarese, O.

    2010-09-01

    Aims: We calculate the constraints on the time variation of the Higgs vacuum expectation value from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. Methods: Starting from the calculation of the deuterium binding-energy, as a function of the pion-mass and using the NN-Reid 93 potential, we calculate the abundances of primordial D and 4He by modifying Kawano's code. The Higgs vacuum expectation value (v) and the baryon to photon ratio (ηB) enter the calculation as free parameters. By using the observational data of D and 4He, we set constraints on ηB and on the variation of v, relative to a constant value of ΛQCD. Results: Results are consistent with null variation in v and ɛD for the early universe, within 6σ. Conclusions: We obtained a linear dependence of ɛD upon v and found that the best-fit-value of the variation of v is null within 6σ.

  18. Tensor analyzing powers T/sub 20/(theta) and T/sub 22/(theta) in the /sup 2/H(darrow,. gamma. ) /sup 4/He reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Seyler, R.G.; Weller, H.R.

    1985-05-01

    Reaction theory expressions are used to prove that the tensor analyzing powers T/sub 20/(theta) and T/sub 22/(theta) for the /sup 2/H(darrow,..gamma..) /sup 4/He reaction are isotropic if the reaction is pure E2 and terms quadratic in channel-spin-2 matrix elements are neglected. Experimental departures from isotropy can be expected near theta-0/sup 0/, 90/sup 0/, and 189/sup 0/.

  19. Radiation-damage-controlled He diffusion and 4He/3He spectra in apatite: an example of mutually consistent results from the Grand Canyon (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farley, K. A.; Flowers, R. M.

    2009-12-01

    Recent work indicates that He diffusion from apatite is impeded by the accumulation of radiation damage from actinide decay. Supporting evidence includes laboratory diffusion measurements as well as (U-Th)/He dates positively correlated with effective uranium (eU) concentration in certain geologic situations. Here we investigate whether the radiation damage effect can be identified in 4He concentration profiles, as it must be if the system behaves as we anticipate. Apatites from nearby igneous basement samples in the Upper Gorge of the Grand Canyon showing a strong date-eU correlation were proton irradiated, step-heated, and analyzed for 4He/3He spectra. The low eU apatites with younger He dates yielded nearly flat spectra, while the high eU apatites with older He dates yielded highly rounded spectra (see Figure). This implies that the higher eU apatites were partially retaining He while the lower eU apatites were still acting as an open system. Using the RDAAM kinetic model (Flowers et al. 2009) and local geologic constraints we confirm that this behavior is consistent with the observed differences in date and eU, providing compelling evidence that both the He dates and the 4He profiles are sensitive to radiation damage accumulation. Equally importantly, the combination of multiple samples with differing eU and thus differing 4He/3He spectra yields remarkably tight constraints on the time-temperature path experienced by these rocks, from ~90oC down to < 30oC.

  20. Improving tritium determination from environmental water samples by the 3He ingrowth method by means of an ultrapure 4He spike

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Major, Zoltan; Palcsu, Laszlo; Papp, Laszlo

    2010-05-01

    Clarke et al. (1976) described a new method based on mass spectrometric measurement of 3He to deter-mine low level tritium concentrations of water samples [1]. The method consists of three major steps: 1) The water samples are put into glass bulbs. The dissolved gases including helium are removed from the water by vacuum pumping. 2) The sample are stored for several months or years so that 3He atoms are produced from tritium decay. 3) The amount of the tritiogenic 3He is measured mass spectrometrically. Since then numeru-ous laboratories adopted this method [2-5] as noble gas mass spectrometers became commercially available. The measurements are usually calibrated by means of well known air aliquots, which in size can be compared to the helium amount from the tritium sample. The 3He/4He ratio of samples can differ considerably from that of air used for standardization. For this reason it has to be kept in mind that a possible discrimination of 3He by 4He is not necessarily corrected by the air stan-dards [3]. Additionally, the mass spectrometric sensi-tivities of the different helium isotopes depend on the pressure at the ion source [6]. In case of tritium meas-urements, the overall pressure of the helium in the mass spectrometer is much lower than that of the helium from the air calibration. We use air aliquots that contain 7•10-9 to 2•10-7 ccSTP of 4He and 5•10-15 to 1.5•10-13 ccSTP of 3He. The relative standard deviations of the calibration measurements vary between 1-2 %, and the non-linearity effect is always taken into account. The over-all helium amount in the mass spectrometer in case of a tritium sample is usually less than 3•10-10 ccSTP that derives, of cource, from the 4He [5]. As the amount of the calibration sample converges to that of tritium samples, we loose the good statistical error of the 3He measurement being counted by an electro-multiplier. It seems that the large diiference of the helium pressure in the ion source between a sample

  1. A Reestimate of the Protosolar (^2^H/^1^H)_p_ ratio from (^3^He/^4^He)_SW_ solar wind measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautier, D.; Morel, P.

    1997-07-01

    We reanalyze the inference of the protosolar abundance of deuterium made by Geiss (1993, in Origin and Evolution of the Elements, Eds., N. Prantzos, E. Vangioni-Flam, M. Casse, Cambridge University Press, p. 90) from measurements of (^3^He/^4^He)_SW_ in the solar wind. We use an evolutionary solar model with microscopic diffusion, constrained to fit the present age, radius and luminosity, as well as the observed ratio of heavy elements to hydrogen. The protosolar (^2^H/^1^H)_p_ is obtained from the best fit of (^3^He/^4^He)_SW_. Taking for the protosolar (^3^He/^4^He)_p_ the value measured in Jupiter by the Galileo probe (Niemann et al., 1996Sci...272..846N), we derive (^2^H/^1^H)_p_=(3.01+/-0.17)x10^-5^. Compared to the present interstellar medium value (Linsky et al., 1993ApJ...402..694L), this result is compatible with models of the chemical evolution of the Galaxy in the solar neighborhood; it is also marginally compatible with the Jovian (^2^H/^1^H)_J_=(5+/-2)x10^-5^ ratio measured by Galileo.

  2. Cross-section measurement for the /sup 7/Li(n,n't)/sup 4/He reaction at 14. 74 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.; Meadows, J.W.; Bretscher, M.M.; Cox, S.A.

    1984-09-01

    The cross section for the /sup 7/Li(n,n't)/sup 4/He reaction is measured at an average neutron energy of 14.74 MeV, with a resolution of 0.324 MeV, relative to the /sup 238/U neutron-fission cross section. Tritium activities for the irradiated lithium-metal samples (enriched to 99.95% in /sup 7/Li) are deduced using a liquid-scintillation counting method which relies upon the tritiated-water standard from the US National Bureau of Standards. The measured cross section ratio of /sup 7/Li(n,n't)/sup 4/He to /sup 238/U neutron fission is 0.2523 (+- 2.2%). The derived /sup 7/Li(n,n't)/sup 4/He reaction cross section is 0.301 (+- 5.3%) barn, based on the ENDF/B-V value of 1.193 (+- 4.8%) barn for the /sup 238/U neutron-fission cross section. 59 references.

  3. Fallout sup 3 H in human tissue at Akita, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Hisamatsu, S.; Takizawa, Y.; Itoh, M.; Ueno, K.; Katsumata, T.; Sakanoue, M. )

    1989-10-01

    The {sup 3}H concentration in Japanese human tissue samples is reported in this paper. Four brain, 10 liver, and nine lung samples from 11 cases were collected from Akita Prefecture in northern Japan from January to July 1986. The median of free-water {sup 3}H concentration was similar in these tissues and agreed well with the concentrations in the diet, including tap water. The median specific activity ratio of tissue-bound {sup 3}H to free-water {sup 3}H was 1.1 and was slightly lower than that in the diet. The specific activity ratio was also lower than that reported in the United States and significantly lower than in Italy.

  4. Coherent He-Nd-Sr isotope trends in high 3He/ 4He basalts: implications for a common reservoir, mantle heterogeneity and convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellam, R. M.; Stuart, F. M.

    2004-12-01

    Early-mid-Tertiary picritic basalts associated with the proto-Iceland plume (PIP) show correlated He-Nd and He-Sr isotope trends. Other intraplate basalts with olivine phenocryst 3He/ 4He>10 Ra either (1) fall on the PIP trends, (2) lie in triangular fields defined by the PIP trend and a depleted mantle field or (3) are displaced to low 143Nd/ 144Nd and high 87Sr/ 86Sr, indicating the involvement of an ancient enriched component, but are consistent with a high 3He/ 4He end-member similar to that required by the Baffin Island data. Neither end of the PIP trend represents isotope compositions that have previously been recognised as global geochemical components. A concentration of data around 143Nd/ 144Nd≈0.5128, with low 3He/ 4He suggests this may be an important composition and we speculate that it might represent an enriched mantle average (EMA) composition preferentially sampled at the melt fraction operating in ocean island basalt (OIB) generation. The high 3He/ 4He component has Nd and Sr isotope compositions that are indistinguishable from mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) and more "depleted" than other common mantle components that have been postulated from the global OIB-MORB data base. We suggest that this composition is best explained as a mixture between depleted and (He-rich) primordial mantle and we therefore refer to this mixed composition as He-recharged depleted mantle (HRDM). Even the Baffin Island lavas require only a small proportion (<10%) of primordial mantle and most OIB demand <2%. If high 3He/ 4He is a lower mantle signal, then only limited lower mantle involvement in plumes is indicated. However, the low proportion of primordial material also removes the requirement for an extensive primordial reservoir. These observations can be reconciled with whole mantle convection provided (1) a small volume of relatively undegassed and undepleted mantle has survived intact and (2) an inventory of incompatible trace elements, similar to that housed in

  5. Stereospecific binding of 3H-phencyclidine in brain membranes.

    PubMed

    Hampton, R Y; Medzihradsky, F; Woods, J H; Dahlstrom, P J

    1982-06-21

    Phencyclidine (PCP) displaceable binding of 3H-PCP to glass-fiber filters was eliminated and total binding markedly reduced by initial treatment of the discs with 0.05% polyethyleneimine. Assessed with treated filters, unlabeled PCP displaced 3H-PCP in both rat and pigeon brain membranes with an EC50 of 1 microM. Of similar high inhibitory potency were dextrorphan, levorphanol, SKF 10047 and ketamine, while morphine, naloxone and etorphine had EC50 values higher then 1 mM. Using the dissociative anesthetic dexoxadrol and its inactive isomer levoxadrol as displacing agents, stereospecific binding of 3H-PCP was obtained in rat and pigeon brain membranes. The markedly higher potency of dexoxadrol, relative to levoxadrol, in displacing bound 3H-PCP is compatible with behavioral data for these enantiomers. However, they were equipotent in displacing 3H-PCP bound to glass-fiber filters in the absence of tissue. Heat denaturation, but not freezing, abolished stereospecific binding of 3H-PCP, which was also absent in rat liver membranes. The stereospecific binding component in brain displayed biphasic saturability at 60-70 nM and 300-400 nM, respectively. PMID:7109842

  6. (/sup 3/H)-beta-endorphin binding in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Houghten, R.A.; Johnson, N.; Pasternak, G.W.

    1984-10-01

    The binding of (/sup 3/H)-beta-endorphin to rat brain homogenates is complex. Although Scatchard analysis of saturation studies yields a straight line, detailed competition studies are multiphasic, suggesting that even at low concentrations of the compound, the /sup 3/H-ligand is binding to more than one class of site. A portion of (/sup 3/H)-beta-endorphin binding is sensitive to low concentrations of morphine or D-Ala2-Leu5-enkephalin (less than 5 nM). The inhibition observed with each compound alone (5 nM) is the same as that seen with both together (each at 5 nM). Thus, the binding remaining in the presence of both morphine and the enkephalin does not correspond to either mu or delta sites. The portion of (/sup 3/H)-beta-endorphin binding that is inhibited under these conditions appears to be equally sensitive to both morphine and the enkephalin and may correspond to mu1 sites. Treating membrane homogenates with naloxonazine, a mu1 selective antagonist, lowers (/sup 3/H)-beta-endorphin binding to the same degree as morphine and D-Ala2-Leu5-enkephalin alone or together. This possible binding of (/sup 3/H)-beta-endorphin to mu1 sites is consistent with the role of mu1 sites in beta-endorphin analgesia and catalepsy in vivo.

