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Sample records for 3m vacuum ultraviolet

  1. Vacuum ultraviolet holography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorklund, G. C.; Harris, S. E.; Young, J. F.

    1974-01-01

    We report the first demonstration of holographic techniques in the vacuum ultraviolet spectral region. Holograms were produced with coherent 1182-A radiation. The holograms were recorded in polymethyl methacrylate and examined with an electron microscope. A holographic grating with a fringe spacing of 386 A was produced and far-field Fraunhofer holograms of submicron particles were recorded.

  2. Vacuum ultraviolet holography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorklund, G. C.; Harris, S. E.; Young, J. F.

    1974-01-01

    The authors report the first demonstration of holographic techniques in the vacuum ultraviolet spectral region. Holograms were produced with coherent 1182 A radiation. The holograms were recorded in polymethyl methacrylate and read out with an electron microscope. A holographic grating with a fringe spacing of 836 A was produced and far-field Fraunhofer holograms of sub-micron particles were recorded.

  3. Z-DNA: vacuum ultraviolet circular dichroism

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, J.C.; Griffin, K.P.; Keck, P.C.; Takacs, P.Z.

    1981-08-01

    In concentrated salt or ethanolic solutions, the self-complementary copolymer poly(dG-dC)-poly(dG-dC) forms a left-handed double-helical structure that has been termed Z-DNA. The first evidence for this structure came from changes observed in the circular dichroism (CD) spectrum between 230 and 300 nm for low- and high-salt solutions. In 3 M NaCl, the CD spectrum is approximately inverted compared to the B-form spectrum observed in low salt solution. We measured the vacuum ultraviolet CD spectrum of poly(dG-dC)-poly(dG-dC) down to 180 nm under conditions in which the 230- to 300-nm spectrum is inverted. Below 200 nm, where the B form exhibits the large positive peak at 187 nm that is characteristic of right-handed double-helical DNAs, the Z form exhibits a large negative peak at 194 nm and a positive band below 186 nm. Therefore, the Z-form vacuum ultraviolet CD spectrum resembles an inverted and red-shifted B-form spectrum. The magnitudes of the differences observed between the B and Z forms in the CD spectrum below 200 nm are about 10 times greater than those observed between 230 and 300 nm. The vacuum ultraviolet CD spectrum of poly(dG-dC)-poly(dG-dC) is 3 M C/sub 2/O/sub 4/ also is inverted compared to the B-form spectrum; however, between 230 and 300 nm, it is nonconservative with a negative maximum at 290 nm and a weak positive CD signal above 300 nm, presumably reflecting differential light scattering and indicating the existence of molecular aggregates. Our results suggest that the vacuum ultraviolet CD spectrum is sensitive to the handedness of doublehelical DNA structures.

  4. Z-DNA Vacuum ultraviolet circular dichroism

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, J.C.; Griffin, K.P.; Keck, P.C.; Takacs, P.Z.

    1981-08-01

    In concentrated salt or ethanolic solutions, the self-complementary copolymer poly(dG-dC).poly(dG-dC) forms a left-handed double-helical structure that has been termed ZDNA. The first evidence for this structure came from changes observed in the circular dichroism (CD) spectrum between 230 and 300 nm for low- and high-salt solutions (Pohl, F.M. and Jovin, T.M. (1972) J. Mol. Biol. 67, 675-696). In 3 M NaCl, the CD spectrum is approximately inverted compared to the B-form spectrum observed in low-salt solution. We measured the vacuum ultraviolet CD spectrum of poly(dG-dC).poly(dG-dC) down to 180 nm under conditions in which the 230 to 300 nm spectrum is inverted. Below 200 nm, where the B form exhibits the large positive peak at 187 nm that is characteristic of right-handed double-helical DNAs, the Z form exhibits a large negative peak at 194 nm and a positive band below 186 nm. Therefore, the Z-form vacuum ultraviolet CD spectrum resembles an inverted and red-shifted B-form spectrum. The magnitudes of the differences observed between the Band Z forms in the CD spectrum below 200 nm are about 10 times greater than those observed between 230 and 300 nm. The vacuum ultraviolet CD spectrum of poly(dG-dC).poly(dG-dC) in 3 M Cs/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ also is inverted compared to the B-form spectrum; however, between 230 and 300 nm, it is nonconservative with a negative maximum at 290 nm and a weak positive CD signal above 300 nm, presumably reflecting differential light scattering and indicating the existence of molecular aggregates. Our results suggest that the vacuum ultraviolet CD spectrum is sensitive to the handedness of double-helical DNA structures.

  5. Polarization measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, K.; West, E. A.; Noble, M.

    2005-08-01

    This paper will describe the Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) polarization testing of the Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph (SUMI) optics. SUMI is being develop for a sounding rocket payload to prove the feasibility of making magnetic field measurements in the transition region. This paper will cover the polarization properties of the VUV calibration polarizers, the instrumental polarization of the VUV chamber, SUMI's toroidal varied-line-space gratings and the SUMI polarimeter.

  6. Atomic Oscillator Strengths in the Vacuum Ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nave, Gillian; Sansonetti, Craig J.; Szabo, Csilla I.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed techniques to measure branching fractions in the vacuum ultraviolet using diffraction grating spectroscopy and phosphor image plates as detectors. These techniques have been used to measure branching fractions in Fe II that give prominent emission lines in astrophysical objects.

  7. Vacuum-ultraviolet laser uses superfluid helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zmuidzinas, J. S.

    1979-01-01

    Vacuum ultra violet laser in wavelength around 0.800 microns is produced by using optical pumping to increase lifetimes of excited metastable molecules in super fluid helium. In method, super fluid helium is pumped electronically to produce excited HE2, and then pumped by circularly polarized 0.9096 - micron radiation to aline excited HE2 molecular spins. High power ultraviolet radiation has potential applications in molecular reaction studies, power transmission in space, and biomedical research.

  8. Large-Area Vacuum Ultraviolet Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslam, Shahid; Franz, David

    2012-01-01

    Pt/(n-doped GaN) Schottky-barrier diodes having active areas as large as 1 cm square have been designed and fabricated as prototypes of photodetectors for the vacuum ultraviolet portion (wavelengths approximately equal 200 nm) of the solar spectrum. In addition to having adequate sensitivity to photons in this wavelength range, these photodetectors are required to be insensitive to visible and infrared components of sunlight and to have relatively low levels of dark current.

  9. Fluoride coatings for vacuum ultraviolet reflection filters.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chun; Kong, Mingdong; Lin, Dawei; Li, Bincheng

    2015-12-10

    LaF3/MgF2 reflection filters with a high spectral-discrimination capacity of the atomic-oxygen lines at 130.4 and 135.6 nm, which were employed in vacuum ultraviolet imagers, were prepared by molybdenum-boat thermal evaporation. The optical properties of reflection filters were characterized by a high-precision vacuum ultraviolet spectrophotometer. The vulnerability of the filter's microstructures to environmental contamination and the recovery of the optical properties of the stored filter samples with ultraviolet ozone cleaning were experimentally demonstrated. For reflection filters with the optimized nonquarter-wave multilayer structures, the reflectance ratios R135.6 nm/R130.4 nm of 92.7 and 20.6 were achieved for 7° and 45° angles of incidence, respectively. On the contrary, R135.6 nm/R130.4 nm ratio of 12.4 was obtained for a reflection filter with a standard π-stack multilayer structure with H/L=1/4 at 7° AOI. PMID:26836877

  10. Vacuum Ultraviolet Photoionization of Complex Chemical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostko, Oleg; Bandyopadhyay, Biswajit; Ahmed, Musahid

    2016-05-01

    Tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation coupled to mass spectrometry is applied to the study of complex chemical systems. The identification of novel reactive intermediates and radicals is revealed in flame, pulsed photolysis, and pyrolysis reactors, leading to the elucidation of spectroscopy, reaction mechanisms, and kinetics. Mass-resolved threshold photoelectron photoion coincidence measurements provide unprecedented access to vibrationally resolved spectra of free radicals present in high-temperature reactors. Photoionization measurements in water clusters, nucleic acid base dimers, and their complexes with water provide signatures of proton transfer in hydrogen-bonded and π-stacked systems. Experimental and theoretical methods to track ion-molecule reactions and fragmentation pathways in intermolecular and intramolecular hydrogen-bonded systems in sugars and alcohols are described. Photoionization of laser-ablated molecules, clusters, and their reaction products inform thermodynamics and spectroscopy that are relevant to astrochemistry and catalysis. New directions in coupling VUV radiation to interrogate complex chemical systems are discussed.

  11. Vacuum Ultraviolet Photoionization of Complex Chemical Systems.

    PubMed

    Kostko, Oleg; Bandyopadhyay, Biswajit; Ahmed, Musahid

    2016-05-27

    Tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation coupled to mass spectrometry is applied to the study of complex chemical systems. The identification of novel reactive intermediates and radicals is revealed in flame, pulsed photolysis, and pyrolysis reactors, leading to the elucidation of spectroscopy, reaction mechanisms, and kinetics. Mass-resolved threshold photoelectron photoion coincidence measurements provide unprecedented access to vibrationally resolved spectra of free radicals present in high-temperature reactors. Photoionization measurements in water clusters, nucleic acid base dimers, and their complexes with water provide signatures of proton transfer in hydrogen-bonded and π-stacked systems. Experimental and theoretical methods to track ion-molecule reactions and fragmentation pathways in intermolecular and intramolecular hydrogen-bonded systems in sugars and alcohols are described. Photoionization of laser-ablated molecules, clusters, and their reaction products inform thermodynamics and spectroscopy that are relevant to astrochemistry and catalysis. New directions in coupling VUV radiation to interrogate complex chemical systems are discussed. PMID:26980311

  12. Absorption spectra of typical space materials in the vacuum ultraviolet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muscari, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    In order to develop a data base for potential optical degradation of space vacuum ultraviolet instruments, the collected volatile condensed material (CVCM) transmittance was measured in the wavelength region from 115 nm to 300 nm. The parent outgassing materials included: the adhesives, Ablebond 36-2, Trabond BB-2116, EA-9309, and Scotchweld 2216; the paints, Chemglaze Z-306, Z-306 over 9922 primer, Z-306 over AP-131 primer, Cat-A-Lac 463-3-8, 463-3-8 over primer, 3M Nextel 401-C10, and 401-C10 over 901-P1 primer; the resins, Fiberite 934, Solithane 113/C113-300 Formulation no. 1, and 113/C113-300 Formulation no. 8; the lubricants, Lube-Lok 4306 and RT/Duroid 5813; and the double-sided adhesive tape 3M-415. The effect of thermal vacuum conditioning of selected materials was also studied. The transmittance measurements were used to calculate the absorption coefficient for each of 28 different source materials versus wavelength.

  13. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of carbohydrates and nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Shin, Joong-Won; Bernstein, Elliot R

    2014-01-28

    Carbohydrates (2-deoxyribose, ribose, and xylose) and nucleotides (adenosine-, cytidine-, guanosine-, and uridine-5(')-monophosphate) are generated in the gas phase, and ionized with vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV, 118.2 nm). The observed time of flight mass spectra of the carbohydrate fragmentation are similar to those observed [J.-W. Shin, F. Dong, M. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, and E. R. Bernstein, Chem. Phys. Lett. 506, 161 (2011)] for 46.9 nm photon ionization, but with more intensity in higher mass fragment ions. The tendency of carbohydrate ions to fragment extensively following ionization seemingly suggests that nucleic acids might undergo radiation damage as a result of carbohydrate, rather than nucleobase fragmentation. VUV photoionization of nucleotides (monophosphate-carbohydrate-nucleobase), however, shows that the carbohydrate-nucleobase bond is the primary fragmentation site for these species. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the removed carbohydrate electrons by the 118.2 nm photons are associated with endocyclic C-C and C-O ring centered orbitals: loss of electron density in the ring bonds of the nascent ion can thus account for the observed fragmentation patterns following carbohydrate ionization. DFT calculations also indicate that electrons removed from nucleotides under these same conditions are associated with orbitals involved with the nucleobase-saccharide linkage electron density. The calculations give a general mechanism and explanation of the experimental results. PMID:25669546

  14. Vacuum ultraviolet detector for gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Schug, Kevin A; Sawicki, Ian; Carlton, Doug D; Fan, Hui; McNair, Harold M; Nimmo, John P; Kroll, Peter; Smuts, Jonathan; Walsh, Phillip; Harrison, Dale

    2014-08-19

    Analytical performance characteristics of a new vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) detector for gas chromatography (GC) are reported. GC-VUV was applied to hydrocarbons, fixed gases, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, fatty acids, pesticides, drugs, and estrogens. Applications were chosen to feature the sensitivity and universal detection capabilities of the VUV detector, especially for cases where mass spectrometry performance has been limited. Virtually all chemical species absorb and have unique gas phase absorption cross sections in the approximately 120-240 nm wavelength range monitored. Spectra are presented, along with the ability to use software for deconvolution of overlapping signals. Some comparisons with experimental synchrotron data and computed theoretical spectra show good agreement, although more work is needed on appropriate computational methods to match the simultaneous broadband electronic and vibronic excitation initiated by the deuterium lamp. Quantitative analysis is governed by Beer-Lambert Law relationships. Mass on-column detection limits reported for representatives of different classes of analytes ranged from 15 (benzene) to 246 pg (water). Linear range measured at peak absorption for benzene was 3-4 orders of magnitude. Importantly, where absorption cross sections are known for analytes, the VUV detector is capable of absolute determination (without calibration) of the number of molecules present in the flow cell in the absence of chemical interferences. This study sets the stage for application of GC-VUV technology across a wide breadth of research areas. PMID:25079505

  15. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of carbohydrates and nucleotides

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Joong-Won; Bernstein, Elliot R.

    2014-01-28

    Carbohydrates (2-deoxyribose, ribose, and xylose) and nucleotides (adenosine-, cytidine-, guanosine-, and uridine-5{sup ′}-monophosphate) are generated in the gas phase, and ionized with vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV, 118.2 nm). The observed time of flight mass spectra of the carbohydrate fragmentation are similar to those observed [J.-W. Shin, F. Dong, M. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, and E. R. Bernstein, Chem. Phys. Lett. 506, 161 (2011)] for 46.9 nm photon ionization, but with more intensity in higher mass fragment ions. The tendency of carbohydrate ions to fragment extensively following ionization seemingly suggests that nucleic acids might undergo radiation damage as a result of carbohydrate, rather than nucleobase fragmentation. VUV photoionization of nucleotides (monophosphate-carbohydrate-nucleobase), however, shows that the carbohydrate-nucleobase bond is the primary fragmentation site for these species. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the removed carbohydrate electrons by the 118.2 nm photons are associated with endocyclic C–C and C–O ring centered orbitals: loss of electron density in the ring bonds of the nascent ion can thus account for the observed fragmentation patterns following carbohydrate ionization. DFT calculations also indicate that electrons removed from nucleotides under these same conditions are associated with orbitals involved with the nucleobase-saccharide linkage electron density. The calculations give a general mechanism and explanation of the experimental results.

  16. Measurements of Radiating Flow Fields in the Vacuum Ultraviolet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikh, U. A.; Jacobs, C.; Laux, C. O.; Morgan, R. G.; McIntyre, T. J.

    The vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) region of the radiation spectrum spans from 100 nm to 200 nm and is responsible for 30-50 % of the radiative heat flux during peak heating for a lunar return trajectory [1].

  17. Vacuum ultraviolet laser induced fluorescence on a Si atomic beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Brian, T. R.; Lawler, J. E.

    1991-01-01

    A broadly applicable vacuum ultraviolet experiment is described for measuring radiative lifetimes of neutral and singly-ionized atoms in a beam environment to 5-percent accuracy using laser induced fluorescence. First results for neutral Si are reported.

  18. Steady State Vacuum Ultraviolet Exposure Facility With Automated Calibration Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stueber, Thomas J.; Sechkar, Edward A.; Dever, Joyce A.; Banks, Bruce A.

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field designed and developed a steady state vacuum ultraviolet automated (SSVUVa) facility with in situ VUV intensity calibration capability. The automated feature enables a constant accelerated VUV radiation exposure over long periods of testing without breaking vacuum. This test facility is designed to simultaneously accommodate four isolated radiation exposure tests within the SSVUVa vacuum chamber. Computer-control of the facility for long, term continuous operation also provides control and recording of thermocouple temperatures, periodic recording of VUV lamp intensity, and monitoring of vacuum facility status. This paper discusses the design and capabilities of the SSVUVa facility.

  19. Regeneration of imprint molds using vacuum ultraviolet light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakao, Masashi; Yamaguchi, Masanori; Yabu, Shintaro

    2011-04-01

    Etching characteristics of various resins by a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV, λ=172 nm) light have been examined under conditions of exposure time, substrate temperature, radiation distance and ambient oxygen concentration. The VUV light have used to clean the imprinted molds which are contaminated by organic substances such as ultraviolet-resins through many times of imprinting processes, and it has revealed that the VUV light has effectively regenerated the contaminated molds manufactured by quartz, silicon-carbide and nickel.

  20. A polarizer for the vacuum ultraviolet.

    PubMed

    Steinrnetz, D L; Phillips, W G; Wirick, M; Forbes, F F

    1967-06-01

    The construction and optical properties of a MgF(2) double Rochon prism are described. The prism is useful as a polarizer or analyzer in the vacuum uv wavelengths longer than 1300 A. Measurements of MgF(2) transmission and of polarizer angular beam deviation from 1150 AS to 2900 A are presented. PMID:20062113

  1. Polarization Measurements in the Vacuum Ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, E. A.; Kobayashi, K.; Noble, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper will describe the VUV polarization testing of the NSSTC Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph (SUMI) optics. SUMI is being developed for a sounding rocket payload to prove the feasibility of making magnetic field measurements in the transition region. This paper will cover the polarization properties of the VUV calibration polarizers, the instrumental polarization of the VUV chamber, SUMI's toroidal varied-line-space gratings and the SUMI polarimeter.

  2. Vacuum-ultraviolet spectrum of neutral boron /B I/.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goorvitch, D.; Valero, F. P. J.

    1972-01-01

    Use of a hollow-cathode light source to produce the vacuum-ultraviolet spectrum of B I. One transition is resolved, and four transitions have been remeasured to a higher accuracy than previously because of the sharper lines emitted by the hollow-cathode light source. A revised value for one transition term results from these measurements.-

  3. Ion chambers simplify absolute intensity measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, J. A. R.

    1966-01-01

    Single or double ion chamber technique measures absolute radiation intensities in the extreme vacuum ultraviolet region of the spectrum. The ion chambers use rare gases as the ion carrier. Photon absorbed by the gas creates one ion pair so a measure of these is a measure of the number of incident photons.

  4. Polarized vacuum ultraviolet and X-radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.

    1978-01-01

    The most intense source of polarized vacuum UV and X radiation is synchrotron radiation, which exhibits a degree of partially polarized light between about 80-100%. However, the radiation transmitted by vacuum UV monochromators can also be highly polarized. The Seya-Namioka type of monochromator can produce partially polarized radiation between 50-80%. For certain experiments it is necessary to know the degree of polarization of the radiation being used. Also, when synchrotron radiation and a monochromator are combined the polarization characteristic of both should be known in order to make full use of these polarization properties. The polarizing effect of monochromators (i.e., diffraction gratings) have been measured at the Seya angle and at grazing angles for various spectral orders. Experimental evidence is presented which shows that the reciprocity law holds for polarization by reflection where the angle of incidence and diffraction are unequal. These results are reviewed along with the techniques for measuring the degree of polarization.

  5. Broadband reflectance coatings for vacuum ultraviolet application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herzig, Howard; Fleetwood, C. M., Jr.; Flint, B. K.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation has obtained results indicating that neither LaF3 nor LiYF4 are acceptable alternatives to MgF2 as coatings for vacuum-deposited aluminum mirrors from which high UV reflectance down to 1150 A is required. Nevertheless, LaF3 may prove useful in those specialized applications in which the suppression of lower wavelength emissions, such as the 1216-A hydrogen line, is desirable.

  6. Communication: vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption of interstellar icy thiols.

    PubMed

    Bhuin, Radha Gobinda; Sivaraman, Bhalamurugan; Lo, Jen-Iu; Sekhar, B N Raja; Cheng, Bing-Ming; Pradeep, Thalappil; Mason, Nigel John

    2014-12-21

    Following the recent identification of ethanethiol in the interstellar medium (ISM) we have carried out Vacuum UltraViolet (VUV) spectroscopy studies of ethanethiol (CH3CH2SH) from 10 K until sublimation in an ultrahigh vacuum chamber simulating astrochemical conditions. These results are compared with those of methanethiol (CH3SH), the lower order thiol also reported to be present in the ISM. VUV spectra recorded at higher temperature reveal conformational changes in the ice and phase transitions whilst evidence for dimer production is also presented. PMID:25527912

  7. Communication: Vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption of interstellar icy thiols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuin, Radha Gobinda; Sivaraman, Bhalamurugan; Lo, Jen-Iu; Sekhar, B. N. Raja; Cheng, Bing-Ming; Pradeep, Thalappil; Mason, Nigel John

    2014-12-01

    Following the recent identification of ethanethiol in the interstellar medium (ISM) we have carried out Vacuum UltraViolet (VUV) spectroscopy studies of ethanethiol (CH3CH2SH) from 10 K until sublimation in an ultrahigh vacuum chamber simulating astrochemical conditions. These results are compared with those of methanethiol (CH3SH), the lower order thiol also reported to be present in the ISM. VUV spectra recorded at higher temperature reveal conformational changes in the ice and phase transitions whilst evidence for dimer production is also presented.

  8. Vacuum Ultraviolet Curing of Low-k Organosilicate Dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Huifeng

    The goal of this project is to optimize the vacuum-ultraviolet spectrum to identify those wavelengths that will have the most beneficial effect on improving dielectric properties and minimizing damage. To do this, the effects of vacuum-ultraviolet radiation (VUV) on organosilicate glass (SiCOH) will be examined. Changes to the electrical, chemical and mechanical properties of low-k organosilicate dielectrics induced by vacuum-ultraviolet radiation are investigated. VUV-generated changes to the permittivity and dielectric thickness are measured with both capacitance-voltage characteristics and a reflectometer. FTIR measurements are utilized to find the effect of VUV irradiation on chemical properties of SiCOH and XPS with nanoindentation measurements are used to investigate changes in mechanical properties. Measurements of the band gap and defect-state concentrations of SiCOH are made with VUV spectroscopy. These investigations are used to optimize VUV or UV/VUVexposure conditions to determine the wavelengths and intensities that can mitigate processing-induced damage. Thus, a "UV/VUV curing" process can be established and comparisons between UV/VUV curing and conventional industrial UV curing will be made. Investigations have shown that a combined UV/VUV curing could overcome some drawbacks of industrially UV curing and improve properties of dielectrics more efficiently than UV curing.

  9. Vacuum photodiode detectors for broadband vacuum ultraviolet detection in the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, C. V. S.; Shankara Joisa, Y.; Hansalia, C. J.; Hui, Amit K.; Paul, Ratan; Ranjan, Prabhat

    1997-02-01

    We report on the application of the vacuum photodiode to detect vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation emitted from the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics (SINP) Tokamak. It is simple to fabricate and provides broadband spectral response in the VUV and ultrasoft x ray (10 eV-1 keV). In our design, a stainless steel photocathode is used, which has a response identical to tungsten in the wavelength range 100-1200 Å. Its surface is passivated, to minimize contamination and monolayer deposition, by electropolishing it. Some representative experimental results illustrating the range of applicability are presented with special emphasis on its performance in disruptive shots.

  10. CIV Polarization Measurements Using a Vacuum Ultraviolet Fabry Perot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, Edward A.

    2009-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) is developing a Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) Fabry Perot that will be launched on a sounding rocket for high throughput, high-cadence, extended field of view CIV (155nm) measurements. These measurements will provide (i) Dopplergrams for studies of waves, oscillations, explosive events, and mass motions through the transition region, and, (ii), polarization measurements to study the magnetic field in the transition region. This paper will describe the scientific goals of the instrument, a brief description of the optics and the polarization characteristics of the VUV Fabry Perot.

  11. Absolute photon-flux measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Haddad, G. N.

    1974-01-01

    Absolute photon-flux measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet have extended to short wavelengths by use of rare-gas ionization chambers. The technique involves the measurement of the ion current as a function of the gas pressure in the ion chamber. The true value of the ion current, and hence the absolute photon flux, is obtained by extrapolating the ion current to zero gas pressure. Examples are given at 162 and 266 A. The short-wavelength limit is determined only by the sensitivity of the current-measuring apparatus and by present knowledge of the photoionization processes that occur in the rate gases.

  12. Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet light source

    DOEpatents

    Sze, Robert C.; Quigley, Gerard P.

    1996-01-01

    Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light source. A contamination-free VUV light source having a 225 cm.sup.2 emission area in the 240-340 nm region of the electromagnetic spectrum with an average output power in this band of about 2 J/cm.sup.2 at a wall-plug efficiency of approximately 5% is described. Only ceramics and metal parts are employed in this surface discharge source. Because of the contamination-free, high photon energy and flux, and short pulse characteristics of the source, it is suitable for semiconductor and flat panel display material processing.

  13. Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet light source

    DOEpatents

    Sze, R.C.; Quigley, G.P.

    1996-12-17

    Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light source is disclosed. A contamination-free VUV light source having a 225 cm{sup 2} emission area in the 240-340 nm region of the electromagnetic spectrum with an average output power in this band of about 2 J/cm{sup 2} at a wall-plug efficiency of approximately 5% is described. Only ceramics and metal parts are employed in this surface discharge source. Because of the contamination-free, high photon energy and flux, and short pulse characteristics of the source, it is suitable for semiconductor and flat panel display material processing. 3 figs.

  14. Electroreflectance Spectroscopy of Emersed Gold Electrodes in the Vacuum Ultraviolet.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Steven Lawrence

    Electroreflectance spectra of emersed polycrystalline gold films were measured in the vacuum ultraviolet spectral region from 6eV to 11eV. The measurements were performed using synchrotron radia- tion under high vacuum conditions. Large reflectance differences were observed for an emersion potential difference of 0.8V. The electroreflectance spectra are thought to be due primarily to electrolyte effects, with smaller contributions from the gold. Surface state optical adsorption from the predominantly (111) surface has been speculated to be one contribution. Although these measure- ments are insufficient to draw definite conclusions, they show that electroreflectance spectroscopy on emersed metal electrodes must. be considered as a possible future tool for the study of the metal-electrolyte interface. *DOE Report IS-T-1195. This work was performed under contract No. W-7405-Eng-82 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  15. An Extreme Flux Vacuum Ultraviolet/Ultraviolet Beamline For The Measurement Of Biological Circular Dichroism

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, D.T.; Vasanthi, N.; Shaw, D.; Brown, A.; Todd, B.; Grant, A.F.; Flaherty, J.V.; Mullacrane, I.D.; Miller, M.J.; Bowler, M.A.; Jones, G.R.; Mythen, C.

    2004-05-12

    A new extreme flux vacuum ultraviolet bending magnet beamline (CD12) has been commission at the SRS, Daresbury. The beamline has met all of its designed performance parameters and these are detailed. The clear advantages of SRCD over CD undertaken on conventional instruments are discussed and examples of its capabilities in terms of measurement precision and enhanced signal-to-noise for both steady-state CD and time-resolved CD are given.

  16. Vacuum-Ultraviolet Promoted Oxidative Micro Photoetching of Graphene Oxide.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yudi; Utsunomiya, Toru; Ichii, Takashi; Sugimura, Hiroyuki

    2016-04-27

    Microprocessing of graphene oxide (GO) films is of fundamental importance in fabricating graphene-based devices. We demonstrate the photoetching of GO sheets using vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV, λ = 172 nm) light under controlled atmospheric pressure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and differential interference contrast microscopy (DIC) studies revealed that the photoetching of GO films successfully proceeded in the regions exposed to VUV irradiation in the oxygen-containing atmosphere. Precise photoetching of the GO sheets was achieved at a vacuum pressure of 5 × 10(3) Pa with VUV light irradiation for 20 min. This was followed by VUV irradiation in a high vacuum (<10(-3) Pa) and sonication in water. The photoetched GO sheets then transformed into reduced GO (rGO) patterns. The minimum feature fabricated by this method was 2 μm wide lines aligned at an interval of 4 μm. This method provides a cost-effective way to fabricate rGO patterns with fewer boundaries between rGO sheets and offers a better integrity of rGO, which can be promising for further applications in micro mechanics, micro electrochemistry, optoelectronics, etc. PMID:27046164

  17. Nonthermal combined ultraviolet and vacuum-ultraviolet curing process for organosilicate dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, H.; Guo, X.; Pei, D.; Li, W.; Blatz, J.; Hsu, K.; Benjamin, D.; Lin, Y.-H.; Fung, H.-S.; Chen, C.-C.; Nishi, Y.; Shohet, J. L.

    2016-06-01

    Porous SiCOH films are of great interest in semiconductor fabrication due to their low-dielectric constant properties. Post-deposition treatments using ultraviolet (UV) light on organosilicate thin films are required to decompose labile pore generators (porogens) and to ensure optimum network formation to improve the electrical and mechanical properties of low-k dielectrics. The goal of this work is to choose the best vacuum-ultraviolet photon energy in conjunction with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photons without the need for heating the dielectric to identify those wavelengths that will have the most beneficial effect on improving the dielectric properties and minimizing damage. VUV irradiation between 8.3 and 8.9 eV was found to increase the hardness and elastic modulus of low-k dielectrics at room temperature. Combined with UV exposures of 6.2 eV, it was found that this "UV/VUV curing" process is improved compared with current UV curing. We show that UV/VUV curing can overcome drawbacks of UV curing and improve the properties of dielectrics more efficiently without the need for high-temperature heating of the dielectric.

  18. High intensity vacuum ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet production by noncollinear mixing in laser vaporized media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todt, Michael A.; Albert, Daniel R.; Davis, H. Floyd

    2016-06-01

    A method is described for generating intense pulsed vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) laser radiation by resonance enhanced four-wave mixing of commercial pulsed nanosecond lasers in laser vaporized mercury under windowless conditions. By employing noncollinear mixing of the input beams, the need of dispersive elements such as gratings for separating the VUV/XUV from the residual UV and visible beams is eliminated. A number of schemes are described, facilitating access to the 9.9-14.6 eV range. A simple and convenient scheme for generating wavelengths of 125 nm, 112 nm, and 104 nm (10 eV, 11 eV, and 12 eV) using two dye lasers without the need for dye changes is described.

  19. Absolute calibration of vacuum ultraviolet spectrograph system for plasma diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, M.; Kubota, Y.; Kobayashi, T.; Saito, M.; Numada, N.; Nakashima, Y.; Cho, T.; Koguchi, H.; Yagi, Y.; Yamaguchi, N.

    2004-10-01

    A space- and time-resolving vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectrograph system has been applied to diagnose impurity ions behavior in plasmas produced in the tandem mirror GAMMA 10 and the reversed field pinch TPE-RX. We have carried out ray tracing calculations for obtaining the characteristics of the VUV spectrograph and calibration experiments to measure the absolute sensitivities of the VUV spectrograph system for the wavelength range from 100 to 1100 A. By changing the incident angle, 50.6 deg. -51.4 deg., to the spectrograph whose nominal incident angle is 51 deg., we can change the observing spectral range of the VUV spectrograph. In this article, we show the ray tracing calculation results and absolute sensitivities when the angle of incidence into the VUV spectrograph is changed, and the results of VUV spectroscopic measurement in both GAMMA 10 and TPE-RX plasmas.

  20. Vacuum ultraviolet spectra of uranium hexafluoride/argon mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krascella, N. L.

    1976-01-01

    The transmission properties of room temperature helium at pressures up to 20 atmospheres were determined in the wavelength range from 80 to 300 nm. Similarly, the transmission properties of uranium hexafluoride at 393 K (pressures less than 1.0 mm) were determined in the wavelength range from 80 to about 120 nm. The results show that high pressure helium is sufficiently transparent in the vacuum ultraviolet region (provided trace contaminants are removed) to be utilized as a transparent purge gas in future fissioning gaseous uranium plasma reactor experiments. Absorption cross sections for uranium hexafluoride were calculated from the data between 80 and 120 nm and were of the order of 10 to the -17 power sq cm.

  1. Electron impact excitation of argon in the extreme vacuum ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mentall, J. E.; Morgan, H. D.

    1976-01-01

    Polarization-free excitation cross sections in the extreme vacuum ultraviolet have been measured for electron impact on Ar. Observed spectral features were those lines of Ar I and Ar II which lie between 700 and 1100 A. Excitation functions were measured for the Ar I resonance line at 1048 A and the Ar II resonance line at 920 A. Peak cross sections for these two lines were found to be (39.4 plus or minus 7.9) x 10 to the -18th and (6.9 plus or minus 1.4) x 10 to the -18th, respectively. At low energies, excitation of the Ar II resonance line is dominated by an electron exchange transition.

  2. Progress in spectroscopic ellipsometry: Applications from vacuum ultraviolet to infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilfiker, James N.; Bungay, Corey L.; Synowicki, Ron A.; Tiwald, Thomas E.; Herzinger, Craig M.; Johs, Blaine; Pribil, Greg K.; Woollam, John A.