  7. 16O excesses in olivine inclusions in Yamato-86009 and Murchison chondrites and their relation to CAIs.

    PubMed

    Hiyagon, H; Hashimoto, A

    1999-02-01

    In situ ion microprobe analyses of oxygen isotopes in Yamato-86009 and Murchison chondrites show that they contain abundant olivine-rich inclusions that have large oxygen-16 (16O) excesses, similar to those in spinel grains in calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions in Allende and other carbonaceous chondrites. The existence of 16O-enriched olivine-rich inclusions suggests that oxygen isotopic anomalies were more extensive in the early solar system than was previously thought and that their origin may be attributed to a nebular chemical process rather than to an unidentified 16O-rich carrier of presolar origin. PMID:9933162

  8. 2-D numerical simulations of groundwater flow, heat transfer and 4He transport — implications for the He terrestrial budget and the mantle helium heat imbalance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Maria Clara; Patriarche, Delphine; Goblet, Patrick

    2005-09-01

    Because helium and heat production results from a common source, a continental 4He crustal flux of 4.65 * 10 - 14 mol m - 2 s - 1 has been estimated based on heat flow considerations. In addition, because the observed mantle He / heat flux ratio at the proximity of mid-ocean ridges (6.6 * 10 - 14 mol J - 1 ) is significantly lower than the radiogenic production ratio (1.5 * 10 - 12 mol J - 1 ), the presence of a terrestrial helium-heat imbalance was suggested. The latter could be explained by the presence of a layered mantle in which removal of He is impeded from the lower mantle [R.K. O'Nions, E.R. Oxburgh, Heat and helium in the Earth, Nature 306 (1983) 429-431; E.R. Oxburgh, R.K. O'Nions, Helium loss, tectonics, and the terrestrial heat budget, Science 237 (1987) 1583-1588]. van Keken et al. [P.E. van Keken, C.J. Ballentine, D. Porcelli, A dynamical investigation of the heat and helium imbalance, Earth Planet, Sci. Lett. 188 (2001) 421-434] have recently claimed that the helium-heat imbalance remains a robust observation. Such conclusions, however, were reached under the assumption that a steady-state regime was in place for both tracers and that their transport properties are similar at least in the upper portion of the crust. Here, through 2-D simulations of groundwater flow, heat transfer and 4He transport carried out simultaneously in the Carrizo aquifer and surrounding formations in southwest Texas, we assess the legitimacy of earlier assumptions. Specifically, we show that the driving transport mechanisms for He and heat are of a fundamentally different nature for a high range of permeabilities ( k ≤ 10 - 16 m 2) found in metamorphic and volcanic rocks at all depths in the crust. The assumption that transport properties for these two tracers are similar in the crust is thus unsound. We also show that total 4He / heat flux ratios lower than radiogenic production ratios do not reflect a He deficit in the crust or mantle original reservoir. Instead, they

  9. 20,22Ne-E(H) and 4He Measured in Single Interstellar SiC Grains of Known C-Isotopic Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, R. H., Jr.; Amari, S.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Hoppe, P.; Lewis, R. S.

    1993-07-01

    We have analyzed 61 individual interstellar SiC grains (Murchison KJH, ~4.6- micrometer nominal diameter) first by ion microprobe to determine C- and N- isotopic compositions and then by laser-gasas-extraction to determine He and Ne compositions. This work complements our initial investigation of the ^4He, ^22Ne, and C compositions in a suite of 92 individual SiC grains from the Murchison KJG SiC fraction (~3 micrometers) [1,2]. Three grains in the present suite carried ^4He and ^22Ne-E(H) above detection limits (Table 1). The results presented here support our initial conclusions [1,2]: (1) only a small fraction (~5%) of the SiC grains is gas-rich and contains essentially all the Ne-E measured in the bulk residues and (2) ^4He accompanies ^22Ne-E(H) in each gas-rich grain and vice versa. The gas-poor grains were either degassed or were not exposed to the stellar source(s) that produced Ne-E(H). One extremely gas-rich grain in the present suite (7611, estimated ^4He and ^22Ne concentrations of 2.0 and 0.02 ccSTP/g respectively) contained sufficient 20Ne to establish a precise value for the (^20Ne/^22Ne)E(H) ratio (0.09 +/- 0.02). This ratio is consistent both with the bulk KJH measurements [3,4] and those expected from AGB (asymptotic giant branch) star He-burning shells [5], leaving little or no room in the grain for an additional complement of envelope-derived gases. The ^4He/^22Ne ratio in grain 7611 is also consistent with an AGB star He-shell composition [5]. The elevated ^4He/^22Ne ratios in the other two gas-rich grains indicate that these grains contain a larger complement of envelope-derived gases. Spallation-derived gases are not detectable in the individual grains; however, the upper limit to the (^21Ne/^22Ne)E(H) ratio (<7 x 10^-4) in grain 7611 suggests that the Ne-E-rich grains alone may not contain most (>90%) of the spallation-derived gases measured in the bulk residues. This would imply that the 3.4-Ga interstellar cosmic ray exposure age of the

  10. Possible mechanisms of fragmentation of {sup 16}O nuclei with a momentum of 4.5 GeV/c per nucleon in track emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Kotikov, E. A.

    2013-06-15

    The angular distributions of doubly charged fragments of {sup 16}O nuclei having a momentum of 4.5 GeV/c per nucleon and interacting with track-emulsion nuclei were studied. The experimental angular distributions of doubly charged fragments of a {sup 16}O nucleus are not described by the statistical model of the fragmentation of nuclei. The possible channels of fragmentation of {sup 16}O nuclei may include {sup 16}O {yields} 2{sup 8}Be {yields} 4{alpha}, {sup 16}O {yields} {sup 8}Be +{sup 8} Be* {yields} 4{alpha}, {sup 16}O {yields} 2{sup 8}Be* {yields} 4{alpha}, {sup 16}O {yields} {alpha}+{sup 12}C, {sup 16}O {yields} {alpha} +{sup 12}C* {yields} {alpha} + 3{alpha}, {sup 16}O {yields} {alpha} +{sup 12}C* {yields} {alpha} + p{alpha}{sup 7}Li, {sup 16}O {yields} {alpha} +{sup 12}C* {yields} {alpha} + 2{sup 6}Li, {sup 16}O {yields} {alpha} +{sup 12}C* {yields} {alpha} + pt2{alpha}, {sup 16}O {yields} Li + B, and {sup 16}O {yields} Li* + B*.

  11. Proton rapidity distributions from 60 GeV/n sup 16 O + Au collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Tonse, S.

    1990-05-01

    An analysis of the proton rapidity distribution in central {sup 16} O + Au collisions at 60 GeV/n measured in the NA35 streamer chamber detector at the CERN SPS is presented. The charge excess of positive particles over negative particles was measured. The rapidity distribution of the charge excess which can be associated with the primordial protons in the collision is studies in terms of the nuclear stopping power and is compared to the predictions of various models. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Proton rapidity distributions from 60 GeV/n sup 16 O+Au collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Baechler, J.; Hoffman, M.; Runge, K.; Schmoetten, E. . Fakultaet fuer Physik); Bartke, J.; Gladysz, E. ); Bialkowska, H. ); Bock, R.; Brockmann, R.; Guerra, C.; Humanic, T.; Sandoval, A. ); Buncic, P.; Ljubicic, A.

    1990-05-01

    An analysis of the proton rapidity distribution in central {sup 16}O+Au collisions at 60 GeV/n measured in the NA35 streamer chamber detector at the CERN SPS is presented. The charge excess of positive particles over negative particles was measured. The rapidity distribution of the charge excess which can be associated with the primordial protons in the collision is studied in terms of the nuclear stopping power and is compared to the predictions of various models. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Elastic and inelastic scattering of /sup 16/O by /sup 26/Mg

    SciTech Connect

    Rotberg, V.H.; Mittig, W.

    1980-10-01

    Angular distributions and excitation functions for the elastic and inelastic (2/sup +/,1.81 MeV) scattering of /sup 16/O ions by /sup 26/Mg have been measured in the energy range from 22 up to 50 MeV. The data were analyzed in the coupled channel scheme with different potentials. The inelastic scattering data are found to be important to distinguish between optical model parameter sets. The deformation parameter delta/sub n/=..beta../sub n/R is extracted and found to be potential dependent. It is compared to the Coulomb deformation delta/sub C/.

  14. Covariance of Neutron Cross Sections for {sup 16}O through R-matrix Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kunieda, S.; Kawano, T.; Paris, M.; Hale, G.M.; Shibata, K.; Fukahori, T.

    2015-01-15

    Through the R-matrix analysis, neutron cross sections as well as the covariance are estimated for {sup 16}O in the resolved resonance range. Although we consider the current results are still preliminary, we present the summary of the cross section analysis and the results of data uncertainty/covariance, including those for the differential cross sections. It is found that the values obtained highlight consequences of nature in the theory as well as knowledge from measurements, which gives a realistic quantification of evaluated nuclear data covariances.

  15. Incomplete fusion reactions in 16O+159Tb system: Spin distribution measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Vijay R.; Yadav, Abhishek; Singh, Devendra P.; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Gupta, Sunita; Sharma, Manoj K.; Bala, Indu; Kumar, R.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P.; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R.; Bhowmik, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    In order to explore the reaction modes on the basis of their entry state spin population, an experiment has been done by employing particle-γ coincidence technique carried out at the Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi. The preliminary analysis conclusively demonstrates, spin distribution for some reaction products populated via complete and/or incomplete fusion of 16O with 159Tb system found to be distinctly different. Further, the existence of incomplete fusion at low bombarding energies indicates the possibility to populate high spin states.

  16. Uptake of /sup 3/H-choline and synthesis of /sup 3/H-acetylcholine by human penile corpus cavernosum

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco, R.; Saenz de Tejada, I.; Azadzoi, K.; Goldstein, I.; Krane, R.J.; Wotiz, H.H.; Cohen, R.A.

    1986-03-05

    The neuroeffectors which relax penile smooth muscle and lead to erection are unknown; physiological studies of human corpus cavernosum, in vitro, have suggested a significant role of cholinergic neurotransmission. To further characterize the importance of cholinergic nerves, biopsies of human corpus cavernosum were obtained at the time of penile prosthesis implantation. Tissues were incubated in /sup 3/H-choline (10/sup -5/M, 80 Ci/mmol) in oxygenated physiological salt solution at 37/sup 0/C, pH 7.4 for 1 hour. Radiolabelled compounds were extracted with perchloric acid (0.4 M) and acetylcholine and choline were separated by HPLC; /sup 14/C-acetylcholine was used as internal standard. /sup 3/H-choline was accumulated by the tissues (20 +/- 1.9 fmol/mg), and /sup 3/H-acetylcholine was synthesized (4.0 +/- 1.1 fmol/mg). In control experiments, heating of the tissue blocked synthesis of /sup 3/H-acetylcholine. Inhibition of high affinity choline transport by hemicholinium-3 (10/sup -5/M) diminished tissue accumulation of /sup 3/H-choline and significantly reduced the synthesis of /sup 3/H-acetylcholine (0.5 +/ 0.2 fmol/mg, p < 0.05). These results provide direct evidence of neuronal accumulation of choline and enzymatic conversion to acetylcholine in human corpus cavernosum. Taken together with the physiological studies, it can be concluded that cholinergic neurotransmission in human corpus cavernosum plays a role in penile erection.

  17. Measurement of the 2H(d ,p ) 3H reaction at astrophysical energies via the Trojan-horse method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chengbo; Wen, Qungang; Fu, Yuanyong; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Shuhua; Meng, Qiuying; Spitaleri, C.; Tumino, A.; Pizzone, R. G.; Lamia, L.

    2015-08-01

    The study of the 2H(d ,p ) 3H reaction is very important for the nucleosynthesis in both the standard Big Bang and stellar evolution, as well as for the future fusion reactor's planning of energy production. The 2H(d ,p ) 3H bare nucleus astrophysical S (E ) factor has been measured indirectly at energies from about 400 keV down to several keV by means of the Trojan-horse method applied to the quasifree process 2H(6Li ,p t ) 4He induced at a lithium beam energy of 9.5 MeV, which is closer to the zero-quasifree-energy point. An accurate analysis leads to the determination of the Sbare(0 ) =56.7 ±2.0 keV b and of the corresponding electron screening potential Ue=13.2 ±4.3 eV. In addition, this work gives an updated test for the Trojan-horse nucleus invariance by comparing with previous indirect investigations using the 3He=(d +p ) breakup.

  18. Pharmacological studies on quaternized 4(3H)-quinazolinones.

    PubMed

    Buyuktimkin, S; Ekinci, A C; Buyuktimkin, N; Otuk, G

    1992-11-01

    Locomotor activity-inhibiting, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant, analgesic, and antimicrobial properties of 2-methyl-3-pyridinium-acetylamino-4(3H)-quinazolinone chloride (1), 2-methyl-3-(4-methylpyridinium)acetylamino-4(3H)-quinazolinone chloride (2), 2-methyl-3-(4-ethylpyridinium)acetylamino-4(3H)-quinazolinone chloride (3), 2-methyl-3-(3-carboxamidopyridinium)acetylamino-4(3H)-quinazolinon e chloride (4), and 2-methyl-3-(4-carboxamidopyridinium)-acetylamino-4(3H)- quinazolinone chloride (5) were investigated. The locomotor activity-inhibiting properties and anticonvulsant activity of 2 were almost equal to those of methaqualone. The analgesic activities of 2 and 3 in the hot-plate test were equal to that of aspirin, whereas in the Koster test, the analgesic activity of 2 was higher. The compounds did not exhibit antimicrobial or muscle relaxant properties. Most active compounds had higher lipophilicity values than those of inactive compounds. PMID:1447711

  19. CO Self-Shielding as a Mechanism to Make 16O-Enriched Solids in the Solar Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuth, Joseph A., III; Johnson, Natasha M.; Hill, Hugh G. M.

    2014-05-01

    Photochemical self-shielding of CO has been proposed as a mechanism to produce solids observed in the modern, 16O-depleted solar system. This is distinct from the relatively 16O-enriched composition of the solar nebula, as demonstrated by the oxygen isotopic composition of the contemporary sun. While supporting the idea that self-shielding can produce local enhancements in 16O-depleted solids, we argue that complementary enhancements of 16O-enriched solids can also be produced via C16O-based, Fischer-Tropsch type (FTT) catalytic processes that could produce much of the carbonaceous feedstock incorporated into accreting planetesimals. Local enhancements could explain observed 16O enrichment in calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs), such as those from the meteorite, Isheyevo (CH/CHb), as well as in chondrules from the meteorite, Acfer 214 (CH3). CO self-shielding results in an overall increase in the 17O and 18O content of nebular solids only to the extent that there is a net loss of C16O from the solar nebula. In contrast, if C16O reacts in the nebula to produce organics and water then the net effect of the self-shielding process will be negligible for the average oxygen isotopic content of nebular solids and other mechanisms must be sought to produce the observed dichotomy between oxygen in the Sun and that in meteorites and the terrestrial planets. This illustrates that the formation and metamorphism of rocks and organics need to be considered in tandem rather than as isolated reaction networks.

  20. Reactivity impact of {sup 16}O thermal elastic-scattering nuclear data for some numerical and critical benchmark systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kozier, K. S.; Roubtsov, D.; Plompen, A. J. M.; Kopecky, S.

    2012-07-01

    The thermal neutron-elastic-scattering cross-section data for {sup 16}O used in various modern evaluated-nuclear-data libraries were reviewed and found to be generally too high compared with the best available experimental measurements. Some of the proposed revisions to the ENDF/B-VII.0 {sup 16}O data library and recent results from the TENDL system increase this discrepancy further. The reactivity impact of revising the {sup 16}O data downward to be consistent with the best measurements was tested using the JENDL-3.3 {sup 16}O cross-section values and was found to be very small in MCNP5 simulations of the UO{sub 2} and reactor-recycle MOX-fuel cases of the ANS Doppler-defect numerical benchmark. However, large reactivity differences of up to about 14 mk (1400 pcm) were observed using {sup 16}O data files from several evaluated-nuclear-data libraries in MCNP5 simulations of the Los Alamos National Laboratory HEU heavy-water solution thermal critical experiments, which were performed in the 1950's. The latter result suggests that new measurements using HEU in a heavy-water-moderated critical facility, such as the ZED-2 zero-power reactor at the Chalk River Laboratories, might help to resolve the discrepancy between the {sup 16}O thermal elastic-scattering cross-section values and thereby reduce or better define its uncertainty, although additional assessment work would be needed to confirm this. (authors)

  1. A study of the {sup 16}O (e, e'p) reaction at deep missing energies

    SciTech Connect

    Nilanga Liyanage

    1999-02-01

    The {sup 16}O(e,e'p) reaction was studied in the first physics experiment performed at Jefferson lab Hall A. In the quasielastic region cross sections were measured for both quasi parallel and perpendicular kinematics at q = 1000 MeV and {omega} = 445 MeV. From the data acquired in quasi parallel kinematics longitudinal and transverse response functions R{sub L} and R{sub T} were separated for E{sub miss} < 60 MeV. The perpendicular kinematics data were used to extract R{sub LT}, R{sub T}, and R{sub L } + V{sub TT}/V{sub L}R{sub TT} response functions for the same E{sub miss} range and for P{sub miss} < 310 MeV c. The {sub 16}O( e, e'p) cross section was measured in the dip region at q = 1026 MeV and {omega} = 586 MeV for 10 MeV < E{sub miss} < 320 MeV. This thesis presents the results for the missing energy continuum ( E{sub miss}>25 MeV) from this experiment.

  2. Acute Effects of Exposure to (56)Fe and (16)O Particles on Learning and Memory.

    PubMed

    Rabin, Bernard M; Poulose, Shibu M; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty L; Ramirez, Francisco; Bielinski, Donna F; Heroux, Nicholas; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2015-08-01

    Although it has been shown that exposure to HZE particles disrupts cognitive performance when tested 2-4 weeks after irradiation, it has not been determined whether exposure to HZE particles acutely affects cognitive performance, i.e., within 4-48 h after exposure. The current experiments were designed to determine the acute effects of exposure to HZE particles ((16)O and (56)Fe) on cognitive performance and whether exposure to HZE particles affected learning or memory, as well as to understand the relationship between acute changes in the levels of NOX2 (a measure of oxidative stress) and COX2 (a measure of neuroinflammation) in specific brain regions and cognitive performance. The results of these studies indicate that the acute effects of radiation exposure on cognitive performance are on memory, not learning. Further, the acute effects of exposure to HZE particles on oxidative stress and neuroinflammation and their relationship to cognitive performance indicate that, although the effects of exposure to both (56)Fe and (16)O are widespread, only changes in specific regions of the brain may be related to changes in cognitive function. PMID:26207687

  3. H2 16O line list for the study of atmospheres of Venus and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrentieva, N. N.; Voronin, B. A.; Fedorova, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    IR spectroscopy is an important method of remote measurement of H2 16O content in planetary atmospheres with initial spectroscopic information from the HITRAN, GEISA, etc., databases adapted for studies in the Earth's atmosphere. Unlike the Earth, the atmospheres of Mars and Venus mainly consist of carbon dioxide with a CO2 content of about 95%. In this paper, the line list of H2 16O is obtained on the basis of the BT2 line list (R.J. Barber, J. Tennyson, G.J. Harris, et al., Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 368, 1087 (2006)). The BT2 line list containing information on the centers, intensities, and quantum identification of lines is supplemented with the line contour parameters: the self-broadening and carbon dioxide broadening coefficients and the temperature dependence coefficient at 296 K in the range of 0.001-30000 cm-1. Transitions with intensity values 10-30, 10-32, and 10-35 cm/molecule, the total number of which is 323310, 753529, and 2011072, respectively, were chosen from the BT2 line list.

  4. Ab initio many-body calculations of nucleon scattering on ^16O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navratil, Petr; Quaglioni, Sofia; Roth, Robert

    2008-10-01

    We develop a new ab initio many-body approachootnotetextS. Quaglioni and P. Navratil, arXiv:0804.1560. capable of describing simultaneously both bound and scattering states in light nuclei, by combining the resonating-group methodootnotetextY. C. Tang et al., Phys. Rep. 47, 167 (1978); K. Langanke and H. Friedrich, Advances in Nuclear Physics, Plenum, New York, 1987. with the ab initio no-core shell model (NCSM).ootnotetextP. Navratil, J. P. Vary, and B. R. Barrett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5728 (2000); Phys. Rev. C 62, 054311 (2000). In this way, we complement a microscopic-cluster technique with the use of realistic interactions, and a microscopic and consistent description of the nucleon clusters, while preserving Pauli principle and translational symmetry. We will present results for low-energy nucleon scattering on ^16O and for A=17 bound states obtained using realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials. The ^16O wave functions are calculated within the importance-truncated NCSMootnotetextR. Roth and P. Navratil, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 092501 (2007). that allows the use of model spaces up to 18φ and ultimately enables to reach convergence of phase-shifts and other observables. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Support from the U.S. DOE/SC/NP (Work Proposal No. SCW0498), and from the U. S. Department of Energy Grant DE-FC02-07ER41457 is acknowledged.

  5. Rotational cooling efficiency upon molecular ionization: the case of Li{_2(a^3Σ_u^+)} and Li{_2^+(X^2Σ_g^+)} interacting with ^4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wernli, M.; Bodo, E.; Gianturco, F. A.

    2007-11-01

    The low-temperature (up to about 100 K) collisional (de)excitation cross sections are computed using the full coupled-channel (CC) quantum dynamics for both Li2 and Li2+ molecular targets in collision with ^4He. The interaction forces are obtained from fairly accurate ab initio calculations and the corresponding pseudo-rates are also computed. The results show surprising similarities between sizes of inelastic flux distributions within final states in both systems and the findings are connected with the structural change in the molecular rotor features when the neutral species is replaced by its ionic counterpart.

  6. Experimental search for the radiative capture reaction d + d {yields} {sup 4}He + {gamma} from the dd{mu} muonic molecule state J = 1

    SciTech Connect

    Baluev, V. V.; Bogdanova, L. N.; Bom, V. R.; Demin, D. L.; Eijk, C. W. E. van; Filchenkov, V. V.; Grafov, N. N.; Grishechkin, S. K.; Gritsaj, K. I.; Konin, A. D.; Mikhailyukov, K. L.; Rudenko, A. I.; Vinogradov, Yu. I.; Volnykh, V. P.; Yukhimchuk, A. A.; Yukhimchuk, S. A.

    2011-07-15

    A search for the muon-catalyzed fusion reaction d + d {yields} {sup 4}He + {gamma} in the dd{mu} muonic molecule was performed using the experimental installation TRITON with BGO detectors for {gamma}-quanta. A high-pressure target filled with deuterium was exposed to the negative muon beam of the JINR Phasotron to detect {gamma}-quanta with the energy 23.8 MeV. An experimental estimation for the yield of radiative deuteron capture from the dd{mu} state J = 1 was obtained at the level of {eta}{sub {gamma}} {<=} 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} per fusion.

  7. Experimental search for the radiative capture reaction d + d → 4He + γ from the ddμ muonic molecule state J = 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baluev, V. V.; Bogdanova, L. N.; Bom, V. R.; Demin, D. L.; van Eijk, C. W. E.; Filchenkov, V. V.; Grafov, N. N.; Grishechkin, S. K.; Gritsaj, K. I.; Konin, A. D.; Mikhailyukov, K. L.; Rudenko, A. I.; Vinogradov, Yu. I.; Volnykh, V. P.; Yukhimchuk, A. A.; Yukhimchuk, S. A.

    2011-07-01

    A search for the muon-catalyzed fusion reaction d + d → 4He + γ in the ddμ muonic molecule was performed using the experimental installation TRITON with BGO detectors for γ-quanta. A high-pressure target filled with deuterium was exposed to the negative muon beam of the JINR Phasotron to detect γ-quanta with the energy 23.8 MeV. An experimental estimation for the yield of radiative deuteron capture from the ddμ state J = 1 was obtained at the level of η γ ≤ 8 × 10-7 per fusion.