    2003-07-01

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) is a noncontact and nondestructive optical technique for thin film characterization. In the past 10 yr, it has migrated from the research laboratory into the semiconductor, data storage, display, communication, and optical coating industries. The wide acceptance of SE is a result of its flexibility to measure most material types: dielectrics, semiconductors, metals, superconductors, polymers, biological coatings, and even multilayers of these materials. Measurement of anisotropic materials has also made huge strides in recent years. Traditional SE measurements cover the ultraviolet, visible, and near infrared wavelengths. This spectral range is now acquired within seconds with high accuracy due to innovative optical configurations and charge coupled device detection. In addition, commercial SE has expanded into both the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and midinfrared (IR). This wide spectral coverage was achieved by utilizing new optical elements and detection systems, along with UV or Fourier transform IR light sources. Modern instrumentation is now available with unprecedented flexibility promoting a new range of possible applications. For example, the VUV spectral region is capable of characterizing lithographic materials for 157 nm photolithography. The VUV also provides increased sensitivity for thin layers (e.g., gate oxides or self-assembled monolayers) and allows investigation of high-energy electronic transitions. The infrared spectral region contains information about semiconductor doping concentration, phonon absorption, and molecular bond vibrational absorptions. In this work, we review the latest progress in SE wavelength coverage. Areas of significant application in both research and industrial fields will be surveyed, with emphasis on wavelength-specific information content.

  3. Viability of Cladosporium herbarum spores under 157 nm laser and vacuum ultraviolet irradiation, low temperature (10 K) and vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarantopoulou, E.; Stefi, A.; Kollia, Z.; Palles, D.; Petrou, P. S.; Bourkoula, A.; Koukouvinos, G.; Velentzas, A. D.; Kakabakos, S.; Cefalas, A. C.

    2014-09-01

    Ultraviolet photons can damage microorganisms, which rarely survive prolonged irradiation. In addition to the need for intact DNA, cell viability is directly linked to the functionality of the cell wall and membrane. In this work, Cladosporium herbarum spore monolayers exhibit high viability (7%) when exposed to 157 nm laser irradiation (412 kJm-2) or vacuum-ultraviolet irradiation (110-180 nm) under standard pressure and temperature in a nitrogen atmosphere. Spore viability can be determined by atomic-force microscopy, nano-indentation, mass, μ-Raman and attenuated reflectance Fourier-transform far-infrared spectroscopies and DNA electrophoresis. Vacuum ultraviolet photons cause molecular damage to the cell wall, but radiation resistance in spores arises from the activation of a photon-triggered signaling reaction, expressed via the exudation of intracellular substances, which, in combination with the low penetration depth of vacuum-ultraviolet photons, shields DNA from radiation. Resistance to phototoxicity under standard conditions was assessed, as was resistance to additional environmental stresses, including exposure in a vacuum, under different rates of change of pressure during pumping time and low (10 K) temperatures. Vacuum conditions were far more destructive to spores than vacuum-ultraviolet irradiation, and UV-B photons were two orders of magnitude more damaging than vacuum-ultraviolet photons. The viability of irradiated spores was also enhanced at 10 K. This work, in addition to contributing to the photonic control of the viability of microorganisms exposed under extreme conditions, including decontamination of biological warfare agents, outlines the basis for identifying bio-signaling in vivo using physical methodologies.

  4. Viability of Cladosporium herbarum spores under 157 nm laser and vacuum ultraviolet irradiation, low temperature (10 K) and vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Sarantopoulou, E. Stefi, A.; Kollia, Z.; Palles, D.; Cefalas, A. C.; Petrou, P. S.; Bourkoula, A.; Koukouvinos, G.; Kakabakos, S.; Velentzas, A. D.

    2014-09-14

    Ultraviolet photons can damage microorganisms, which rarely survive prolonged irradiation. In addition to the need for intact DNA, cell viability is directly linked to the functionality of the cell wall and membrane. In this work, Cladosporium herbarum spore monolayers exhibit high viability (7%) when exposed to 157 nm laser irradiation (412 kJm⁻²) or vacuum-ultraviolet irradiation (110–180 nm) under standard pressure and temperature in a nitrogen atmosphere. Spore viability can be determined by atomic-force microscopy, nano-indentation, mass, μ-Raman and attenuated reflectance Fourier-transform far-infrared spectroscopies and DNA electrophoresis. Vacuum ultraviolet photons cause molecular damage to the cell wall, but radiation resistance in spores arises from the activation of a photon-triggered signaling reaction, expressed via the exudation of intracellular substances, which, in combination with the low penetration depth of vacuum-ultraviolet photons, shields DNA from radiation. Resistance to phototoxicity under standard conditions was assessed, as was resistance to additional environmental stresses, including exposure in a vacuum, under different rates of change of pressure during pumping time and low (10 K) temperatures. Vacuum conditions were far more destructive to spores than vacuum-ultraviolet irradiation, and UV-B photons were two orders of magnitude more damaging than vacuum-ultraviolet photons. The viability of irradiated spores was also enhanced at 10 K. This work, in addition to contributing to the photonic control of the viability of microorganisms exposed under extreme conditions, including decontamination of biological warfare agents, outlines the basis for identifying bio-signaling in vivo using physical methodologies.

  5. Permanent gas analysis using gas chromatography with vacuum ultraviolet detection.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ling; Smuts, Jonathan; Walsh, Phillip; Fan, Hui; Hildenbrand, Zacariah; Wong, Derek; Wetz, David; Schug, Kevin A

    2015-04-01

    The analysis of complex mixtures of permanent gases consisting of low molecular weight hydrocarbons, inert gases, and toxic species plays an increasingly important role in today's economy. A new gas chromatography detector based on vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectroscopy (GC-VUV), which simultaneously collects full scan (115-240 nm) VUV and UV absorption of eluting analytes, was applied to analyze mixtures of permanent gases. Sample mixtures ranged from off-gassing of decomposing Li-ion and Li-metal batteries to natural gas samples and water samples taken from private wells in close proximity to unconventional natural gas extraction. Gas chromatography separations were performed with a porous layer open tubular column. Components such as C1-C5 linear and branched hydrocarbons, water, oxygen, and nitrogen were separated and detected in natural gas and the headspace of natural gas-contaminated water samples. Of interest for the transport of lithium batteries were the detection of flammable and toxic gases, such as methane, ethylene, chloromethane, dimethyl ether, 1,3-butadiene, CS2, and methylproprionate, among others. Featured is the capability for deconvolution of co-eluting signals from different analytes. PMID:25724098

  6. Vacuum ultraviolet spectropolarimeter design for precise polarization measurements.

    PubMed

    Narukage, Noriyuki; Auchère, Frédéric; Ishikawa, Ryohko; Kano, Ryouhei; Tsuneta, Saku; Winebarger, Amy R; Kobayashi, Ken

    2015-03-10

    Precise polarization measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) region provide a new means for inferring weak magnetic fields in the upper atmosphere of the Sun and stars. We propose a VUV spectropolarimeter design ideally suited for this purpose. This design is proposed and adopted for the NASA-JAXA chromospheric lyman-alpha spectropolarimeter (CLASP), which will record the linear polarization (Stokes Q and U) of the hydrogen Lyman-α line (121.567 nm) profile. The expected degree of polarization is on the order of 0.1%. Our spectropolarimeter has two optically symmetric channels to simultaneously measure orthogonal linear polarization states with a single concave diffraction grating that serves both as the spectral dispersion element and beam splitter. This design has a minimal number of reflective components with a high VUV throughput. Consequently, these design features allow us to minimize the polarization errors caused by possible time variation of the VUV flux during the polarization modulation and by statistical photon noise. PMID:25968386

  7. Reflectance measurements of lunar materials in the vacuum ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hapke, B. W.; Wagner, J. K.; Cohen, A. J.; Partlow, W. D.

    1978-01-01

    The spectral reflectances of materials have been measured in the vacuum ultraviolet region of the spectrum for possible planetary compositional remote-sensing applications. These materials, which include lunar and terrestrial silicate rocks and minerals, have one or more characteristic absorption peaks between about 8 and 13 eV. The peaks are visible in the spectra of powders and rough surfaces as well as polished surfaces. In lunar samples the most prominent peaks are at 10.25 eV, due to augite, and at 9.0 eV, due to anorthite. Spectra of lunar soils have minima between 6 eV (0.20 micron) and 8 eV (0.16 micron) depending on composition. Soils that have high reflectances in the visible have low reflectances in the VUV. The pyroxene content of the soils results in reflectance maxima at about 10 eV (0.12 micron). Peaks due to olivine and augite can be identified in the spectra of meteorites.

  8. A synchrotron beamline for delivering high purity vacuum ultraviolet photons

    SciTech Connect

    Cavasso Filho, R. L.; Homen, M. G. P.; Fonseca, P. T.; Naves de Brito, A.

    2007-11-15

    We report on the current status and performance of the toroidal grating monochromator beamline at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron). This beamline provides photons in the vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray regions from 12 to 330 eV with three interchangeable gratings. We report on the improvement, which allows the possibility of choosing the light polarization degree from linear to almost circular. Here, we also describe the development of a new apparatus, namely, the mirror-inserted harmonic attenuator and calibrating-device with a long length (MIRHACLLE). All beamlines based on diffraction gratings suffer from the problem of high harmonics contaminations to some extent. The MIRHACLLE provides a way to efficiently suppress high harmonics from 25% to 1 ppm in a grazing incidence bending magnet beamline. Its principle of operation relays on the absorption of the high energy photons in a gas phase region. It allows negligible high harmonics contamination for photon energies ranging from 12 eV to the gas first ionization threshold, 21.6 eV, in the case of neon. We also demonstrate the possibility to use this device for energy calibration and resolution evaluation together with any experiment needing its filtering capabilities. The device is also very cost effective compared to other filters presented previously in the literature.

  9. Simulated Space Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) Exposure Testing for Polymer Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Pietromica, Anthony J.; Stueber, Thomas J.; Sechkar, Edward A.; Messer, Russell K.

    2002-01-01

    Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation of wavelengths between 115 and 200 nm produced by the sun in the space environment can cause degradation to polymer films producing changes in optical, mechanical, and chemical properties. These effects are particularly important for thin polymer films being considered for ultra-lightweight space structures, because, for most polymers, VUV radiation is absorbed in a thin surface layer. NASA Glenn Research Center has developed facilities and methods for long-term ground testing of polymer films to evaluate space environmental VUV radiation effects. VUV exposure can also be used as part of sequential simulated space environmental exposures to determine combined damaging effects. This paper will describe the effects of VUV on polymer films and the necessity for ground testing. Testing practices used at Glenn Research Center for VUV exposure testing will be described including characterization of the VUV radiation source used, calibration procedures traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and testing techniques for VUV exposure of polymer surfaces.

  10. Solar CIV Vacuum-Ultraviolet Fabry-Perot Interferometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, G. Allen; West, Edward A.; Rees, David; McKay, Jack A.; Zukic, Maumer; Herman, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Aims: A tunable, high spectral resolution, high effective finesse, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) Fabry-Perot interferometer (PPI) is designed for obtaining narrow-passband images, magnetograms, and Dopplergrams of the transition region emission line of CIV (155 nm). Methods: The integral part of the CIV narrow passband filter package (with a 2-10 pm FWHM) consists of a multiple etalon system composed of a tunable interferometer that provides high-spectral resolution and a static low-spectral resolution interferometer that allows a large effective free spectral range. The prefilter for the interferometers is provided by a set of four mirrors with dielectric high-reflective coatings. A tunable interferometer, a VUV piezoelectric-control etalon, has undergone testing using the surrogate F2 eximer laser line at 157 nm for the CIV line. We present the results of the tests with a description of the overall concept for a complete narrow-band CIV spectral filter. The static interferometer of the filter is envisioned as being hudt using a set of fixed MgF2 plates. The four-mirror prefilter is designed to have dielectric multilayer n-stacks employing the design concept used in the Ultraviolet Imager of NASA's Polar Spacecraft. A dual etalon system allows the effective free spectral range to be commensurate with the prefilter profile. With an additional etalon, a triple etalon system would allow a spectrographic resolution of 2 pm. The basic strategy has been to combine the expertise of spaceflight etalon manufacturing with VUV coating technology to build a VUV FPI which combines the best attributes of imagers and spectrographs into a single compact instrument. Results. Spectro-polarimetry observations of the transition region CIV emission can be performed to increase the understanding of the magnetic forces, mass motion, evolution, and energy release within the solar atmosphere at the base of the corona where most of the magnetic field is approximately force-free. The 2D imaging

  11. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometric study of cyclohexene.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Cao, Maoqi; Wei, Bin; Ding, Mengmeng; Shan, Xiaobin; Liu, Fuyi; Sheng, Liusi

    2016-02-01

    In this work, photoionization and dissociation of cyclohexene have been studied by means of coupling a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer with the tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron radiation. The adiabatic ionization energy of cyclohexene as well as the appearance energies of its fragment ions C6 H9 (+) , C6 H7 (+) , C5 H7 (+) , C5 H5 (+) , C4 H6 (+) , C4 H5 (+) , C3 H5 (+) and C3 H3 (+) were derived from the onset of the photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves. The optimized structures for the transition states and intermediates on the ground state potential energy surfaces related to photodissociation of cyclohexene were characterized at the ωB97X-D/6-31+g(d,p) level. The coupled cluster method, CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ, was employed to calculate the corresponding energies with the zero-point energy corrections by the ωB97X-D/6-31+g(d,p) approach. Combining experimental and theoretical results, possible formation pathways of the fragment ions were proposed and discussed in detail. The retro-Cope rearrangement was found to play a crucial role in the formation of C4 H6 (+) , C4 H5 (+) and C3 H5 (+) . Intramolecular hydrogen migrations were observed as dominant processes in most of the fragmentation pathways of cyclohexene. The present research provides a clear picture of the photoionization and dissociation processes of cyclohexene in the 8- to 15.5-eV photon energy region. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26889934

  12. Ultrafast electronic dynamics in polyatomic molecules studied using femtosecond vacuum ultraviolet and x-ray pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Toshinori

    2014-06-01

    Time-resolved velocity map photoelectron imaging is performed using sub-20 fs deep ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet pulses to study electronic dynamics of isolated polyatomic molecules. The non-adiabatic dynamics of pyrazine, furan and carbon disulfide (CS2) are described as examples. Also described is sub-picosecond time-resolved x-ray direct absorption spectroscopy using a hard x-ray free electron laser (SACLA) and a synchronous near ultraviolet laser to study ultrafast electronic dynamics in solutions.

  13. Note: Hollow cathode lamp with integral, high optical efficiency isolation valve: A modular vacuum ultraviolet source

    SciTech Connect

    Sloan Roberts, F.; Anderson, Scott L.

    2013-12-15

    The design and operating conditions of a hollow cathode discharge lamp for the generation of vacuum ultraviolet radiation, suitable for ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) application, are described in detail. The design is easily constructed, and modular, allowing it to be adapted to different experimental requirements. A thin isolation valve is built into one of the differential pumping stages, isolating the discharge section from the UHV section, both for vacuum safety and to allow lamp maintenance without venting the UHV chamber. The lamp has been used both for ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of surfaces and as a “soft” photoionization source for gas-phase mass spectrometry.

  14. Note: Hollow cathode lamp with integral, high optical efficiency isolation valve: a modular vacuum ultraviolet source.

    PubMed

    Roberts, F Sloan; Anderson, Scott L

    2013-12-01

    The design and operating conditions of a hollow cathode discharge lamp for the generation of vacuum ultraviolet radiation, suitable for ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) application, are described in detail. The design is easily constructed, and modular, allowing it to be adapted to different experimental requirements. A thin isolation valve is built into one of the differential pumping stages, isolating the discharge section from the UHV section, both for vacuum safety and to allow lamp maintenance without venting the UHV chamber. The lamp has been used both for ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of surfaces and as a "soft" photoionization source for gas-phase mass spectrometry. PMID:24387477

  15. Vacuum Ultraviolet Images of the Large Magellanic Cloud: Erratum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Andrew M.; Cornett, Robert H.; Hill, Robert S.

    1990-06-01

    In the paper "Vacuum Ultraviolet Images of the Large Magellanic Cloud" by Andrew M. Smith, Robert H. Cornett, and Robert S. Hill (Ap. J., 320, 609 [1987]), an error was made in the dereddening formulae for vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) magnitudes on page 613. For 30 Dor dereddening, the formulae should be m_0(1500)_ = m_1500_ - 10.47 x E(B - V)_LMC_ - 8.05 x E(B - V)_Gal_, and m_0(1900)_ = m_1900_ - 8.87 x E(B - V)_LMC_ - 8.28 x E(B - V)_Gal_. For non-30 Dor dereddening, the formulae should be m_0(1500)_ = m_1500_ -8.72 x E(B - V)_LMC_ - 8.05 x E(B - V)_Gal_, and m_0(1900) = m_1900_ - 8.21 x E(B - V)_LMC_ - 8.28 x E(B - V)_Gal_. The ramifications of this error spread through several results. However, it must be noted that the overall effect is to make our original estimates of intrinsic VUV flux too low. As a result, our primary argument on energetics actually becomes stronger: there is ample energy flux in the southwestern Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) to sustain into the next generation of stars the star-formation front visible in our VUV images. The three tables of observational results are replaced by the results given here in Table 1, in which intrinsic VUV fluxes are corrected (other quantities remain as they were). The discussion of Table 2 needs to be amended. This table compares ionizing fluxes computed by different methods for VUV sources (OB associations) that can be identified with 6 cm radio sources (H II regions). The aggregate ionizing fluxes for this set of objects derived from the two wavelength regimes are no longer so nearly equal as they were. However, as we pointed out, any such equality would be fortuitous, since the two derivations yield results differing by typically a factor of 2 for any given individual association. The discussion of Table 3 also needs to be amended. This table combines ionizing fluxes from OB associations (derived from VU photometry) with ionizing fluxes from 6 cm sources that do not coincide with any OB association. In this

  16. Effect of vacuum ultraviolet and ultraviolet Irradiation on capacitance-voltage characteristics of low-k-porous organosilicate dielectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, H.; Lauer, J. L.; Nichols, M. T.; Shohet, J. L.; Antonelli, G. A.; Nishi, Y.

    2010-02-01

    High frequency capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements are used to determine the effects of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on defect states in porous low-k organosilicate (SiCOH) dielectrics. The characteristics show that VUV photons depopulate trapped electrons from defect states within the dielectric creating trapped positive charge. This is evidenced by a negative shift in the flat-band voltage of the C-V characteristic. UV irradiation reverses this effect by repopulating the defect states with electrons photoinjected from the silicon substrate. Thus, UV reduces the number of trapped positive charges in the dielectric and can effectively repair processing-induced damage.

  17. Surface photoconductivity of organosilicate glass dielectrics induced by vacuum-ultraviolet radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, H.; Nichols, M. T.; Pei, D.; Shohet, J. L.; Nishi, Y.

    2013-08-14

    The temporary increase in the electrical surface conductivity of low-k organosilicate glass (SiCOH) during exposure to vacuum-ultraviolet radiation (VUV) is investigated. To measure the photoconductivity, patterned “comb structures” are deposited on dielectric films and exposed to synchrotron radiation in the range of 8–25 eV, which is in the energy range of most plasma vacuum-ultraviolet radiation. The change in photo surface conductivity induced by VUV radiation may be beneficial in limiting charging damage of dielectrics by depleting the plasma-deposited charge.

  18. Polarization measurements in the Vacuum Ultraviolet using SUMI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, E. A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper will describe the VUV polarization testing of the NSSTC Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph (SUMI) optics. SUMI is being developed for a sounding rocket payload to prove the feasibility of making magnetic field measurements in the transition region. This paper will cover the polarization testing of the SUMI optics and the instrumental polarization of the VUV test facility.

  19. Photon-counting array detectors for space and ground-based studies at ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet /VUV/ wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timothy, J. G.; Bybee, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    The Multi-Anode Microchannel Arrays (MAMAs) are a family of photoelectric photon-counting array detectors, with formats as large as (256 x 1024)-pixels that can be operated in a windowless configuration at vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and soft X-ray wavelengths or in a sealed configuration at ultraviolet and visible wavelengths. This paper describes the construction and modes of operation of (1 x 1024)-pixel and (24 x 1024)-pixel MAMA detector systems that are being built and qualified for use in sounding-rocket spectrometers for solar and stellar observations at wavelengths below 1300 A. The performance characteristics of the MAMA detectors at ultraviolet and VUV wavelengths are also described.

  20. Comparing Vacuum and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation for Postionization of Laser Desorbed Neutrals from Bacterial Biofilms and Organic Fullerene

    SciTech Connect

    Gaspera, Gerald L.; Takahashi, Lynelle K.; Zhou, Jia; Ahmed, Musahid; Moored, Jerry F.; Hanley, Luke

    2010-12-08

    Vacuum and extreme ultraviolet radiation from 8 - 24 eV generated at a synchrotron was used to postionize laser desorbed neutrals of antibiotic-treated biofilms and a modified fullerene using laser desorption postionization mass spectrometry (LDPI-MS). Results show detection of the parent ion, various fragments, and extracellular material from biofilms using LDPI-MS with both vacuum and extreme ultraviolet photons. Parent ions were observed for both cases, but extreme ultraviolet photons (16-24 eV) induced more fragmentation than vacuum ultraviolet (8-14 eV) photons.

  1. An Undergraduate Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy Laboratory at Georgia Tech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, James R.; Bartlett, Roger J.

    Experimental techniques are taught in a laboratory course designed with some student options available. Eight experiments which use vacuum systems, radiation sources, dispersion and detection systems are outlined. A course outline and time table are given. The final examination is described as 30 minutes of individual practical work and dialogue…

  2. The molecular branching ratio method for calibration of optical systems in the vacuum ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mumma, M. J.

    1972-01-01

    The intensity distribution of bands belonging to six molecular band systems is discussed with special emphasis on their usefulness for intensity calibration of optical systems in the vacuum ultraviolet (1000A Lambda 3000A). The theory of molecular band intensities is outlined and the technique of measuring the spectral response curve is described. Several methods for establishing an absolute intensity calibration are discussed.

  3. Vacuum ultraviolet radiation/atomic oxygen synergism in materials reactivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steven; Leger, Lubert; Albyn, Keith; Cross, Jon

    1990-01-01

    Experimental results are presented which indicate that low fluxes of vacuum UV (VUV) radiation exert a pronounced influence on the atomic oxygen reactivity of such fluorocarbon and fluorocarbon spacecraft materials as the FEP Teflon and PCTFE that are under consideration for the Space Station Freedom. With simultaneous exposure to VUV fluxes comparable to those experienced in LEO, the reactivity of these materials becomes comparable to that of Kapton; VUV radiation has also been shown to increase the reactivity of Kapton with thermal-energy oxygen atoms.

  4. Thin-film photodetectors for the vacuum ultraviolet spectral region.

    PubMed

    De Cesare, G; Irrera, F; Palma, F; Naletto, G; Nicolosi, P; Jannitti, E

    1997-05-01

    We report on thin-film photodetectors optimized for detecting the vacuum UV and rejection of the visible spectrum of electromagnetic radiation. The devices are made of hydrogenated amorphous silicon and silicon carbide on a glass substrate. At room temperature the photodetectors exhibit quantum efficiencies of 52% at lambda = 58.4 nm, 1% at lambda = 400 nm, and 0.1% at lambda = 650 nm. The response time for UV pulses from an N(2) laser gives signals of 6-mus full width at half-maximum and 500-ns rise time. PMID:18253265

  5. Vacuum ultraviolet instrumentation for solar irradiance and thermospheric airglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Thomas N.; Rottman, Gary J.; Bailey, Scott M.; Solomon, Stanley C.

    1993-08-01

    A NASA sounding rocket experiment was developed to study the solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral irradiance and its effect on the upper atmosphere. Both the solar flux and the terrestrial molecular nitrogen via the Lyman-Birge-Hopfield bands in the far ultraviolet (FUV) were measured remotely from a sounding rocket on October 27, 1992. The rocket experiment also includes EUV instruments from Boston University (Supriya Chakrabarti), but only the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)/University of Colorado (CU) four solar instruments and one airglow instrument are discussed here. The primary solar EUV instrument is a 1/4 meter Rowland circle EUV spectrograph which has flown on three rockets since 1988 measuring the solar spectral irradiance from 30 to 110 nm with 0.2 nm resolution. Another solar irradiance instrument is an array of six silicon XUV photodiodes, each having different metallic filters coated directly on the photodiodes. This photodiode system provides a spectral coverage from 0.1 to 80 nm with about 15 nm resolution. The other solar irradiance instrument is a silicon avalanche photodiode coupled with pulse height analyzer electronics. This avalanche photodiode package measures the XUV photon energy providing a solar spectrum from 50 to 12,400 eV (25 to 0.1 nm) with an energy resolution of about 50 eV. The fourth solar instrument is an XUV imager that images the sun at 17.5 nm with a spatial resolution of 20 arc-seconds. The airglow spectrograph measures the terrestrial FUV airglow emissions along the horizon from 125 to 160 nm with 0.2 nm spectral resolution. The photon-counting CODACON detectors are used for three of these instruments and consist of coded arrays of anodes behind microchannel plates. The one-dimensional and two-dimensional CODACON detectors were developed at CU by Dr. George Lawrence. The pre-flight and post-flight photometric calibrations were performed at our calibration laboratory and at the Synchrotron Ultraviolet

  6. Vacuum ultraviolet instrumentation for solar irradiance and thermospheric airglow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Thomas N.; Rottman, Gary J.; Bailey, Scott M.; Solomon, Stanley C.

    1993-01-01

    A NASA sounding rocket experiment was developed to study the solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral irradiance and its effect on the upper atmosphere. Both the solar flux and the terrestrial molecular nitrogen via the Lyman-Birge-Hopfield bands in the far ultraviolet (FUV) were measured remotely from a sounding rocket on October 27, 1992. The rocket experiment also includes EUV instruments from Boston University (Supriya Chakrabarti), but only the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)/University of Colorado (CU) four solar instruments and one airglow instrument are discussed here. The primary solar EUV instrument is a 1/4 meter Rowland circle EUV spectrograph which has flown on three rockets since 1988 measuring the solar spectral irradiance from 30 to 110 nm with 0.2 nm resolution. Another solar irradiance instrument is an array of six silicon XUV photodiodes, each having different metallic filters coated directly on the photodiodes. This photodiode system provides a spectral coverage from 0.1 to 80 nm with about 15 nm resolution. The other solar irradiance instrument is a silicon avalanche photodiode coupled with pulse height analyzer electronics. This avalanche photodiode package measures the XUV photon energy providing a solar spectrum from 50 to 12,400 eV (25 to 0.1 nm) with an energy resolution of about 50 eV. The fourth solar instrument is an XUV imager that images the sun at 17.5 nm with a spatial resolution of 20 arc-seconds. The airglow spectrograph measures the terrestrial FUV airglow emissions along the horizon from 125 to 160 nm with 0.2 nm spectral resolution. The photon-counting CODACON detectors are used for three of these instruments and consist of coded arrays of anodes behind microchannel plates. The one-dimensional and two-dimensional CODACON detectors were developed at CU by Dr. George Lawrence. The pre-flight and post-flight photometric calibrations were performed at our calibration laboratory and at the Synchrotron Ultraviolet

  7. Probing Ionic Complexes of Ethylene and Acetylene with Vacuum-Ultraviolet Radiation.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Biswajit; Stein, Tamar; Fang, Yigang; Kostko, Oleg; White, Alec; Head-Gordon, Martin; Ahmed, Musahid

    2016-07-14

    Mixed complexes of acetylene-ethylene are studied using vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization mass spectrometry and theoretical calculations. These complexes are produced and ionized at different distances from the exit of a continuous nozzle followed by reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometry detection. Acetylene, with a higher ionization energy (11.4 eV) than ethylene (10.6 eV), allows for tuning the VUV energy and initializing reactions either from a C2H2(+) or a C2H4(+) cation. Pure acetylene and ethylene expansions are separately carried out to compare, contrast, and hence identify products from the mixed expansion: these are C3H3(+) (m/z = 39), C4H5(+) (m/z = 53), and C5H5(+) (m/z = 65). Intensity distributions of C2H2, C2H4, their dimers and reactions products are plotted as a function of ionization distance. These distributions suggest that association mechanisms play a crucial role in product formation closer to the nozzle. Photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves of the mixed complexes demonstrate rising edges closer to both ethylene and acetylene ionization energies. We use density functional theory (ωB97X-V/aug-cc-pVTZ) to study the structures of the neutral and ionized dimers, calculate their adiabatic and vertical ionization energies, as well as the energetics of different isomers on the potential energy surface (PES). Upon ionization, vibrationally excited clusters can use the extra energy to access different isomers on the PES. At farther ionization distances from the nozzle, where the number densities are lower, unimolecular decay is expected to be the dominant mechanism. We discuss the possible decay pathways from the different isomers on the PES and examine the ones that are energetically accessible. PMID:26983013

  8. Vacuum ultraviolet spectrophotometry and effective temperatures of hot stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brune, W. H.; Mount, G. H.; Feldman, P. D.

    1979-01-01

    Absolutely calibrated ultraviolet stellar spectra from 3100 A to the hydrogen absorption edge at 912 A were obtained on 1977 February 17 by rocket observations above Woomera, Australia. Spectra taken at 15 A resolution have been compared with the observed fluxes from OAO 2 and with recent model-atmosphere fluxes of Kurucz for five hot stars: Gamma (2) Vel, Zeta Pup, Alpha Eri, Beta Cen, and Alpha Vir. The present data give fluxes which are generally lower than those obtained from OAO 2, with the largest deviations of about 20% between 1400 and 1700 A. Agreement with the models is good, although the model fluxes are substantially larger than the observed values below 1200 A. This discrepancy is greater for the higher-temperature stars. Effective temperatures are also determined and are in good agreement with previous results.

  9. Vacuum-ultraviolet instrumentation for solar irradiance and thermospheric airglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Thomas N.; Rottman, Gary J.; Bailey, Scott M.; Solomon, Stanley C.

    1994-02-01

    A NASA sounding rocket experiment was developed to study the solar extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) spectral irradiance and its effect on the upper atmosphere. Both the solar flux and the terrestrial molecular nitrogen via the Lyman-Birge-Hopfield bands in the far-ultraviolet (FUV) region were measured remotely from a sounding rocket on October 27, 1992. The rocket experiment also includes EUV instruments from Boston University, but only the National Center for Atmospheric Research's (NCAR)/University of Colorado's (CU) four solar instruments and one airglow instrument are discussed. The primary solar EUV instrument is a 0.25-m Rowland circle EUV spectrograph that has flown on three rockets since 1988 measuring the solar spectral irradiance from 30 to 110 nm with 0.2-nm resolution. Another solar irradiance instrument is an array of six silicon soft x-ray (XUV) photodiodes, each having different metallic filters coated directly on the photodiodes. This photodiode system provides a spectral coverage from 0.1 to 80 nm with approximately 15-nm resolution. The other solar irradiance instrument is a silicon avalanche photodiode coupled with pulse height analyzer electronics. This avalanche photodiode package measures the XUV photon energy, providing a solar spectrum from 50 to 12,400 eV (25 to 0.1 nm) with an energy resolution of about 50 eV. The fourth solar instrument is an XUV imager that images the sun at 17.5 nm with a spatial resolution of 20 arc sec. The airglow spectrograph measures the terrestrial FUV airglow emissions along the horizon from 125 to 160 nm with 0.2-nm spectral resolution. The photon-counting CODACON detectors are used for three of these instruments and consist of coded arrays of anodes behind microchannel plates.

  10. Vacuum ultraviolet and infrared spectra of condensed methyl acetate on cold astrochemical dust analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Sivaraman, B.; Nair, B. G.; Mason, N. J.; Lo, J.-I.; Cheng, B.-M.; Kundu, S.; Davis, D.; Prabhudesai, V.; Krishnakumar, E.; Raja Sekhar, B. N.

    2013-12-01

    Following the recent report of the first identification of methyl acetate (CH{sub 3}COOCH{sub 3}) in the interstellar medium (ISM), we have carried out vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy studies on methyl acetate from 10 K until sublimation in an ultrahigh vacuum chamber simulating astrochemical conditions. We present the first VUV and IR spectra of methyl acetate relevant to ISM conditions. Spectral signatures clearly showed molecular reorientation to have started in the ice by annealing the amorphous ice formed at 10 K. An irreversible phase change from amorphous to crystalline methyl acetate ice was found to occur between 110 K and 120 K.

  11. Description and analysis of a vacuum ultraviolet atomic line source.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, T T

    1971-06-01

    An intense vacuum uv atomic line source excited in a 2450-MHz microwave discharge cavity is described and analyzed. Additional features are a clean spectrum, very little window deterioration, little or no self-absorption, and easily interchangeable parts. (For the O-atom source only the 1300-A triplet shows up over the 1200-A to 1650-A region.) This source is suitable for the detection of various species by absorption measurement in fast occurring events such as those in ballistic ranges and shock tubes. Atomic line shape theory is used to analyze an O-atom line source with intensity ratios I(1306A): I(1305A): I(1302A):1:2.9:4.5. This source is described by a 2700 +/- 200 K temperature and certain self-absorption parameters as deduced from the measurement of their intensity ratios and their transmission characteristics through known concentrations of O-atoms. A good theoretical fit to the measured transmission validates the assumed uniform source temperature and excitation for the analysis. An f value (f = 0.052 +/- 0.005) for the O-atom 1300-A triplet absorption and a collision diameter of 5.5 +/- 1.0 A between the O-atom and the nitrogen molecule were determined in the course of this study. PMID:20111107

  12. Spontaneous Patterning of High-Resolution Electronics via Parallel Vacuum Ultraviolet.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuying; Kanehara, Masayuki; Liu, Chuan; Sakamoto, Kenji; Yasuda, Takeshi; Takeya, Jun; Minari, Takeo

    2016-08-01

    A spontaneous patterning technique via parallel vacuum ultraviolet is developed for fabricating large-scale, complex electronic circuits with 1 μm resolution. The prepared organic thin-film transistors exhibit a low contact resistance of 1.5 kΩ cm, and high mobilities of 0.3 and 1.5 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) in the devices with channel lengths of 1 and 5 μm, respectively. PMID:27184834

  13. Bidirectional Reflectance Function Measurement of Molecular Contaminant Scattering in the Vacuum Ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herren, Kenneth A.; Gregory, Don A.