  8. Asthenosphere–lithosphere interactions in Western Saudi Arabia: Inferences from 3He/4He in xenoliths and lava flows from Harrat Hutaymah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konrad, Kevin;; Graham, David W; Thornber, Carl; Duncan, Robert A; Kent, Adam J.R.; Al-Amri, Abdulla

    2016-01-01

    Elevated 3He/4He in the western harrats has been observed only at Rahat (up to 11.8 RA; Murcia et al., 2013), a volcanic field situated above thinned lithosphere beneath the Makkah-Medinah-Nafud volcanic lineament. Previous work established that spinel lherzolites at Hutaymah are sourced near the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), while other xenolith types there are derived from shallower depths within the lithosphere itself (Thornber, 1992). Helium isotopes are consistent with melts originating near the LAB beneath many of the Arabian harrats, and any magma derived from the Afar mantle plume currently appears to be of minor importance.

  9. Simulation of 3He(d,p) 4He reaction and recent results of the experimental investigation of dp breakup reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janek, M.; Kurilkin, P. K.; Tarjanyiova, G.; Ladygin, V. P.; Gurchin, Yu V.; Isupov, A. Yu; Karachuk, J.-T.; Khrenov, A. N.; Kurilkin, A. K.; Livanov, A. N.; Martinska, G.; Piyadin, S. M.; Reznikov, S. G.; Merts, S. P.; Batyuk, P. N.; Terekhin, A. A.; Vnukov, I. E.

    2016-02-01

    The feasibility study for the measurements of the polarization observables in the 3He(d,p) 4He reaction for DSS project using a part of the BM@N setup have been performed. Deuteron beam with energy of 1.5 GeV, magnet, 12 stations GEM tracker and TOF wall were used in simulations in order to obtain momentum resolution and to prove the separation of the secondary protons and deuterons. Summarized results of the dp breakup reactions with detection of two protons in coincidence for some kinematic configurations at energies from 300 to 500 MeV obtained in Nuclotron are presented.

  10. R-matrix description of particle energy spectra produced by low-energy 3H + 3H reactions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Brune, C. R.; Caggiano, J. A.; Sayre, D. B.; Bacher, A. D.; Hale, G. M.; Paris, M. W.

    2015-07-20

    An R-matrix model for three-body final states is presented and applied to a recent measurement of the neutron energy spectrum from the 3H + 3H→ 2n + α reaction. The calculation includes the n alpha and n n interactions in the final state, angular momentum conservation, antisymmetrization, and the interference between different channels. A good fit to the measured spectrum is obtained, where clear evidence for the 5He ground state is observed. The model is also used to predict the alpha-particle spectrum from 3H + 3H as well as particle spectra from 3He + 3He. The R-matrix approach presented heremore » is very general, and can be adapted to a wide variety of problems with three-body final states.« less

  11. Suprathermal ions 3He, 4He, C, O, Fe in solar wind particle fluxes at 1 AU in solar cycles 23 and 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kecskemety, Karoly; Logachev, Yurii; Zeldovich, Mariya; Bucik, Radoslav

    The energy spectra and relative abundances of 0.04-1 MeV/nucl 3He, 4He, C, O, Fe ions were investigated using ACE/ULEIS data at 1 AU in suprathermal particle fluxes, which previously we showed to be the high energy tail of solar wind spectrum during quiet-time periods in 2006-2012. High variability with solar activity was observed in the Fe/O ratio whereas C/O and 3He/4He only modestly changed. During the period studied the energy spectra of all ions changed in the course of the solar cycle and depended on solar wind speed. The differences of suprathermal Fe/O values between solar activity minimum and maximum were found to correlate with the differences in Fe/O in the bulk solar wind. Owing to the unique prolonged solar activity minimum in 2007-2009 it became possible to obtain spectra of suprathermal tail ions in the slow and fast speed solar wind fluxes from near equatorial coronal holes. The parameters of these spectra demonstrate a clear dependence on solar wind speed. The values of relative ion abundances exhibited dependence on suprathermal ion energy and on solar wind speed as well. The ACE results are compared to SIT observations aboard STEREO during the 2007-2009 minimum.

  12. Search for the Enhancement of the Thermal Expansion Coefficient of Superfluid ^4He near T_λ by a Heat Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuanming; Israelsson, Ulf E.; Larson, Melora

    2001-03-01

    The superfluid transition in ^4He in the presence of a heat current (Q) provides an ideal system for the study of phase transitions under non-equilibrium, dynamical conditions. Many physical properties become nonlinear and Q-dependent near the transition temperature, T_ λ. For instance, the heat capacity enhancement by a heat current was predicted theoretically(R. Haussmann and V. Dohm, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72), 3060 (1994); T.C.P. Chui phet al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1793 (1996)., and observed experimentally(A.W. Harter phet al)., Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2195 (2000).. Because the thermal expansion coefficient is a linear function of the specific heat near T_ λ, both exhibit similar critical behaviors under equilibrium conditions. An enhancement of the thermal expansion coefficient is also expected if a similar relationship exists under non-equilibrium conditions. We report our experimental search of the enhancement of the thermal expansion of superfluid ^4He by a heat current (0 <= Q <= 100 μW/cm^2). We conducted the measurements in a thermal conductivity cell at sample pressures of SVP and 21.2 bar. The measurements were also performed in a reduced gravity environment of 0.01g provided by the low-gravity simulator we have developed at JPL.

  13. Solar-flare implanted He-4/He-3 and solar-proton-produced NE and AR concentration profiles preserved in lunar rock 61016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, M. N.; Garrison, D. H.; Bogard, D. D.; Reedy, R. C.

    1993-05-01

    Depth profiles for Ne-21, Ne-22, and Ar-38 isotopes from oriented lunar rock 61016 are reported. Concentration profiles of cosmogenic GCR+SCR (Galactic cosmic ray and solar cosmic ray-produced) isotopes are determined, quantitatively resolving neon and argon produced by energetic solar flares from that produced by Galactic cosmic rays. The SCR component is resolved from the GCR component as a function of shielding, and excellent agreement is found between experimental SCR production profiles for the isotopes and theoretically calculated values. A characteristic SW He-4/He-3 ratio of 3450 +/- 81, representing energies down to as few keV/amu. In slightly deeper samples an SRF He-4/He-3 ratio of 3450 +/- 725 is found for He particles with E larger than about 1 MeV/amu. These results indicate that the isotopic composition of SF He, averaged over the long term, is energy-dependent. An implanted Ne-20/Ne-22 ratio of 12.4 is measured in unetched samples, representing E greater than 1 MeV/amu, and a ratio of 11.6 is inferred in the samples, representing E larger than about 5 MeV/amu.

  14. Comparison of the Effectiveness of Exposure to Low-LET Helium Particles ((4)He) and Gamma Rays ((137)Cs) on the Disruption of Cognitive Performance.

    PubMed

    Rabin, Bernard M; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty L; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the effects of radiation exposure on cognitive performance were evaluated. Rats were exposed to either helium ((4)He) particles (1,000 MeV/n; 0.1-10 cGy; head only) or cesium (137)Cs gamma rays (50-400 cGy; whole body), after which their cognitive performance was evaluated. The results indicated that exposure to doses of (4)He particles as low as 0.1 cGy disrupted performance in a variety of cognitive tasks, including plus-maze performance (baseline anxiety), novel location recognition (spatial performance) and operant responding on an ascending fixed-ratio reinforcement schedule (motivation and responsiveness to changes in environmental contingencies) but not on novel object recognition performance (learning and memory). In contrast, after exposure to (137)Cs gamma rays only plus-maze performance was affected. There were no significant effects on any other task. Because exposure to both types of radiation produce oxidative stress, these results indicate that radiation-produced oxidative stress may be a necessary condition for the radiation-induced disruption of cognitive performance, but it is not a sufficient condition. PMID:26284421

  15. Solar-flare implanted He-4/He-3 and solar-proton-produced Ne and Ar concentration profiles preserved in lunar rock 61016

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, M. N.; Garrison, D. H.; Bogard, D. D.; Reedy, R. C.

    1993-01-01

    Depth profiles for Ne-21, Ne-22, and Ar-38 isotopes from oriented lunar rock 61016 are reported. Concentration profiles of cosmogenic GCR+SCR (Galactic cosmic ray and solar cosmic ray-produced) isotopes are determined, quantitatively resolving neon and argon produced by energetic solar flares from that produced by Galactic cosmic rays. The SCR component is resolved from the GCR component as a function of shielding, and excellent agreement is found between experimental SCR production profiles for the isotopes and theoretically calculated values. A characteristic SW He-4/He-3 ratio of 3450 +/- 81, representing energies down to as few keV/amu. In slightly deeper samples an SRF He-4/He-3 ratio of 3450 +/- 725 is found for He particles with E larger than about 1 MeV/amu. These results indicate that the isotopic composition of SF He, averaged over the long term, is energy-dependent. An implanted Ne-20/Ne-22 ratio of 12.4 is measured in unetched samples, representing E greater than 1 MeV/amu, and a ratio of 11.6 is inferred in the samples, representing E larger than about 5 MeV/amu.

  16. Stopping powers of GaAs for 0.3-2.5 MeV 1H and 4He ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajatora, M.; Väkeväinen, K.; Ahlgren, T.; Rauhala, E.; Räisänen, J.; Rakennus, K.

    1996-12-01

    Ion backscattering and foil transmission methods have been used to determine the energy loss of 0.3-2.5 MeV 1H and 4He ions in crystalline bulk GaAs and thin foil GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The self-supporting GaAs sample foil was produced by floating the MBE-grown GaAs film from an {AlAs}/{GaAs} backing by a lift-off process. The stopping powers, corresponding to energy loss of the ions in a nonchanneling direction in the crystal were extracted from the measurements. Ion backscattering and channeling were employed to study the effect of the crystal structure of the thin foil sample on the stopping powers deduced. Deviations from semi-empirical SRIM calculations (version 96.04) were observed in the case of 4He ions for which the stopping powers fall clearly below the calculated values. An average deviation of about 5% is found for the energies studied, from below the stopping power maximum at 0.8 to 2.2 MeV. The results obtained by the two independent experimental methods have been compared and discussed.

  17. Hydrochemistry and 18O/16O and 2H/1H Ratios of Ugandan Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebremichael, M. G.; Jasechko, S.

    2013-12-01

    Today, 70% of the 35 million people living in Uganda have access to an improved water source, ranking Uganda 148 out of 179 nations reporting in 2010 (Millennium Development Goals Indicators). 80% of Ugandans rely on groundwater as their primary drinking water source, collecting at springs or from shallow wells. Similarly, 80% of Ugandans rely upon agriculture - usually rain fed - as their primary income source. Despite lack of access to protected water sources faced by 10 million Ugandans, and the importance of the blue economy to Uganda's continued development, a country-wide investigation of the chemistry and the stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of waters has yet to be completed. Here we present 250 analyses of 18O/16O, 2H/1H and dissolved ion concentrations of Ugandan lakes, rivers, groundwaters and springs collected during July, 2013. We use the new data to characterize regional scale groundwater recharge sources, advection pathways and interactions with surface waters. Large lakes - Albert, Edward and Victoria - show increases in 18O/16O and 2H/1H ratios consistent with open water evaporation, and are shown to be distinct from nearby groundwaters, suggesting minimal recharge from large lakes to the subsurface. Salinities of eastern Ugandan groundwaters are elevated relative to samples collected from the central and western regions, suggesting that longer groundwater residence times and enhanced water-rock interactions characterize these waters. Springs from western Uganda show a shift in 18O/16O to higher values as a result of hydrothermal water-rock exchanges. Dissolved ion and noble gas concentrations show potential for use in assessing geothermal energy resources, perhaps aiding the Ugandan Ministry for Energy, Minerals and Development to meet their goal of increasing renewable energy from 4% (current) to 61% of total use by 2017 (Nyakabwa-Atwoki, 2013). Millennium Development Goals Indicators. mdgs.un.org/unsd/mdg/data.aspx Nyakabwa

  18. Enhancing the branching ratios in the dissociation channels for O{sup 16}O{sup 16}O{sup 18} molecule by designing optimum laser pulses: A study using stochastic optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Talukder, Srijeeta; Chaudhury, Pinaki; Sen, Shrabani; Sharma, Rahul; Adhikari, Satrajit

    2015-10-14

    We propose a strategy of using a stochastic optimization technique, namely, simulated annealing to design optimum laser pulses (both IR and UV) to achieve greater fluxes along the two dissociating channels (O{sup 18} + O{sup 16}O{sup 16} and O{sup 16} + O{sup 16}O{sup 18}) in O{sup 16}O{sup 16}O{sup 18} molecule. We show that the integrated fluxes obtained along the targeted dissociating channel is larger with the optimized pulse than with the unoptimized one. The flux ratios are also more impressive with the optimized pulse than with the unoptimized one. We also look at the evolution contours of the wavefunctions along the two channels with time after the actions of both the IR and UV pulses and compare the profiles for unoptimized (initial) and optimized fields for better understanding the results that we achieve. We also report the pulse parameters obtained as well as the final shapes they take.

  19. Phenomenological and semi-microscopic analysis for 16O and 12C elastically scattering on the nucleus of 16O and 12C at Energies near the Coulomb barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Sh; Burtebayev, N.; Amangeldi, N.; Gridnev, K. A.; Rusek, K.; Kerimkulov, Zh; Maltsev, N.

    2012-09-01

    The nuclear burning process proceeds from the conservation of the most abundant element hydrogen to helium, then from helium to carbon and oxygen, and then from these to heavier elements. Some of the key reactions for the carbon and oxygen burning stages of the nucleosynthesis are 12C+12C and 16O+16O leading to all possible final states. This paper contains the experimental measurements of 12C+12C and 16O+16O angular distributions performed at the cyclotron DC-60 in Astana, Kazakhstan. The extracted beam of 16O and 12C was accelerated up to two energies 1.75 and 1.5 MeV/n and then directed to an Al2O3 target of thickness 20 μg/cm2 and a carbon self-supporting target of thickness 17.4 μg/cm2. The angular distribution calculations were performed using both the phenomenological optical potential (SPI-GENOA) code and the double folding potential (FRESCO) code.

  20. Ab-Initio Coupled-Cluster Study of {sup 16}O

    SciTech Connect

    Wloch, M.; Gour, J.R.; Kowalski, K.; Piecuch, P.; Dean, D.J.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Papenbrock, T.

    2005-06-03

    We report converged results for the ground and excited states and matter density of {sup 16}O using realistic two-body nucleon-nucleon interactions and coupled-cluster methods and algorithms developed in quantum chemistry. Most of the binding is obtained with the coupled-cluster singles and doubles approach. Additional binding due to three-body clusters (triples) is minimal. The coupled-cluster method with singles and doubles provides a good description of the matter density, charge radius, charge form factor, and excited states of a one-particle, one-hole nature, but it cannot describe the first-excited 0{sup +} state. Incorporation of triples has no effect on the latter finding.

  1. The muon capture in {sup 16}O: the angular and polarization correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Karpeshin, F. F.; Isakov, V. I.

    2012-02-15

    Longitudinal polarization of the daughter nuclei {sup 16}N which arises in Micro-Sign {sup -} capture on {sup 16}O as a function of the recoil angle, together with the angular distribution and the alignment of the recoil nucleus are calculated. The neutrinos born escape mainly along the muon spin. The polarization is found to vary from zero (recoil momentum counter to the muon spin direction) up to 50% (along the muon spin direction). The results can be applied to the experimental tests of T conservation, to the analysis of the projects of constructing the powerful mono-energetic neutrino sources, to the experimental study of the pseudo-scalar form factor and the K-electron capture, and to other spin-polarization correlation experiments.

  2. A New Decay Path in the {sup 12}C+{sup 16}O Radiative Capture Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Courtin, S.; Lebhertz, D.; Haas, F.; Beck, C.; Michalon, A.; Salsac, M.-D.; Jenkins, D. G.; Marley, P.; Lister, C. J.

    2009-03-04

    The {sup 12}C({sup 16}O,{gamma}){sup 28}Si radiative capture reaction has been studied at energies close to the Coulomb barrier at Triumf (Vancouver) using the Dragon spectrometer and its associated BGO array. It has been observed that the {gamma} decay flux proceeds mainly via states around 10-11 MeV and via the direct feeding of the {sup 28}Si 3{sub 1}{sup -}(6879 keV) and 4{sub 2}{sup +}(6888 keV) deformed states. A discussion is presented about this selective feeding as well as perspectives for the use of novel detection systems for the study of light heavy-ion radiative capture reactions.

  3. Transverse energy distribution, charged particle multiplicities and spectra in /sup 16/O-nucleus collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Sunier, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    The HELIOS (High Energy Lepton and Ion Spectrometer) experiment, installed at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron, proposes to examine in details the physical properties of a state of high energy created in nuclei by ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. It is generally believed that, at high densities or temperatures, a phase transition to a plasma of quark and gluons will occur. The dynamic of the expansion of such a plasma and its subsequent condensation into a hadron gas should markedly affect the composition and momentum distribution of the emerging particles and photons. The HELIOS experimental setup therefore combines 4..pi.. calorimetric coverage with measurements of inclusive particle spectra, two particle correlations, low and high mass lepton pairs and photons. The emphasis is placed on transverse energy flow (E/sub T/) measurements with good energy resolution, and the ability to trigger the acquisition of data in a variety of E/sub T/ ranges, thereby selecting the impact parameter or the violence of the collisions. This short note presents HELIOS results, for the most part still preliminary, on /sup 16/O-nucleus collisions at the incident energies of 60 and 200 GeV per nucleon. The E/sub T/ distributions from Al, Ag and W targets are discussed and compared to the associated charged particle multiplicities from W. Charged particle and (converted) photon spectra measured with the external magnetic spectrometer are compared for /sup 16/O + W and p + W collisions at 200 GeV per nucleon. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Deformation effects on sub-barrier fusion cross sections in 16O+174,176Yb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajbongshi, Tapan; Kalita, K.; Nath, S.; Gehlot, J.; Banerjee, Tathagata; Mukul, Ish; Dubey, R.; Madhavan, N.; Lin, C. J.; Shamlath, A.; Laveen, P. V.; Shareef, M.; Kumar, Neeraj; Jisha, P.; Sharma, P.

    2016-05-01

    Background: Couplings with various reaction channels are known to enhance sub-barrier fusion cross sections by several orders in magnitude. However, a few open questions still remain. For example, the influence of higher order static deformations on sub-barrier fusion cross sections is yet to be comprehensively understood. Purpose: We study the role of hexadecapole nuclear deformation effect on sub-barrier fusion cross sections. Also, this work aims to extract hexadecapole deformation (β4) in nuclei in the lanthanide region. Method: The evaporation residue (ER) excitation functions for 16O+174,176Yb were measured at laboratory beam energies (Elab) in the range of 64.6-103.6 MeV. Measurements were carried out by employing the recoil mass spectrometer Heavy Ion Reaction Analyzer (HIRA) at IUAC, New Delhi. Fusion barrier distributions (BDs) were extracted from data. Results from the experiment were subjected to coupled-channels analysis, in which β4 was varied as a free parameter. Results: Experimental fusion cross sections at energies below the barrier expectedly showed strong enhancement compared to the predictions from the one-dimensional barrier penetration model. Data were satisfactorily reproduced after inclusion of negative β4 for both the targets in the coupled-channels calculation. Conclusions: The significant role of hexadecapole deformation was observed in the sub-barrier fusion of 16O+174,176Yb. The proposed value of β4 reproduced the measured fusion excitation function reasonably well. The BDs from these data were also extracted but no definitive conclusions could be drawn from them.

  5. Kinetics of the reaction of the heaviest hydrogen atom with H2, the 4Heμ + H2 → 4HeμH + H reaction: experiments, accurate quantal calculations, and variational transition state theory, including kinetic isotope effects for a factor of 36.1 in isotopic mass.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Donald G; Arseneau, Donald J; Sukhorukov, Oleksandr; Brewer, Jess H; Mielke, Steven L; Truhlar, Donald G; Schatz, George C; Garrett, Bruce C; Peterson, Kirk A

    2011-11-14

    The neutral muonic helium atom (4)Heμ, in which one of the electrons of He is replaced by a negative muon, may be effectively regarded as the heaviest isotope of the hydrogen atom, with a mass of 4.115 amu. We report details of the first muon spin rotation (μSR) measurements of the chemical reaction rate constant of (4)Heμ with molecular hydrogen, (4)Heμ + H(2) → (4)HeμH + H, at temperatures of 295.5, 405, and 500 K, as well as a μSR measurement of the hyperfine coupling constant of muonic He at high pressures. The experimental rate constants, k(Heμ), are compared with the predictions of accurate quantum mechanical (QM) dynamics calculations carried out on a well converged Born-Huang (BH) potential energy surface, based on complete configuration interaction calculations and including a Born-Oppenheimer diagonal correction. At the two highest measured temperatures the agreement between the quantum theory and experiment is good to excellent, well within experimental uncertainties that include an estimate of possible systematic error, but at 295.5 K the quantum calculations for k(Heμ) are below the experimental value by 2.1 times the experimental uncertainty estimates. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. Variational transition state theory calculations with multidimensional tunneling have also been carried out for k(Heμ) on the BH surface, and they agree with the accurate QM rate constants to within 30% over a wider temperature range of 200-1000 K. Comparisons between theory and experiment are also presented for the rate constants for both the D + H(2) and Mu + H(2) reactions in a novel study of kinetic isotope effects for the H + H(2) reactions over a factor of 36.1 in isotopic mass of the atomic reactant. PMID:22088068

  6. Use of laser spectroscopy to measure the 13C/12C and 18O/16O compositions of carbonate minerals.

    PubMed

    Barker, Shaun L L; Dipple, Gregory M; Dong, Feng; Baer, Douglas S

    2011-03-15

    The stable carbon and oxygen isotope compositions of carbonate minerals are utilized throughout the earth and environmental sciences for various purposes. Here, we demonstrate the first application of a prototype instrument, based on off-axis integrated cavity output laser spectroscopy, to measure the carbon and oxygen isotope composition of CO(2) gas evolved from the acidification of carbonate minerals. The carbon and oxygen isotope ratios were recorded from absorption spectra of (12)C(16)O(16)O, (13)C(16)O(16)O, and (12)C(16)O(18)O in the near-infrared wavelength region. The instrument was calibrated using CaCO(3) minerals with known δ(13)C(VPDB) and δ(18)O(VSMOW) values, which had been previously calibrated by isotope ratio mass spectrometry relative to the international isotopic standards NBS 18 and NBS 19. Individual analyses are demonstrated to have internal precision (1 SE) of better than 0.15‰ for δ(13)C and 0.6‰ for δ(18)O. Analysis of four carbonate standards of known isotopic composition over 2 months, determined using the original instrumental calibration, indicates that analyses are accurate to better than 0.5‰ for both δ(13)C and δ(18)O without application of standard-sample-standard corrections. PMID:21341717

  7. Preformance Analysis of NH3-H2O Absorption Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimori, Atsushi; Ozaki, Eiichi

    Different from H2O-LiBr absorption cycle, it is necessary to have rectifier between generator and condenser in NH3-H2O absorption cycle, because there mixes some steam in refrigerant vapor in the process of regenerating refrigerant from the ammonia strong aqueous solution. And in some case ex. partial load or heating, the efficiency of rectifier might decrease, if the flow rate of refrigerant vapor and ammonia aqueous solution decrease. As a result, steam flow into condenser with ammonia refrigerant vapor, which reduces cycle COPs of cooling and heating. Accordingly in order to evaluate the effect of ammonia concentration in refrigerant for the performance of NH3-H2O absorption heat pump, the simple design approach of modeling condenser and evaporator is introduced in this paper. In the model, the calculation of heat rate in condenser and evaporator was simplified considering the characteristic of NH3-H2O liquid-vapor equilibrium. Then the simulation for cycle perforance based on GAX absorption cycle was made using the efficiency of rectifier that established the ammonia concentration in refrigerant and it was derived that 3 [%] decrease of ammonia concentration in refrigerant induced 15 [%] decrcase of cooling COP and 7 [%] decrease of heating COP and that there existed the most suitable circulation ratio for each ammonia concentration in refrigerant.

  8. (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine binding to adrenal capsular membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Finkel, M.S.; Aguilera, G.; Catt, K.J.; Keiser, H.R.