    2006-01-01

    Bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) measurements of optical surfaces both before and after molecular contamination were done using UV, VUV and visible light. Molecular contamination of optical surfaces from outgassed material has been shown in many cases to proceed from acclimation centers, and to produce many roughly hemispherical "islands" of contamination on the surface. Vacuum Ultraviolet (VW) wavelengths are used here to measure angularly scattered light from optical surfaces.

  14. Laser-induced two-photon blackbody radiation in the vacuum ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zych, L. J.; Young, J. F.; Harris, S. E.; Lukasik, J.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental measurements of a new type of vacuum-ultraviolet radiation source are reported. It is shown that the maximum source brightness, within its narrow linewidth, is that of a blackbody at the temperature of a metastable storage level. The laser-induced emission at 569 A from a He glow discharge corresponded to a metastable temperature of 22,700 K and was over 100 times brighter than the 584-A He resonance line.

  15. Heats of vaporization of room temperature ionic liquids by tunable vacuum ultraviolet photoionization

    SciTech Connect

    Chambreau, Steven D.; Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam L.; To, Albert; Koh, Christine; Strasser, Daniel; Kostko, Oleg; Leone, Stephen R.

    2009-11-25

    The heats of vaporization of the room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bistrifluorosulfonylimide, N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium dicyanamide, and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide are determined using a heated effusive vapor source in conjunction with single photon ionization by a tunable vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron source. The relative gas phase ionic liquid vapor densities in the effusive beam are monitored by clearly distinguished dissociative photoionization processes via a time-of-flight mass spectrometer at a tunable vacuum ultraviolet beamline 9.0.2.3 (Chemical Dynamics Beamline) at the Advanced Light Source synchrotron facility. Resulting in relatively few assumptions, through the analysis of both parent cations and fragment cations, the heat of vaporization of N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bistrifluorosulfonylimide is determined to be Delta Hvap(298.15 K) = 195+-19 kJ mol-1. The observed heats of vaporization of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide (Delta Hvap(298.15 K) = 174+-12 kJ mol-1) and N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium dicyanamide (Delta Hvap(298.15 K) = 171+-12 kJ mol-1) are consistent with reported experimental values using electron impact ionization. The tunable vacuum ultraviolet source has enabled accurate measurement of photoion appearance energies. These appearance energies are in good agreement with MP2 calculations for dissociative photoionization of the ion pair. These experimental heats of vaporization, photoion appearance energies, and ab initio calculations corroborate vaporization of these RTILs as intact cation-anion ion pairs.

  16. Intensity and Energy Level Analysis of the Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectrum of Four Times Ionize Nickel (Ni V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Jacob Wolfgang; Nave, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    Recent measurements of four times ionized iron and nickel (Fe V & Ni V) wavelengths in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) have been taken using the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) Normal Incidence Vacuum Spectrograph (NIVS) with a sliding spark light source with invar electrodes. The wavelengths observed in those measurements make use of high resolution photographic plates with the majority of observed lines having uncertainties of approximately 3mÅ. In addition to observations made with photographic plates, the same wavelength region was observed with phosphor image plates, which have been demonstrated to be accurate as a method of intensity calibration when used with a deuterium light source. This work will evaluate the use of phosphor image plates and deuterium lamps as an intensity calibration method for the Ni V spectrum in the 1200-1600Å region of the VUV. Additionally, by pairing the observed wavelengths of Ni V with accurate line intensities, it is possible to create an energy level optimization for Ni V providing high accuracy Ritz wavelengths. This process has previously been applied to Fe V and produced Ritz wavelengths that agreed with the above experimental observations.

  17. Determination of Hydrocarbon Group-Type of Diesel Fuels by Gas Chromatography with Vacuum Ultraviolet Detection.

    PubMed

    Weber, Brandon M; Walsh, Phillip; Harynuk, James J

    2016-06-01

    A GC-vacuum ultraviolet (UV) method to perform group-type separations of diesel range fuels was developed. The method relies on an ionic liquid column to separate diesel samples into saturates, mono-, di-, and polyaromatics by gas chromatography, with selective detection via vacuum UV absorption spectroscopy. Vacuum UV detection was necessary to solve a coelution between saturates and monoaromatics. The method was used to measure group-type composition of 10 oilsands-derived Synfuel light diesel samples, 3 Syncrude light gas oils, and 1 quality control sample. The gas chromatography (GC)-vacuum UV results for the Synfuel samples were similar (absolute % error of 0.8) to historical results from the supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) analysis. For the light gas oils, discrepancies were noted between SFC results and GC-vacuum UV results; however, these samples are known to be challenging to quantify by SFC-flame ionization detector (FID) due to incomplete resolution between the saturate/monoaromatic and/or monoaromatic/diaromatic group types when applied to samples heavier than diesel (i.e., having a larger fraction of higher molecular weight species). The quality control sample also performed well when comparing both methods (absolute % error of 0.2) and the results agreed within error for saturates, mono- and polyaromatics. PMID:27125997

  18. Vacuum Ultraviolet and Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Effect of Hydrogenated Silicon Nitride Etching: Surface Reaction Enhancement and Damage Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukasawa, Masanaga; Miyawaki, Yudai; Kondo, Yusuke; Takeda, Keigo; Kondo, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Kenji; Sekine, Makoto; Matsugai, Hiroyasu; Honda, Takayoshi; Minami, Masaki; Uesawa, Fumikatsu; Hori, Masaru; Tatsumi, Tetsuya

    2012-02-01

    Photon-enhanced etching of SiNx:H films caused by the interaction between vacuum ultraviolet (VUV)/ultraviolet (UV) radiation and radicals in the fluorocarbon plasma was investigated by a technique with a novel sample setup of the pallet for plasma evaluation. The simultaneous injection of UV radiation and radicals causes a dramatic etch rate enhancement of SiNx:H films. Only UV radiation causes the film shrinkage of SiNx:H films owing to hydrogen desorption from the film. Capacitance-voltage characteristics of SiNx:H/Si substrates were studied before and after UV radiation. The interface trap density increased monotonically upon irradiating the UV photons with a wavelength of 248 nm. The estimated effective interface trap generation probability is 4.74 ×10-7 eV-1·photon-1. Therefore, the monitoring of the VUV/UV spectra during plasma processing and the understanding of its impact on the surface reaction, film damage and electrical performance of underlying devices are indispensable to fabricate advanced devices.

  19. Vacuum Ultraviolet and Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Tb3+- and Eu3+-Doped Na(Sr,Ba)PO4 Phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yanlin; Cao, Yonggang; Jiang, Chuanfang; Shi, Liang; Tao, Ye; Seo, Hyo Jin

    2008-08-01

    The Eu3+- and Tb3+-doped NaSr0.65Ba0.35(PO4) phosphors were prepared by high-temperature solid-state reaction. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analyses confirm the pure crystalline phase of Olgite mineral. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements indicate that these phosphors have good surface-crystalline with a narrow size distribution. Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron radiation and ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy were applied to study the luminescence properties of these phosphors. The bands near 147 nm in the VUV excitation spectra of those doped samples are attributed to the PO43- absorption in the host. The excitation and emission spectra indicate that the phosphors can be effectively excited for NaSr0.65Ba0.35(PO4):Eu3+ and NaSr0.65Ba0.35(PO4):Tb3+ by 147 nm and exhibit a red and green light, respectively. The Commission International de I'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates for Eu3+- and Tb3+-activated phosphors are calculated. Considering the high luminescence intensity, excellent color purity and chemical stability, NaSr0.65Ba0.35(PO4):RE (RE = Eu3+, Tb3+) are attractive red- and green-emitting plasma display panel phosphors.

  20. Effects of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in air and under vacuum on low-k dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, F. A.; Ryan, E. T.; Nguyen, H. M.; Nishi, Y.; Shohet, J. L.

    2016-07-01

    This work addresses the effect of ultraviolet radiation of wavelengths longer than 250 nm on Si-CH3 bonds in porous low-k dielectrics. Porous low-k films (k = 2.3) were exposed to 4.9 eV (254 nm) ultraviolet (UV) radiation in both air and vacuum for one hour. Using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, the chemical structures of the dielectric films were analyzed before and after the UV exposure. UV irradiation in air led to Si-CH3 bond depletion in the low-k material and made the films hydrophilic. However, no change in Si-CH3 bond concentration was observed when the same samples were exposed to UV under vacuum with a similar fluence. These results indicate that UV exposures in vacuum with wavelengths longer than ˜250 nm do not result in Si-CH3 depletion in low-k films. However, if the irradiation takes place in air, the UV irradiation removes Si-CH3 although direct photolysis of air species does not occur above ˜242nm. We propose that photons along with molecular oxygen and, water, synergistically demethylate the low-k films.

  1. Analysis of Fe V and Ni V Wavelength Standards in the Vacuum Ultraviolet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Jacob Wolfgang; Nave, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    The recent publication[1] by J.C. Berengut et al. tests for a potential variation in the fine-structure constant in the presence of high gravitational potentials through spectral analysis of white-dwarf stars.The spectrum of the white-dwarf star studied in the paper, G191-B2B, has prominent Fe V and Ni V lines, which were used to determine any variation in the fine-structure constant via observed shifts in the wavelengths of Fe V and Ni V in the vacuum ultraviolet region. The results of the paper indicate no such variation, but suggest that refined laboratory values for the observed wavelengths could greatly reduce the uncertainty associated with the paper's findings.An investigation of Fe V and Ni V spectra in the vacuum ultraviolet region has been conducted to reduce wavelength uncertainties currently limiting modern astrophysical studies of this nature. The analyzed spectra were produced by a sliding spark light source with electrodes made of invar, an iron nickel alloy, at peak currents of 750-2000 A. The use of invar ensures that systematic errors in the calibration are common to both species. The spectra were recorded with the NIST Normal Incidence Vacuum Spectrograph on phosphor image plate and photographic plate detectors. Calibration was done with a Pt II spectrum produced by a Platinum Neon Hollow Cathode lamp.[1] J. C. Berengut, V. V. Flambaum, A. Ong, et al Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 010801 (2013)

  2. Size dependence of luminescent properties for hexagonal YBO3:Eu nanocrystals in the vacuum ultraviolet region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zheng-Gui; Sun, Ling-Dong; Liao, Chun-Sheng; Jiang, Xiao-Cheng; Yan, Chun-Hua; Tao, Ye; Hou, Xue-Ying; Ju, Xin

    2003-06-01

    The vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectra of the nanosized YBO3:Eu crystals, which have already been prepared by a more facile sol-gel pyrolysis process at a relatively low annealing temperature in our previous work, were investigated and compared to the bulk synthesized by conventional solid-state reactions. In the emission spectra, the size dependence of color purity in YBO3:Eu under VUV irradiation is in good agreement with our previous results obtained under ultraviolet excitation, and a relatively better color purity could be obtained in the YBO3:Eu phosphors with a smaller particle size. Moreover, the VUV excitation spectra of nanocrystals are also distinctly different from those of the bulk and submicrosized samples. The size dependence of the Eu-O charge transfer process, the B3O99- ion absorption, and the Y-O excitonic transition, as well as the quenching concentration, were reported and discussed.

  3. Molecular branching ratio method for intensity calibration of optical systems in the vacuum ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mumma, M. J.

    1972-01-01

    A state-of-the-art review is given of the molecular branching ratio method for intensity calibration in the vacuum ultraviolet. Ways are described for determining both relative and quantitative responses in the wavelength range 1000 A to 3000 A. The molecular band systems which are discussed are the following: H2(B 1 Sigma u +)-(X 1 Sigma g +), H2(C 1 Pi u)-(X 1 Sigma g +), N2(A 1 Pi g)-(X 1 Sigma g +), CO(A 1 Pi)-(X 1 Sigma +), NO(A 2 Sigma +)-(X 2 Pi r), and NO(+) (A 1 Pi)-(X 1 Sigma +).

  4. Vacuum ultraviolet light source utilizing rare gas scintillation amplification sustained by photon positive feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aprile, Elena (Inventor); Chen, Danli (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A source of light in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectral region includes a reflective UV-sensitive photocathode supported in spaced parallel relationship with a mesh electrode within a rare gas at low pressure. A high positive potential applied to the mesh electrode creates an electric field which causes drifting of free electrons occurring between the electrodes and producing continuous VUV light output by electric field-driven scintillation amplification sustained by positive photon feedback mediated by photoemission from the photocathode. In one embodiment the lamp emits a narrow-band continuum peaked at 175 nm.

  5. Reflectance and substrate currents of dielectric layers under vacuum ultraviolet irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, H.; Straight, D. B.; Lauer, J. L.; Fuller, N. C.; Engelmann, S. U.; Zhang, Y.; Antonelli, G. A.; Severson, M.; Nishi, Y.; Shohet, J. L.

    2010-11-15

    The reflectance of low-k porous organosilicate glass (SiCOH) as a function of photon energy under synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation was measured using a nickel mesh reflectometer. The authors found that during VUV irradiation, the reflectance of SiCOH and the substrate current were inversely correlated. Thus, reflectance can be inferred from substrate current measurements and vice versa. The authors conclude that reflectance or substrate current measurements can determine the photon energies that are absorbed and, therefore, cause dielectric damage during processing. Thus, reducing the flux of deleterious photon energies in processing systems can minimize dielectric damage.

  6. Test of prototype ITER vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer and its application to impurity study in KSTAR plasmas.

    PubMed

    Seon, C R; Hong, J H; Jang, J; Lee, S H; Choe, W; Lee, H H; Cheon, M S; Pak, S; Lee, H G; Biel, W; Barnsley, R

    2014-11-01

    To optimize the design of ITER vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectrometer, a prototype VUV spectrometer was developed. The sensitivity calibration curve of the spectrometer was calculated from the mirror reflectivity, the grating efficiency, and the detector efficiency. The calibration curve was consistent with the calibration points derived in the experiment using the calibrated hollow cathode lamp. For the application of the prototype ITER VUV spectrometer, the prototype spectrometer was installed at KSTAR, and various impurity emission lines could be measured. By analyzing about 100 shots, strong positive correlation between the O VI and the C IV emission intensities could be found. PMID:25430310

  7. Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Desorption of Molecular Contaminants Deposited on Quartz Crystal Microbalances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albyn, Keith; Burns, Dewitt

    2006-01-01

    Recent quartz crystal microbalance measurements made in the Marshall Space Flight Center, Photo-Deposition Facility, for several materials, recorded a significant loss of deposited contaminants when the deposition surface of the microbalance was illuminated by a deuterium lamp. These measurements differ from observations made by other investigators in which the rate of deposition increased significantly when the deposition surface was illuminated with vacuum ultraviolet radiation. These observations suggest that the accelerated deposition of molecular contaminants on optically sensitive surfaces is dependant upon the contaminant being deposited and must be addressed during the materials selection process by common material screening techniques.

  8. Proton transfer in acetaldehyde and acetaldehyde-water clusters: Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization experiment and theoretical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostko, Oleg; Troy, Tyler P.; Bandyopadhyay, Biswajit; Ahmed, Musahid

    2015-03-01

    Acetaldehyde, a probable human carcinogen and of environmental importance, upon solvation provides a test bed for understanding proton transfer pathways and catalytic mechanisms. In this study, we report on single photon vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of small acetaldehyde and acetaldehyde-water clusters. Appearance energies of protonated clusters are extracted from the experimental photoionization efficiency curves and compared to electronic structure calculations. The comparison of experimental data to computational results provides mechanistic insight into the fragmentation mechanisms of the observed mass spectra. Using deuterated water for isotopic tagging, we observe that proton transfer is mediated via acetaldehyde and not water in protonated acetaldehyde-water clusters.

  9. Dissociative excitation of vacuum ultraviolet emission features by electron impact on molecular gases. 3: CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mumma, M. J.; Borst, W. L.; Zipf, E. C.

    1972-01-01

    Vacuum ultraviolet multiplets of C I, C II, and O I were produced by electron impact on CO2. Absolute emission cross sections for these multiplets were measured from threshold to 350 eV. The electrostatically focused electron gun used is described in detail. The atomic multiplets which were produced by dissociative excitation of CO2 and the cross sections at 100 eV are presented. The dependence of the excitation functions on electron energy shows that these multiplets are produced by electric-dipole-allowed transitions in CO2.

  10. CIV Polarization Measurements using a Vacuum Ultraviolet Fabry-Perot Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, Edward; Gary, G. Allen; Cirtain, Jonathan; David, John; Kobayashi, Ken; Pietraszewski, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) is developing a Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) Fabry-P rot Interferometer that will be launched on a sounding rocket for high throughput, high-cadence, extended field of view CIV (155nm) measurements. These measurements will provide (i) Dopplergrams for studies of waves, oscillations, explosive events, and mass motions through the transition region, and, (ii), polarization measurements to study the magnetic field in the transition region. This paper will describe the scientific goals of the instrument, a brief description of the optics and the polarization characteristics of the VUV Fabry P rot.

  11. Possibility of using sources of vacuum ultraviolet irradiation to solve problems of space material science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verkhoutseva, E. T.; Yaremenko, E. I.

    1974-01-01

    An urgent problem in space materials science is simulating the interaction of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) of solar emission with solids in space conditions, that is, producing a light source with a distribution that approximates the distribution of solar energy. Information is presented on the distribution of the energy flux of VUV of solar radiation. Requirements that must be satisfied by the VUV source used for space materials science are formulated, and a critical evaluation is given of the possibilities of using existing sources for space materials science. From this evaluation it was established that none of the sources of VUV satisfies the specific requirements imposed on the simulator of solar radiation. A solution to the problem was found to be in the development of a new type of source based on exciting a supersonic gas jet flowing into vacuum with a sense electron beam. A description of this gas-jet source, along with its spectral and operation characteristics, is presented.

  12. Tunable vacuum ultraviolet laser based spectrometer for angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Rui; Mou, Daixiang; Wu, Yun; Huang, Lunan; Kaminski, Adam; McMillen, Colin D.; Kolis, Joseph; Giesber, Henry G.; Egan, John J.

    2014-03-15

    We have developed an angle-resolved photoemission spectrometer with tunable vacuum ultraviolet laser as a photon source. The photon source is based on the fourth harmonic generation of a near IR beam from a Ti:sapphire laser pumped by a CW green laser and tunable between 5.3 eV and 7 eV. The most important part of the set-up is a compact, vacuum enclosed fourth harmonic generator based on potassium beryllium fluoroborate crystals, grown hydrothermally in the US. This source can deliver a photon flux of over 10{sup 14} photon/s. We demonstrate that this energy range is sufficient to measure the k{sub z} dispersion in an iron arsenic high temperature superconductor, which was previously only possible at synchrotron facilities.

  13. Facility and Methods Developed for Simulated Space Vacuum Ultraviolet Exposure Testing of Polymer Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Pietromica, Anthony J.; Stueber, Thomas J.; Sechkar, Edward A.; Messer, Russell K.

    2002-01-01

    Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation of wavelengths between 115 and 200 nm produced by the Sun in the space environment can degrade polymer films, producing changes in their optical, mechanical, and chemical properties. These effects are particularly important for thin polymer films being considered for ultralightweight space structures, because, for most polymers, VUV radiation is absorbed in a thin surface layer. The NASA Glenn Research Center has developed facilities and methods for long-term ground testing of polymer films to evaluate space environmental VUV radiation effects. VUV exposure can also be used as part of combined or sequential simulated space environmental exposures to determine combined damaging effects with other aspects of the space environment, which include solar ultraviolet radiation, solar flare x-rays, electron and proton radiation, atomic oxygen (for low-Earth-orbit missions), and temperature effects. Because the wavelength sensitivity of VUV damage is not well known for most materials, Glenn's VUV facility uses a broad-spectrum deuterium lamp with a magnesium fluoride window that provides output between 115 and 200 nm. Deuterium lamps of this type were characterized by the National Institute of Standards and Technology and through measurements at Glenn. Spectral irradiance measurements show that from approximately 115 to 160 nm, deuterium lamp irradiance can be many times that of air mass zero solar irradiance, and as wavelength increases above approximately 160 nm, deuterium lamp irradiance decreases in comparison to the Sun. The facility is a cryopumped vacuum chamber that achieves a system pressure of approximately 5310(exp -6) torr. It contains four individual VUV-exposure compartments in vacuum, separated by water-cooled copper walls to minimize VUV radiation and any sample contamination cross interactions between compartments. Each VUV-exposure compartment contains a VUV deuterium lamp, a motor-controlled sample stage coupled with a

  14. Laser Desorption Postionization Mass Spectrometry of Antibiotic-Treated Bacterial Biofilms using Tunable Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gasper, Gerald L; Takahashi, Lynelle K; Zhou, Jia; Ahmed, Musahid; Moore, Jerry F; Hanley, Luke

    2010-08-04

    Laser desorption postionization mass spectrometry (LDPI-MS) with 8.0 ? 12.5 eV vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation is used to single photon ionize antibiotics andextracellular neutrals that are laser desorbed both neat and from intact bacterial biofilms. Neat antibiotics are optimally detected using 10.5 eV LDPI-MS, but can be ionized using 8.0 eV radiation, in agreement with prior work using 7.87 eV LDPI-MS. Tunable vacuum ultraviolet radiation also postionizes laser desorbed neutrals of antibiotics and extracellular material from within intact bacterial biofilms. Different extracellular material is observed by LDPI-MS in response to rifampicin or trimethoprim antibiotic treatment. Once again, 10.5 eV LDPI-MS displays the optimum trade-off between improved sensitivity and minimum fragmentation. Higher energy photons at 12.5 eV produce significant parent ion signal, but fragment intensity and other low mass ions are also enhanced. No matrix is added to enhance desorption, which is performed at peak power densities insufficient to directly produce ions, thus allowing observation of true VUV postionization mass spectra of antibiotic treated biofilms.

  15. CIV Vacuum Ultraviolet Fabry-Perot Interferometers for Transition-Region Magnetography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, G. Allen; West, Edward A.; Rees, David; Zukic, Maumer; Herman, Peter; Li, Jianzhao

    2006-01-01

    The vacuum ultraviolet region allows remote sensing of the upper levels of the solar atmosphere where the magnetic field dominates the physics. Obtaining an imaging interferometer that observes the transition region is the goal of this program. This paper gives a summary of our instrument development program (1998-2005) for a high-spectral-resolution, piezoelectric tunable Vacuum Ultraviolet Fabry-Perot Interferometer (VUV FPI) for obtaining narrow-passband images, magnetograms, and Dopplergrams of the transition region emission line of CN (155nm). A VUV interferometer will allow us to observe the magnetic field, flows, and heating events in the mid-transition region. The MSFC VUV FPI has measured values of FWHM approx. 9pm, FSR approx. 62pm, finesse approx. 5.3 and transmittance approx. 50% at 157nm. For the measurements, the University of Toronto's F2 eximer laser was used as an appropriate proxy for CIV 155nm. This has provided the first tunable interferometer with a FWHM compatible to VUV filter magnetograph.

  16. Absolute Intensities of the Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectra in a Metal-Etch Plasma Processing Discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Aragon, B.P.; Blain, M.G.; Hamilton, T.W.; Jarecki, R.L.; Woodworth, J.R.

    1998-12-09

    In this paper we report absolute intensities of vacuum ultraviolet and near ultraviolet emission lines (4.8 eV to 18 eV ) for aluminum etching discharges in an inductively coupled plasma reactor. We report line intensities as a function of wafer type, pressure, gas mixture and rf excitation level. IrI a standard aluminum etching mixture containing C12 and BC13 almost all the light emitted at energies exceeding 8.8 eV was due to neutral atomic chlorine. Optical trapping of the WV radiation in the discharge complicates calculations of VUV fluxes to the wafer. However, we see total photon fluxes to the wailer at energies above 8.8 eV on the order of 4 x 1014 photons/cm2sec with anon- reactive wafer and 0.7 x 10 `4 photons/cm2sec with a reactive wtier. The maj ority of the radiation observed was between 8.9 and 9.3 eV. At these energies, the photons have enough energy to create electron-hole pairs in Si02, but may penetrate up to a micron into the Si02 before being absorbed. Relevance of these measurements to vacuum-W photon-induced darnage of Si02 during etching is discussed.

  17. Absolute intensities of the vacuum ultraviolet spectra in a metal-etch plasma processing discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Woodworth, J.R.; Blain, M.G.; Jarecki, R.L.; Hamilton, T.W.; Aragon, B.P.

    1999-11-01

    In this article we report absolute intensities of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and near ultraviolet emission lines (4.8{endash}18 eV) for discharges used to etch aluminum in a commercial inductively coupled plasma reactor. We report line intensities as functions of wafer type, pressure, gas mixture, and radio frequency excitation level. In a standard aluminum etching mixture containing Cl{sub 2} and BCl{sub 3} almost all the light emitted at energies exceeding 8.8 eV was due to neutral atomic chlorine. Optical trapping of the VUV radiation in the discharge complicates calculations of VUV fluxes to the wafer. However, we measured total photon fluxes to the wafer at energies above 8.8 eV on the order of 4{times}10{sup 14}&hthinsp;photons/cm{sup 2}&hthinsp;s with a nonreactive wafer and 0.7{times}10{sup 14}&hthinsp;photons/cm{sup 2}&hthinsp;s with a reactive wafer. The majority of the radiation was between 8.9 and 9.3 eV. At these energies, the photons have enough energy to create electron-hole pairs in SiO{sub 2} and may penetrate up to a micron into the SiO{sub 2} before being absorbed. Relevance of these measurements to VUV photon-induced damage of SiO{sub 2} during etching is discussed. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Vacuum Society.}

  18. Laser Desorption Postionization Mass Spectrometry of Antibiotic-Treated Bacterial Biofilms using Tunable Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Gasper, Gerald L.; Takahashi, Lynelle K.; Zhou, Jia; Ahmed, Musahid; Moore, Jerry F.; Hanley, Luke

    2010-01-01

    Laser desorption postionization mass spectrometry (LDPI-MS) with 8.0 – 12.5 eV vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation is used to single photon ionize antibiotics and extracellular neutrals that are laser desorbed both neat and from intact bacterial biofilms. Neat antibiotics are optimally detected using 10.5 eV LDPI-MS, but can be ionized using 8.0 eV radiation, in agreement with prior work using 7.87 eV LDPI-MS. Tunable vacuum ultraviolet radiation also postionizes laser desorbed neutrals of antibiotics and extracellular material from within intact bacterial biofilms. Different extracellular material is observed by LDPI-MS in response to rifampicin or trimethoprim antibiotic treatment. Once again, 10.5 eV LDPI-MS displays the optimum trade-off between improved sensitivity and minimum fragmentation. Higher energy photons at 12.5 eV produce significant parent ion signal, but fragment intensity and other low mass ions are also enhanced. No matrix is added to enhance desorption, which is performed at peak power densities insufficient to directly produce ions, thus allowing observation of true VUV postionization mass spectra of antibiotic treated biofilms. PMID:20712373

  19. Vacuum-Ultraviolet (VUV) Photoionization of Small Methanol and Methanol-Water Clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Kostko, Oleg; Belau, Leonid; Wilson, Kevin R.; Ahmed, Musahid

    2008-04-24

    In this work, we report on the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of small methanol and methanol-water clusters. Clusters of methanol with water are generated via co-expansion of the gas phase constituents in a continuous supersonic jet expansion of methanol and water seeded in Ar. The resulting clusters are investigated by single photon ionization with tunable vacuum-ultraviolet synchrotron radiation and mass analyzed using reflectron mass spectrometry. Protonated methanol clusters of the form (CH3OH)nH+(n = 1-12) dominate the mass spectrum below the ionization energy of the methanol monomer. With an increase in water concentration, small amounts of mixed clusters of the form (CH3OH n(H2O)H+ (n = 2-11) are detected. The only unprotonated species observed in this work are the methanol monomer and dimer. Appearance energies are obtained from the photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves for CH3OH+, (CH3OH)2+, (CH3OH)nH+ (n = 1-9), and (CH3OH)n(H2O)H+ (n = 2-9) as a function of photon energy. With an increasein the water content in the molecular beam, there is an enhancement of photoionization intensity for the methanol dimer and protonated methanol monomer at threshold. These results are compared and contrasted to previous experimental observations.

  20. Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Effects on DC93-500 Silicone Film Studied

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Yan, Li

    2005-01-01

    A space-qualified silicone polymer, DC93-500 (Dow Corning, Midland, MI), has been used as a spacecraft solar cell adhesive and has been proposed for use in a Fresnel lens solar concentrator for space power applications. Applications of DC93-500 for exterior space system surfaces require an understanding of its overall space environmental durability. Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation is among the space environment elements that can be hazardous to the properties of DC93-500, causing degradation in optical and mechanical properties. For materials or components that have not been tested previously for long-duration performance in space, such as DC93-500 in freestanding film form, ground laboratory testing is an important tool for assuring durability. However, differences between the space environment and ground laboratory testing environments lead to complexities in interpreting the ground test results. Two important differences between space and laboratory vacuum ultraviolet exposure conditions are irradiance spectra and light intensity. These important differences were the basis for laboratory experiments conducted to examine VUV wavelength dependence and VUV intensity dependence of DC93-500 degradation. Testing conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center along with additional data provided through a grant with the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, has advanced the understanding of VUV effects on DC93-500 and has provided important conclusions regarding the use of ground laboratory VUV testing to predict the space environment performance of DC93-500.

  1. Absolute calibration of a hydrogen discharge lamp in the vacuum ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nealy, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    A low-pressure hydrogen discharge lamp was calibrated for radiant intensity in the vacuum ultraviolet spectral region on an absolute basis and was employed as a laboratory standard source in spectrograph calibrations. This calibration was accomplished through the use of a standard photodiode detector obtained from the National Bureau of Standards together with onsite measurements of spectral properties of optical components used. The stability of the light source for use in the calibration of vacuum ultraviolet spectrographs and optical systems was investigated and found to be amenable to laboratory applications. The lamp was studied for a range of operating parameters; the results indicate that with appropriate peripheral instrumentation, the light source can be used as a secondary laboratory standard source when operated under preset controlled conditions. Absolute intensity measurements were recorded for the wavelengths 127.7, 158.0, 177.5, and 195.0 nm for a time period of over 1 month, and the measurements were found to be repeatable to within 11 percent.

  2. Low temperature performance of photomultiplier tubes illuminated in pulsed mode by visible and vacuum ultraviolet light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, H. M.; Chepel, V. Yu.; Lopes, M. I.; Marques, R. Ferreira; Policarpo, A. J. P. L.

    1997-01-01

    Detecting the ultraviolet scintillation light of the liquefied rare gases, in particular liquid xenon, requires the use of photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) in a temperature range where their operation is not ensured by manufacturers. Simultaneously, monitoring of the PMTs should be done in the visible for technical reasons. Bialkali photocathodes, that present high quantum efficiency and low dark noise, exhibit a very strong increase of electrical resistivity upon cooling that, apart from other reasons, can lead to operation failure at low temperature. Photomultiplier tubes with bialkali photocathodes and quartz windows (two EMI 9750Q and one Philips XP 2020Q) and another with S11-type photocathode and glass window (FEU 85A) were tested down to -160 °C with a pulsed light source, both in the visible region and at the xenon scintillation wavelength in the vacuum ultraviolet. For the visible range, the results obtained with bialkali photomultipliers display a sharp drop of response at about -100 °C, depending on the count rate, regardless of the wavelength, and a shift of the spectral sensitivity curve towards shorter wavelengths. Concerning the vacuum ultraviolet region, a significant increase of the response was observed between room temperature and that of the efficiency drop. For some photomultiplier tubes, the response as a function of temperature was observed to depend on their past history, probably due to mechanical effects arising in the multiplier system upon cooling. It is concluded that photomultipliers with bialkali photocathode can, in principle, be used for the detection of liquid xenon scintillation, although they have to be carefully monitored while in operation.

  3. Further studies on MgF(2)-overcoated aluminum mirrors with highest reflectance in the vacuum ultraviolet.

    PubMed

    Canfield, L R; Hass, G; Waylonis, J E

    1966-01-01

    MgF(2)-overcoated aluminum films with high-vacuum ultraviolet reflectance have been the subject of further investigations of the preparation parameters affecting their reflectance, and of the effect of aging and exposure to conditions likely to be encountered in their applications. Techniques for monitoring the thickness of MgF(2) by reflectance measurements with ultraviolet light and by complete evaporation of weighed quantities of MgF(2) are described. It is shown that MgF(2)-protected aluminum mirrors retain their high-vacuum ultraviolet reflectance during extended exposure to air, ultraviolet irradiation, and bombardment with 1-MeV electrons and 5-MeV protons, and that such mirrors can be easily cleaned if contaminated with oil. PMID:20048784

  4. Effects of space vacuum and solar ultraviolet irradiation (254 nanometers) on the colony forming ability of Bacillus subtilis spores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buecker, H.; Horneck, G.; Wollenhaupt, H.

    1973-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis spores are highly resistant to harsh environments. Therefore, in the Apollo 16 Microbial Response to Space Environment Experiment (M191), these spores were exposed to space vacuum or solar ultraviolet irradiation, or both, to estimate the change of survival for terrestrial organisms in space. The survival of the spores was determined in terms of colony-forming ability. Comparison of the flight results with results of simulation experiments on earth applying high vacuum or ultraviolet irradiation, or both, revealed no remarkable difference. Simultaneous exposure to both these space factors resulted in a synergistic effect (that is, an ultraviolet supersensitivity). Therefore, the change of survival in space is assumed to depend on the degree of protection against solar ultraviolet irradiation.

  5. Photochemical abiotic synthesis of amino-acid precursors from simulated planetary atmospheres by vacuum ultraviolet light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Jun-Ichi; Masuda, Hitomi; Kaneko, Takeo; Kobayashi, Kensei; Saito, Takeshi; Hosokawa, Teruo

    2005-07-01

    For the purpose of investigating the photon energy dependence of the photoinduced abiotic synthesis of organic molecules, gas mixtures that simulate typical planetary atmospheres, including a carbon source (CO or CH4), a nitrogen source (N2 or NH3), and H2O, were irradiated with synchrotron radiation through a vacuum-ultraviolet transmitting window. Three kinds of window material, fused silica, synthetic quartz, and MgF2, were used as a high-energy-cutting filter, whose absorption-edge energies are 6.4, 8.1, and 10.5 eV, respectively. Three types of gas mixture, Titan-type (CH4-N2-H2O), comet-type (CO-NH3-H2O), and primitive-Earth-type (CO-N2-H2O), were irradiated with vacuum-ultraviolet photons in the three energy ranges. After the irradiation, amino-acid formation yields in the acid-hydrolyzed solution of the product were measured with a high-performance liquid chromatograph method. From the Titan- and comet-type mixtures, amino acids were detected by irradiation with photons lower than 8.1 eV. For both mixtures, the averaged quantum yields of glycine generation in the photon energy region of 7-10.5 eV were of the order of 10-5, which was larger by about one order than that in the region 5-8 eV. On the other hand, from the primitive-Earth-type mixture, amino-acid formation was difficult to detect even with irradiation as high as 10.5 eV, even though amino acids were generated in comparable yields from the Titan- and comet-type mixtures by irradiation with soft x rays or proton beam, whose energies are much higher. These results suggest that the vacuum ultraviolet light is a more effective energy source for the generation of the precursors of bioorganic compounds in extraterrestrial environments than in primitive-Earth atmosphere.

  6. Photochemical abiotic synthesis of amino-acid precursors from simulated planetary atmospheres by vacuum ultraviolet light

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Jun-ichi; Masuda, Hitomi; Kaneko, Takeo; Kobayashi, Kensei; Saito, Takeshi; Hosokawa, Teruo

    2005-07-15

    For the purpose of investigating the photon energy dependence of the photoinduced abiotic synthesis of organic molecules, gas mixtures that simulate typical planetary atmospheres, including a carbon source (CO or CH{sub 4}), a nitrogen source (N{sub 2} or NH{sub 3}), and H{sub 2}O, were irradiated with synchrotron radiation through a vacuum-ultraviolet transmitting window. Three kinds of window material, fused silica, synthetic quartz, and MgF{sub 2}, were used as a high-energy-cutting filter, whose absorption-edge energies are 6.4, 8.1, and 10.5 eV, respectively. Three types of gas mixture, Titan-type (CH{sub 4}-N{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O), comet-type (CO-NH{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O), and primitive-Earth-type (CO-N{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O), were irradiated with vacuum-ultraviolet photons in the three energy ranges. After the irradiation, amino-acid formation yields in the acid-hydrolyzed solution of the product were measured with a high-performance liquid chromatograph method. From the Titan- and comet-type mixtures, amino acids were detected by irradiation with photons lower than 8.1 eV. For both mixtures, the averaged quantum yields of glycine generation in the photon energy region of 7-10.5 eV were of the order of 10{sup -5}, which was larger by about one order than that in the region 5-8 eV. On the other hand, from the primitive-Earth-type mixture, amino-acid formation was difficult to detect even with irradiation as high as 10.5 eV, even though amino acids were generated in comparable yields from the Titan- and comet-type mixtures by irradiation with soft x rays or proton beam, whose energies are much higher. These results suggest that the vacuum ultraviolet light is a more effective energy source for the generation of the precursors of bioorganic compounds in extraterrestrial environments than in primitive-Earth atmosphere.

  7. Fragmentation and dimerization of aliphatic amino acid films induced by vacuum ultraviolet irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Masahito; Kaneko, Fusae; Koketsu, Toshiyuki; Nakagawa, Kazumichi; Yamada, Toru

    2008-10-01

    The chemical reaction of aliphatic amino acid, such as alanine (Ala) and leucine (Leu), in the solid phase induced by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation was studied by high-performance liquid chromatography technique and mass spectroscopic method. Quantum efficiencies of dimerization of Ala in the solid phase obviously showed irradiated VUV wavelength dependence. The values of quantum efficiencies of formation of Ala dimer were determined to be 5.7×10-5, 1.3×10-3, and 2.4×10-4 for 208, 183, and 87 nm irradiation, respectively. VUV-induced fragment desorption from Ala and Leu films has also been examined by mass spectroscopic method. Observed mass spectra clearly indicated that both the deamination and decarboxylation reactions were common in both Ala and Leu films, and the dissociation of side chain occurred only in Leu film.

  8. Vacuum ultraviolet reflectance spectra of groups L, LL, and E chondrites and of achondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, J. K.; Cohen, A. J.; Hapke, B. W.; Partlow, W. D.

    1980-01-01

    The reflectance spectra of individual meteorites of all classes are being measured in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectral wavelength region from 89 to 248 nm to evaluate the potential of VUV spectroscopy as a remote sensing method for planetary studies. In the present investigation, specimens of 15 group L chondrites, 13 group LL chondrites, 7 group E chondrites, and 18 achondrites were studied. Spectra were measured of both polished thin sections and powders of the meteorites, where both were available. Attention is given to measurements of mineral standards, shock effects, and meteorite data. It is concluded that the VUV spectra of meteorites should provide a useful basis for comparisons with spectra of asteroids and comet nuclei taken from spacecraft. VUV spectroscopy should make it possible to identify the major minerals present in a meteorite or asteroid.

  9. A synchrotron-radiation-based variable angle ellipsometer for the visible to vacuum ultraviolet spectral range

    SciTech Connect

    Neumann, M. D. Cobet, C.; Esser, N.; Kaser, H.; Kolbe, M.; Gottwald, A.; Richter, M.

    2014-05-15

    A rotating analyzer spectroscopic polarimeter and ellipsometer with a wide-range θ-2θ goniometer installed at the Insertion Device Beamline of the Metrology Light Source in Berlin is presented. With a combination of transmission- and reflection-based polarizing elements and the inherent degree of polarization of the undulator radiation, this ellipsometer is able to cover photon energies from about 2 eV up to 40 eV. Additionally, a new compensator design based on a CaF{sub 2} Fresnel rhomb is presented. This compensator allows ellipsometric measurements with circular polarization in the vacuum ultraviolet spectral range and thus, for example, the characterization of depolarizing samples. The new instrument was initially used for the characterization of the polarization of the beamline. The technical capabilities of the ellipsometer are demonstrated by a cohesive wide-range measurement of the dielectric function of epitaxially grown ZnO.

  10. Vacuum Ultraviolet Absorption Measurements of Atomic Oxygen in a Shock Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Scott Andrew

    1995-01-01

    The absorption of vacuum ultraviolet light by atomic oxygen has been measured in the Electric Arc-driven Shock Tube (EAST) Facility at NASA-Ames Research Center. This investigation demonstrates the instrumentation required to determine atomic oxygen concentrations from absorption measurements in impulse facilities. A shock wave dissociates molecular oxygen, producing a high temperature sample of atomic oxygen in the shock tube. A probe beam is generated with a Raman-shifted ArF excimer laser. By suitable tuning of the laser, absorption is measured over a range of wavelengths in the region of the atomic line at 130.49 nm. The line shape function is determined from measurements at atomic oxygen densities of 3x10(exp 17) and 9x10(exp 17) cm(exp -3). The broadening coefficient for resonance interactions is deduced from this data, and this value is in accord with available theoretical models.

  11. Vacuum Ultraviolet Absorption Measurements of Atomic Oxygen in a Shock Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Scott Andrew

    1995-01-01

    The absorption of vacuum ultraviolet light by atomic oxygen has been measured in the Electric Arc-driven Shock Tube (EAST) Facility at NASA-Ames Research Center. This investigation demonstrates the instrumentation required to determine atomic oxygen concentrations from absorption measurements in impulse facilities. A shock wave dissociates molecular oxygen, producing a high temperature sample of atomic oxygen in the shock tube. A probe beam is generated with a Raman-shifted ArF excimer laser. By suitable tuning of the laser, absorption is measured over a range of wavelengths in the region of the atomic line at 130.49 nm. The line shape function is determined from measurements at atomic oxygen densities of 3 x 10(exp 17) and 9 x 10(exp 17) cm(exp -3). The broadening coefficient for resonance interactions is deduced from this data, and this value is in accord with available theoretical models.

  12. Vacuum ultraviolet excitation luminescence spectroscopy of few-layered MoS2.

    PubMed

    Pankratov, V; Hoszowska, J; Dousse, J-Cl; Huttula, M; Kis, A; Krasnozhon, D; Zhang, M; Cao, W

    2016-01-13

    We report on vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) excited photoluminescence (PL) spectra emitted from a chemical vapor deposited MoS2 few-layered film. The excitation spectrum was recorded by monitoring intensities of PL spectra at ~1.9 eV. A strong wide excitation band peaking at 7 eV was found in the excitation. The PL excitation band is most intensive at liquid helium temperature and completely quenched at 100 K. Through first-principles calculations of photoabsorption in MoS2, the excitation was explicated and attributed to transitions of electrons from p- and d- type states in the valence band to the d- and p-type states in the conduction band. The obtained photon-in/photon-out results clarify the excitation and emission behavior of the low dimensional MoS2 when interacting with the VUV light sources. PMID:26648394

  13. In situ measurements of scattering from contaminated optics in the Vacuum Ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herren, Kenneth A.; Linton, Roger C.; Whitaker, Ann F.

    1990-01-01

    NASA's In Situ Contamination Effects Facility has been used to measure the time dependence of the angular reflectance from molecularly contaminated optical surfaces in the vacuum ultraviolet. The light scattering measurements are accomplished in situ on optical surfaces in real time during deposition of molecular contaminants. The measurements are taken using noncoherent VUV sources with the predominant wavelengths being the krypton resonance lines at 1236 and 1600 angstroms. Detection of the scattered light is accomplished using a set of three solar blind VUV photomultipliers. An in-plane VUV BRDF (bidirectional reflectance distribution function) experiment is described and details of the on-going program to characterize optical materials exposed to the space environment is reported.

  14. Vacuum Ultraviolet Field Emission Lamp Consisting of Neodymium Ion Doped Lutetium Fluoride Thin Film as Phosphor

    PubMed Central

    Yanagihara, Masahiro; Tsuji, Takayuki; Yusop, Mohd Zamri; Tanemura, Masaki; Nagami, Tomohito; Fukuda, Kentaro; Suyama, Toshihisa; Yokota, Yuui; Yanagida, Takayuki; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2014-01-01

    A vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) field emission lamp was developed by using a neodymium ion doped lutetium fluoride (Nd3+ : LuF3) thin film as solid-state phosphor and carbon nanofiber field electron emitters. The thin film was synthesized by pulsed laser deposition and incorporated into the lamp. The cathodoluminescence spectra of the lamp showed multiple emission peaks at 180, 225, and 255 nm. These emission spectra were in good agreement with the spectra reported for the Nd3+ : LuF3 crystal. Moreover, application of an acceleration voltage effectively increased the emission intensity. These results contribute to the performance enhancement of the lamp operating in the VUV region. PMID:25302320

  15. Luminescence from Vacuum-Ultraviolet-Irradiated Cosmic Ice Analogs and Residue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gudipati, Murthy S.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Chillier, Xavier D. F.; Allamandola, Louis J.

    2003-01-01

    Here we report a study of the optical luminescent properties for a variety of vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV)-irradiated cosmic ice analogs and the complex organic residues produced. Detailed results are presented for the irradiated, mixed molecular ice: H2O: CH3OH:NH3:CO(100:50:1:1), a realistic representation for an interstellar/precometary ice that reproduces all the salient infrared spectral features associated with interstellar ices. The irradiated ices and the room-temperature residues resulting from this energetic processing have remarkable photoluminescent properties in the visible (520-570 nm). The luminescence dependence on temperature, thermal cycling, and VUV exposure is described. It is suggested that this type of luminescent behavior might be applicable to solar system and interstellar observations and processes for various astronomical objects with an ice heritage. Some examples include grain temperature determination and vaporization rates, nebula radiation balance, albedo values, color analysis, and biomarker identification.

  16. Luminescence from Vacuum-Ultraviolet-Irradiated Cosmic Ice Analogs and Residues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gudipati, Murthy S.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Chillier, Xavier D. F.; Allamandola, Louis J.

    2003-01-01

    Here we report a study of the optical luminescent properties for a variety of vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV)- irradiated cosmic ice analogs and the complex organic residues produced. Detailed results are presented for the irradiated, mixed molecular ice: H2O:CH3OH:NH3:CO (100:50:1:1), a realistic representation for an interstellar/precometary ice that reproduces all the salient infrared spectral features associated with interstellar ices. The irradiated ices and the room-temperature residues resulting from this energetic processing have remarkable photoluminescent properties in the visible (520-570 nm). The luminescence dependence on temperature, thermal cycling, and VUV exposure is described. It is suggested that this type of luminescent behavior might be applicable to solar system and interstellar observations and processes for various astronomical objects with an ice heritage. Some examples include grain temperature determination and vaporization rates, nebula radiation balance, albedo values, color analysis, and biomarker identification.

  17. Vacuum ultraviolet photochemical selective area atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalker, P. R.; Marshall, P. A.; Dawson, K.; Brunell, I. F.; Sutcliffe, C. J.; Potter, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    We report the photochemical atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 thin films and the use of this process to achieve area-selective film deposition. A shuttered vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light source is used to excite molecular oxygen and trimethyl aluminum to deposit films at 60°C. In-situ QCM and post-deposition ellipsometric measurements both show that the deposition rate is saturative as a function of irradiation time. Selective area deposition was achieved by projecting the VUV light through a metalized magnesium fluoride photolithographic mask and the selectivity of deposition on the illuminated and masked regions of the substrate is a logarithmic function of the UV exposure time. The Al2O3 films exhibit dielectric constants of 8 - 10 at 1 MHz after forming gas annealing, similar to films deposited by conventional thermal ALD.

  18. Coupling of a vacuum-ultraviolet-radiation source to a processing system

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterton, J. D.; Upadhyaya, G. S.; Shohet, J. L.; Lauer, J. L.; Bathke, R. D.; Kukkady, K.

    2006-08-15

    A hollow capillary array is examined as a coupling window between an electron cyclotron resonance plasma vacuum ultraviolet (vuv) source and a separate processing chamber. The transmission of vuv through the capillary array as a function of wavelength is measured and shown to agree with theoretical calculations. A silicon wafer with a dielectric surface is then placed in the processing chamber and exposed to vuv, both with and without the capillary array. A Kelvin probe is used to measure the surface charge induced on the wafer by photoemission in both cases, which confirms the previously measured transmission values. The results show that a capillary array can efficiently couple vuv radiation from a source to a processing chamber without significant modification in the spectrum and its resulting effects on a material.

  19. Vacuum Ultraviolet Absorption Measurements of Atomic Oxygen in a Shock Tube.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Scott Andrew

    The absorption of vacuum ultraviolet light by atomic oxygen has been measured in the Electric Arc-driven Shock Tube (EAST) Facility at NASA-Ames Research Center. This investigation demonstrates the instrumentation required to determine atomic oxygen concentrations from absorption measurements in impulse facilities. A shock wave dissociates molecular oxygen, producing a high temperature sample of atomic oxygen in the shock tube. A probe beam is generated with a Raman-shifted ArF excimer laser. By suitable tuning of the laser, absorption is measured over a range of wavelengths in the region of the atomic line at 130.49 nm. The line shape function is determined from measurements at atomic oxygen densities of 3 times 10 ^{17} and 9 times 10^{17} cm ^{-3}. The broadening coefficient for resonance interactions is deduced from this data, and this value is in accord with available theoretical models.

  20. The effects of plasma exposure and vacuum ultraviolet irradiation on photopatternable low-k dielectric materials

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, M. T.; Mavrakakis, K.; Shohet, J. L.; Lin, Q.

    2013-09-14

    The effects of plasma exposure and vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation on photopatternable low-k (PPLK) dielectric materials are investigated. In order to examine these effects, current-voltage measurements were made on PPLK materials before and after exposure to a variety of inert plasma-exposure conditions. In order to examine the effects of photon irradiation alone, PPLK samples were also exposed to monochromatic synchrotron radiation with 10 eV photon energy. It was found that plasma exposure causes significant degradation in electrical characteristics, resulting in increased leakage-currents and decreased breakdown voltage. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements also show appreciable carbon loss near the sample surface after plasma exposure. Conversely, VUV exposure was found to increase breakdown voltage and reduce leakage-current magnitudes.

  1. Electronic Excitations in B12As2 and their Temperature Dependence by Vacuum Ultraviolet Ellipsometry

    SciTech Connect

    S Bakalova; Y Gong; C Cobet; N Esser; Y Zhang; J Edgar; Y Zhang; M Dudley; M Kuball

    2011-12-31

    The dielectric response function of epitaxial B{sub 12}As{sub 2} films on 4H-SiC was determined at room temperature and at 10 K in the spectral region of 3.6-9.8 eV, i.e., in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectral region, by synchrotron ellipsometry. The experimental dielectric function was simulated with the critical point parabolic band model. The parameters of the dispersive structures were derived by numerical fitting of the experimental data to the proposed model. New high energy optical transitions are resolved at 5.95, 7.8 and 8.82 eV and their lineshape and origin are discussed. The temperature dependence of the critical point energies and transition strengths was determined, and the excitonic effect is considered.

  2. Realization of time-resolved two-vacuum-ultraviolet-photon ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peralta Conde, A.; Kruse, J.; Faucher, O.; Tzallas, P.; Benis, E. P.; Charalambidis, D.

    2009-06-01

    Ultrafast dynamics of excited molecules is studied through time-resolved two-vacuum-ultraviolet (vuv)-photon ionization using a nonlinear volume autocorrelator unit. The two-vuv-photon process is induced by the intense fifth harmonic radiation of a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser. In a proof-of-principle experiment, ultrafast dynamics of excited ethylene and oxygen molecules are investigated. Molecular decay times are deduced by comparing the experimental data with the results of a numerical model that accounts for the spatial and temporal characteristics of the harmonic field. The present experiments pave a convenient way for time domain investigations in the vuv-xuv spectral region in all states of matter at few femtosecond to subfemtosecond temporal scales.

  3. Vacuum Ultraviolet Absorption Measurements of Atomic Oxygen in a Shock Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Scott Andrew

    1995-01-01

    The absorption of vacuum ultraviolet light by atomic oxygen has been measured in the Electric Arc-driven Shock Tube (EAST) Facility at NASA-Ames Research Center. This investigation demonstrates the instrumentation required to determine atomic oxygen concentrations from absorption measurements in impulse facilities. A shock wave dissociates molecular oxygen, producing a high temperature sample of atomic oxygen in the shock tube. A probe beam is generated with a Raman-shifted ArF excimer laser. By suitable tuning of the laser, absorption is measured over a range of wavelengths in the region of the atomic line at 130.49 nm. The line shape function is determined from measurements at atomic oxygen densities of 3 x 10(exp 17) and 9 x 10(exp 17)/cu cm. The broadening coefficient for resonance interactions is deduced from this data, and this value is in accord with available theoretical models.

  4. Theoretical Calculations of Photoabsorption of Several Alicyclic Molecules in the Vacuum Ultraviolet Region

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuzawa, Nobuyuki; Ishitani, Akihiko; Dixon, David A.; Uda, Tsuyoshi

    2001-06-13

    In order to aid in the design of transparent materials for use as photoresists for F2 lithography (157 nm), we have performed time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations of the photoabsorption of molecules in the vacuum ultraviolet region. The application of this TD-DFT method to the prediction of photoabsorption was benchmarked using model molecules such as formaldehyde, and an empirical equation for correcting the calculated transition energy was obtained. The TD-DFT method with the empirical correction equation provides dramatically more accurate results than those obtained with the CIS (single-excitation configuration interaction) method, which we employed in previous studies. We used it to predict the photoabsorption of various molecules such as methanol, t-butylalcohol, acetic acid, methyl acetate, cycloalkane, norbonane, tricyclodecane, tetrahydropyrane, adamantane, maleic anhydride and their fluorinated derivatives.

  5. Very low thermally induced tip expansion by vacuum ultraviolet irradiation in a scanning tunneling microscope junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedel, D.; Delacour, C.; Mayne, A. J.; Dujardin, G.

    2009-10-01

    The thermal and photoelectronic processes induced when a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser irradiates the junction of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) are studied. This is performed by synchronizing the VUV laser shots with the STM scan signal. Compared to other wavelengths, the photoinduced thermal STM-tip expansion is not observed when the VUV radiation is freed from spurious emissions. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the purified VUV photoinduced transient signal detected in the tunnel current is entirely due to photoelectronic emission and not combined with thermionic processes. The ensuing photoelectron emission is shown to be independent of the tip-surface distance while varying linearly with the pure VUV laser intensity. These results illustrate a strong decoupling between phonons and photoelectrons which allows a very weak STM-tip expansion.

  6. Free-electron laser sources of extreme-ultraviolet radiation and their vacuum requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Newnam, B.E.

    1990-01-01

    Recent development of free-electron laser (FEL) component technologies should enable these devices to operate in the extreme-ultraviolet, well below 100 nm. When fully developed, FELs represent the next generation of coherent-radiation sources with peak- and average-power outputs surpassing those of any existing, continuously tunable photon source by many orders of magnitude. An rf-linac-based, multiple-FEL facility, spanning the spectral range from 1 nm to 100 {mu}m, is proposed. To enable such a facility to operate without significant degradation over long periods, contamination of certain of the FEL components must be prevented. Requirements for ultra-high vacuum and restricted contamination from outgassing from chamber walls are discussed. 73 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Vacuum ultraviolet emission from microwave Ar-H{sub 2} plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Espinho, S.; Felizardo, E.; Tatarova, E.; Dias, F. M.; Ferreira, C. M.

    2013-03-18

    Vacuum ultraviolet emission from Ar-H{sub 2} wave driven microwave (2.45 GHz) plasmas operating at low pressures (0.1-1 mbar) has been investigated. The emitted spectra show the presence of the Ar resonance lines at 104.8 and 106.7 nm and of the Lyman-{alpha},{beta} atomic lines at 121.6 nm and 102.6 nm, respectively. The increase of the hydrogen amount in the mixture results in an abrupt increase of the Werner and Lyman molecular bands intensity. The Lyman-{beta} intensity shows little changes in the range of 5%-30% of hydrogen in the mixture while the Lyman-{alpha} intensity tends to decrease as the percentage of hydrogen increases.

  8. Vacuum ultraviolet circularly polarized coherent femtosecond pulses from laser seeded relativistic electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čutić, N.; Lindau, F.; Thorin, S.; Werin, S.; Bahrdt, J.; Eberhardt, W.; Holldack, K.; Erny, C.; L'Huillier, A.; Mansten, E.

    2011-03-01

    We have demonstrated the generation of circularly polarized coherent light pulses at 66 nm wavelength by combining laser seeding at 263 nm of a 375 MeV relativistic electron bunch with subsequent coherent harmonic generation from an elliptical undulator of APPLE-II type. Coherent pulses at higher harmonics in linear polarization have been produced and recorded up to the sixth order (44 nm). The duration of the generated pulses depends on the temporal overlap of the initial seed laser pulse and the electron bunch and was on the order of 200 fs. Currently, this setup is the only source worldwide producing coherent fs-light pulses with variable polarization in the vacuum ultraviolet.

  9. Synchrotron Vacuum Ultraviolet Light and Soft X-Ray Radiation Effects on Aluminized Teflon FEP Investigated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Townsend, Jacqueline A.; Gaier, James R.; Jalics, Alice I.

    1999-01-01

    Since the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was deployed in low Earth orbit in April 1990, two servicing missions have been conducted to upgrade its scientific capabilities. Minor cracking of second-surface metalized Teflon FEP (DuPont; fluorinated ethylene propylene) surfaces from multilayer insulation (MLI) was first observed upon close examination of samples with high solar exposure retrieved during the first servicing mission, which was conducted 3.6 years after deployment. During the second HST servicing mission, 6.8 years after deployment, astronaut observations and photographic documentation revealed significant cracks in the Teflon FEP layer of the MLI on both the solar- and anti-solar-facing surfaces of the telescope. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center directed the efforts of the Hubble Space Telescope MLI Failure Review Board, whose goals included identifying the low-Earth-orbit environmental constituent(s) responsible for the cracking and embrittling of Teflon FEP which was observed during the second servicing mission. The NASA Lewis Research Center provided significant support to this effort. Because soft x-ray radiation from solar flares had been considered as a possible cause for the degradation of the mechanical properties of Teflon FEP (ref. 1), the effects of soft xray radiation and vacuum ultraviolet light on Teflon FEP were investigated. In this Lewisled effort, samples of Teflon FEP with a 100-nm layer of vapor-deposited aluminum (VDA) on the backside were exposed to synchrotron radiation of various vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray wavelengths between 18 nm (69 eV) and 0.65 nm (1900 eV). Synchrotron radiation exposures were conducted using the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Samples of FEP/VDA were exposed with the FEP surface facing the synchrotron beam. Doses and fluences were compared with those estimated for the 20-yr Hubble Space Telescope mission.

  10. Interpretation of the photoelectron, ultraviolet, and vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption spectra of bromobenzene by ab initio configuration interaction and DFT computations

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, Michael H. Ridley, Trevor E-mail: vronning@phys.au.dk E-mail: marcello.coreno@elettra.eu E-mail: malgorzata.biczysko@sns.it; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning E-mail: vronning@phys.au.dk E-mail: marcello.coreno@elettra.eu E-mail: malgorzata.biczysko@sns.it Jones, Nykola C. E-mail: vronning@phys.au.dk E-mail: marcello.coreno@elettra.eu E-mail: malgorzata.biczysko@sns.it; Coreno, Marcello E-mail: vronning@phys.au.dk E-mail: marcello.coreno@elettra.eu E-mail: malgorzata.biczysko@sns.it; Grazioli, Cesare; Zhang, Teng; and others

    2015-10-28

    New photoelectron, ultraviolet (UV), and vacuum UV (VUV) spectra have been obtained for bromobenzene by synchrotron study with higher sensitivity and resolution than previous work. This, together with use of ab initio calculations with both configuration interaction and time dependent density functional theoretical methods, has led to major advances in interpretation. The VUV spectrum has led to identification of a considerable number of Rydberg states for the first time. The Franck-Condon (FC) analyses including both hot and cold bands lead to identification of the vibrational structure of both ionic and electronically excited states including two Rydberg states. The UV onset has been interpreted in some detail, and an interpretation based on the superposition of FC and Herzberg-Teller contributions has been performed. In a similar way, the 6 eV absorption band which is poorly resolved is analysed in terms of the presence of two ππ* states of {sup 1}A{sub 1} (higher oscillator strength) and {sup 1}B{sub 2} (lower oscillator strength) symmetries, respectively. The detailed analysis of the vibrational structure of the 2{sup 2}B{sub 1} ionic state is particularly challenging, and the best interpretation is based on equation-of-motion-coupled cluster with singles and doubles computations. A number of equilibrium structures of the ionic and singlet excited states show that the molecular structure is less subject to variation than corresponding studies for iodobenzene. The equilibrium structures of the 3b{sub 1}3s and 6b{sub 2}3s (valence shell numbering) Rydberg states have been obtained and compared with the corresponding ionic limit structures.

  11. Interpretation of the photoelectron, ultraviolet, and vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption spectra of bromobenzene by ab initio configuration interaction and DFT computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Michael H.; Ridley, Trevor; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning; Jones, Nykola C.; Coreno, Marcello; de Simone, Monica; Grazioli, Cesare; Zhang, Teng; Biczysko, Malgorzata; Baiardi, Alberto; Peterson, Kirk

    2015-10-01

    New photoelectron, ultraviolet (UV), and vacuum UV (VUV) spectra have been obtained for bromobenzene by synchrotron study with higher sensitivity and resolution than previous work. This, together with use of ab initio calculations with both configuration interaction and time dependent density functional theoretical methods, has led to major advances in interpretation. The VUV spectrum has led to identification of a considerable number of Rydberg states for the first time. The Franck-Condon (FC) analyses including both hot and cold bands lead to identification of the vibrational structure of both ionic and electronically excited states including two Rydberg states. The UV onset has been interpreted in some detail, and an interpretation based on the superposition of FC and Herzberg-Teller contributions has been performed. In a similar way, the 6 eV absorption band which is poorly resolved is analysed in terms of the presence of two ππ* states of 1A1 (higher oscillator strength) and 1B2 (lower oscillator strength) symmetries, respectively. The detailed analysis of the vibrational structure of the 22B1 ionic state is particularly challenging, and the best interpretation is based on equation-of-motion-coupled cluster with singles and doubles computations. A number of equilibrium structures of the ionic and singlet excited states show that the molecular structure is less subject to variation than corresponding studies for iodobenzene. The equilibrium structures of the 3b13s and 6b23s (valence shell numbering) Rydberg states have been obtained and compared with the corresponding ionic limit structures.

  12. Interpretation of the photoelectron, ultraviolet, and vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption spectra of bromobenzene by ab initio configuration interaction and DFT computations.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Michael H; Ridley, Trevor; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning; Jones, Nykola C; Coreno, Marcello; de Simone, Monica; Grazioli, Cesare; Zhang, Teng; Biczysko, Malgorzata; Baiardi, Alberto; Peterson, Kirk

    2015-10-28

    New photoelectron, ultraviolet (UV), and vacuum UV (VUV) spectra have been obtained for bromobenzene by synchrotron study with higher sensitivity and resolution than previous work. This, together with use of ab initio calculations with both configuration interaction and time dependent density functional theoretical methods, has led to major advances in interpretation. The VUV spectrum has led to identification of a considerable number of Rydberg states for the first time. The Franck-Condon (FC) analyses including both hot and cold bands lead to identification of the vibrational structure of both ionic and electronically excited states including two Rydberg states. The UV onset has been interpreted in some detail, and an interpretation based on the superposition of FC and Herzberg-Teller contributions has been performed. In a similar way, the 6 eV absorption band which is poorly resolved is analysed in terms of the presence of two ππ* states of (1)A1 (higher oscillator strength) and (1)B2 (lower oscillator strength) symmetries, respectively. The detailed analysis of the vibrational structure of the 2(2)B1 ionic state is particularly challenging, and the best interpretation is based on equation-of-motion-coupled cluster with singles and doubles computations. A number of equilibrium structures of the ionic and singlet excited states show that the molecular structure is less subject to variation than corresponding studies for iodobenzene. The equilibrium structures of the 3b13s and 6b23s (valence shell numbering) Rydberg states have been obtained and compared with the corresponding ionic limit structures. PMID:26520509

  13. Devices useful for vacuum ultraviolet beam characterization including a movable stage with a transmission grating and image detector

    DOEpatents

    Gessner, Oliver; Kornilov, Oleg A; Wilcox, Russell B

    2013-10-29

    The invention provides for a device comprising an apparatus comprising (a) a transmission grating capable of diffracting a photon beam into a diffracted photon output, and (b) an image detector capable of detecting the diffracted photon output. The device is useful for measuring the spatial profile and diffraction pattern of a photon beam, such as a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) beam.

  14. A new optical scheme for large-extraction small-aberration vacuum-ultraviolet synchrotron radiation beamlines.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Thierry

    2016-09-01

    Vacuum-ultraviolet radiation delivered by bending-magnet sources is used at numerous synchrotron radiation facilities worldwide. As bending-magnet radiation is inherently much less collimated compared with undulator sources, the generation of high-quality intense bending-magnet vacuum-ultraviolet photon beams is extremely demanding in terms of the optical layout due to the necessary larger collection apertures. In this article, an optimized optical layout which takes into account both the optical and electron beam properties is proposed. This layout delivers an improved beam emittance of over one order of magnitude compared with existing vacuum-ultraviolet bending-magnet beamlines that, up to now, do not take into account electron beam effects. The arrangement is made of two dedicated mirrors, a cylindrical and a cone-shaped one, that focus independently both the horizontal and the vertical emission of a bending-magnet source, respectively, and has been already successfully applied in the construction of the infrared beamline at the Brazilian synchrotron. Using this scheme, two vacuum-ultraviolet beamline designs based on a SOLEIL synchrotron bending-magnet source are proposed and analysed. They would be useful for future upgrades to the DISCO beamline at SOLEIL and could be readily implemented at other synchrotron radiation facilities. PMID:27577766

  15. Photoionization capable, extreme and vacuum ultraviolet emission in developing low temperature plasmas in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, J.; Fierro, A.; Beeson, S.; Laity, G.; Trienekens, D.; Joshi, R. P.; Dickens, J.; Neuber, A.

    2016-04-01

    Experimental observation of photoionization capable extreme ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet emission from nanosecond timescale, developing low temperature plasmas (i.e. streamer discharges) in atmospheric air is presented. Applying short high voltage pulses enabled the observation of the onset of plasma formation exclusively by removing the external excitation before spark development was achieved. Contrary to the common assumption that radiative transitions from the b{{}1}{{\\Pi}u} (Birge-Hopfield I) and b{{}\\prime 1}Σu+ (Birge-Hopfield II) singlet states of N2 are the primary contributors to photoionization events, these results indicate that radiative transitions from the c{{4\\prime}1}Σu+ (Carroll-Yoshino) singlet state of N2 are dominant in developing low temperature plasmas in air. In addition to c{}4\\prime transitions, photoionization capable transitions from atomic and singly ionized atomic oxygen were also observed. The inclusion of c{{4\\prime}1}Σu+ transitions into a statistical photoionization model coupled with a fluid model enabled streamer growth in the simulation of positive streamers.