    1984-08-20

    The physiologic regulation of aldosterone secretion is dependent on extracellular calcium and appears to be mediated by increases in cytosolic free calcium concentration in the zona glomerulosa cell. A specific role for voltage-dependent calcium channels was suggested by previous studies with the calcium channel antagonist verapamil. The authors therefore studied the (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine calcium channel binding site in adrenal capsules. These studies revealed a single class of saturable, high affinity sites with K/sub D/ = .26 +/- .04 nM and B/sub max/ = 105 +/- 5.7 fmol/mg protein. Specific binding of (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine was inhibited by calcium channel antagonists with potencies nitrendipine = nifedipine >> verapamil, while diltiazem had no inhibitory effect. In the rat, binding sites for (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine were located in the adrenal capsule and medulla and were undetectable in the zona fasciculata. Physiologic studies with collagenase-dispersed adrenal glomerulosa cells demonstrated that nifedipine selectively inhibited angiotensin-II and potassium-stimulated steroidogenesis. These observations suggest both a pharmacologic and physiologic role for the nitrendipine binding site in aldosterone production. 17 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  9. Astronomical identification of the C3H radical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaddeus, P.; Gottlieb, C. A.; Hjalmarson, A.; Johansson, L. E. B.; Irvine, W. M.; Friberg, P.; Linke, R. A.

    1985-07-01

    The C3H radical has been identified in the millimeter-wave spectra of IRC +10216 and TMC-1. In IRC +10216, four rotational transitions have been observed, three in the lower fine-structure ladder (2Pi1/2) and one in the upper (2Pi3/2), each a resolved or partially resolved lambda-doublet. In TMC-1, both lambda components of the lowest lying 3/2-1/2 transition of the 2Pi1/2 ladder have been observed, each with well-resolved hfs. In IRC +10216, the excitation of C3H is similar to that of SiCC: the rotational temperature Trot within the 2Pi1/2 ladder is low (8.5 K), because of rapid radiative decay, while Trot across the ladders is high (about 52 K), because interconnecting far-IR radiative transitions are only weakly permitted. The column density of C3H in IRC +10216 averaged over the estimated source diameter of 84 arcsec is 2.8 x 10 to the 13th/sq cm, an order of magnitude less than that of C2H and C4H.

  10. Experimental and theoretical study for the production of 51Cr using p, d, 3He and 4He projectiles on V, Ti and Cr targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solieman, A. H. M.; Al-Abyad, M.; Ditroi, F.; Saleh, Z. A.

    2016-01-01

    Production of 51Cr (T1/2 = 27.7 d) have been studied experimentally through the reaction of proton and 3He on natV and natTi targets respectively by using a variable energy cyclotrons. Reaction cross sections were obtained at different energies using the stacked-foil technique. High resolution gamma ray spectrometers were used for measuring the γ-ray spectra. Comparison between the present experimental results and the previously reported data has been carried out and discussed. The possibility of producing 51Cr with reasonable yield using different projectiles and different natural targets was studied and reported. Excitation functions for the reactions of proton, deuteron, 3He and 4He particles on natural vanadium, titanium and chromium targets have been evaluated using two theoretical codes TALYS-1.6 and EMPIRE-3.1. The recommended cross-sections and the integral yields as well were obtained.

  11. Vortex Shedding from an Object Moving in Superfluid ^4{He} at mK Temperatures and in a Bose-Einstein Condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoepe, W.

    2016-08-01

    Vortex shedding from a microsphere oscillating in superfluid ^4{He} at mK temperatures is compared with that from a laser beam moving in a Bose-Einstein condensate as observed by other authors. In particular, in either case a linear dependence of the shedding frequency f_v on Δ v = v - v_c is observed, where v is the velocity amplitude of the sphere or the constant velocity of the laser beam above a critical velocity v_c for the onset of turbulent flow: f_v = a Δ v , where the coefficient a is proportional to the oscillation frequency ω above some characteristic frequency ω _k and assumes a finite value for steady motion ω → 0.

  12. Spin-polarized /sup 3/He nuclear targets and metastable /sup 4/He atoms by optical pumping with a tunable, Nd:YAP laser

    SciTech Connect

    Bohler, C.L.; Schearer, L.D.; Leduc, M.; Nacher, P.J.; Zachorowski, L.; Milner, R.G.; McKeown, R.D.; Woodward, C.E.

    1988-04-15

    Several Nd:YAP lasers were constructed which could be broadly tuned in the 1083-nm region which includes the helium 2/sup 3/S-2/sup 3/P transition, using a Lyot filter and thin, uncoated etalons within the laser cavity. 1 W of power could be extracted at 1083 nm through a 1% transmitting output coupler. This laser beam was used to optically pump metastable /sup 4/He and /sup 3/He 2/sup 3/S helium atoms in a weak discharge cell, spin polarizing the metastable ensemble. In a /sup 3/He cell the polarization is transferred to the nuclear spin system. A /sup 3/He target cell at 0.3 Torr was polarized to 52% in a few minutes. We describe the application of this system to the design of polarized targets for experiments in nuclear physics.

  13. Laser-spectroscopy measurement of the fine-structure splitting 2 3P1-2 3P2 of 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, G.-P.; Zheng, X.; Sun, Y. R.; Hu, S.-M.

    2015-03-01

    Laser spectroscopy has been performed on a beam of neutral 4He atoms. By using transverse laser cooling and focusing, we are able to prepare a bright beam of atoms in the metastable state 2 3S1 deflected from the original effusive atomic beam. The initial state preparation is completed with optical pumping on the 2 3P1←2 3S1 transition at the wavelength of 1083 nm, followed by laser spectroscopy on the 2 3P1 ,2←2 3S1 transitions. The 2 3P1-2 3P2 fine-structure splitting is determined to be 2 291 177.69 ±0.36 kHz . The quantum interference effect is included in data extraction. This is the most precise laser spectroscopy measurement of the interval. Our result is in agreement with both the latest QED-based calculation and the most precise measurement conducted with microwave spectroscopy.

  14. Primordial 4He abundance: a determination based on the largest sample of H II regions with a methodology tested on model H II regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izotov, Y. I.; Stasińska, G.; Guseva, N. G.

    2013-10-01

    We verified the validity of the empirical method to derive the 4He abundance used in our previous papers by applying it to CLOUDY (v13.01) models. Using newly published He i emissivities for which we present convenient fits as well as the output CLOUDY case B hydrogen and He i line intensities, we found that the empirical method is able to reproduce the input CLOUDY 4He abundance with an accuracy of better than 1%. The CLOUDY output data also allowed us to derive the non-recombination contribution to the intensities of the strongest Balmer hydrogen Hα, Hβ, Hγ, and Hδ emission lines and the ionisation correction factors for He. With these improvements we used our updated empirical method to derive the 4He abundances and to test corrections for several systematic effects in a sample of 1610 spectra of low-metallicity extragalactic H ii regions, the largest sample used so far. From this sample we extracted a subsample of 111 H ii regions with Hβ equivalent width EW(Hβ) ≥ 150 Å, with excitation parameter x = O2+/O ≥ 0.8, and with helium mass fraction Y derived with an accuracy better than 3%. With this subsample we derived the primordial 4He mass fraction Yp = 0.254 ± 0.003 from linear regression Y - O/H. The derived value of Yp is higher at the 68% confidence level (CL) than that predicted by the standard big bang nucleosynthesis (SBBN) model, possibly implying the existence of different types of neutrino species in addition to the three known types of active neutrinos. Using the most recently derived primordial abundances D/H = (2.60 ± 0.12) × 10-5 and Yp = 0.254 ± 0.003 and the χ2 technique, we found that the best agreement between abundances of these light elements is achieved in a cosmological model with baryon mass density Ωbh2 = 0.0234 ± 0.0019 (68% CL) and an effective number of the neutrino species Neff = 3.51 ± 0.35 (68% CL). Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile, programs 073.B-0283(A), 081.C-0113(A

  15. Determination of the {sup 22}Ne{sub nucl}/{sup 4}He{sub rad} ratio in natural uranium-rich fluorite by mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Sole, Jesus; Pi, Teresa

    2006-10-15

    A determination by noble gas mass spectrometry of {sup 22}Ne production through the combined reactions {sup 19}F({alpha},n){sup 22}Na({beta}{sup +}){sup 22}Ne and {sup 19}F({alpha},p){sup 22}Ne on natural calcium fluoride is made for the first time. Six samples of U-rich fluorite from a fluorspar deposit in Mexico were used to determine the {sup 22}Ne{sub nucl}/{sup 4}He{sub rad} ratio generated by the spontaneous decay of U during the last 32 Ma. The obtained ratio (1.33 {+-} 0.11) x10{sup -5} (95% confidence), is compared to other experimental data on natural uranium oxides and theoretical values.

  16. The halogen (F, Cl, Br, I) and H2O systematics of Samoan lavas: Assimilated-seawater, EM2 and high-3He/4He components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrick, Mark A.; Jackson, Matthew G.; Hauri, Erik H.; Phillips, David

    2015-01-01

    The Samoan mantle plume samples two or more mantle components including an extreme EM2 composition with 87Sr/86Sr > 0.720 and a primitive component with high 3He/4He. The high 87Sr/86Sr melts have a unique potential to constrain the composition of the EM2 mantle end-member that is commonly attributed to subduction recycling. However, a previous study of H2O, CO2, S, F and Cl in Samoan glasses was hampered by the presence of unresolved assimilated sea water. The current study builds on the earlier work by extending the volatile database to include the trace halogens Br and I, and reporting new volatile data for additional glasses with 87Sr/86Sr up to 0.7125 and 3He/4He up to 15 Ra (Ra is the atmospheric 3He/4He ratio of 1.39 ×10-6). The selected glasses with MgO of 4.0 to 6.5 wt.% have CO2 concentrations of 4 to 200 ppm that reflect degassing of CO2 on the seafloor. The glasses contain 0.7-1.9 wt.% H2O, 880-1870 ppm F, 490-1790 ppm Cl, 1.9-7.2 ppm Br, 19-130 ppb I and 0.6-1.7 wt.% K. Correlations between the concentrations of these elements suggest the melts retain H2O concentrations close to pre-degassing values and demonstrate the melts have been variably affected by assimilation of seawater-derived brines. The brines are indicated to have had salinities of 55 ± 15 wt.% salt, F/Cl ratios close to seawater (e.g. <0.0001), Br/Cl ratios ∼ 40% higher than seawater, and I/Cl ratios ten times the seawater value. It is calculated the melts assimilated brine fractions of 0 to 0.45 wt.%, which contributed up to ∼30% of the total H2O and up to ∼70% of the total Cl in the melts. After accounting for the effects of brine assimilation, the Samoan melts are suggested to have a fairly constant magmatic Cl/K of 0.05 ± 0.2, which is lower than the median MORB value. Assimilation-corrected H2O/Ce values are not correlated with 87Sr/86Sr, but the sample with the highest 87Sr/86Sr of 0.7125 has an assimilation-corrected H2O/Ce of 83 ± 3, that is significantly lower than

  17. A non-LTE spectral analysis of the 3He and 4He isotopes in the HgMn star κ Cancri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maza, Natalia L.; Nieva, María-Fernanda; Przybilla, Norbert

    2014-12-01

    Aims: We present a pilot study on non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) line-formation computations for the isotopes 3He and 4He in the mercury-manganese star κ Cancri. The impact of NLTE effects on the determination of isotopic abundances and the vertical stratification of helium in the atmosphere is investigated. Methods: Modern NLTE line-formation computations were employed to analyse a high-resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio ESO-VLT/UVES spectrum of κ Cnc. The atmospheric parameters were determined from fitting the hydrogen Balmer lines and the spectral energy distribution. Multiple He i lines were investigated, including He i λ4921 Å and λ6678 Å, which show the widest isotopic splits. Results: Half of the observed He i lines in the spectrum of κ Cnc show significant NLTE strengthening, the effects are strongest in the red lines He iλ5875 Å and He iλ6678 Å. NLTE abundances from individual He i lines are up to a factor of ~3 lower than LTE values. Helium is found to be stratified in the atmosphere of κ Cnc. While the LTE analysis indicates a step-like profile of the helium abundance, a gradual decrease with height is indicated by the NLTE analysis. A 3He/4He ratio of ~0.25-0.30 is found. With the available data it cannot be decided whether the two isotopes follow the same stratification profile, or not. Conclusions: This work implies that NLTE effects may be ubiquitous in the atmospheres of HgMn stars and may have a significant impact on abundance determinations and the interpretation of the vertical abundance stratification of elements. Based on data products from observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 076.B-0055(A).Figures 3 and 4 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  18. An overview of the 19F(p,α0)16 O reaction with direct methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dell’Aquila, D.; Lombardo, I.