  16. Photodegradation of haloacetonitriles in water by vacuum ultraviolet irradiation: Mechanisms and intermediate formation.

    PubMed

    Kiattisaksiri, Pradabduang; Khan, Eakalak; Punyapalakul, Patiparn; Ratpukdi, Thunyalux

    2016-07-01

    Photodegradation of haloacetonitriles (HANs), highly carcinogenic nitrogenous disinfection by-products, in water using vacuum ultraviolet (VUV, 185 + 254 nm) in comparison with ultraviolet (UV, only 254 nm) was investigated. Monochloroacetonitrile (MCAN), dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN), trichloroacetonitrile (TCAN), and dibromoacetonitrile (DBAN) were species of HANs studied. The effect of gas purging and intermediate formation under VUV were examined. The results show that the pseudo first order rate constants for the reduction of HANs under VUV were approximately 2-7 times better than UV. The order of degradation efficiency under VUV and UV was MCAN < DCAN < TCAN < DBAN. The degradation efficiencies of individual HANs under VUV were higher than those of mixed HANs, suggesting competitive effects among HANs. Under nitrogen purging, the removal rate constants of mixed HANs was much higher than that of the aerated condition by 34.4, 34.9, 10.1, and 3.8 times for MCAN, DCAN, TCAN, and DBAN, respectively. The major degradation mechanism for HANs was different depending on HANs species. Degradation intermediates of HANs such as 2-chloropropionitrile, 2,2-dimethylpropanenitrile, and fumaronitrile were produced from the substitution, addition, and polymerization reactions. In addition, chlorinated HANs with lower number of chlorine atom including MCAN and DCAN were found as intermediates of DCAN and TCAN degradation, respectively. PMID:27101477

  17. Effect of vacuum-ultraviolet irradiation on the dielectric constant of low-k organosilicate dielectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, H.; Shohet, J. L.; Ryan, E. T.; Nishi, Y.

    2014-11-17

    Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation is generated during plasma processing in semiconductor fabrications, while the effect of VUV irradiation on the dielectric constant (k value) of low-k materials is still an open question. To clarify this problem, VUV photons with a range of energies were exposed on low-k organosilicate dielectrics (SiCOH) samples at room temperature. Photon energies equal to or larger than 6.0 eV were found to decrease the k value of SiCOH films. VUV photons with lower energies do not have this effect. This shows the need for thermal heating in traditional ultraviolet (UV) curing since UV light sources do not have sufficient energy to change the dielectric constant of SiCOH and additional energy is required from thermal heating. In addition, 6.2 eV photon irradiation was found to be the most effective in decreasing the dielectric constant of low-k organosilicate films. Fourier Transform Infra-red Spectroscopy shows that these 6.2 eV VUV exposures removed organic porogens. This contributes to the decrease of the dielectric constant. This information provides the range of VUV photon energies that could decrease the dielectric constant of low-k materials most effectively.

  18. Effects of Various Wavelength Ranges of Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation on Teflon FEP Film Investigated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.; McCracken, Cara A.

    2004-01-01

    Teflon Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene (FTP) films (DuPont) have been widely used for spacecraft thermal control and have been observed to become embrittled and cracked upon exposure to the space environment. This degradation has been attributed to a synergistic combination of radiation and thermal effects. A research study was undertaken at the NASA Glenn Research Center to examine the effects of different wavelength ranges of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation on the degradation of the mechanical properties of FEP. This will contribute to an overall understanding of space radiation effects on Teflon FEP, and will provide information necessary to determine appropriate techniques for using laboratory tests to estimate space VUV degradation. Research was conducted using inhouse facilities at Glenn and was carried out, in part, through a grant with the Cleveland State University. Samples of Teflon FEP film of 50.8 microns thickness were exposed to radiation from a VUV lamp from beneath different cover windows to provide different exposure wavelength ranges: MgF2 (115 to 400 nm), crystalline quartz (140 to 400 nm), and fused silica (FS, 155 to 400 nm). Following exposure, FEP film specimens were tensile tested to determine the ultimate tensile strength and elongation at failure as a function of the exposure duration for each wavelength range. The graphs show the effect of ultraviolet exposure on the mechanical properties of the FEP samples.

  19. System for time-discretized vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy of spark breakdown in air

    SciTech Connect

    Ryberg, D.; Fierro, A.; Dickens, J.; Neuber, A.

    2014-10-15

    A system for time-discretized spectroscopic measurements of the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) emission from spark discharges in the 60-160 nm range has been developed for the study of early plasma-forming phenomena. The system induces a spark discharge in an environment close to atmospheric conditions created using a high speed puff value, but is otherwise kept at high vacuum to allow for the propagation of VUV light. Using a vertical slit placed 1.5 mm from the discharge the emission from a small cross section of the discharge is allowed to pass into the selection chamber consisting of a spherical grating, with 1200 grooves/mm, and an exit slit set to 100 μm. Following the exit slit is a photomultiplier tube with a sodium salicylate scintillator that is used for the time discretized measurement of the VUV signal with a temporal resolution limit of 10 ns. Results from discharges studied in dry air, Nitrogen, SF{sub 6}, and Argon indicate the emission of light with wavelengths shorter than 120 nm where the photon energy begins to approach the regime of direct photoionization.

  20. Photooxidation of plasma polymerized polydimethylsiloxane film by 172 nm vacuum ultraviolet light irradiation in dilute oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, S.

    2006-08-01

    Plasma polymerized polydimethylsiloxane films irradiated under different partial pressures of oxygen with a 172nm vacuum ultraviolet light were investigated in order to clarify the roles of molecular oxygen and photons in photooxidation. The thickness, densities, surface roughness, elemental compositions, and molecular structures of the irradiated and unirradiated films were examined by using glazing incidence x-ray reflectivity, Rutherford backscattering, infrared, and x-ray absorption (XAS) spectroscopies. Photooxidation is hardly promoted by irradiation in a high vacuum of 1×10-4Pa, though photodesorption of the methyl group and formation of Si-H bonds were observed. Silica films thicker than 140nm were formed at room temperature by irradiating them in low pressure oxygen gases. The degree of oxidation was smaller for the oxygen pressure of 10kPa than for 83Pa. Si K-edge XAS was performed to clarify the change of coordination environment of silicon by photooxidation in dilute oxygen flow containing less than 5ppm of molecular oxygen.

  1. Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation and Atomic Oxygen Durability Evaluation of HST Bi-Stem Thermal Shield Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce; deGroh, Kim K.

    2002-01-01

    Bellows-type thermal shields were used on the bi-stems of replacement solar arrays installed on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) during the first HST servicing mission (SMI) in December 1993. These thermal shields helped reduce the problem of thermal gradient- induced jitter observed with the original HST solar arrays during orbital thermal cycling and have been in use on HST for eight years. This paper describes ground testing of the candidate solar array bi-stem thermal shield materials including backside aluminized Teflon(R)FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene) with and without atomic oxygen (AO) and ultraviolet radiation protective surface coatings for durability to AO and combined AO and vacuum ultraviolet (VOV) radiation. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) conducted VUV and AO exposures of samples of candidate thermal shield materials at HST operational temperatures and pre- and post-exposure analyses as part of an overall program coordinated by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to determine the on-orbit durability of these materials. Coating adhesion problems were observed for samples having the AO- and combined AO/UV-protective coatings. Coating lamination occurred with rapid thermal cycling testing which simulated orbital thermal cycling. This lack of adhesion caused production of coating flakes from the material that would have posed a serious risk to HST optics if the coated materials were used for the bi-stem thermal shields. No serious degradation was observed for the uncoated aluminized Teflon(R) as evaluated by optical microscopy, although atomic force microscopy (AFM) microhardness testing revealed that an embrittled surface layer formed on the uncoated Teflon(R) surface due to vacuum ultraviolet radiation exposure. This embrittled layer was not completely removed by AO erosion, No cracks or particle flakes were produced for the embrittled uncoated material upon exposure to VUV and AO at operational temperatures to an equivalent exposure of

  2. A Study of the Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy of Carbon in the Ultraviolet Wavelength Range Under Vacuum Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Congyuan; Du, Xuewei; Zeng, Qiang; Yu, Yunsi; Wang, Shengbo; Wang, Qiuping

    2015-08-01

    The influence of a vacuum on the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) of carbon in the ultraviolet wavelength range is studied. Experiments are performed with graphite using a LIBS system, which consists of a 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser, a vacuum pump, a spectrometer and a vacuum chamber. The vacuum varies from 10 Pa to 1 atm. Atomic lines as well as singly and doubly charged ions are confirmed under the vacuums. A temporal evolution analysis of intensity is performed for the atomic lines of C I 193.09 nm and C I 247.86 nm under different vacuum conditions. Both time-integrated and time-resolved intensity evolutions under vacuums are achieved. The lifetimes of the two atomic lines have similar trends, which supports the point of view of a ‘soft spot’. Variations of plasma temperature and electron density under different vacuums are measured. This study is helpful for research on carbon detection using LIBS under vacuum conditions. supported by the National Special Fund for the Development of Major Research Equipment and Instruments of China (No. 2014YQ120351)

  3. Vacuum ultraviolet spectral emission properties of Ga, In and Sn droplet-based laser produced plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambino, Nadia; Rollinger, Bob; Brandstätter, Markus; Abhari, Reza S.

    2016-08-01

    The Emission Spectra of gallium, indium and tin droplet-based laser produced plasmas are presented in the Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) emission range from 30 nm to 160 nm. The Ga ion transitions are investigated in detail as a function of background pressure level and laser irradiance. Different wavelength emission regions were detected according to the level of background gas. At short wavelengths (i.e. 30-50 nm) the line emission from the higher charge states is reduced with increasing pressure, while at longer wavelengths (i.e. 100-160 nm) the trend is inverted, as the plasma emission intensity of the lower charge states increases with higher background gas pressure level. The emitted lines are fitted with Voigt profiles to determine the electron density. The electron temperature is obtained from a fit based on the Planck distribution. These estimations are then used to identify the relevant processes that lead to the different charge state emissions as a function of background gas. Langmuir Probe measurements are also reported for evaluating the ion kinetic energy as a function of background gas. The gallium spectra are calibrated in units of spectral radiance, together with spectra from indium and tin. This calibration allows absolute power estimations from the light source in the VUV region. The presented experimental results are relevant as fundamental plasma emission spectroscopic measurements in an almost unexplored wavelength region as well as for applications such as Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography to determine the so-called Out-of-Band (OoB) radiation emission and for metrology applications for future inspection tools.

  4. Interpretation of the vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption spectrum of iodobenzene by ab initio computations.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Michael H; Ridley, Trevor; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning; Jones, Nykola C; Coreno, Marcello; de Simone, Monica; Grazioli, Cesare; Biczysko, Malgorzata; Baiardi, Alberto; Limão-Vieira, Paulo

    2015-04-01

    Identification of many Rydberg states in iodobenzene, especially from the first and fourth ionization energies (IE1 and IE4, X(2)B1 and C(2)B1), has become possible using a new ultraviolet (UV) and vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) absorption spectrum, in the region 29 000-87 000 cm(-1) (3.60-10.79 eV), measured at room temperature with synchrotron radiation. A few Rydberg states based on IE2 (A(2)A2) were found, but those based on IE3 (B(2)B2) are undetectable. The almost complete absence of observable Rydberg states relating to IE2 and IE3 (A(2)A2 and B(2)B2, respectively) is attributed to them being coupled to the near-continuum, high-energy region of Rydberg series converging on IE1. Theoretical studies of the UV and VUV spectra used both time-dependent density functional (TDDFT) and multi-reference multi-root doubles and singles-configuration interaction methods. The theoretical adiabatic excitation energies, and their corresponding vibrational profiles, gave a satisfactory interpretation of the experimental results. The calculations indicate that the UV onset contains both 1(1)B1 and 1(1)B2 states with very low oscillator strength, while the 2(1)B1 state was found to lie under the lowest ππ(∗) 1(1)A1 state. All three of these (1)B1 and (1)B2 states are excitations into low-lying σ(∗) orbitals. The strongest VUV band near 7 eV contains two very strong ππ(∗) valence states, together with other weak contributors. The lowest Rydberg 4b16s state (3(1)B1) is very evident as a sharp multiplet near 6 eV; its position and vibrational structure are well reproduced by the TDDFT results. PMID:25854238

  5. Control of the polarization of a vacuum-ultraviolet, high-gain, free-electron laser

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Allaria, Enrico; Diviacco, Bruno; Callegari, Carlo; Finetti, Paola; Mahieu, Benoît; Viefhaus, Jens; Zangrando, Marco; De Ninno, Giovanni; Lambert, Guillaume; Ferrari, Eugenio; et al

    2014-12-02

    The two single-pass, externally seeded free-electron lasers (FELs) of the FERMI user facility are designed around Apple-II-type undulators that can operate at arbitrary polarization in the vacuum ultraviolet-to-soft x-ray spectral range. Furthermore, within each FEL tuning range, any output wavelength and polarization can be set in less than a minute of routine operations. We report the first demonstration of the full output polarization capabilities of FERMI FEL-1 in a campaign of experiments where the wavelength and nominal polarization are set to a series of representative values, and the polarization of the emitted intense pulses is thoroughly characterized by three independentmore » instruments and methods, expressly developed for the task. The measured radiation polarization is consistently >90% and is not significantly spoiled by the transport optics; differing, relative transport losses for horizontal and vertical polarization become more prominent at longer wavelengths and lead to a non-negligible ellipticity for an originally circularly polarized state. The results from the different polarimeter setups validate each other, allow a cross-calibration of the instruments, and constitute a benchmark for user experiments.« less

  6. Control of the polarization of a vacuum-ultraviolet, high-gain, free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Allaria, Enrico; Diviacco, Bruno; Callegari, Carlo; Finetti, Paola; Mahieu, Benoît; Viefhaus, Jens; Zangrando, Marco; De Ninno, Giovanni; Lambert, Guillaume; Ferrari, Eugenio; Buck, Jens; Ilchen, Markus; Vodungbo, Boris; Mahne, Nicola; Svetina, Cristian; Spezzani, Carlo; Di Mitri, Simone; Penco, Giuseppe; Trovó, Mauro; Fawley, William M.; Rebernik, Primoz R.; Gauthier, David; Grazioli, Cesare; Coreno, Marcello; Ressel, Barbara; Kivimäki, Antti; Mazza, Tommaso; Glaser, Leif; Scholz, Frank; Seltmann, Joern; Gessler, Patrick; Grünert, Jan; De Fanis, Alberto; Meyer, Michael; Knie, André; Moeller, Stefan P.; Raimondi, Lorenzo; Capotondi, Flavio; Pedersoli, Emanuele; Plekan, Oksana; Danailov, Miltcho B.; Demidovich, Alexander; Nikolov, Ivaylo; Abrami, Alessandro; Gautier, Julien; Lüning, Jan; Zeitoun, Philippe; Giannessi, Luca

    2014-12-02

    The two single-pass, externally seeded free-electron lasers (FELs) of the FERMI user facility are designed around Apple-II-type undulators that can operate at arbitrary polarization in the vacuum ultraviolet-to-soft x-ray spectral range. Furthermore, within each FEL tuning range, any output wavelength and polarization can be set in less than a minute of routine operations. We report the first demonstration of the full output polarization capabilities of FERMI FEL-1 in a campaign of experiments where the wavelength and nominal polarization are set to a series of representative values, and the polarization of the emitted intense pulses is thoroughly characterized by three independent instruments and methods, expressly developed for the task. The measured radiation polarization is consistently >90% and is not significantly spoiled by the transport optics; differing, relative transport losses for horizontal and vertical polarization become more prominent at longer wavelengths and lead to a non-negligible ellipticity for an originally circularly polarized state. The results from the different polarimeter setups validate each other, allow a cross-calibration of the instruments, and constitute a benchmark for user experiments.

  7. Conformation-specific pathways of beta-alanine: a vacuum ultraviolet photoionization and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lidong; Pan, Yang; Guo, Huijun; Zhang, Taichang; Sheng, Liusi; Qi, Fei; Lo, Po-Kam; Lau, Kai-Chung

    2009-05-21

    We report a photoionization and dissociative photoionization study of beta-alanine using IR laser desorption combined with synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization mass spectrometry. Fragments at m/z = 45, 44, 43, and 30 yielded from photoionization are assigned to NH(3)CH(2)CH(2)(+), NH(2)CHCH(3)(+), NH(2)CHCH(2)(+), and NH(2)CH(2)(+), respectively. Some new conformation-specific dissociation channels and corresponding dissociation energies for the observed fragments are established and determined with the help of ab initio G3B3 calculations and measurements of photoionization efficiency (PIE) spectra. The theoretical values are in fair agreement with the experimental results. Three low-lying conformers of the beta-alanine cation, including two gauche conformers G1+, G2+ and one anti conformer A+ are investigated by G3B3 calculations. The conformer G1+ (intramolecular hydrogen bonding N-H...OC) is found to be another precursor in forming the NH(3)CH(2)CH(2)(+) ion, which is complementary to the previously reported formation pathway that only occurs with the conformer G2+ (intramolecular hydrogen bonding O-H...N). Species NH(2)CHCH(2)(+) may come from the contributions of G1+, G2+, and A+ via different dissociation pathways. The most abundant fragment ion, NH(2)CH(2)(+), is formed from a direct C-C bond cleavage. Intramolecular hydrogen transfer processes dominate most of the fragmentation pathways of the beta-alanine cation. PMID:19400571

  8. Design of an ultrashort optical transmission cell for vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy of supercritical fluids.

    PubMed

    Janik, Ireneusz; Marin, Timothy W

    2015-01-01

    We present the design and characteristics of an ultrathin flow cell optimized for vacuum ultraviolet transmission spectroscopy experiments on supercritical fluids. The cell operates satisfactorily at pressures up to 300 bar and temperatures up to 390 °C. The variable path length concept of the cell allows for optical transmission studies of analytes ranging from dense condensed-phase systems to gas-phase systems. The path length of the cell can be adjusted from hundreds of nanometers to hundreds of micrometers by an exchange of a variable thickness spacer sandwiched between two sapphire windows. In the path length range from nanometers to single micrometers, metal vapor deposited on one or both of the two sandwiched optical windows constitute the spacer. Spacers with thicknesses of 2 μm and greater can be constructed from simple commercially available metal foils. The cell has been used to measure the lowest-lying absorption band of water in both the vapor and condensed phases from room temperature up to and above the critical point. It has also found application in the studies of aqueous ions and nonaqueous liquids including various common organic solvents and carbon dioxide. PMID:25638117

  9. Oxygen isotope fractionation in the vacuum ultraviolet photodissociation of carbon monoxide: Wavelength, pressure and temperature dependency.

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Subrata; Davis, Ryan; Ahmed, Musahid; Jackson, Teresa L.; Thiemens, Mark H.

    2012-01-03

    Several absorption bands exist in the VUV region of Carbon monoxide (CO). Emission spectra indicate that these bands are all predissociative. An experimental investigation of CO photodissociation by vacuum ultraviolet photons (90 to 108 nm; ~13 to 11 eV) from the Advanced Light Source Synchrotron and direct measurement of the associated oxygen isotopic composition of the products are presented here. A wavelength dependency of the oxygen isotopic composition in the photodissociation product was observed. Slope values (δ'{sup 18}O/ δ'{sup 17}O) ranging from 0.76 to 1.32 were observed in oxygen three-isotope space (δ'{sup 18}O vs. δ'{sup 17}O) which correlated with increasing synchrotron photon energy, and indicate a dependency of the upper electronic state specific dissociation dynamics (e.g., perturbation and coupling associated with a particular state). An unprecedented magnitude in isotope separation was observed for photodissociation at the 105 and 107 nm synchrotron bands and are found to be associated with accidental predissociation of the vibrational states ({nu} = 0 and 1) of the upper electronic state E{sup 1}Π. For each synchrotron band, a large (few hundred per mil) extent of isotopic fractionation was observed and the range of fractionation is a combination of column density and exposure time. A significant temperature dependency in oxygen isotopic fractionation was observed, indicating a rotational level dependency in the predissociation process.

  10. Internal Energies of Ion-Sputtered Neutral Tryptophan and Thymine Molecules Determined by Vacuum Ultraviolet Photoionization

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Jia; Takahashi, Lynelle; Wilson, Kevin R.; Leone, Stephen R.; Ahmed, Musahid

    2010-03-11

    Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization coupled to secondary neutral mass spectrometry (VUV-SNMS) of deposited tryptophan and thymine films are performed at the Chemical Dynamics Beamline. The resulting mass spectra show that while the intensity of the VUV-SNMS signal is lower than the corresponding secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) signal, the mass spectra are significantly simplified in VUV-SNMS. A detailed examination of tryptophan and thymine neutral molecules sputtered by 25 keV Bi3 + indicates that the ion-sputtered parent molecules have ~;;2.5 eV of internal energy. While this internal energy shifts the appearance energy of the photofragment ions for both tryptophan and thymine, it does not change the characteristic photoionizaton efficiency (PIE) curves of thymine versus photon energy. Further analysis of the mass spectral signals indicate that approximately 80 neutral thymine molecules and 400 tryptophan molecules are sputtered per incident Bi3 + ion. The simplified mass spectra and significant characteristic ion contributions to the VUV-SNMS spectra indicate the potential power of the technique for organic molecule surface analysis.

  11. Initiation techniques and the vacuum-ultraviolet-radiation efficiency of a stabilized multichannel surface discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tcheremiskine, V. I.; Uteza, O. P.; Sentis, M. L.; Mikheev, L. D.

    2006-01-01

    Multichannel surface discharges possess a number of advantageous characteristics for the optical pumping of photochemically driven lasers. This work reports on a type of large-area low-inductance sources of intense UV-VUV (vacuum-ultraviolet) radiation based on spatially stabilized multichannel discharges in gases. The discharges consist of several dozens of closely located parallel plasma channels initiated synchronously along a dielectric surface on the area of several hundred square centimeters. In comparison with a large-area diffuse surface discharge, the plasma confinement within relatively thin channels greatly improves the efficiency of the discharge emission in the VUV spectral range. Several techniques are introduced, which allow a synchronous formation and homogeneous development of multiple spatially stabilized discharge channels. Technical efficiency of the discharge radiation within the spectral range of 120-200nm reaches 5% and an effective brightness temperature of the radiating plasma exceeds 20kK. Synchronous operation of a number of multichannel discharge modules producing high-intensity submicrosecond optical pulses is demonstrated, which is of importance for the pump source scaling and geometrical adaptation.

  12. Comparison of surface vacuum ultraviolet emissions with resonance level number densities. I. Argon plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Boffard, John B. Lin, Chun C.; Culver, Cody; Wang, Shicong; Wendt, Amy E.; Radovanov, Svetlana; Persing, Harold

    2014-03-15

    Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photons emitted from excited atomic states are ubiquitous in material processing plasmas. The highly energetic photons can induce surface damage by driving surface reactions, disordering surface regions, and affecting bonds in the bulk material. In argon plasmas, the VUV emissions are due to the decay of the 1s{sub 4} and 1s{sub 2} principal resonance levels with emission wavelengths of 104.8 and 106.7 nm, respectively. The authors have measured the number densities of atoms in the two resonance levels using both white light optical absorption spectroscopy and radiation-trapping induced changes in the 3p{sup 5}4p→3p{sup 5}4s branching fractions measured via visible/near-infrared optical emission spectroscopy in an argon inductively coupled plasma as a function of both pressure and power. An emission model that takes into account radiation trapping was used to calculate the VUV emission rate. The model results were compared to experimental measurements made with a National Institute of Standards and Technology-calibrated VUV photodiode. The photodiode and model results are in generally good accord and reveal a strong dependence on the neutral gas temperature.

  13. High-intensity coherent vacuum ultraviolet source using unfocussed commercial dye lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Daniel R.; Proctor, David L.; Floyd Davis, H.

    2013-06-01

    Using two or three commercial pulsed nanosecond dye lasers pumped by a single 30 Hz Nd:YAG laser, generation of 0.10 mJ pulses at 125 nm (6 × 1013 photons/pulse) has been demonstrated by resonance enhanced four-wave mixing of collimated (unfocussed) laser beams in mercury (Hg) vapor. Phase matching at various vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) wavelengths is achieved by tuning one laser in the vicinity of the 6 1S0 → 6 3P1 resonance near 253.1 nm. A number of different mixing schemes are characterized. Our observations using broadband lasers (˜0.15 cm-1 bandwidths) are compared to previous calculations pertaining to four-wave mixing of low intensity narrowband laser beams. Prospects for further increases in pulse energies are discussed. We find that VUV tuning curves and intensities are in good agreement with theoretical predictions. The utility of the VUV light source is demonstrated by "soft universal" single-photon VUV ionization in crossed molecular beam studies and for generation of light at 130.2 nm for oxygen atom Rydberg time-of-flight experiments.

  14. a Measurement of the Optical Oscillator Strengths of Noble Gas Resonance Transitions in the Vacuum Ultraviolet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligtenberg, Robert Coenraad Gerard

    We report the results of an accurate measurement of optical oscillator strengths of the prominent resonance lines of He, Ne, Ar and Kr in the vacuum ultraviolet. To measure the oscillator strength of a resonance line we make use of the absorption of the resonance radiation as it passes through the gas to a detector. The transmission of this radiation through a layer of gas of finite thickness is measured as a function of the number density of the gas. The transmission function is fitted to this data to obtain the absorption oscillator strength. The accuracy of the present measurements ranges from 2.5% to 4% and is reflected in the uncertainties presented below. The results are for He I (58.4 nm) 0.2683 +/- 0.0075 (2.8%), He I (53.7 nm) 0.0717 +/- 0.0024 (3.4%), Ne I (74.4 nm) 0.01017 +/- 0.00030 (2.9%), Ne I (73.6 nm) 0.1369 +/- 0.0035 (2.6%), Ar I (106.7 nm) 0.0616 +/- 0.0021 (3.4%), Ar I (104.8 nm) 0.2297 +/- 0.0093 (4.0%), Kr I (123.6 nm) 0.1751 +/- 0.0049 (2.8%) and Kr I (116.5 nm) 0.1496 +/- 0.0038 (2.5%).

  15. Laser-assisted vacuum arc extreme ultraviolet source: a comparison of picosecond and nanosecond laser triggering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyene, Girum A.; Tobin, Isaac; Juschkin, Larissa; Hayden, Patrick; O’Sullivan, Gerry; Sokell, Emma; Zakharov, Vassily S.; Zakharov, Sergey V.; O’Reilly, Fergal

    2016-06-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light generation by hybrid laser-assisted vacuum arc discharge plasmas, utilizing Sn-coated rotating-disc-electrodes, was investigated. The discharge was initiated by localized ablation of the liquid tin coating of the cathode disc by a laser pulse. The laser pulse, at 1064 nm, was generated by Nd:YAG lasers with variable energy from 1 to 100 mJ per pulse. The impact of shortening the laser pulse from 7 ns to 170 ps on the EUV generation has been investigated in detail. The use of ps pulses resulted in an increase in emission of EUV radiation. With a fixed discharge energy of ~4 J, the EUV conversion efficiency tends to plateau at ~2.4  ±  0.25% for the ps laser pulses, while for the ns pulses, it saturates at ~1.7  ±  0.3%. Under similar discharge and laser energy conditions, operating the EUV source with the ps-triggering resulted also in narrower spectral profiles of the emission in comparison to ns-triggering. The results indicate an advantage in using ps-triggering in laser-assisted discharges to produce brighter plasmas required for applications such as metrology.

  16. Contribution of Vacuum-Ultraviolet Transitions of Molecular Nitrogen to Radiative Heat Flux During Atmospheric Reentry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebhart, Heiko; Fertig, Markus; Herdrich, Georg; Fasoulas, Stefanos; Roser, Hans-Peter

    2011-02-01

    Within this work we investigate the radiative properties of molecular nitrogen with respect to the highly excited electronic states giving rise to radiative transitions occurring in the spectral range of Vacuum-Ultraviolet (VUV) radiation. This is done in order to shed light on the role of VUV radiation of molecular nitrogen in the radiative heat load encountered by a vessel during highspeed atmospheric reentry. The considered transitions bands are the Lyman - Birge - Hopfield (a1IIg - X1Σ+g ), Birge - Hopfield I (b1Πu - X1Σ+g ), Birge-Hopfield II(b Σu -X Σg ), Caroll - Yoshino (c'41Σ+u - X1Σ+g ), Worley - Jenkins (c31IIu - X1Σ+g ), Worley (o31IIu - X1Σ+g ), and e Σu - X Σg band. The approach to retrieve the relevant parameters for the line by line radiation simulation follows common methods of calculation, which are the re- construction of the potential energy function via the Rydberg-Klein-Rees (RKR) method and subsequently solving the correspond- ing radial Schrodinger equation. Absorption and emission spectra are then calculated for a known equilibrium test condition of air plasma to illustrate the contribution of the VUV transitions to the radiation. The influence of the VUV radiation on the heat load experienced by a reentry vehicle is illustrated with an exemplary CFD calculation.

  17. Electrical behavior and vacuum ultraviolet radiation efficiency of monofilamentary xenon dielectric barrier discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Merbahi, N.; Ledru, G.; Sewraj, N.; Marchal, F.

    2007-06-15

    In this paper we report the experimental investigation of a pure xenon monofilamentary dielectric barrier discharge (DBD), using a high voltage power supply. Stable microdischarges were achieved and studied in the pressure range of 100-400 Torr, at frequencies between 10 and 40 kHz. Successive 3 ns exposure time snapshots of the discharge clearly show how it built up. Its diameter was about 0.26 mm. The discharge voltage and current were determined from the measurement of the supply voltage and current. Compared to those in argon, the current pulses were shorter (less than 30 ns, above 200 Torr) and had much higher peak values. Ignition voltages were also higher in the heavier gas. Electrical energy and vacuum ultraviolet radiation energy of the second continuum of xenon were both independent of frequency. They both varied almost linearly with pressure. The measured DBD vuv efficiency of a single xenon microdischarge reported here was between 55% and 60%, and the maximum value was reached for 200 Torr. These values were twice those reported for multifilamentary discharges working with a sinusoidal supply. They were similar to those obtained for multifilamentary dielectric barrier discharges excited with short voltage pulses.

  18. The effects of vacuum ultraviolet radiation on low-k dielectric films

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, H.; Ren, H.; Nichols, M. T.; Lauer, J. L.; Shohet, J. L.; Tomoyasu, M.; Russell, N. M.; Jiang, G.; Antonelli, G. A.; Fuller, N. C.; Engelmann, S. U.; Lin, Q.; Ryan, V.; Nishi, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Plasmas, known to emit high levels of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation, are used in the semiconductor industry for processing of low-k organosilicate glass (SiCOH) dielectric device structures. VUV irradiation induces photoconduction, photoemission, and photoinjection. These effects generate trapped charges within the dielectric film, which can degrade electrical properties of the dielectric. The amount of charge accumulation in low-k dielectrics depends on factors that affect photoconduction, photoemission, and photoinjection. Changes in the photo and intrinsic conductivities of SiCOH are also ascribed to the changes in the numbers of charged traps generated during VUV irradiation. The dielectric-substrate interface controls charge trapping by affecting photoinjection of charged carriers into the dielectric from the substrate. The number of trapped charges increases with increasing porosity of SiCOH because of charge trapping sites in the nanopores. Modifications to these three parameters, i.e., (1) VUV induced charge generation, (2) dielectric-substrate interface, and (3) porosity of dielectrics, can be used to reduce trapped-charge accumulation during processing of low-{kappa} SiCOH dielectrics. Photons from the plasma are responsible for trapped-charge accumulation within the dielectric, while ions stick primarily to the surface of the dielectrics. In addition, as the dielectric constant was decreased by adding porosity, the defect concentrations increased.

  19. Vacuum-ultraviolet-induced charge depletion in plasma-charged patterned-dielectric wafers

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhyaya, G. S.; Shohet, J. L.; Kruger, J. B.

    2009-03-01

    Plasma-induced charging of patterned-dielectric structures during device fabrication can cause structural and electrical damage to devices. In this work, we report on vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) radiation-induced charge depletion in plasma-charged patterned-silicon-oxide dielectric wafers. Charge depletion is studied as a function of photon energy and the aspect ratio of hole structures. The wafers were charged in a plasma and subsequently exposed to monochromatic-synchrotron-VUV. Surface-potential measurements after VUV exposure showed that photon energies less than 11 eV were beneficial in depleting the plasma-induced charge from the patterned-dielectric wafers. In addition, for a given photon-flux density and for photon energies less than 11 eV, VUV-induced charge depletion decreases with increasing hole aspect ratio. The results are explained with a physically plausible equivalent-circuit model, which suggests that both electron photoinjection from Si into the oxide and oxide surface conductivity play an important role in the charge-depletion process.

  20. Resonantly enhanced method for generation of tunable, coherent vacuum-ultraviolet radiation

    DOEpatents

    Glownia, J.H.; Sander, R.K.

    1982-06-29

    Carbon Monoxide vapor is used to generate coherent, tunable vacuum ultraviolet radiation by third-harmonic generation using a single tunable dye laser. The presence of a nearby electronic level resonantly enhances the nonlinear susceptibility of this molecule allowing efficient generation of the vuv light at modest pump laser intensities, thereby reducing the importance of a six-photon multiple-photon ionization process which is also resonantly enhanced by the same electronic level but no higher order. By choosing the pump radiation wavelength to be of shorter wavelength than individual vibronic levels used to extend tunability stepwise from 154.4 to 124.6 nm, and the intensity to be low enough, multiple-photon ionization can be eliminated. Excitation spectra of the third-harmonic emission output exhibit shifts to shorter wavelength and broadening with increasing CO pressure due to phase matching effects. Increasing the carbon monoxide pressure, therefore, allows the substantial filling in of gaps arising from the stepwise tuning thereby providing almost continuous tunability over the quoted range of wavelength emitted.

  1. Gas chromatography-vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy for analysis of fatty acid methyl esters.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hui; Smuts, Jonathan; Bai, Ling; Walsh, Phillip; Armstrong, Daniel W; Schug, Kevin A

    2016-03-01

    A new vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) detector for gas chromatography was recently developed and applied to fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis. VUV detection features full spectral acquisition in a wavelength range of 115-240nm, where virtually all chemical species absorb. VUV absorption spectra of 37 FAMEs, including saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated types were recorded. Unsaturated FAMEs show significantly different gas phase absorption profiles than saturated ones, and these classes can be easily distinguished with the VUV detector. Another advantage includes differentiating cis/trans-isomeric FAMEs (e.g. oleic acid methyl ester and linoleic acid methyl ester isomers) and the ability to use VUV data analysis software for deconvolution of co-eluting signals. As a universal detector, VUV also provides high specificity, sensitivity, and a fast data acquisition rate, making it a powerful tool for fatty acid screening when combined with gas chromatography. The fatty acid profile of several food oil samples (olive, canola, vegetable, corn, sunflower and peanut oils) were analyzed in this study to demonstrate applicability to real world samples. PMID:26471553

  2. International Test Program for Synergistic Atomic Oxygen and Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure of Spacecraft Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sharon K.

    2001-01-01

    The components and materials of spacecraft in low Earth orbit can degrade in thermal and optical performance through interaction with atomic oxygen and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation, which are predominant in low Earth orbit. Because of the importance of low Earth orbit durability and performance to manufacturers and users, an international test program for assessing the durability of spacecraft materials and components was initiated. Initial tests at the NASA Glenn Research Center consisted of exposure of samples representing a variety of thermal control paints, multilayer insulation materials, and Sun sensors that have been used in space. Materials donated from various international sources were tested alongside materials whose performance is well known, such as Teflon FEP, Kapton H, or Z-93-P white paint. The optical, thermal, or mass loss data generated during the tests were then provided to the participating material suppliers. Data were not published unless the participant donating the material consented to publication. The test program is intended to give spacecraft builders and users a better understanding of degradation processes and effects so that they can improve their predictions of spacecraft performance.

  3. Internal energies of ion-sputtered neutral tryptophan and thymine molecules determined by vacuum ultraviolet photoionization.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jia; Takahashi, Lynelle K; Wilson, Kevin R; Leone, Stephen R; Ahmed, Musahid

    2010-05-01

    Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization coupled to secondary neutral mass spectrometry (VUV-SNMS) of deposited tryptophan and thymine films are performed at the Chemical Dynamics Beamline. The resulting mass spectra show that while the intensity of the VUV-SNMS signal is lower than the corresponding secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) signal, the mass spectra are significantly simplified in VUV-SNMS. A detailed examination of tryptophan and thymine neutral molecules sputtered by 25 keV Bi(3)(+) indicates that the ion-sputtered parent molecules have approximately 2.5 eV of internal energy. While this internal energy shifts the appearance energy of the photofragment ions for both tryptophan and thymine, it does not change the characteristic photoionizaton efficiency (PIE) curves of thymine versus photon energy. Further analysis of the mass spectral signals indicate that approximately 80 neutral thymine molecules and 400 tryptophan molecules are sputtered per incident Bi(3)(+) ion. The simplified mass spectra and significant characteristic ion contributions to the VUV-SNMS spectra indicate the potential power of the technique for organic molecule surface analysis. PMID:20353160

  4. Vacuum Ultraviolet Photon-stimulated Oxidation of Buried Ice: Graphite Grain Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, J.; Grieves, G. A.; Orlando, T. M.

    2015-05-01

    The vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synthesis of CO and CO2 on ice-coated graphite and isotopic labeled 13C graphite has been examined for temperatures between 40 and 120 K. The results show that CO and CO2 can be formed at the buried ice:graphite interface with Lyα photon irradiation via the reaction of radicals (O and OH) produced by direct photodissociation and the dissociative electron attachment of the interfacial water molecules. The synthesized CO and CO2 molecules can desorb in hot photon-dominated regions and are lost to space when ice coated carbonaceous dust grains cycle within the protoplanetary disks. Thus, the nonthermal formation of CO and CO2 at the buried ice:grain interface by VUV photons may help regulate the carbon inventory during the early stage of planet formation. This may contribute to the carbon deficits in our solar system and suggests that a universal carbon deficit gradient may be expected within astrophysical bodies surrounding center stars.

  5. Secondary Structure Prediction of Protein Constructs Using Random Incremental Truncation and Vacuum-Ultraviolet CD Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Pukáncsik, Mária; Orbán, Ágnes; Nagy, Kinga; Matsuo, Koichi; Gekko, Kunihiko; Maurin, Damien; Hart, Darren; Kézsmárki, István; Vertessy, Beata G.

    2016-01-01

    A novel uracil-DNA degrading protein factor (termed UDE) was identified in Drosophila melanogaster with no significant structural and functional homology to other uracil-DNA binding or processing factors. Determination of the 3D structure of UDE is excepted to provide key information on the description of the molecular mechanism of action of UDE catalysis, as well as in general uracil-recognition and nuclease action. Towards this long-term aim, the random library ESPRIT technology was applied to the novel protein UDE to overcome problems in identifying soluble expressing constructs given the absence of precise information on domain content and arrangement. Nine constructs of UDE were chosen to decipher structural and functional relationships. Vacuum ultraviolet circular dichroism (VUVCD) spectroscopy was performed to define the secondary structure content and location within UDE and its truncated variants. The quantitative analysis demonstrated exclusive α-helical content for the full-length protein, which is preserved in the truncated constructs. Arrangement of α-helical bundles within the truncated protein segments suggested new domain boundaries which differ from the conserved motifs determined by sequence-based alignment of UDE homologues. Here we demonstrate that the combination of ESPRIT and VUVCD spectroscopy provides a new structural description of UDE and confirms that the truncated constructs are useful for further detailed functional studies. PMID:27273007

  6. High-intensity vacuum-ultraviolet generator utilizing a surface-discharge diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagae, Michiaki; Sato, Eiichi; Oizumi, Teiji; Hayasi, Yasuomi; Tamakawa, Yoshiharu; Yanagisawa, Toru

    1995-05-01

    The fundamental studies on a high-intensity flash vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) generator for producing water-window flash x rays are described. This generator consisted of the following essential components: a high- voltage power supply, a coaxial high-voltage pulser having a 0.2 (mu) F condenser, a Krytron pulser as a trigger device, a turbo molecular pump, and a VUV tube. The VUV tube employed a surface-discharge ferrite substrate having two copper electrodes and was evacuated by the pump with a pressure of 1.3 X 10-3 Pa. The condenser in the pulser was charged from 10 to 30 kV by the power supply, and the electric charges in the condenser were discharged to the radiation tube after closing a gap switch by the Krytron pulser. Then the flash VUV rays were generated. The maximum output voltage from the pulser was almost equivalent to the charged voltage, and both the tube voltage and current displayed damped oscillations. The maximum values of the tube voltage and current were approximately 23 kV and 13 kA, respectively. Since the effective accelerating voltage was substantially decreased by the substrate, soft x rays were easily generated. The pulse durations of the VUV rays including water window x rays were nearly equivalent to those of the damped oscillations of the voltage and current, and their values were less than 30 microsecond(s) .

  7. Outgassing Measurements for Three Materials, Combined with Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Illumination of the Volatile Condensable Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albyn, Keith

    2005-01-01

    The photolysis of three organic materials, by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation, has been quantified using 15-MHz temperature-controlled quartz microbalances (TQCM's). The rate at which molecular species, released from the individual samples, condensed on two TQCM s was measured for periods of up to 139.9-hours. The individual samples were heated in an effusion cell and the emitted molecular species collected on a pair of TQCM's which were maintained at -40 degrees Celsius. At several points during the deposition measurement, the deposition surface of one TQCM was illuminated by a 30 Watt deuterium lamp, and the loss of material from that surface was observed. V W illumination of the TQCM, concurrent with condensation, reduced the rate that material was lost from the deposition surface. These measurements present a contrasting picture of molecular deposition, in the presence of VUV, to that presented by other investigators who observed an enhanced rate of molecular deposition, when the deposition surface was illuminated by VUV.

  8. High-resolution vacuum-ultraviolet photoabsorption spectra of 1-butyne and 2-butyne

    SciTech Connect

    Jacovella, U.; Holland, D. M. P.; Boyé-Péronne, S.; Gans, B.; Oliveira, N. de; Joyeux, D.; Archer, L. E.; Lucchese, R. R.; Xu, H.; Pratt, S. T.

    2015-07-21

    The absolute photoabsorption cross sections of 1- and 2-butyne have been recorded at high resolution by using the vacuum-ultraviolet Fourier-Transform spectrometer at the SOLEIL Synchrotron. Both spectra show more resolved structure than previously observed, especially in the case of 2-butyne. In this work, we assess the potential importance of Rydberg states with higher values of orbital angular momentum, l, than are typically observed in photoabsorption experiments from ground state molecules. We show how the character of the highest occupied molecular orbitals in 1- and 2-butyne suggests the potential importance of transitions to such high-l (l = 3 and 4) Rydberg states. Furthermore, we use theoretical calculations of the partial wave composition of the absorption cross section just above the ionization threshold and the principle of continuity of oscillator strength through an ionization threshold to support this conclusion. The new absolute photoabsorption cross sections are discussed in light of these arguments, and the results are consistent with the expectations. This type of argument should be valuable for assessing the potential importance of different Rydberg series when sufficiently accurate direct quantum chemical calculations are difficult, for example, in the n ≥ 5 manifolds of excited states of larger molecules.

  9. Resonantly enhanced method for generation of tunable, coherent vacuum ultraviolet radiation

    DOEpatents

    Glownia, James H.; Sander, Robert K.

    1985-01-01

    Carbon Monoxide vapor is used to generate coherent, tunable vacuum ultraviolet radiation by third-harmonic generation using a single tunable dye laser. The presence of a nearby electronic level resonantly enhances the nonlinear susceptibility of this molecule allowing efficient generation of the vuv light at modest pump laser intensities, thereby reducing the importance of a six-photon multiple-photon ionization process which is also resonantly enhanced by the same electronic level but to higher order. By choosing the pump radiation wavelength to be of shorter wavelength than individual vibronic levels used to extend tunability stepwise from 154.4 to 124.6 nm, and the intensity to be low enough, multiple-photon ionization can be eliminated. Excitation spectra of the third-harmonic emission output exhibit shifts to shorter wavelength and broadening with increasing CO pressure due to phase matching effects. Increasing the carbon monoxide pressure, therefore, allows the substantial filling in of gaps arising from the stepwise tuning thereby providing almost continuous tunability over the quoted range of wavelength emitted.

  10. Si nanocrystals embedded in SiO{sub 2}: Optical studies in the vacuum ultraviolet range

    SciTech Connect

    Pankratov, V.; Osinniy, V.; Kotlov, A.; Nylandsted Larsen, A.; Bech Nielsen, B.

    2011-01-15

    Photoluminescence excitation and transmission spectra of Si nanocrystals of different diameters embedded in a SiO{sub 2} matrix have been investigated in the broad visible-vacuum ultraviolet spectral range using synchrotron radiation. The dependence of the photoluminescence excitation spectra on the nanocrystals size was experimentally established. It is shown that the photoluminescence excitation and absorption spectra are significantly blueshifted with decreasing Si nanocrystal size. A detailed comparison of photoluminescence excitation and absorption spectra with data from theoretical modeling has been done. It is demonstrated that the experimentally determined blueshift of the photoluminescence excitation and absorption spectra is larger than the theoretical predictions. The influence of point defects in the SiO{sub 2} matrix on the optical and luminescence properties of the embedded Si nanocrystals is discussed. Moreover, it is demonstrated that no energy transfer takes place between the SiO{sub 2} and Si nanocrystals when the excitation energy is higher than the band-to-band transition energy in SiO{sub 2}.

  11. Chiroptical study of α-aliphatic amino acid films in the vacuum ultraviolet region.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masahito; Yagi-Watanabe, Kazutoshi; Kaneko, Fusae; Nakagawa, Kazumichi

    2010-11-11

    A series of natural circular dichroism (CD) and absorption spectra for films of α-aliphatic amino acids--such as alanine, aminobutyric acid, norvaline, norleucine, valine, leucine, and isoleucine--in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) region were observed with the absolute values of optical constants at the undulator-based CD beamline TERAS BL5. Preliminary predictions of some CD spectra were also performed, based on quantum-chemical calculations using the crystal structure. Although the absorption spectra show similar features to each other, significant differences between the CD spectra were found, especially in the 7-8 eV region. The CD spectra of aliphatic amino acids with branched alkyl groups in the side-chain--such as valine, leucine, and isoleucine--exhibit strong negative CD peaks in this energy region. In contrast, the corresponding CD peaks were weak or absent in the spectra of amino acids with straight alkyl groups. Our simple calculation, and the absorption spectra of alkanes, suggest that this difference partly originates from the contribution of the alkyl group. Clear discrepancies between the CD spectra of these amino acids in solutions and those in the solid state were also observed; this is probably caused by the different molecular structures in each state. Our results clearly indicated that CD spectra in the VUV region were very sensitive to the conformations of chiral molecules. PMID:20958008

  12. On the Dynamics of Xylene Isomers Excited in the Vacuum-Ultraviolet (VUV) Region.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Christina C; Kaziannis, Spiridon; Kosmidis, Constantine

    2016-08-01

    We report on the dynamics of electronically excited o-, m-, and p-xylene on the femtosecond timescale by employing the vacuum-ultraviolet pump-IR probe mass spectrometry technique. The molecules were excited by the fifth harmonic (λ=160 nm) of a Ti:sapphire laser at a superposition of the S3 valence with several Rydberg states. The relaxation pathways were investigated by studying the parent P(+) and the fragment [P-H](+) and [P-CH3 ](+) time-resolved signals generated after interaction with the fundamental beam (λ=800 nm). Relaxation from the excited valence states was found to depend on the relative positions of the methyl groups on the ring. An increasing trend in the order o

  13. The vacuum ultraviolet beamline/endstations at NSRL dedicated to combustion research.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhongyue; Du, Xuewei; Yang, Jiuzhong; Wang, Yizun; Li, Chaoyang; Wei, Shen; Du, Liangliang; Li, Yuyang; Qi, Fei; Wang, Qiuping

    2016-07-01

    An undulator-based vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) beamline (BL03U), intended for combustion chemistry studies, has been constructed at the National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) in Hefei, China. The beamline is connected to the newly upgraded Hefei Light Source (HLS II), and could deliver photons in the 5-21 eV range, with a photon flux of 10(13) photons s(-1) at 10 eV when the beam current is 300 mA. The monochromator of the beamline is equipped with two gratings (200 lines mm(-1) and 400 lines mm(-1)) and its resolving power is 3900 at 7.3 eV for the 200 lines mm(-1) grating and 4200 at 14.6 eV for the 400 lines mm(-1) grating. The beamline serves three endstations which are designed for respective studies of premixed flame, fuel pyrolysis in flow reactor, and oxidation in jet-stirred reactor. Each endstation contains a reactor chamber, an ionization chamber where the molecular beam intersects with the VUV light, and a home-made reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The performance of the beamline and endstations with some preliminary results is presented here. The ability to detect reactive intermediates (e.g. H, O, OH and hydroperoxides) is advantageous in combustion chemistry research. PMID:27359154

  14. Determination of ionization energies of small silicon clusters with vacuum?ultraviolet (VUV) radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kostko, Oleg; Leone, Stephen R.; Duncan, Michael A.; Ahmed, Musahid

    2009-09-23

    In this work we report on single photon vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of small silicon clusters (n=1-7) produced via laser ablation of Si. The adiabatic ionization energies (AIE) are extracted from experimental photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves with the help of Frank?Condon simulations, used to interpret the shape and onset of the PIE curves. The obtained AIEs are (all energies are in eV): Si (8.13+-0.05), Si2 (7.92+-0.05), Si3 (8.12+-0.05), Si4 (8.2+-0.1), Si5 (7.96+-0.07), Si6 (7.8+-0.1), and Si7 (7.8+-0.1). Most of the experimental AIE values are in good agreement with ab initio electronic structure calculations. To explain observed deviations between the experimental and theoretical AIEs for Si4 and Si6, a theoretical search of different isomers of these species is performed. Electronic structure calculations aid in the interpretation of the a2PIu state of Si2+ dimer in the PIE spectrum. Time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations are performed to reveal the energies of electronically excited states in the cations for a number of Si clusters.

  15. The use of vacuum ultraviolet irradiation to oxidize SO₂ and NOx for simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification.

    PubMed

    Ye, Junhui; Shang, Jing; Li, Qian; Xu, Weiwei; Liu, Jia; Feng, Xiang; Zhu, Tong

    2014-04-30

    A simple and efficient method for simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification via vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation and with no additional chemicals is presented. The simultaneous removal of 90% SO2 and 96% NOx (NO+NO2) was achieved from the simulated flue gas under the irradiation from a low-pressure mercury lamp with main wavelengths of 185 and 254 nm, respectively. The composition, flow rate, and temperature of the simulated flue gas, as well as the VUV light intensity, were evaluated as the factors impacting on the efficiency of SO2 and NOx removal. The OH, HO2, O, and O3 produced from the photolysis of H2O and O2 were concluded as the major reactive oxygen species that oxidized SO2 and NOx. The additional OH and HO2 generated through the reactions of NO+HO2 and SO2+OH/HO2 improved treatment efficiency, while the oxidation products of NOx, e.g., NO2, HNO2, HNO3, and HNO4, consumed massive reactive oxygen species (such as O, OH, and HO2) and thereby reducing the removal efficiencies. The main reaction products were characterized as H2SO4 and HNO3 by ion chromatography, which could be used as chemical or fertilizer raw materials. PMID:24632363

  16. Sterilization of Bacillus atrophaeus using OH radicals supplied by vacuum ultraviolet method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonetamari, Kenta; Tokumitsu, Yusuke; Yonemori, Seiya; Ono, Ryo; Yasuda, Hachiro; Mizuno, Akira

    2015-09-01

    Sterilization by cold plasma has widely been performed. It is well known that reactive oxygen species (ROS) has a potential of sterilization. However, it is not clear which ROS is effective on sterilization because a lot of types of ROS are produced in plasma. In this study, sterilization effect of OH radicals by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) method was investigated. This method utilizes photodissociation reaction to produce ROS so it can produce ROS selectively. Wet and dry helium with and without 1% O2 gas was used to demonstrate sterilization effect of OH radicals. Gases were flowed in a quartz tube (inner diameter 2 mm, outer diameter 4 mm) at a flow rate of 1.5 L/min. The produced ROS flowed out of the quartz tube nozzle. A Xe2 excimer lamp emitting 172 +/- 7 nm VUV light was placed parallel to the quartz tube with a distance of 8 mm. The distance between the lower end of the lamp and the nozzle of quartz tube was changed from 3 to 15 cm. As a target of sterilization, Bacillus atrophaeus (ATCC 9372) was used. The density of OH radicals was measured using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). As a result, sterilization using VUV method was verified. This result showed that OH radicals sterilized the bacteria.

  17. Permanent hydrophilic modification of polypropylene and poly(vinyl alcohol) films by vacuum ultraviolet radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmonte, Guilherme Kretzmann; Charles, German; Strumia, Miriam Cristina; Weibel, Daniel Eduardo

    2016-09-01

    Polypropylene (PP) and Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) both synthetics polymers but one of them biodegradable, were surface modified by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation. After VUV irradiation in an inert nitrogen atmosphere, the films were exposed to oxygen gas. The treated films were characterized by water contact angle measurements (WCA), optical profilometry, FTIR-ATR, XPS, UPS and NEXAFS techniques. PP and PVA VUV-treated films reached superhydrophilic conditions (WCAs <10°) in about 30 min of irradiation under our experimental conditions. It was observed that when the WCAs reached about 35-40° the hydrophilicity was permanent in both polymers. These results contrasted with typical plasma treatments were a rapid hydrophobic recovery with aging time is usually observed. UPS and XPS data showed the presence of new functionalities on the PP and PVA surfaces that were assigned to COO, Cdbnd O, Csbnd O and Cdbnd C functional groups. Finally, grafting of styrene (ST) as a typical monomer was tested on PP films. It was confirmed that only in the VUV irradiated region an efficient grafting of ST or polymerized ST was found. Outside the irradiated regions no ST grafted was observed. Our results showed the potential use of VUV treatment for surface modification and processing of polymers which lack chromophores in the UV region.

  18. Vacuum ultraviolet electron impact excitation of the styrene molecule: cross sections and oscillator strengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boechat-Roberty, H. M.; Lucas, C. A.; Lopes, M. C. A.; Rocco, M. L. M.; de Souza, G. G. B.

    2009-05-01

    The vacuum ultraviolet electronic excitation of the styrene molecule has been studied in the 0-50 eV energy range, using angle-resolved electron-energy-loss spectroscopy at an incident energy of 1 keV. Intense new features have been observed at 10.3, 11.8, 13.7 and 17.1 eV. They were tentatively assigned to high-energy transitions originating from σ electrons or to double excitations involving π electrons. The absolute generalized oscillator strengths and absolute inelastic differential cross sections have been determined for the band centred at 5.3 eV, associated with the 2,3 1A'<--1 1A' transitions. The absolute elastic differential cross section has also been determined over an angular range of 2.5°-22.0°. The valence photoabsorption spectrum of styrene, derived from the electron-energy-loss spectrum, is compared to a previously measured benzene spectrum in the 3-45 eV energy range.

  19. Steady-State Vacuum Ultraviolet Exposure Facility With Automated Lamp Calibration and Sample Positioning Fabricated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sechkar, Edward A.; Steuber, Thomas J.; Banks, Bruce A.; Dever, Joyce A.

    2000-01-01

    The Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) will be placed in an orbit that will subject it to constant solar radiation during its planned 10-year mission. A sunshield will be necessary to passively cool the telescope, protecting it from the Sun s energy and assuring proper operating temperatures for the telescope s instruments. This sunshield will be composed of metalized polymer multilayer insulation with an outer polymer membrane (12 to 25 mm in thickness) that will be metalized on the back to assure maximum reflectance of sunlight. The sunshield must maintain mechanical integrity and optical properties for the full 10 years. This durability requirement is most challenging for the outermost, constantly solar-facing polymer membrane of the sunshield. One of the potential threats to the membrane material s durability is from vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation in wavelengths below 200 nm. Such radiation can be absorbed in the bulk of these thin polymer membrane materials and degrade the polymer s optical and mechanical properties. So that a suitable membrane material can be selected that demonstrates durability to solar VUV radiation, ground-based testing of candidate materials must be conducted to simulate the total 10- year VUV exposure expected during the Next Generation Space Telescope mission. The Steady State Vacuum Ultraviolet exposure facility was designed and fabricated at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field to provide unattended 24-hr exposure of candidate materials to VUV radiation of 3 to 5 times the Sun s intensity in the wavelength range of 115 to 200 nm. The facility s chamber, which maintains a pressure of approximately 5 10(exp -6) torr, is divided into three individual exposure cells, each with a separate VUV source and sample-positioning mechanism. The three test cells are separated by a water-cooled copper shield plate assembly to minimize thermal effects from adjacent test cells. Part of the interior sample positioning mechanism of one

  20. A new facility for the synchrotron radiation-based calibration of transfer radiation sources in the ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet spectral range

    SciTech Connect

    Thornagel, Reiner; Fliegauf, Rolf; Klein, Roman Kroth, Simone; Paustian, Wolfgang; Richter, Mathias

    2015-01-15

    The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) has a long tradition in the calibration of radiation sources in the ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet spectral range, with traceability to calculable synchrotron radiation. Within this context, new instrumentation in the PTB laboratory at the Metrology Light Source (MLS) has been put into operation that opens up extended and improved calibration possibilities. A new facility for radiation source calibrations has been set up in the spectral range from 7 nm to 400 nm based on a combined normal incidence-grazing incidence monochromator. The facility can be used for the calibration of transfer sources in terms of spectral radiant intensity or mean spectral radiance, with traceability to the MLS primary source standard. We describe the design and performance of the experimental station and give examples of some commissioning results.

  1. A new facility for the synchrotron radiation-based calibration of transfer radiation sources in the ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet spectral range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornagel, Reiner; Fliegauf, Rolf; Klein, Roman; Kroth, Simone; Paustian, Wolfgang; Richter, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) has a long tradition in the calibration of radiation sources in the ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet spectral range, with traceability to calculable synchrotron radiation. Within this context, new instrumentation in the PTB laboratory at the Metrology Light Source (MLS) has been put into operation that opens up extended and improved calibration possibilities. A new facility for radiation source calibrations has been set up in the spectral range from 7 nm to 400 nm based on a combined normal incidence-grazing incidence monochromator. The facility can be used for the calibration of transfer sources in terms of spectral radiant intensity or mean spectral radiance, with traceability to the MLS primary source standard. We describe the design and performance of the experimental station and give examples of some commissioning results.

  2. Photoluminescence performance of thulium doped Li{sub 4}SrCa(SiO{sub 4}){sub 2} under irradiation of ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet lights

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhaofeng; Li, Yezhou; Liu, Xiong; Wei, Xingmin; Chen, Yueling; Zhou, Fei; Wang, Yuhua

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • A novel blue-emitting phosphor Li{sub 4}SrCa(SiO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tm{sup 3+} was reported. • Li{sub 4}SrCa(SiO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tm{sup 3+} exhibited excellent thermal and irradiation stability. • Li{sub 4}SrCa(SiO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tm{sup 3+} was found to possess high color purity. - Abstract: In this work, we synthesized Tm{sup 3+} doped Li{sub 4}SrCa(SiO{sub 4}){sub 2} phosphors and investigated their photoluminescence properties under the excitation of ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet lights. The crystal structure analysis and variation of cell parameters confirm that Tm{sup 3+} ions have been successfully doped in the structure of Li{sub 4}SrCa(SiO{sub 4}){sub 2} host by occupying the sites of Ca{sup 2+} with the coordination number of 6. The luminescence results suggest that Li{sub 4}SrCa(SiO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tm{sup 3+} is a good blue-emitting phosphor when excited by ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet irradiations. In addition, it is observed that there is nearly no degradation for Li{sub 4}SrCa(SiO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tm{sup 3+} after undergoing thermal and irradiation treatments. Possible mechanisms for the luminescence processes are proposed on the basis of the discussion of excitation and emission spectra. In particular, the emission color of Li{sub 4}SrCa(SiO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tm{sup 3+} by excitation of 147 and 172 nm irradiations is very close to the standard blue color, suggesting that it could be potentially applied in plasma display panels and mercury-free fluorescence lamps.

  3. Interpretation of the vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption spectrum of iodobenzene by ab initio computations

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, Michael H. Ridley, Trevor E-mail: vronning@phys.au.dk E-mail: marcello.coreno@elettra.eu E-mail: malgorzata.biczysko@sns.it; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning E-mail: vronning@phys.au.dk E-mail: marcello.coreno@elettra.eu E-mail: malgorzata.biczysko@sns.it Jones, Nykola C. E-mail: vronning@phys.au.dk E-mail: marcello.coreno@elettra.eu E-mail: malgorzata.biczysko@sns.it; Coreno, Marcello E-mail: vronning@phys.au.dk E-mail: marcello.coreno@elettra.eu E-mail: malgorzata.biczysko@sns.it; Grazioli, Cesare; and others

    2015-04-07

    Identification of many Rydberg states in iodobenzene, especially from the first and fourth ionization energies (IE{sub 1} and IE{sub 4}, X{sup 2}B{sub 1} and C{sup 2}B{sub 1}), has become possible using a new ultraviolet (UV) and vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) absorption spectrum, in the region 29 000-87 000 cm{sup −1} (3.60-10.79 eV), measured at room temperature with synchrotron radiation. A few Rydberg states based on IE{sub 2} (A{sup 2}A{sub 2}) were found, but those based on IE{sub 3} (B{sup 2}B{sub 2}) are undetectable. The almost complete absence of observable Rydberg states relating to IE{sub 2} and IE{sub 3} (A{sup 2}A{sub 2} and B{sup 2}B{sub 2}, respectively) is attributed to them being coupled to the near-continuum, high-energy region of Rydberg series converging on IE{sub 1}. Theoretical studies of the UV and VUV spectra used both time-dependent density functional (TDDFT) and multi-reference multi-root doubles and singles-configuration interaction methods. The theoretical adiabatic excitation energies, and their corresponding vibrational profiles, gave a satisfactory interpretation of the experimental results. The calculations indicate that the UV onset contains both 1{sup 1}B{sub 1} and 1{sup 1}B{sub 2} states with very low oscillator strength, while the 2{sup 1}B{sub 1} state was found to lie under the lowest ππ{sup ∗} 1{sup 1}A{sub 1} state. All three of these {sup 1}B{sub 1} and {sup 1}B{sub 2} states are excitations into low-lying σ{sup ∗} orbitals. The strongest VUV band near 7 eV contains two very strong ππ{sup ∗} valence states, together with other weak contributors. The lowest Rydberg 4b{sub 1}6s state (3{sup 1}B{sub 1}) is very evident as a sharp multiplet near 6 eV; its position and vibrational structure are well reproduced by the TDDFT results.

  4. Line spectrum and ion temperature measurements from tungsten ions at low ionization stages in large helical device based on vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy in wavelength range of 500–2200 Å

    SciTech Connect

    Oishi, T. Morita, S.; Goto, M.; Huang, X. L.; Zhang, H. M.

    2014-11-15

    Vacuum ultraviolet spectra of emissions released from tungsten ions at lower ionization stages were measured in the Large Helical Device (LHD) in the wavelength range of 500–2200 Å using a 3 m normal incidence spectrometer. Tungsten ions were distributed in the LHD plasma by injecting a pellet consisting of a small piece of tungsten metal and polyethylene tube. Many lines having different wavelengths from intrinsic impurity ions were observed just after the tungsten pellet injection. Doppler broadening of a tungsten candidate line was successfully measured and the ion temperature was obtained.

  5. Photoionization of epichlorohydrin enantiomers and clusters studied with circularly polarized vacuum ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Daly, Steven; Powis, Ivan; Garcia, Gustavo A; Soldi-Lose, Héloïse; Nahon, Laurent

    2011-02-14

    The photoionization of enantiomerically pure epichlorohydrin (C(3)H(5)OCl) has been studied using linearly and circularly polarized vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation. The threshold photoelectron spectrum was recorded and the first three bands assigned using molecular orbital calculations for the expected conformers, although uncertain experimental conformer populations and an anticipated breakdown in Koopmans' theorem leave some ambiguity. Measurements of the photoelectron circular dichroism (PECD) were obtained across a range of photon energies for each of these bands, using electron velocity map imaging to record the angular distributions, during which a record PECD chiral asymmetry factor of 32% was observed. A comparison with calculated PECD curves clarifies the assignment achieved using ionization energies alone and further suggests a likely relative population of the conformers. Threshold photoelectron-photoion coincidence methods were used to study the ionic fragmentation of epichlorohydrin. Fragment ion appearance energies show nonstatistical behavior with clear indications that the cationic epoxide ring is unstable and lower energy decay channels proceeding via ring breaking are generally open. Extensive neutral homochiral clusters of epichlorohydrin may be formed in supersonic molecular beam expansions seeded in Ar. Electron angular distribution measurements made in coincidence with dimer and trimer ions are used to effect an examination of the PECD associated with ionization of size-selected neutral cluster species, and these results differ clearly from PECD of the neutral monomer. The shifted ionization thresholds of the n-mers (n = 2, ..., 7) are shown to follow a simple linear relationship, but under intense beam expansion conditions the monomer deviates from this relationship, and the monomer electron spectra tail to below the expected monomer adiabatic ionization potential (IP). PECD measurements made in coincidence with monomer ions obtained

  6. Investigating the effective range of vacuum ultraviolet-mediated breakdown in high-power microwave metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chien-Hao Neher, Joel D. Booske, John H. Behdad, Nader

    2014-10-14

    Metamaterials and periodic structures operating under high-power excitations are susceptible to breakdown. It was recently demonstrated that a localized breakdown created in a given region of a periodic structure can facilitate breakdown in other regions of the structure where the intensity of the incident electromagnetic fields may not be high enough to cause breakdown under normal circumstances. It was also demonstrated that this phenomenon is due to the generation of vacuum ultraviolet radiation at the location of the initial discharge, which propagates to the neighboring regions (e.g., other unit cells in a periodic structure) and facilitates the generation of a discharge at a lower incident power level. In this paper, we present the results of an experimental study conducted to determine the effective range of this physical phenomenon for periodic structures that operate in air and in pure nitrogen gas at atmospheric pressure levels. It is demonstrated that when breakdown is induced in a periodic structure using a high-power pulse with a frequency of 9.382 GHz, duration of 0.8 μs, and peak power level of 25 kW, this phenomenon is highly likely to happen in radii of approximately 16–17 mm from the location of the initial discharge under these test conditions. The results of this study are significant in designing metamaterials and periodic structures for high-power microwave applications as they suggest that a localized discharge created in such a periodic structure with a periodicity less than 16–17 mm can spread over a large surface and result in a distributed discharge.

  7. Vacuum ultraviolet photolysis of hydrogenated amorphous carbons . I. Interstellar H2 and CH4 formation rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alata, I.; Cruz-Diaz, G. A.; Muñoz Caro, G. M.; Dartois, E.