    2016-04-01

    The study of the 19F(p,α)16O reaction at low energy is important both for Nuclear Structure and Astrophysics. Despite of its importance, the S-factor of this reaction is poorly known, especially at astrophysical energies. We present an overview of the 19F(p,α0)16O reaction cross section, as obtained from recent direct measurements and from published works in the literature. We include in the systematic also data from an unpublished work, where several excitation functions and angular distributions for α0 and απ channels are reported.

  19. Interaction of [3H] estradiol - and [3H] monohydroxytamoxifen-estrogen receptor complexes with a monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Tate, A C; DeSombre, E R; Greene, G L; Jensen, E V; Jordan, V C

    1983-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare and contrast the interaction of estrogen [( 3H]17 beta-estradiol)- or antiestrogen [( 3H]monohydroxytamoxifen)-receptor complexes from human breast tumor cytosols with monoclonal antibodies raised to the human breast tumor estrogen receptor. Breast tumor cytosols containing estrogen receptor which sedimented as radiolabeled peaks in either the 8S, 8S and 4S, or 4S regions of sucrose density gradients, interacted with the monoclonal antibody D547 to produce a broad 9-10S peak, a broad 8S-10S peak, or a more discrete 8S peak, respectively. On high salt (0.4M KC1) sucrose density gradients the 4S ligand-receptor complex plus antibody produced a binding peak at approximately the 8S region of the gradient. These sedimentation studies with the monoclonal antibody D547, and similar studies with the monoclonal antibody D58, could detect no differences in the cytosolic estrogen receptor whether complexed with [3H]estradiol or with [3H]monohydroxytamoxifen. These observations were confirmed by Scatchard equilibrium saturation analysis and sucrose density gradient analysis of cytosols from the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line. The antibody D547 interacted with 8S ER from these cytosols to produce a broad 8S-10S peak, but the antibody produced no change in the affinity or number of binding sites present in these cytosols. It seems, therefore, that the antigenic determinants recognized by these particular antibodies on the breast tumor cytosolic receptor are not significantly altered by the binding of either an estrogen or an antiestrogen to the receptor. PMID:6671136

  20. Temporal pattern of incorporation of /sup 3/H precursors into pituitary glycoproteins and their subsequent release

    SciTech Connect

    Grotjan, H.E. Jr.

    1982-04-01

    The temporal pattern of incorporation of various /sup 3/H precursors into glycoproteins by rat anterior pituitaries incubated in vitro and the release of /sup 3/H-glycoproteins was examined. (/sup 3/H)Leucine incorporation was linear with respect to time and (/sup 3/H)leucine-containing macromolecules appeared in the media in about 1 hr. The temporal pattern of (/sup 3/H)mannose incorporation and release was similar. (/sup 3/H)Galactose and (/sup 3/H)fucose were incorporated after apparent time of delays of approximately 15 min and soon thereafter (20-25 min) appeared in the medium in /sup 3/H-glycoproteins. Thus, these precursors appear to be added as terminal residues. (/sup 3/H)Glucosamine exhibited a pattern intermediate between (/sup 3/H)leucine and (/sup 3/H)fucose whereas (/sup 3/H)GlcNAc appeared to be incorporated as a terminal residue.

  1. Asymptotic Normalization Coefficients from the {sup 15}N({sup 3}He,d){sup 16}O Reaction and the Astrophysical Factor for the {sup 15}N(p,{gamma}){sup 16}O Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Burjan, V.; Bem, P.; Hons, Z.; Kroha, V.; Mrazek, J.; Novak, J.; Piskor, S.; Simeckova, E.; Vincour, J.; Cherubini, S.; La Cognata, M.; Pizzone, R. G.; Romano, S.; Spitaleri, C.; Tumino, A.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Plunkett, A.; Trache, L.; Tribble, R. E.

    2008-05-12

    The angular distributions of the {sup 15}N({sup 3}He,d){sup 16}O reaction were measured with the aim to determine the direct capture rate of the astrophysical reaction {sup 15}N(p, {gamma}){sup 16}O by deducing asymptotic normalization coefficients (ANC). The {sup 15}N(p,{gamma}){sup 16}O reaction is a part of the CNO cycle having importance in the nucleosynthesis of the N and O isotopes. The measurement was carried out on the cyclotron U120M of NPI CAS at the energy 25.74 MeV of {sup 3}He ions in a gas chamber containing the high purity {sup 15}N isotope. The preliminary results of corresponding spectroscopic factors and ANC's were used for the estimation of the S-factor for the direct capture {sup 15}N(p,{gamma}){sup 16}O. Using the widths of the resonances E{sub R} = 312 and 962 keV, the total S-factor was determined within the framework of the R-matrix approach.

  2. Proton transfer dynamics in the hydrogen bond. Inelastic neutron scattering, infrared and Raman spectra of Na 3H(SO 4) 2, K 3H(SO 4) 2 and Rb 3H(SO 4) 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillaux, F.; Lautié, A.; Tomkinson, J.; Kearley, G. J.

    1991-06-01

    Na 3H(SO 4) 2, K 3H(SO 4) 2 and Rb 3H(SO 4) 2 crystals are composed of (SO 4HSO 4) -3 dimers linked by rather strong hydrogen bonds ( RO…O=2.43 Å for Na 3H(SO 4) 2, RO…O=2.48 Å for Rb 3H(SO 4) 2 and RO…O=2.49 Å for K 3H(SO 4) 2). Crystallographic data of the salts at room temperature indicate either asymmetric (Na 3H(SO 4) 2) or symmetric (K 3H(SO 4) 2 and Rb 3H(SO 4) 2) hydrogen bonds. Inelastic neutron scattering (INS), infrared and Raman spectra of crystal powders at 20 K are reported for these three compounds. The OH bending modes, which give large INS intensities, appear only weakly in the infrared. The two bending modes are degenerate in Na 3H(SO 4) 2 which has the shortest hydrogen bond but are well separated in K 3H(SO 4) 2 and Rb 3H(SO 4) 2. The OH stretching band profiles in INS are also quite different from those in the infrared. Strong INS bands at 57 and 44 cm -1 for K 3H(SO 4) 2 and Rb 3H(SO 4) 2, respectively, are assigned to 0→1 transitions in quasi-symmetric double-minimum potentials for the OH stretching coordinates. For K 3H(SO 4) 2 the frequency is unaffected by temperature between 2 and 100 K. Potential functions are calculated and the dynamics of the proton transfer are discussed. Infrared spectra are thus dominated by OH stretching transitions in asymmetric double-minimum potentials with low barriers, with relative intensities indicating a large electrical anharmonicity.

  3. Comparative study on pharmacokinetics and in vivo alpha1-adrenoceptor binding of [3H]tamsulosin and [3H]prazosin in rats.

    PubMed

    Ohkura, T; Yamada, S; Deguchi, Y; Kimura, R

    1999-04-01

    The plasma concentration, total radioactivity and in vivo alpha1-adrenoceptor binding in rat tissues after intravenous (i.v.) injection of [3H]tamsulosin were measured and they were compared with those obtained after the injection of [3H]prazosin. The plasma concentration of [3H]tamsulosin was consistently higher than that of [3H]prazosin, with 1.4 times greater areas under the curve (AUC(0-infinity)) of plasma concentration. As there was a significantly lower value of apparent volume of central compartment (Vd(c)) and distribution volume at steady state (Vd(ss)) for [3H]tamsulosin than [3H]prazosin with little difference in elimination rate constant (beta), the higher concentration of [3H]tamsulosin in plasma might be associated mainly with the smaller volume of distribution. The ratio of total radioactivity in tissues to the plasma unbound concentration of [3H]tamsulosin after i.v. injection of the ligand was consistently lower than that of [3H]prazosin. These observations suggest that [3H]tamsulosin is distributed in rat tissues in a more limited manner than [3H]prazosin. A significantly lower level of in vivo specific binding of [3H]tamsulosin than [3H]prazosin was observed in the spleen, heart and liver. Further, the apparent dissociation constant (Kd) and maximal number of binding sites (Bmax) for in vivo specific [3H]tamsulosin binding were considerably lower than those for [3H]prazosin binding. Therefore, these findings suggest that [3H]tamsulosin labels preferentially a subpopulation of the alpha1-adrenoceptor sites in rat tissues labeled by [3H]prazosin. In conclusion, the present study has shown that there is a significant difference in the pharmacokinetics and in vivo alpha1-adrenoceptor binding characteristics between tamsulosin and prazosin. PMID:10328564

  4. Energies of molecular structures in 12C,16O,20Ne,24Mg, and 32S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, G.; Ramasamy, G.; Eudes, P.

    2015-11-01

    The energies of the 12C,16O,20Ne,24Mg, and 32S 4 n nuclei have been determined within a generalized liquid drop model and assuming different planar and three-dimensional shapes of the α molecules: linear chain, triangle, square, tetrahedron, pentagon, trigonal bipyramid, square pyramid, hexagon, octahedron, octagon, and cube. The potential barriers governing the entrance and decay channels via α absorption or emission as well as more symmetric binary and ternary reactions have been compared. The rms radii of the linear chains differ from the experimental rms radii of the ground states. The binding energies of the three-dimensional shapes at the contact point are higher than the ones of the planar configurations. The α particle plus A-4 daughter configuration leads always to the lowest potential barrier. The binding energy can be reproduced within the sum of the binding energy of n α particles plus the number of bonds multiplied by 2.4 MeV or by the sum of the binding energies of one α particle and the daughter nucleus plus the Coulomb energy and the proximity energy.

  5. Fission following complete fusion for {sup 16}O + {sup 232}Th at 140 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Frawley, A.D.

    1995-09-01

    Previously published results of coincidence measurements between incomplete fusion products and fission fragments from the reaction of 140 MeV {sup 16}O with {sup 232}Th have been used to determine the incomplete fusion contributions to the inclusive fission fragment angular distribution. The incomplete fusion contributions have been subtracted from the inclusive angular distribution, leaving the part due to complete fusion. Because the incomplete fusion processes account for 42% of the fission cross section, the maximum angular momentum contributing to complete fusion is reduced to approximately 55{h_bar}. The angular distribution for fission following complete fusion has been compared with calculations made with the saddle point transition state model and with Bond`s scission point model. When proper account is taken of the large reduction in nuclear temperature at the saddle point due to pre-fission neutron evaporation, the saddle point transition state model reproduces the data very well. Proper handling of the incomplete fusion contributions is found to greatly improve the agreement of Bond`s scission point model with the data for this reaction.

  6. Rotational spectroscopy of 2H,3H-perfluoropentane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duong, Chinh H.; Obenchain, Daniel A.; Cooke, S. A.; Novick, Stewart E.

    2016-06-01

    The structure of 2H,3H-perfluoropentane, CF3CHFCHFCF2CF3, has been determine by a combination of Chirp-pulsed Fourier transform microwave (CP-FTMW) spectroscopy and cavity FTMW spectroscopy. Of the four possible stereoisomers, only the enantiomeric pair (R,R)/(S,S) were observed experimentally; there was no spectroscopic evidence for the enantiomeric pair (R,S)/(S,R). The conformeric structure of the (R,R)/(S,S) stereoisomer(s) was that of partial helices with C-C-C-C dihedral angles of 12° (helical) and 1° (staggered).

  7. Empirical infrared line lists for five SO2 isotopologues: 32/33/34/36S16O2 and 32S18O2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xinchuan; Schwenke, David W.; Lee, Timothy J.

    2015-05-01

    Using the latest published, empirically refined potential energy surface (PES) Ames-1 and purely ab initio CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pV(Q+d)Z dipole moment surface (DMS), we have computed infrared line lists for five symmetric isotopologues of sulfur dioxide: 32S16O2 (626), 33S16O2 (636), 34S16O2 (646), 36S16O2 (666), and 32S18O2 (828). The line lists are based on J = 0-80 rovibrational variational calculations with E‧ ⩽ 8000 cm-1. The 34S16O2 and 33S16O2 line lists are compared to the experiment-based models in the HIgh-resolution TRANsmission molecular absorption database (HITRAN2012,

  8. Comment on 'Low-energy cross sections in the {sup 12}C({alpha},{gamma}){sup 16}O reaction'

    SciTech Connect

    Descouvemont, P.; Dufour, M.