    2014-09-01

    Context. The interstellar hydrogenated amorphous carbons (HAC or a-C:H) observed in the diffuse medium are expected to disappear in a few million years, according to the destruction time scale from laboratory measurements. The existence of a-C:H results from the equilibrium between photodesorption, radiolysis, hydrogenation and resilience of the carbonaceous network. During this processing, many species are therefore injected into the gas phase, in particular H2, but also small organic molecules, radicals or fragments. Aims: We perform experiments on interstellar a-C:H analogs to quantify the release of these species in the interstellar medium. Methods: The vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photolysis of interstellar hydrogenated amorphous carbon analogs was performed at low (10 K) to ambient temperature, coupled to mass-spectrometry detection and temperature-programed desorption. Using deuterium isotopic substitution, the species produced were unambiguously separated from background contributions. Results: The VUV photolysis of hydrogenated amorphous carbons leads to the efficient production of H2 molecules, but also to small hydrocarbons. Conclusions: These species are formed predominantly in the bulk of the a-C:H analog carbonaceous network, in addition to the surface formation. Compared with species made by the recombination of H atoms and physisorbed on surfaces, they diffuse out at higher temperatures. In addition to the efficient production rate, it provides a significant formation route in environments where the short residence time scale for H atoms inhibits H2 formation on the surface, such as PDRs. The photolytic bulk production of H2 with carbonaceous hydrogenated amorphous carbon dust grains can provide a very large portion of the contribution to the H2 molecule formation. These dust grains also release small hydrocarbons (such as CH4) into the diffuse interstellar medium, which contribute to the formation of small carbonaceous radicals after being dissociated

  8. Vacuum-Ultraviolet Photoionization and Mass Spectrometric Characterization of Lignin Monomers Coniferyl and Sinapyl Alcohols

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Lynelle K.; Zhou, Jia; Kostko, Oleg; Golan, Amir; Leone, Stephen R.; Ahmed, Musahid

    2011-02-09

    The fragmentation mechanisms of monolignols under various energetic processes are studied with jet-cooled thermal desorption molecular beam (TDMB) mass spectrometry (MS), 25 keV Bi3+ secondary ion MS (SIMS), synchrotron vacuum-ultraviolet secondary neutral MS (VUV-SNMS) and theoretical methods. Experimental and calculated appearance energies of fragments observed in TDMB MS indicate that the coniferyl alcohol photoionization mass spectra contain the molecular parent and several dissociative photoionization products. Similar results obtained for sinapyl alcohol are also discussed briefly. Ionization energies of 7.60 eV ? 0.05 eV for coniferyl alcohol and<7.4 eV for both sinapyl and dihydrosinapyl alcohols are determined. The positive ion SIMS spectrum of coniferyl alcohol shares few characteristic peaks (m/z = 137 and 151) with the TDMB mass spectra, shows extensive fragmentation, and does not exhibit clear molecular parent signals. VUV-SNMS spectra, on the other hand, are dominated by the parent ion and main fragments also present in the TDMB spectra. Molecular fragmentation in VUV-SNMS spectra can be reduced by increasing the extraction delay time. Some features resembling the SIMS spectra are also observed in the desorbed neutral products. The monolignol VUV-SNMS peaks shared with the TDMB mass spectra suggest that dissociative photoionization of ion-sputtered neutral molecules predominate in the VUV-SNMS mass spectra, despite the extra internal energy imparted in the initial ion impact. The potential applications of these results to imaging mass spectrometry of bio-molecules are discussed.

  9. DELICIOUS III: A multipurpose double imaging particle coincidence spectrometer for gas phase vacuum ultraviolet photodynamics studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, G. A.; Cunha de Miranda, B. K.; Tia, M.; Daly, S.; Nahon, L.

    2013-05-01

    We present a versatile double imaging particle coincidence spectrometer operating in fully continuous mode, named DELICIOUS III, which combines a velocity map imaging device and a modified Wiley-McLaren time of flight momentum imaging analyzer for photoelectrons and photoions, respectively. The spectrometer is installed in a permanent endstation on the DESIRS vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) beamline at the French National Synchrotron Radiation Facility SOLEIL, and is dedicated to gas phase VUV spectroscopy, photoionization, and molecular dynamics studies. DELICIOUS III is capable of recording mass-selected threshold photoelectron photoion coincidence spectra with a sub-meV resolution, and the addition of a magnifying lens inside the electron drift tube provides a sizeable improvement of the electron threshold/ion mass resolution compromise. In fast electron mode the ultimate kinetic energy resolution has been measured at ΔE/E = 4%. The ion spectrometer offers a mass resolution—full separation of adjacent masses—of 250 amu for moderate extraction fields and the addition of an electrostatic lens in the second acceleration region allows measuring the full 3D velocity vector for a given mass with an ultimate energy resolution of ΔE/E = 15%, without sacrificing the mass resolution. Hence, photoelectron images are correlated both to the mass and to the ion kinetic energy and recoil direction, to access the electron spectroscopy of size-selected species, to study the photodissociation processes of state-selected cations in detail, or to measure in certain cases photoelectron angular distributions in the ion recoil frame. The performances of DELICIOUS III are explored through several examples including the photoionization of N2, NO, and CF3.

  10. Photoionization of epichlorohydrin enantiomers and clusters studied with circularly polarized vacuum ultraviolet radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, Steven; Powis, Ivan; Garcia, Gustavo A.; Soldi-Lose, Héloïse; Nahon, Laurent

    2011-02-01

    The photoionization of enantiomerically pure epichlorohydrin (C3H5OCl) has been studied using linearly and circularly polarized vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation. The threshold photoelectron spectrum was recorded and the first three bands assigned using molecular orbital calculations for the expected conformers, although uncertain experimental conformer populations and an anticipated breakdown in Koopmans' theorem leave some ambiguity. Measurements of the photoelectron circular dichroism (PECD) were obtained across a range of photon energies for each of these bands, using electron velocity map imaging to record the angular distributions, during which a record PECD chiral asymmetry factor of 32% was observed. A comparison with calculated PECD curves clarifies the assignment achieved using ionization energies alone and further suggests a likely relative population of the conformers. Threshold photoelectron-photoion coincidence methods were used to study the ionic fragmentation of epichlorohydrin. Fragment ion appearance energies show nonstatistical behavior with clear indications that the cationic epoxide ring is unstable and lower energy decay channels proceeding via ring breaking are generally open. Extensive neutral homochiral clusters of epichlorohydrin may be formed in supersonic molecular beam expansions seeded in Ar. Electron angular distribution measurements made in coincidence with dimer and trimer ions are used to effect an examination of the PECD associated with ionization of size-selected neutral cluster species, and these results differ clearly from PECD of the neutral monomer. The shifted ionization thresholds of the n-mers (n = 2, …, 7) are shown to follow a simple linear relationship, but under intense beam expansion conditions the monomer deviates from this relationship, and the monomer electron spectra tail to below the expected monomer adiabatic ionization potential (IP). PECD measurements made in coincidence with monomer ions obtained

  11. Vacuum-Ultraviolet photoionization studies of the microhydrationof DNA bases (Guanine, Cytosine, Adenine and Thymine)

    SciTech Connect

    Belau, L.; Wilson, K.R.; Leone, S.R.; Musahid, Ahmed

    2007-01-22

    In this work, we report on a photoionization study of the microhydration of the four DNA bases. Gas-phase clusters of water with DNA bases [guanine (G), cytosine (C), adenine (A), and thymine (T)] are generated via thermal vaporization of the bases and expansion of the resultant vapor in a continuous supersonic jet expansion of water seeded in Ar. The resulting clusters are investigated by single-photon ionization with tunable vacuum-ultraviolet synchrotron radiation and mass analyzed using reflectron mass spectrometry. Photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves are recorded for the DNA bases and the following water (W) clusters: G, GW{sub n} (n = 1-3); C, CW{sub n} (n = 1-3); A, AW{sub n} (n = 1,2); and T, TW{sub n} (n = 1-3). Appearance energies (AE) are derived from the onset of these PIE curves (all energies in eV): G (8.1 {+-} 0.1), GW (8.0 {+-} 0.1), GW{sub 2} (8.0 {+-} 0.1), and GW{sub 3} (8.0); C (8.65 {+-} 0.05), CW (8.45 {+-} 0.05), CW{sub 2} (8.4 {+-} 0.1), and CW{sub 3} (8.3 {+-} 0.1); A (8.30 {+-} 0.05), AW (8.20 {+-} 0.05), and AW{sub 2} (8.1 {+-} 0.1); T (8.90 {+-} 0.05); and TW (8.75 {+-} 0.05), TW{sub 2} (8.6 {+-} 0.1), and TW{sub 3} (8.6 {+-} 0.1). The AEs of the DNA bases decrease slightly with the addition of water molecules (up to three) but do not converge to values found for photoinduced electron removal from DNA bases in solution.

  12. Flash vacuum-ultraviolet generator having a mercury-anode tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagae, Michiaki; Sato, Eiichi; Oizumi, Teiji; Yamamoto, Mariko; Takabe, Akihito; Sakamaki, Kimio; Ojima, Hidenori; Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Tamakawa, Yoshiharu; Yanagisawa, Toru

    1995-09-01

    The fundamental studies on a flash vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) generator for producing water- window x rays are described. this generator consisted of the following essential components: a high-voltage power supply, a polarity-inversion-type high-voltage pulser having a 15 nF condenser, a thyristor pulser as a trigger device, a turbo molecular pump, and a VUV tube. The VUV tube employed a mercury anode, and the ferrite cathode was embedded in the anode. The pressure in the tube was primarily determined by the steam pressure of mercury as a function of temperature. The condenser in the pulser was charged from -10 to -30 kV by the power supply, and the electric charges in the condenser were discharged to the radiation tube after closing a gap switch by the thyristor pulser. As the high electron flows from the cathode electrode evaporated the anode electrode, VUV rays were then produced. The maximum output voltage from the pulser was approximately -1 times the charging voltage, and both the tube voltage and current displayed damped oscillations. The maximum values of the tube voltage and current were 14 kV and 2.0 kA, respectively. Since the effective accelerating voltage was substantially decreased by the ferrite cathode, soft x rays were easily generated. The pulse durations of the VUV rays including water-window x rays were nearly equivalent to those of the damped oscillations of the voltage and current, and their values were less than 15 microsecond(s) .

  13. Vacuum ultraviolet of hydrogenated amorphous carbons. II. Small hydrocarbons production in Photon Dominated Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alata, I.; Jallat, A.; Gavilan, L.; Chabot, M.; Cruz-Diaz, G. A.; Munoz Caro, G. M.; Béroff, K.; Dartois, E.

    2015-12-01

    Context. Hydrogenated amorphous carbons (a-C:H) are a major component of the carbonaceous solids present in the interstellar medium. The production and existence of these grains is connected in particular with the balance between their photolysis, radiolysis, and hydrogenation. During grain processing, H2 and other small organic molecules, radicals, and fragments are released into the gas phase. Aims: We perform photolytic experiments on laboratory produced interstellar a-C:H analogues to monitor and quantify the release of species and compare to relevant observations in the interstellar medium. Methods: Hydrogenated amorphous carbon analogues at low temperature are exposed to ultraviolet (UV) photons, under ultra-high vacuum conditions. The species produced are monitored using mass spectrometry and post irradiation temperature-programmed desorption. Additional experiments are performed using deuterated analogues and the species produced are unambiguously separated from background contributions. We implement the laboratory measured yields for the released species in a time dependent model to investigate the effect of the UV photon irradiation of hydrogenated amorphous carbons in a photon dominated region, and estimate the associated time scale. Results: The UV photolysis of hydrogenated amorphous carbons leads to the production of H2 molecules and small hydrocarbons. The model shows that the photolytic evolution of a-C:Hs in photon dominated regions, such as the Horsehead Nebula, can raise the abundance of carbonaceous molecules by several orders of magnitude at intermediate visual extinctions, i.e., after the C+ maximum and before the dense cloud conditions prevail where models generally show a minimum abundance for such carbonaceous species. The injection time peak ranges from a thousand to ten thousand years in the models, considering only the destruction of such grains and no re-hydrogenation. This time scale is consistent with the estimated advection front of

  14. Vacuum-ultraviolet photoionization and mass spectrometric characterization of lignin monomers coniferyl and sinapyl alcohols.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Lynelle K; Zhou, Jia; Kostko, Oleg; Golan, Amir; Leone, Stephen R; Ahmed, Musahid

    2011-04-21

    The fragmentation mechanisms of monolignols under various energetic processes are studied with jet-cooled thermal desorption molecular beam (TDMB) mass spectrometry (MS), 25 keV Bi(3)(+) secondary ion MS (SIMS), synchrotron vacuum-ultraviolet secondary neutral MS (VUV-SNMS) and theoretical methods. Experimental and calculated appearance energies of fragments observed in TDMB MS indicate that the coniferyl alcohol photoionization mass spectra contain the molecular parent and several dissociative photoionization products. Similar results obtained for sinapyl alcohol are also discussed briefly. Ionization energies of 7.60 eV ± 0.05 eV for coniferyl alcohol and <7.4 eV for both sinapyl and dihydrosinapyl alcohols are determined. The positive ion SIMS spectrum of coniferyl alcohol shares few characteristic peaks (m/z = 137 and 151) with the TDMB mass spectra, shows extensive fragmentation, and does not exhibit clear molecular parent signals. VUV-SNMS spectra, on the other hand, are dominated by the parent ion and main fragments also present in the TDMB spectra. Molecular fragmentation in VUV-SNMS spectra can be reduced by increasing the extraction delay time. Some features resembling the SIMS spectra are also observed in the desorbed neutral products. The monolignol VUV-SNMS peaks shared with the TDMB mass spectra suggest that dissociative photoionization of ion-sputtered neutral molecules predominate in the VUV-SNMS mass spectra, despite the extra internal energy imparted in the initial ion impact. The potential applications of these results to imaging MS of biomolecules are discussed. PMID:21410275

  15. Quantum-state Dependence of Product Branching Ratios in Vacuum Ultraviolet Photodissociation of N2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yu; Gao, Hong; Chung Chang, Yih; Hammouténe, D.; Ndome, H.; Hochlaf, M.; Jackson, William M.; Ng, C. Y.

    2016-03-01

    The branching ratios for the N(4S) + N(2D), N(4S) + N(2P), and N(2D) + N(2D) channels are measured for the photodissociation of {{{N}}}2({X}1{{{{Σ }}}g}+;v\\prime\\prime =0,J\\prime\\prime ) in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) region of 100,808-122,159 cm-1 using the VUV-VUV pump-probe approach combined with velocity-map-imaging-photoion detection. No evidence of forming the ground-state N(4S) + N(4S) products is found. No potential barrier is observed for the N(2D) + N(2D) channel, but the N(4S) + N(2P) channel has a small potential barrier of ≈740 cm-1. The branching ratios are found to depend on the symmetry of predissociative N2 states instead of the total VUV excitation energy, indicating that N2 photodissociation is nonstatistical. When the branching ratios for N(4S) + N(2D) and N(4S) + N(2P) products are plotted as a function of the VUV excitation energy for the valence N2 1Πu and {}1{{{{Σ }}}{{u}}}+ states, oscillations in these ratios are observed demonstrating how these channels are competing with each other. These data can be used to select both the velocity and internal states of the atomic products by picking the quantum state that is excited. High-level ab initio potential energy curves of the excited N2 states are calculated to provide insight into the mechanisms for the observed branching ratios. The calculations predict that the formation of both N(4S) + N(2D) and N(4S) + N(2P) channels involves potential energy barriers, in agreement with experimental observations. A discussion of the application of the present results to astronomy, planetary sciences, and comets is given.

  16. Comparison of direct and alternating current vacuum ultraviolet lamps in atmospheric pressure photoionization.

    PubMed

    Vaikkinen, Anu; Haapala, Markus; Kersten, Hendrik; Benter, Thorsten; Kostiainen, Risto; Kauppila, Tiina J

    2012-02-01

    A direct current induced vacuum ultraviolet (dc-VUV) krypton discharge lamp and an alternating current, radio frequency (rf) induced VUV lamp that are essentially similar to lamps in commercial atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) ion sources were compared. The emission distributions along the diameter of the lamp exit window were measured, and they showed that the beam of the rf lamp is much wider than that of the dc lamp. Thus, the rf lamp has larger efficient ionization area, and it also emits more photons than the dc lamp. The ionization efficiencies of the lamps were compared using identical spray geometries with both lamps in microchip APPI mass spectrometry (μAPPI-MS) and desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry (DAPPI-MS). A comprehensive view on the ionization was gained by studying six different μAPPI solvent compositions, five DAPPI spray solvents, and completely solvent-free DAPPI. The observed reactant ions for each solvent composition were very similar with both lamps except for toluene, which showed a higher amount of solvent originating oxidation products with the rf lamp than with the dc lamp in μAPPI. Moreover, the same analyte ions were detected with both lamps, and thus, the ionization mechanisms with both lamps are similar. The rf lamp showed a higher ionization efficiency than the dc lamp in all experiments. The difference between the lamp ionization efficiencies was greatest when high ionization energy (IE) solvent compositions (IEs above 10 eV), i.e., hexane, methanol, and methanol/water, (1:1 v:v) were used. The higher ionization efficiency of the rf lamp is likely due to the larger area of high intensity light emission, and the resulting larger efficient ionization area and higher amount of photons emitted. These result in higher solvent reactant ion production, which in turn enables more efficient analyte ion production. PMID:22229729

  17. Airborne intercomparison of vacuum ultraviolet fluorescence and tunable diode laser absorption measurements of tropospheric carbon monoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, John S.; Jakoubek, Roger O.; Parrish, David D.; Gerbig, Christoph; Volz-Thomas, Andreas; Schmitgen, Sandra; Fried, Alan; Wert, Brian; Henry, Bruce; Drummond, James R.

    2000-01-01

    During the fall 1997 North Atlantic Regional Experiment (NARE 97), two separate intercomparisons of aircraft-based carbon monoxide measurement instrumentation were conducted. On September 2, CO measurements were simultaneously made aboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) WP-3 by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) fluorescence and by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). On September 18, an intercomparison flight was conducted between two separate instruments, both employing the VUV fluorescence method, on the NOAA WP-3 and the U.K. Meteorological Office C-130 Hercules. The results indicate that both of the VUV fluorescence instruments and the TDLAS system are capable of measuring ambient CO accurately and precisely with no apparent interferences in 5 s. The accuracy of the measurements, based upon three independent calibration systems, is indicated by the agreement to within 11% with systematic offsets of less than 1 ppbv. In addition, one of the groups participated in the Measurement of Air Pollution From Satellite (MAPS) intercomparison [Novelli et al., 1998] with a different measurement technique but very similar calibration system, and agreed with the accepted analysis to within 5%. The precision of the measurements is indicated by the variability of the ratio of simultaneous measurements from the separate instruments. This variability is consistent with the estimated precisions of 1.5 ppbv and 2.2 ppbv for the 5 s average results of the C-130 and the WP-3 instruments, respectively, and indicates a precision of approximately 3.6% for the TDLAS instrument. The excellent agreement of the instruments in both intercomparisons demonstrates that significant interferences in the measurements are absent in air masses that ranged from 7 km in the midtroposphere to boundary layer conditions including subtropical marine air and continental outflow with embedded urban plumes. The intercomparison of the two VUV instruments that differed widely

  18. Vibronic and Rydberg series assignments in the vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectrum of nitrous oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shastri, Aparna; Singh, Param Jeet; Krishnakumar, Sunanda; Mandal, Anuvab; Raja Sekhar, B. N.; D'Souza, R.; Jagatap, B. N.

    2014-11-01

    We report a comprehensive photoabsorption study of nitrous oxide (N2O) in the vacuum ultraviolet (45,000-95,000 cm-1) region using synchrotron radiation. The observed spectrum comprises of a few valence transitions and low lying Rydberg series converging to the two spin-orbit components (2П1/2,3/2) of the ground state of N2O+. Spectral analysis is aided by extensive quantum chemical calculations of vertical excited states, oscillator strengths and potential energy curves using the time dependent density functional theory. Vibronic bands observed in the first absorption system (45,000-60,000 cm-1) are assigned to hot band progressions in υ2‧ originating from v″=1 or 2. New insights into the assignment of the well-formed progression of bands in the X1Σ+→C1П system (60,000-72,000 cm-1) are afforded by consideration of the Renner-Teller interaction. A set of molecular vibrational parameters (ω2=467 cm-1, x22=-2.9, ε=-0.24) for the C1П state are derived from a fitting of the experimental data. The 3pπ1Σ+ state at ~77,600 cm-1 shows a large quantum defect (0.96) which is explained as arising due to mixed valence-Rydberg character. In the 85,000-95,000 cm-1 region, a number of absorption features are observed with greater clarity than in earlier photoabsorption studies and assigned to Rydberg series of type nlλ (n=3,4; l=s,p,d; λ=σ,π,δ) and accompanying vibronic bands. This work has resulted in clarification of several discrepancies in earlier Rydberg series assignments. Additionally, the 3pπ 3Σ- Rydberg state at 85,788 cm-1, the valence transition 7σ→3π (1П) at 87,433 cm-1 and the 3dλ Rydberg series in the 91,700-92,600 cm-1 region are assigned for the first time.

  19. Sub-mm Scale Fiber Guided Deep/Vacuum Ultra-Violet Optical Source for Trapped Mercury Ion Clocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yi, Lin; Burt, Eric A.; Huang, Shouhua; Tjoelker, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the functionality of a mercury capillary lamp with a diameter in the sub-mm range and deep ultraviolet (DUV)/ vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation delivery via an optical fiber integrated with the capillary. DUV spectrum control is observed by varying the fabrication parameters such as buffer gas type and pressure, capillary diameter, electrical resonator design, and temperature. We also show spectroscopic data of the 199Hg+ hyper-fine transition at 40.5GHz when applying the above fiber optical design. We present efforts toward micro-plasma generation in hollow-core photonic crystal fiber with related optical design and theoretical estimations. This new approach towards a more practical DUV optical interface could benefit trapped ion clock developments for future ultra-stable frequency reference and time-keeping applications.

  20. Observation of new excitation channel of cerium ion through highly vacuum ultraviolet transparent LiCAF host crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozeki, Toshimasa; Suzuki, Yuji; Sakai, Masahiro; Ohtake, Hideyuki; Sarukura, Nobuhiko; Liu, Zhenlin; Shimamura, Kiyoshi; Nakano, Kenji; Fukuda, Tsuguo

    2001-07-01

    The transmission spectra of LiCaAlF 6 (LiCAF) and LiSrAlF 6 (LiSAF) are investigated in the ultraviolet (UV) and the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) region. The transmission edge of LiCAF (112 nm) shows almost the same value as that of LiF. Taking into account difficulties of material processing and polishing due to the cleavage or the hydroscopic nature of LiF, LiCAF is regarded as a more suitable optical material in the UV and the VUV region. Moreover, the new excitation channel around 112 nm is discovered for Ce : LiCAF crystal. This excitation is originated not from absorption of Cerium ions but from absorption around the bandgap of the host crystal.

  1. Generation of vacuum ultraviolet radiation by intracavity high-harmonic generation toward state detection of single trapped ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakui, Kentaro; Hayasaka, Kazuhiro; Ido, Tetsuya

    2014-09-01

    Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation around 159 nm is obtained toward direct excitation of a single trapped ^{115}{In}+ ion. An efficient fluoride-based VUV output coupler is employed for intracavity high-harmonic generation of a Ti:S oscillator. Using this coupler, where we measured its reflectance to be about 90 %, an average power reaching 6.4 \\upmu W is coupled out from a modest fundamental power of 650 mW. When a single comb component out of 1.9 × 105 teeth is resonant to the atomic transition, 100s of fluorescence photons per second will be detectable under a realistic condition.

  2. Surface potential due to charge accumulation during vacuum ultraviolet exposure for high-k and low-k dielectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, H.; Sinha, H.; Sehgal, A.; Nichols, M. T.; Shohet, J. L.; Antonelli, G. A.; Nishi, Y.

    2010-08-16

    The surface potential due to charge accumulation during vacuum ultraviolet irradiation of high-k and low-k thin dielectric films is measured. Measurement of the substrate current, which is the sum of the charge-accumulation and photoinjection currents, allows an in situ monitoring of the charge accumulation during irradiation. The relationship between the substrate current and the calculated in situ surface potential is also found, eliminating the need for a separate surface-potential measurement. With a high photon dose, the surface potential and substrate current reach a steady-state value with no further net charge accumulation.

  3. Exciton-exciton interactions in CdWO{sub 4} irradiated by intense femtosecond vacuum ultraviolet pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Kirm, M.; Nagirnyi, V.; Feldbach, E.; De Grazia, M.; Carre, B.; Merdji, H.; Guizard, S.; Geoffroy, G.; Gaudin, J.; Fedorov, N.; Martin, P.; Vasil'ev, A.; Belsky, A.

    2009-06-15

    Exciton-exciton interaction is experimentally revealed and quantitatively analyzed in a wide band-gap scintillator material CdWO{sub 4}. Under high-intensity femtosecond vacuum ultraviolet excitation, the CdWO{sub 4} luminescence is quenched, while its decay becomes essentially nonexponential. We propose an analytical model, which successfully reproduces the decay kinetics recorded in a wide range of excitation densities. The dipole-dipole interaction between excitons leading to their nonradiative decay is shown to be the main cause of a nonproportional response common for many scintillators.

  4. High-Resolution Electronics: Spontaneous Patterning of High-Resolution Electronics via Parallel Vacuum Ultraviolet (Adv. Mater. 31/2016).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuying; Kanehara, Masayuki; Liu, Chuan; Sakamoto, Kenji; Yasuda, Takeshi; Takeya, Jun; Minari, Takeo

    2016-08-01

    On page 6568, T. Minari and co-workers describe spontaneous patterning based on the parallel vacuum ultraviolet (PVUV) technique, enabling the homogeneous integration of complex, high-resolution electronic circuits, even on large-scale, flexible, transparent substrates. Irradiation of PVUV to the hydrophobic polymer surface precisely renders the selected surface into highly wettable regions with sharply defined boundaries, which spontaneously guides a metal nanoparticle ink into a series of circuit lines and gaps with the widths down to a resolution of 1 μm. PMID:27511534

  5. Fluorescence yields from photodissociative excitation of HCOOH, HCOOCH3, and CH3COOH in the vacuum-ultraviolet region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suto, Masako; Wang, Xiuyan; Lee, L. C.

    1988-01-01

    The photoexcitation processes of HCOOH, HCOOCH3, and CH3COOH were studied in the vacuum-ultraviolet region by using synchroton radiation and a pulsed discharge lamp as light sources. The absorption and fluorescence cross sections of these molecules were measured in the 106-250-nm region. Fluorescences were detected from photoexcitation of HCOOH and HCOOCH3, but not from CH3COOH. Fluorescence produced at 123.9 nm was dispersed and identified as the excited OH and HCOO radicals. Fluorescence quantum yields of HCOOH and HCOOCH3 increase with decreasing excitation wavelengths with maxima of 5 and 0.3 percent at 106 nm, respectively.

  6. Generation of vacuum ultraviolet radiation by intracavity high-harmonic generation toward state detection of single trapped ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakui, Kentaro; Hayasaka, Kazuhiro; Ido, Tetsuya

    2014-12-01

    Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation around 159 nm is obtained toward direct excitation of a single trapped ion. An efficient fluoride-based VUV output coupler is employed for intracavity high-harmonic generation of a Ti:S oscillator. Using this coupler, where we measured its reflectance to be about 90 %, an average power reaching 6.4 W is coupled out from a modest fundamental power of 650 mW. When a single comb component out of 1.9 10 teeth is resonant to the atomic transition, 100s of fluorescence photons per second will be detectable under a realistic condition.

  7. Specific features of modeling of nonequilibrium radiation behind the shock wave in air in the vacuum ultraviolet spectral range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelov, V. A.; Kireev, A. Yu.

    2016-01-01

    A physical-chemical model of generation of nonequilibrium molecular radiation in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectral range behind the shock wave in air for shock wave velocities from 4.5 to 9.5 km/s is developed. Experimental results obtained in a shock tube in investigations of photoionization of air ahead of the shock wave front are used for verification of the numerical model of VUV radiation in the wavelength range from 85 to 105 nm. Model calculations show that nonequilibrium VUV radiation arises in a very thin high-temperature layer behind the shock wave front and is affected by heavy particles and electrons.

  8. Polarization selection rules and optical transitions in terbium activated yttrium tantalate phosphor under x-ray, vacuum-ultraviolet, and ultraviolet excitations

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarov, Mihail; Tsukerblat, Boris; Byeon, Clare Chisu; Arellano, Ivan; Popovici, Elisabeth-Jeanne; Noh, Do Young

    2009-01-01

    The terbium-activated yttrium tantalite (YTaO4:Tb{sup 3{sup +}}) phosphor is of great interest due to the interesting spectroscopic properties of rare earth ions in crystals and also practical use in x-ray imaging. Using the group-theoretical approach, we analyze the selection rules for the transition between Stark components of Tb{sup 3{sup +}} in symmetry of the actual crystal field and the polarization for the allowed transitions. The luminescence upon UV, vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV), and x-ray excitation is presented and discussed. The YTaO4:Tb{sup 3{sup +}} phosphors are found to be efficient VUV-excited luminescent materials that could be used not only in x-ray intensifying screens, but also in mercury-free fluorescent lamps or plasma display panels.

  9. Effects of vacuum ultraviolet and ultraviolet irradiation on ultrathin hafnium-oxide dielectric layers on (100)Si as measured with electron-spin resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, H.; Shohet, J. L.; Cheng, S. L.; Nishi, Y.

    2010-05-10

    The effects of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) (7.2 eV) and UV (4.9 eV) irradiation on hafnium-oxide dielectric layers were studied with electron-spin resonance to detect defect states. Silicon dangling-bond defects (P{sub b} centers) and positively charged oxygen vacancies (E{sup '} centers) were detected with g-factor fitting. VUV irradiation increases the level of P{sub b} states, while UV decreases the level of P{sub b} states but increases the level of E{sup '} states significantly. Rapid thermal annealing appears to mitigate these effects. Absolute values of the defect-state concentrations are presented.

  10. Vacuum and ultraviolet radiation effects on binders and pigments for spacecraft thermal control coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Progar, D. J.; Wade, W. R.

    1971-01-01

    An evaluation of several silicone resin binders and powdered inorganic pigments for potential use in spacecraft thermal-control paint formulations is presented. The pigments were selected on the basis of a hypothesis relating the heat of formation of a compound to the compound's resistance to ultra-radiation-induced degradation. Reflectance measurements were made in situ to determine degradation rates due to ultraviolet radiation. The tested polydimethylsiloxane resins were not significantly affected by long exposures to ultraviolet radiation. All the pigments, which were dispersed in a polydimethylsiloxane resin, were degraded by ultraviolet radiation as determined by an increase of solar absorptance. For the materials evaluated in this study, no evidence was found to indicate that pigments with high heats of formation were resistant to ultraviolet degradation.

  11. A passive measurement of dissociated atom densities in atmospheric pressure air discharge plasmas using vacuum ultraviolet self-absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Laity, George; Fierro, Andrew; Dickens, James; Neuber, Andreas; Frank, Klaus

    2014-03-28

    We demonstrate a method for determining the dissociation degree of atmospheric pressure air discharges by measuring the self-absorption characteristics of vacuum ultraviolet radiation from O and N atoms in the plasma. The atom densities are determined by modeling the amount of radiation trapping present in the discharge, without the use of typical optical absorption diagnostic techniques which require external sources of probing radiation into the experiment. For an 8.0 mm spark discharge between needle electrodes at atmospheric pressure, typical peak O atom densities of 8.5 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3} and peak N atom densities of 9.9 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3} are observed within the first ∼1.0 mm of plasma near the anode tip by analyzing the OI and NI transitions in the 130.0–132.0 nm band of the vacuum ultraviolet spectrum.

  12. Exploiting single photon vacuum ultraviolet photoionization to unravel the synthesis of complex organic molecules in interstellar ices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abplanalp, Matthew J.; Förstel, Marko; Kaiser, Ralf I.

    2016-01-01

    Complex organic molecules (COM) such as aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, and amides are ubiquitous in the interstellar medium, but traditional gas phase astrochemical models cannot explain their formation routes. By systematically exploiting on line and in situ vacuum ultraviolet photoionization coupled with reflectron time of flight mass spectrometry (PI-ReTOF-MS) and combining these data with infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), we reveal that complex organic molecules can be synthesized within interstellar ices that are condensed on interstellar grains via non-equilibrium reactions involving suprathermal hydrogen atoms at temperatures as low as 5 K. By probing for the first time specific structural isomers without their degradation (fragment-free), the incorporation of tunable vacuum ultraviolet photoionization allows for a much greater understanding of reaction mechanisms that exist in interstellar ices compared to traditional methods, thus eliminating the significant gap between observational and laboratory data that existed for the last decades. With the commission of the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA), the number of detections of more complex organic molecules in space will continue to grow - including biorelevant molecules connected to the Origins of Life theme - and an understanding of these data will rely on future advances in sophisticated physical chemistry laboratory experiments.

  13. Surface Emitting, High Efficiency Near-Vacuum Ultraviolet Light Source with Aluminum Nitride Nanowires Monolithically Grown on Silicon.