    2010-02-15

    We show that the E1 and E2 S factors recommended by Katsuma [Phys. Rev. C 78, 034606 (2008)] do not include well-known constraints and that the model is inappropriate for the {sup 12}C({alpha},{gamma}){sup 16}O reaction.

  9. The use of 18O/ 16O ratios to study the formation and chemical origin of coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, John; Wilson, A. T.

    1983-08-01

    The 18O /16O ratios of some New Zealand peat, lignite and coal samples were measured and compared with those of various coal precursors (cellulose, lignin and plant resins). The results showed that the major source of oxygen in all cases (except that of high rank coal) was from cellulose with the contribution from lignin and plant resins being insignificant.

  10. R-Matrix Evaluation of {sup 16}O neutron cross sections up to 6.3 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Sayer, R.O.; Leal, L.C.; Larson, N.M.; Spencer, R.R.; and Wright, R.Q.

    2000-08-01

    In this paper the authors describe an evaluation of {sup 16}O neutron cross sections in the resolved resonance region with the multilevel Reich-Moore R-matrix formalism. Resonance analyses were performed with the computer code SAMMY [LA98] which utilizes Bayes' method, a generalized least squares technique.

  11. Detailed study for 16O → 12C + α and 12C → 11B + p spectroscopic factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Sh.; Burtebayev, N.; Amangeldi, N.

    2014-10-01

    We have measured the angular distributions for 16O elastically scattered on 12C nuclei at energy 28 MeV and also for 12C ion beam elastically scattered on 11B target nuclei at energy 18 MeV. These measurements were performed in the cyclotron DC-60 INP NNC RK. Calculations were performed using both empirical Woods-Saxon and double folding optical model potentials. Both elastic scattering and transfer reaction were taken into consideration. We have extracted the spectroscopic factors for the configurations 16O → 12C + α and 12C → 11B + p and compared them with other calculated or extracted values at different energies from literature. The extracted spectroscopic factor for the configuration 12C → 11B + p from the current work is in the range 2.7-3.1, which is very close to Cohen-Kurath prediction. While for the configuration 16O → 12C + α, spectroscopic factors show fluctuation with energy which could be due to the well-known resonant-like behavior observed in 16O + 12C excitation function.

  12. Direct total cross section measurement of the 16O(α,γ)20Ne reaction at Ec.m.=2.26 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hager, U.; Brown, J. R.; Buchmann, L.; Carmona-Gallardo, M.; Erikson, L.; Fallis, J.; Greife, U.; Hutcheon, D.; Ottewell, D.; Ruiz, C.; Sjue, S.; Vockenhuber, C.

    2011-08-01

    In stellar helium burning, 16O represents the endpoint of the helium-burning sequence due to the low rate of 16O(α,γ)20Ne. We present a new direct measurement of the total capture reaction rate of 16O(α,γ)20Ne at Ec.m.=2.26MeV employing the DRAGON recoil separator. For the first time, the total S factor and its contributing direct capture transitions could be determined in one experiment.

  13. A method for calculating 16O/18O peptide ion ratios for the relative quantification of proteomes.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kenneth L; Muddiman, David C

    2004-04-01

    A method is described for the identification and relative quantification of proteomes using accurate mass tags (AMT) generated by nLC-dual ESI-FT-ICR-MS on a 7T instrument in conjunction with stable isotope labeling using 16O/18O ratios. AMTs were used for putative peptide identification, followed by confirmation of peptide identity by tandem mass spectrometry. For a combined set of 58 tryptic peptides from bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human transferrin, a mean mass measurement accuracy of 1.9 ppm +/-0.94 ppm (CIM99%) was obtained. This subset of tryptic peptides was used to measure 16O/18O ratios of 0.36 +/- 0.09 (CIM99%) for BSA (micro = 0.33) and 1.48 +/- 0.47 (CIM99%) for transferrin (micro = 1.0) using a method for calculating 16O/18O ratios from overlapping isotopic multiplets arising from mixtures of 16O, 18O1, and 18O2 labeled C-termini. The model amino acid averagine was used to calculate a representative molecular formula for estimating and subtracting the contributions of naturally occurring isotopes solely as a function of peptide molecular weight. The method was tested against simulated composite 16O/18O spectra where peptide molecular weight, 16O/18O ratio, 18O1/18O2 ratios, and number of sulfur atoms were varied. Relative errors of 20% or less were incurred when the 16O/18O ratios were less than three, even for peptides where the number of sulfur atoms was over- or under-estimated. These data demonstrate that for biomarker discovery, it is advantageous to label the proteome representing the disease state with 18O; and the method is not sensitive to variations in 18O1/18O2 ratio. This approach allows a comprehensive differentiation of expression levels and tentative identification via AMTs, followed by targeted analysis of over- and under-expressed peptides using tandem mass spectrometry, for applications such as the discovery of disease biomarkers. PMID:15047049

  14. A Search for Interstellar Oxiranecarbonitrile (C3H3NO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicken, J. E.; Irvine, W. M.; Ohishi, M.; Arrhenius, G.; Bauder, A.; Mueller, F.; Eschenmoser, A.

    1996-01-01

    We report a search in cold, quiescent and in 'hot core' type interstellar molecular clouds for the small cyclic molecule oxiranecarbonitrile (C3H3NO), which has been suggested as a precursor of important prebiotic molecules. We have determined upper limits to the column density and fractional abundance for the observed sources and find that, typically, the fractional abundance by number relative to molecular hydrogen Of C3H3NO is less than a few times 10(exp -10). This limit is one to two orders of magnitude less than the measured abundance of such similarly complex species as CH3CH2CN and HCOOCH3 in well-studied hot cores. A number of astrochemical discoveries were made, including the first detection of the species CH3CH2CN in the massive star-forming clouds G34.3+0.2 and W51M and the first astronomical detections of some eight rotational transitions of CH3CH2CN, CH3CCH, and HCOOCH3. In addition, we found 8 emission lines in the 89 GHz region and 18 in the 102 GHz region which we were unable to assign.

  15. Effective theory of 3H and 3He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Sebastian; Grießhammer, Harald W.; Hammer, H.-W.; van Kolck, U.

    2016-06-01

    We present a new perturbative expansion for pionless effective field theory with Coulomb interactions in which at leading order (LO) the spin-singlet nucleon–nucleon channels are taken in the unitarity limit. Presenting results up to next-to-leading order for the Phillips line and the neutron–deuteron doublet-channel phase shift, we find that a perturbative expansion in the inverse {}1{S}0 scattering lengths converges rapidly. Using a new systematic treatment of the proton–proton sector that isolates the divergence due to one-photon exchange, we renormalize the corresponding contribution to the {}3{{H}} –{}3{He} binding energy splitting and demonstrate that the Coulomb force in pionless EFT is a completely perturbative effect in the trinucleon bound-state regime. In our new expansion, the LO is exactly isospin-symmetric. At next-to-leading order, we include isospin breaking via the Coulomb force and two-body scattering lengths, and find for the energy splitting {({E}B{(}3{He})-{E}B{(}3{{H}}))}{NLO}\\quad =(-0.86+/- 0.17)\\quad {MeV}.

  16. A search for interstellar oxiranecarbonitrile (C3H3NO).

    PubMed

    Dickens, J E; Irvine, W M; Ohishi, M; Arrhenius, G; Pitsch, S; Bauder, A; Muller, F; Eschenmoser, A

    1996-04-01

    We report a search in cold, quiescent and in 'hot core' type interstellar molecular clouds for the small cyclic molecule oxiranecarbonitrile (C3H3NO), which has been suggested as a precursor of important prebiotic molecules. We have determined upper limits to the column density and fractional abundance for the observed sources and find that, typically, the fractional abundance by number relative to molecular hydrogen of C3H3NO is less than a few times 10(-10). This limit is one to two orders of magnitude less than the measured abundance of such similarly complex species as CH3CH2CN and HCOOCH3 in well-studied hot cores. A number of astrochemical discoveries were made, including the first detection of the species CH3CH2CN in the massive star-forming clouds G34.3+0.2 and W51M and the first astronomical detections of some eight rotational transitions of CH3CH2CN, CH3CCH, and HCOOCH3. In addition, we found 8 emission lines in the 89 GHz region and 18 in the 102 GHz region which we were unable to assign. PMID:11536752

  17. The 3H-3He Charge Radii Difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, L. S.; Arrington, J. R.; Higinbotham, D. W.

    2016-03-01

    The upcoming E12-14-009 [1] experiment at Jefferson Lab will determine the ratio of the electric form factors for the A=3 mirror nuclei 3He and 3H. The measurement will use a 1.1 GeV electron beam, a special collimator plate to allow for simultaneous optics measurements, and the low-activity tritium target being prepared for Jefferson Lab. By observing the dependence of the form factor ratio as a function of Q2 over 0.05-0.09 GeV2, the dependence of the radii extraction on the shape of the form factors is minimized. As a result, we anticipate the uncertainty of the extracted charge radii difference to be 0.03 fm, a reduction of 70% from the current measurement. Using precise measurements of the 3He charge radius from isotopic shift or μHe measurements [2-4], we can deduce the absolute 3H charge radius. The results will provide a direct comparison to recent calculations of the charge radii.

  18. Evidence for triangular D3h symmetry in 12C.

    PubMed

    Marín-Lámbarri, D J; Bijker, R; Freer, M; Gai, M; Kokalova, Tz; Parker, D J; Wheldon, C

    2014-07-01

    We report a measurement of a new high spin Jπ=5- state at 22.4(2) MeV in 12C which fits very well to the predicted (ground state) rotational band of an oblate equilateral triangular spinning top with a D3h symmetry characterized by the sequence 0+, 2+, 3-, 4±, 5- with almost degenerate 4+ and 4- (parity doublet) states. Such a D3h symmetry was observed in triatomic molecules, and it is observed here for the first time in nuclear physics. We discuss a classification of other rotation-vibration bands in 12C such as the (0+) Hoyle band and the (1-) bending mode band and suggest measurements in search of the predicted ("missing") states that may shed new light on clustering in 12C and light nuclei. In particular, the observation (or nonobservation) of the predicted ("missing") states in the Hoyle band will allow us to conclude the geometrical arrangement of the three alpha particles composing the Hoyle state at 7.654 MeV in 12C. PMID:25032922

  19. Beryllium-induced immune response in C3H mice

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, J.M.; Bice, D.E.; Nikula, K.J.

    1995-12-01

    Studies conducted at ITRI over the past several years have investigated whether Beagle dogs, monkeys, and mice are suitable models for human chronic beryllium-induced lung disease (CBD). Recent studies have focused on the histopathological and immunopathological changes occurring in A/J and C3H/HeJ mice acutely exposed by inhalation to Be metal. Lung lesions in both strains of mice included focal lymphocyte aggregates comprised primarily of B lymphocytes and lesser amounts of T-helper lymphocytes and microgranulomas consisting chiefly of macrophages and T-helper lymphocytes. The distribution of proliferating cells within the microgranulomas was similar to the distribution of T-helper cells. These results strongly suggested that A/J and C3H/HeJ mice responded to inhaled Be metal in a fashion similar to humans in terms of pulmonary lesions and the apparent in situ proliferation of T-helper cells. Results of these studies confirm lymphocyte involvement in the pulmonary response to inhaled Be metal.

  20. Dating degassed groundwater with 3H/3He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, Ate; Broers, Hans Peter; Bierkens, Marc F. P.

    2007-10-01

    The production of gases in groundwater under contaminated locations by geochemical and biological processes is not uncommon. Degassing of these gases from groundwater and repartitioning of noble gases between water and gas phase distorts groundwater dating by 3H/3He. We observed noble gas concentrations below atmospheric equilibrium in 20 out of 34 groundwater samples from agriculturally polluted sandy areas in the Netherlands. From the absence of nitrate in degassed samples, we conclude that denitrification causes degassing. The 22Ne/20Ne ratios show that degassing had attained solubility equilibrium and had not caused isotopic fractionation by diffusion. To correct for the loss of tritiogenic 3He due to degassing, we present a single-step equilibrium degassing model. We use the total dissolved gas pressure at the monitoring screen to estimate the depth and timing of degassing, which is essential to estimate travel times from degassed samples. By propagating the uncertainties in the underlying measurements and assumptions through the travel time calculations, we found a travel time uncertainty of 3 years (a). We therefore conclude that 3H/3He dating can produce valuable information on groundwater flow even at sites with strong degassing.