    PubMed

    Zhao, S; Djavid, M; Mi, Z

    2015-10-14

    To date, it has remained challenging to realize electrically injected light sources in the vacuum ultraviolet wavelength range (∼200 nm or shorter), which are important for a broad range of applications, including sensing, surface treatment, and photochemical analysis. In this Letter, we have demonstrated such a light source with molecular beam epitaxially grown aluminum nitride (AlN) nanowires on low cost, large area Si substrate. Detailed angle dependent electroluminescence studies suggest that, albeit the light is TM polarized, the dominant light emission direction is from the nanowire top surface, that is, along the c axis, due to the strong light scattering effect. Such an efficient surface emitting device was not previously possible using conventional c-plane AlN planar structures. The AlN nanowire LEDs exhibit an extremely large electrical efficiency (>85%), which is nearly ten times higher than the previously reported AlN planar devices. Our detailed studies further suggest that the performance of AlN nanowire LEDs is predominantly limited by electron overflow. This study provides important insight on the fundamental emission characteristics of AlN nanowire LEDs and also offers a viable path to realize an efficient surface emitting near-vacuum ultraviolet light source through direct electrical injection. PMID:26375576

  14. Size-dependent emission efficiency and luminescence characteristics of YBO3:Tb3+ nanocrystals under vacuum ultraviolet excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Prashant K.; Dutta, Ranu K.; Pandey, Avinash C.

    2012-09-01

    The luminous efficiency and lifetime of plasma display panels (PDPs) are directly related to the performance of phosphors used in PDPs, thus higher efficiency, higher stability against high temperature processes, and a long lifetime along with good color chromaticity against vacuum-ultraviolet radiation are major concerns in selecting suitable phosphors for PDPs. In the same pursuit, well crystallized pure hexagonal phase YBO3:Tb3+ nanocrystals were prepared using co-precipitation method. The prepared YBO3:Tb3+ nanocrystals showed bright green luminescence, color chromaticity (0.21, 0.61), and could be assigned to 5D4→7Fj transitions (j = 2-6) due to electric dipole-dipole interaction of Tb3+ ions. The vacuum ultraviolet photoluminescence spectroscopy of the prepared YBO3:Tb3+ nanocrystals showed size dependent nonlinear luminescence enhancement with relatively shorter life time as compared to the commercial bulk YBO3:Tb3+ phosphor. The quenching concentration of Tb3+ doping for (5D4→7F5) transition was found significantly enhanced with the decrease in particle size suggesting it an ideal green phosphor for plasma display panels. The possible explanation for size-dependent emission efficiency and observed luminescence characteristics were proposed via charge transfer process and lowering of the structural symmetry.

  15. INTRODUCTION: The 8th International Conference on Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, Per Olof; Hedin, Lars

    1987-01-01

    The VUV conferences series The international conferences on vacuum ultraviolet radiation physics started in 1962, and are now being held every third year. VUV-8 took place at Lund University, August 4-8, 1986. VUV-9 will be arranged at the University of Hawaii, USA, August 14-18, 1989, with Prof. C S Fadley as conference chairman. Chairman of the international advisory board for the period 1986-89 is Prof. L Hedin. The theme of the series can be summarized as experimental and theoretical progress in research fields utilizing the interaction of VUV radiation with matter. The topics cover broad areas within atomic and molecular physics, solid state physics and VUV instrumentation. The conferences emphasize interdisciplinary aspects. To these belong common experimental techniques as, e.g., synchrotron radiation instrumentation, and common theoretical foundations for the description of photon interactions with matter. The VUV-8 conference The VUV-8 conference in Lund was attended by 300 participants from 26 countries. An address list of the participants is given at the end of this volume. There were 33 invited papers given as plenary or key-note talks. As many as 229 posters were presented; 49 of them were also given orally. These numbers are typical for the VUV conferences, except for the number of posters, which was unusually large. In the conference planning the poster sessions were stressed, and particular care was taken to provide a good atmosphere at these sessions. Thus the posters were kept up during the whole conference, coffee was served in the hail with the posters and there were convenient places to sit down close to the posters. Considering the wide scope of the conference it was necessary to emphasize a limited number of topics of high current interest and importance. Thus besides traditional topics, several rapidly expanding fields were discussed in special sessions. At VUV-8 there were the following sessions. Theory of atoms and molecules

  16. Generation of a vacuum ultraviolet to visible Raman frequency comb in H2-filled kagomé photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Mridha, M K; Novoa, D; Bauerschmidt, S T; Abdolvand, A; St J Russell, P

    2016-06-15

    We report on the generation of a purely vibrational Raman comb, extending from the vacuum ultraviolet (184 nm) to the visible (478 nm), in hydrogen-filled kagomé-style photonic crystal fiber pumped at 266 nm. Stimulated Raman scattering and molecular modulation processes are enhanced by higher Raman gain in the ultraviolet. Owing to the pressure-tunable normal dispersion landscape of the "fiber + gas" system in the ultraviolet, higher-order anti-Stokes bands are generated preferentially in higher-order fiber modes. The results pave the way toward tunable fiber-based sources of deep and vacuum ultraviolet light for applications in, e.g., spectroscopy and biomedicine. PMID:27304295

  17. Testing to determine the vacuum-ultraviolet degradation rate of thermal control coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilligan, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    Samples of S-13G that had been exposed to the salt air environment of Cape Kennedy, Florida were irradiated with simulated solar ultraviolet radiation after various cleaning treatments. In both of the the tests conducted two of the salt air exposed samples were not cleaned, two were lightly cleaned with water and detergent (i.e. rinsed), and two were vigorously scrubbed. Several other white thermal control coatings were also irradiated. The solar absorptance values of these coatings before and as a result of the ultraviolet irradiation are reported for exposure levels up to approximately 2000 ESH.

  18. Evaluation of miniature vacuum ultraviolet lamps for stability and operating characteristics, Lyman-Alpha task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurd, W. A.

    1985-01-01

    Modifications required to change the near ultraviolet source in the Optical Contamination Monitor to a source with output at or near the Lyman-Alpha hydrogen line are discussed. The effort consisted of selecting, acquiring and testing candidate miniature ultraviolet lamps with significant output in or near 121.6 nm. The effort also included selection of a miniature dc high-voltage power supply capable of operating the lamp. The power supply was required to operate from available primary power supplied by the Optical Effect Module (DEM) and it should be flight qualified or have the ability to be qualified by the user.

  19. Luminescent properties of Pr3+-sensitized LaPO4:Gd3+ ultraviolet-B phosphor under vacuum-ultraviolet light excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Shinji; Uchino, Rika; Kobayashi, Keisuke; Yamamoto, Hajime

    2009-07-01

    Luminescent properties of Pr3+-sensitized LaPO4:Gd3+ under vacuum-ultraviolet (vuv) light excitation have been investigated. The energy transfer probably occurs from the 5d levels in Pr3+ ions to Gd3+ ions under 172nm light excitation. LaPO4:Gd3+,Pr3+ shows efficient ultraviolet-B (uv-B) emission at 312nm, whose peak intensity reaches its maximum at Gd =35mol% and Pr =5mol%. (La0.65Gd0.35)0.95Pr0.05PO4 is about 1.6 times higher than a typical uv-B phosphor for vuv lamp, Y0.75Gd0.25Al3(BO3)4, in Gd3+-emission intensity under 172nm light excitation. This result implies that the Pr3+-sensitized LaPO4:Gd3+ is a candidate of uv-B phosphors for xenon-excimer discharge vuv lamps. In order to evaluate the effect of the narrow-band uv-B emission by LaPO4:Gd3+,Pr3+ phosphor, irradiation test on DNA was performed. The irradiation damage of pUC 18 DNA by the narrow-band uv-B light from the LaPO4:Gd3+,Pr3+ phosphor is in the same magnitude as that by uv-A light from a filtered Hg lamp, even though the uv-B lamp is higher than the uv-A lamp in power density and photon energy.

  20. Luminescent properties of Pr{sup 3+}-sensitized LaPO{sub 4}:Gd{sup 3+} ultraviolet-B phosphor under vacuum-ultraviolet light excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, Shinji; Uchino, Rika; Kobayashi, Keisuke; Yamamoto, Hajime

    2009-07-01

    Luminescent properties of Pr{sup 3+}-sensitized LaPO{sub 4}:Gd{sup 3+} under vacuum-ultraviolet (vuv) light excitation have been investigated. The energy transfer probably occurs from the 5d levels in Pr{sup 3+} ions to Gd{sup 3+} ions under 172 nm light excitation. LaPO{sub 4}:Gd{sup 3+},Pr{sup 3+} shows efficient ultraviolet-B (uv-B) emission at 312 nm, whose peak intensity reaches its maximum at Gd=35 mol % and Pr=5 mol %. (La{sub 0.65}Gd{sub 0.35}){sub 0.95}Pr{sub 0.05}PO{sub 4} is about 1.6 times higher than a typical uv-B phosphor for vuv lamp, Y{sub 0.75}Gd{sub 0.25}Al{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4}, in Gd{sup 3+}-emission intensity under 172 nm light excitation. This result implies that the Pr{sup 3+}-sensitized LaPO{sub 4}:Gd{sup 3+} is a candidate of uv-B phosphors for xenon-excimer discharge vuv lamps. In order to evaluate the effect of the narrow-band uv-B emission by LaPO{sub 4}:Gd{sup 3+},Pr{sup 3+} phosphor, irradiation test on DNA was performed. The irradiation damage of pUC 18 DNA by the narrow-band uv-B light from the LaPO{sub 4}:Gd{sup 3+},Pr{sup 3+} phosphor is in the same magnitude as that by uv-A light from a filtered Hg lamp, even though the uv-B lamp is higher than the uv-A lamp in power density and photon energy.

  1. Reflection polarizers for the vacuum ultraviolet using Al + MgF2 mirrors and an MgF2 plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hass, G.; Hunter, W. R.

    1978-01-01

    Consideration is given to the design and operation of a three-mirror reflecting polarizer where one of the reflecting surfaces is an MgF2 plate, the other surfaces are Al + MgF2 coatings, and one reflection occurs at or near the true Brewster angle. It is found that the polarizer is most efficient in the 1200-2000 A wavelength region, and that by optimum selection of the angle of incidence on the MgF2 plate, polarization values of 100 and over are yielded from 900 to 3000 A. The polarizer may be used at wavelengths as short as 500 A, although it is observed that at such wavelengths the polarization value decreases to about 10. It is noted that all reflecting polarizers operating in the vacuum ultraviolet wavelength may manifest changing characteristics as their mirrors become contaminated, and that polarization must therefore be occasionally remeasured.

  2. Vacuum ultraviolet photochemical selective area atomic layer deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dielectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Chalker, P. R. Marshall, P. A.; Dawson, K.; Brunell, I. F.; Sutcliffe, C. J.; Potter, R. J.

    2015-01-15

    We report the photochemical atomic layer deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films and the use of this process to achieve area-selective film deposition. A shuttered vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light source is used to excite molecular oxygen and trimethyl aluminum to deposit films at 60°C. In-situ QCM and post-deposition ellipsometric measurements both show that the deposition rate is saturative as a function of irradiation time. Selective area deposition was achieved by projecting the VUV light through a metalized magnesium fluoride photolithographic mask and the selectivity of deposition on the illuminated and masked regions of the substrate is a logarithmic function of the UV exposure time. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films exhibit dielectric constants of 8 – 10 at 1 MHz after forming gas annealing, similar to films deposited by conventional thermal ALD.

  3. Plasma and vacuum ultraviolet induced charging of SiO{sub 2} and HfO{sub 2} patterned structures

    SciTech Connect

    Lauer, J. L.; Upadhyaya, G. S.; Sinha, H.; Kruger, J. B.; Nishi, Y.; Shohet, J. L.

    2012-01-15

    The authors compare the effects of plasma charging and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation on oxidized patterned Si structures with and without atomic-layer-deposited HfO{sub 2}. It was found that, unlike planar oxidized Si wafers, oxidized patterned Si wafers charge up significantly after exposure in an electron-cyclotron resonance plasma. The charging is dependent on the aspect ratio of the patterned structures. This is attributed to electron and/or ion shading during plasma exposure. The addition of a 10 nm thick HfO{sub 2} layer deposited on top of the oxidized silicon structures increases the photoemission yield during VUV irradiation, resulting in more trapped positive charge compared to patterns without the HfO{sub 2} dielectric.

  4. Compact optical cell system for vacuum ultraviolet absorption and circular dichroism spectroscopy and its application to aqueous solution sample.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masahito; Yagi-Watanabe, Kazutoshi; Kaneko, Fusae; Nakagawa, Kazumichi

    2008-09-01

    We have designed a compact optical cell for studying the absorption and circular dichroism (CD) of a solution sample in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) region using a temperature control unit. The cell size was 34 mm in diameter and 14 mm in length. Such compactness was obtained by coating the VUV scintillator onto the outside of the back window. Because this scintillator converts the transmitted VUV light to visible light, the outside of this cell is operated under atmospheric pressure. The temperature of the sample solution was maintained in the range of 5 degrees C to 80 degrees C using a temperature control unit with a Peltier thermoelectric element. Changes in the sample temperature were observed by monitoring the absorption intensity of water. Through the study of VUV-CD spectra of ammonium camphor-10-sulfonate aqueous solutions and the transmitted spectrum of an empty cell, it was concluded that this cell unit has sufficient performance for use in VUV spectroscopy. PMID:18473342

  5. Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) radiation-induced degradation of Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene (FEP) Teflon aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinza, David E.; Stiegman, A. E.; Staszak, Paul R.; Laue, Eric G.; Liang, Ranty H.

    1992-01-01

    Examination of fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) copolymer specimens recovered from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) provides evidence for degradation attributed to extended solar vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of sheared FEP film edges reveal the presence of a highly embrittled layer on the exposed surface of specimens obtained from the trailing edge of the LDEF. Similar images obtained for leading edge and control FEP films do not exhibit evidence for such an embrittled layer. Laboratory VUV irradiation of FEP films is found to produce a damage layer similar to that witnessed in the LDEF trailing edge films. Spectroscopic analyses of irradiated films provide data to advance a photochemical mechanism for degradation.

  6. Fast luminescence in vacuum ultraviolet region in heavy-ion-irradiated α-Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshimizu, Masanori; Kimura, Kazuie; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Asai, Keisuke

    2015-12-01

    We analyzed the time-resolved luminescence properties of α-Al2O3 under heavy ion irradiations in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) wavelength region. A luminescence band at approximately 170 nm, at which a luminescence band was observed under VUV irradiation and was ascribed to self-shrunk excitons. The decay rate increased with the linear energy transfer (LET). The luminescence efficiency of the band increased sharply with the LET for the case of Xe irradiation, whose LET was estimated to be higher than the threshold LET for track formation. The fast decay rate and high luminescence intensity for Xe irradiation was explained according to the enhanced radiative rate caused by close interactions among excited states.

  7. Impact of plasma jet vacuum ultraviolet radiation on reactive oxygen species generation in bio-relevant liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Jablonowski, H.; Hammer, M. U.; Reuter, S.; Bussiahn, R.; Weltmann, K.-D.; Woedtke, Th. von

    2015-12-15

    Plasma medicine utilizes the combined interaction of plasma produced reactive components. These are reactive atoms, molecules, ions, metastable species, and radiation. Here, ultraviolet (UV, 100–400 nm) and, in particular, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV, 10–200 nm) radiation generated by an atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet were investigated regarding plasma emission, absorption in a humidified atmosphere and in solutions relevant for plasma medicine. The energy absorption was obtained for simple solutions like distilled water (dH{sub 2}O) or ultrapure water and sodium chloride (NaCl) solution as well as for more complex ones, for example, Rosewell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI 1640) cell culture media. As moderate stable reactive oxygen species, hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) was studied. Highly reactive oxygen radicals, namely, superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup •−}) and hydroxyl radicals ({sup •}OH), were investigated by the use of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. All species amounts were detected for three different treatment cases: Plasma jet generated VUV and UV radiation, plasma jet generated UV radiation without VUV part, and complete plasma jet including all reactive components additionally to VUV and UV radiation. It was found that a considerable amount of radicals are generated by the plasma generated photoemission. From the experiments, estimation on the low hazard potential of plasma generated VUV radiation is discussed.

  8. Impact of plasma jet vacuum ultraviolet radiation on reactive oxygen species generation in bio-relevant liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonowski, H.; Bussiahn, R.; Hammer, M. U.; Weltmann, K.-D.; von Woedtke, Th.; Reuter, S.

    2015-12-01

    Plasma medicine utilizes the combined interaction of plasma produced reactive components. These are reactive atoms, molecules, ions, metastable species, and radiation. Here, ultraviolet (UV, 100-400 nm) and, in particular, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV, 10-200 nm) radiation generated by an atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet were investigated regarding plasma emission, absorption in a humidified atmosphere and in solutions relevant for plasma medicine. The energy absorption was obtained for simple solutions like distilled water (dH2O) or ultrapure water and sodium chloride (NaCl) solution as well as for more complex ones, for example, Rosewell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI 1640) cell culture media. As moderate stable reactive oxygen species, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was studied. Highly reactive oxygen radicals, namely, superoxide anion (O2•-) and hydroxyl radicals (•OH), were investigated by the use of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. All species amounts were detected for three different treatment cases: Plasma jet generated VUV and UV radiation, plasma jet generated UV radiation without VUV part, and complete plasma jet including all reactive components additionally to VUV and UV radiation. It was found that a considerable amount of radicals are generated by the plasma generated photoemission. From the experiments, estimation on the low hazard potential of plasma generated VUV radiation is discussed.

  9. Angular ion emission characteristics of a laser triggered tin vacuum arc as light source for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbraak, Harald; Küpper, Felix; Jonkers, Jeroen; Bergmann, Klaus

    2010-11-01

    The angular resolved emission of tin ions from a laser triggered vacuum arc to be used as light source for extreme ultraviolet lithography is presented. Ion energies of more than 200 keV for emission angles up to 50° with respect to the optical axis are observed. The angular emission characteristic is strongly anisotropic with a pronounced peak for fast ions into a cone with an opening angle of roughly 10° at an angle of 35° with respect to the optical axis. These ions also exhibit a distinct energy distribution function compared to the more isotropic emitted bulk of ions, which can be referred to different mechanisms of production. Looking at the discharge current parameters, the production of the directed fast ions can be connected with a peaked increase in the impedance, which gives hint to a plasma instability as origin of those ions. The emission of isotropic emitted ions is in agreement with a model of plasma expansion into vacuum. The emission characteristic is also strongly dependent on the parameter of the trigger laser. It is shown that using a double trigger laser pulse the fast ion production can be suppressed by more than one order of magnitude.

  10. A simple electron time-of-flight spectrometer for ultrafast vacuum ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of liquid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Arrell, C. A. Ojeda, J.; Mourik, F. van; Chergui, M.; Sabbar, M.; Gallmann, L.; Keller, U.; Okell, W. A.; Witting, T.; Siegel, T.; Diveki, Z.; Hutchinson, S.; Tisch, J. W.G.; Marangos, J. P.; Chapman, R. T.; Cacho, C.; Rodrigues, N.; Turcu, I. C.E.; Springate, E.

    2014-10-01

    We present a simple electron time of flight spectrometer for time resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of liquid samples using a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) source produced by high-harmonic generation. The field free spectrometer coupled with the time-preserving monochromator for the VUV at the Artemis facility of the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory achieves an energy resolution of 0.65 eV at 40 eV with a sub 100 fs temporal resolution. A key feature of the design is a differentially pumped drift tube allowing a microliquid jet to be aligned and started at ambient atmosphere while preserving a pressure of 10⁻¹ mbar at the micro channel plate detector. The pumping requirements for photoelectron (PE) spectroscopy in vacuum are presented, while the instrument performance is demonstrated with PE spectra of salt solutions in water. The capability of the instrument for time resolved measurements is demonstrated by observing the ultrafast (50 fs) vibrational excitation of water leading to temporary proton transfer.

  11. A simple electron time-of-flight spectrometer for ultrafast vacuum ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of liquid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrell, C. A.; Ojeda, J.; Sabbar, M.; Okell, W. A.; Witting, T.; Siegel, T.; Diveki, Z.; Hutchinson, S.; Gallmann, L.; Keller, U.; van Mourik, F.; Chapman, R. T.; Cacho, C.; Rodrigues, N.; Turcu, I. C. E.; Tisch, J. W. G.; Springate, E.; Marangos, J. P.; Chergui, M.

    2014-10-01

    We present a simple electron time of flight spectrometer for time resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of liquid samples using a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) source produced by high-harmonic generation. The field free spectrometer coupled with the time-preserving monochromator for the VUV at the Artemis facility of the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory achieves an energy resolution of 0.65 eV at 40 eV with a sub 100 fs temporal resolution. A key feature of the design is a differentially pumped drift tube allowing a microliquid jet to be aligned and started at ambient atmosphere while preserving a pressure of 10-1 mbar at the micro channel plate detector. The pumping requirements for photoelectron (PE) spectroscopy in vacuum are presented, while the instrument performance is demonstrated with PE spectra of salt solutions in water. The capability of the instrument for time resolved measurements is demonstrated by observing the ultrafast (50 fs) vibrational excitation of water leading to temporary proton transfer.

  12. Vacuum upgrade and enhanced performances of the double imaging electron/ion coincidence end-station at the vacuum ultraviolet beamline DESIRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiaofeng; Garcia, Gustavo A.; Gil, Jean-François; Nahon, Laurent

    2015-12-01

    We report here the recent upgrade of the SAPHIRS permanent photoionization end-station at the DESIRS vacuum ultraviolet beamline of synchrotron SOLEIL, whose performances have been enhanced by installing an additional double-skimmer differential chamber. The smaller molecular beam profile obtained at the interaction region has increased the mass resolution of the double imaging photoelectron photoion coincidence (i2PEPICO) spectrometer, DELICIOUS III, installed in the photoionization chamber of the SAPHIRS endstation, by a factor of two, to M/ΔM ˜ 1700 (FWHM). The electron kinetic energy resolution offered by the velocity map imaging (VMI) part of the spectrometer has been improved down to 2.8% (ΔE/E) as we show on the N2 photoionization case in the double skimmer configuration. As a representative example of the overall state-of-the-art i2PEPICO performances, experimental results of the dissociation of state-selected O2+ (B 2 ∑ g - , v+ = 0-6) molecular ions performed at the fixed photon energy of hν = 21.1 eV are presented.

  13. Vacuum upgrade and enhanced performances of the double imaging electron/ion coincidence end-station at the vacuum ultraviolet beamline DESIRS.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaofeng; Garcia, Gustavo A; Gil, Jean-François; Nahon, Laurent

    2015-12-01

    We report here the recent upgrade of the SAPHIRS permanent photoionization end-station at the DESIRS vacuum ultraviolet beamline of synchrotron SOLEIL, whose performances have been enhanced by installing an additional double-skimmer differential chamber. The smaller molecular beam profile obtained at the interaction region has increased the mass resolution of the double imaging photoelectron photoion coincidence (i(2)PEPICO) spectrometer, DELICIOUS III, installed in the photoionization chamber of the SAPHIRS endstation, by a factor of two, to M/ΔM ∼ 1700 (FWHM). The electron kinetic energy resolution offered by the velocity map imaging (VMI) part of the spectrometer has been improved down to 2.8% (ΔE/E) as we show on the N2 photoionization case in the double skimmer configuration. As a representative example of the overall state-of-the-art i(2)PEPICO performances, experimental results of the dissociation of state-selected O2(+)(B(2)∑(g)(-), v(+) = 0-6) molecular ions performed at the fixed photon energy of hν = 21.1 eV are presented. PMID:26724007

  14. Experimental station to study the interaction of intense femtosecond vacuum ultraviolet pulses with matter at TTF1 free electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobierajski, R.; Krzywinski, J.; Andrejczuk, A.; Hahn, U.; Treusch, R.; Jurek, M.; Klinger, D.; Nietubyć, R.; Pełka, J. B.; Reniewicz, H.; Sikora, M.; Sobala, W.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental station to study the interaction of intense femtosecond vacuum ultraviolet pulses generated by the TTF1 free electron laser (FEL) (DESY, Germany) with solids was developed. The vacuum chamber, the sample holder and the detectors had been designed to fulfill strong constraints caused both by the unique properties of the interacting radiation and by TTF1 FEL innovative design. The applied mounting system allowed one to move and rotate the samples precisely with 4degrees of freedom and to heat them up to the maximal temperature of 1000K. In order to accomplish the in situ growth of thin metallic layers on the sample surfaces, evaporation cells had been installed in the vacuum chamber. A time-of-flight apparatus capable of recording both electrons and ions excited on the solid surfaces by the laser pulses had been included in the chamber design. A pulse energy monitor had been placed in the laser beam outside the experimental chamber. A second energy detector had been mounted inside the chamber on a rotational arm, permitting the angular resolved reflectivity measurements. The detectors placed in the chamber enabled a real-time study both of the ionized damage products and the reflected light from the interaction place on the sample surfaces. The measurements were made with respect to the primary beam incident angle and energy. Examples of the experimental results as well as an off-line analysis are presented. The usability of constructed experimental system to study of the interaction of intense, femtosecond pulses with solid matter is demonstrated.

  15. Breaking DNA strands by extreme-ultraviolet laser pulses in vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nováková, Eva; Vyšín, Luděk; Burian, Tomáš; Juha, Libor; Davídková, Marie; Múčka, Viliam; Čuba, Václav; Grisham, Michael E.; Heinbuch, Scott; Rocca, Jorge J.

    2015-04-01

    Ionizing radiation induces a variety of DNA damages including single-strand breaks (SSBs), double-strand breaks (DSBs), abasic sites, modified sugars, and bases. Most theoretical and experimental studies have been focused on DNA strand scissions, in particular production of DNA double-strand breaks. DSBs have been proven to be a key damage at a molecular level responsible for the formation of chromosomal aberrations, leading often to cell death. We have studied the nature of DNA damage induced directly by the pulsed 46.9-nm (26.5 eV) radiation provided by an extreme ultraviolet (XUV) capillary-discharge Ne-like Ar laser (CDL). Doses up to 45 kGy were delivered with a repetition rate of 3 Hz. We studied the dependence of the yield of SSBs and DSBs of a simple model of DNA molecule (pBR322) on the CDL pulse fluence. Agarose gel electrophoresis method was used for determination of both SSB and DSB yields. The action cross sections of the single- and double-strand breaks of pBR322 plasmid DNA in solid state were determined. We observed an increase in the efficiency of strand-break induction in the supercoiled DNA as a function of laser pulse fluence. Results are compared to those acquired at synchrotron radiation facilities and other sources of extreme-ultraviolet and soft x-ray radiation.

  16. Breaking DNA strands by extreme-ultraviolet laser pulses in vacuum.

    PubMed

    Nováková, Eva; Vyšín, Luděk; Burian, Tomáš; Juha, Libor; Davídková, Marie; Múčka, Viliam; Čuba, Václav; Grisham, Michael E; Heinbuch, Scott; Rocca, Jorge J

    2015-04-01

    Ionizing radiation induces a variety of DNA damages including single-strand breaks (SSBs), double-strand breaks (DSBs), abasic sites, modified sugars, and bases. Most theoretical and experimental studies have been focused on DNA strand scissions, in particular production of DNA double-strand breaks. DSBs have been proven to be a key damage at a molecular level responsible for the formation of chromosomal aberrations, leading often to cell death. We have studied the nature of DNA damage induced directly by the pulsed 46.9-nm (26.5 eV) radiation provided by an extreme ultraviolet (XUV) capillary-discharge Ne-like Ar laser (CDL). Doses up to 45 kGy were delivered with a repetition rate of 3 Hz. We studied the dependence of the yield of SSBs and DSBs of a simple model of DNA molecule (pBR322) on the CDL pulse fluence. Agarose gel electrophoresis method was used for determination of both SSB and DSB yields. The action cross sections of the single- and double-strand breaks of pBR322 plasmid DNA in solid state were determined. We observed an increase in the efficiency of strand-break induction in the supercoiled DNA as a function of laser pulse fluence. Results are compared to those acquired at synchrotron radiation facilities and other sources of extreme-ultraviolet and soft x-ray radiation. PMID:25974538

  17. Further studies on LiF-overcoated aluminum mirrors with highest reflectance in the vacuum ultraviolet.

    PubMed

    Cox, J T; Hass, G; Waylonis, J E

    1968-08-01

    Further studies have been made on the preparation of LiF-overcoated aluminum mirrors with highest reflectance at wavelengths down to 1000 A. Mirrors with 73% reflectance at lambda = 1026 A have been made. The extinction coefficient k of evaporated LiF films has been measured under various conditions of film preparation. Techniques for vacuum depositing LiF films with the smallest K and Al + LiF mirrors with the highest reflectance are described. Aging of LiF-coated Al mirrors under various conditions is discussed. PMID:20068835

  18. Vacuum Ultraviolet Photodissociation and Fourier Transform-Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FT-ICR) Mass Spectrometry: Revisited.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Jared B; Robinson, Errol W; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana

    2016-03-15

    We revisited the implementation of 193 nm ultraviolet photodissociation (UVPD) within the ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) cell of a Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer. UVPD performance characteristics were examined in the context of recent developments in the understanding of UVPD and in-cell tandem mass spectrometry. Efficient UVPD and photo-ECD of a model peptide and proteins within the ICR cell of a FT-ICR mass spectrometer are accomplished through appropriate modulation of laser pulse timing, relative to ion magnetron motion and the potential applied to an ion optical element upon which photons impinge. It is shown that UVPD yields efficient and extensive fragmentation, resulting in excellent sequence coverage for model peptide and protein cations. PMID:26882021

  19. Optimization of northern analysis by vacuum-blotting, RNA-transfer visualization, and ultraviolet fixation

    SciTech Connect

    Kroczek, R.A.; Siebert, E. )

    1990-01-01

    We have optimized Northern analysis at several steps. Overnight electrophoresis was replaced by short gel runs and overnight capillary transfer by rapid vacuum-blotting adapted to Northern analysis. Short uv irradiation was used as a substitute for the usual RNA fixation by baking. Direct staining of RNA before electrophoresis made it possible to check RNA integrity and to evaluate the quality of the size separation immediately after electrophoresis. In this system, RNA transfer onto the membrane support could also be quickly assessed after the blotting step. The net result of all modifications was a doubling of the autoradiography signal compared with that obtained by modern Northern protocols. At the same time, the duration of the procedure was shortened drastically, allowing an autoradiography signal to be obtained within 24 h.

  20. Vacuum ultraviolet radiation/atomic oxygen synergism in fluorinated ethylene propylene Teflon erosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiegman, A. E.; Brinza, David E.; Laue, Eric G.; Anderson, Mark S.; Liang, Ranty H.

    1992-01-01

    A micrographic investigation is reported of samples of the fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) Teflon thermal-blanketing materials recovered from the Long-Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) satellite. The samples are taken from the trailing edge and row 8 which correspond to exposures to vacuum UV (VUV) and VUV + atomic O, respectively. Data are taken from SEM and IR-spectra observations, and the LDEF leading-edge FEP shows a high degree of erosion, roughening, and sharp peaks angled in the direction of the flow of atomic O. The trailing edge sample influenced primarily by VUV shows a hard brittle layer and some cracked mosaic patterns. Comparisons to a reference sample suggest that the brittle layer is related to exposure to VUV and is removed by atomic-O impingement. Polymers that are stable to VUV radiation appear to be more stable in terms of atomic oxygen.

  1. Vacuum ultraviolet radiation and thermal cycling effects on atomic oxygen protective photovoltaic array blanket materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, J.; Banks, B.

    1990-01-01

    The importance of synergistic environmental exposure is demonstrated through the evaluation of DuPont 93-1 in simulated LEO environment. Changes in optical properties, surface condition, and mass loss data are described. The qualitative results indicate the necessity for exposure of materials to a series of simulated LEO environments in order to properly determine synergistic effects and demonstrate the overall LEO durability of candidate materials. It is shown that synergistic effects may occur with vacuum thermal cycling combined with VUV radiation followed by atomic oxygen exposure. Testing the durability of candidate solar array blanket materials in a test sequence with necessary synergistic effects makes it possible to determine the appropriate material for providing structural support and maintaining the proper operating temperature for solar cells in the SSF Photovaltaic Power System.

  2. Radiometric calibration of the vacuum-ultraviolet spectrograph SUMER on the SOHO spacecraft with the B detector.

    PubMed

    Schühle, U; Curdt, W; Hollandt, J; Feldman, U; Lemaire, P; Wilhelm, K

    2000-01-20

    The Solar Ultraviolet Measurement of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) vacuum-ultraviolet spectrograph was calibrated in the laboratory before the integration of the instrument on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft in 1995. During the scientific operation of the SOHO it has been possible to track the radiometric calibration of the SUMER spectrograph since March 1996 by a strategy that employs various methods to update the calibration status and improve the coverage of the spectral calibration curve. The results for the A Detector were published previously [Appl. Opt. 36, 6416 (1997)]. During three years of operation in space, the B detector was used for two and one-half years. We describe the characteristics of the B detector and present results of the tracking and refinement of the spectral calibration curves with it. Observations of the spectra of the stars alpha and rho Leonis permit an extrapolation of the calibration curves in the range from 125 to 149.0 nm. Using a solar coronal spectrum observed above the solar disk, we can extrapolate the calibration curves by measuring emission line pairs with well-known intensity ratios. The sensitivity ratio of the two photocathode areas can be obtained by registration of many emission lines in the entire spectral range on both KBr-coated and bare parts of the detector's active surface. The results are found to be consistent with the published calibration performed in the laboratory in the wavelength range from 53 to 124 nm. We can extrapolate the calibration outside this range to 147 nm with a relative uncertainty of ?30% (1varsigma) for wavelengths longer than 125 nm and to 46.5 nm with 50% uncertainty for the short-wavelength range below 53 nm. PMID:18337910

  3. Absolute sensitivity calibration of vacuum and extreme ultraviolet spectrometer systems and Z(eff) measurement based on bremsstrahlung continuum in HL-2A tokamak.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hangyu; Cui, Zhengying; Morita, Shigeru; Fu, Bingzhong; Goto, Motoshi; Sun, Ping; Dong, Chunfeng; Gao, Yadong; Xu, Yuan; Lu, Ping; Yang, Qingwei; Duan, Xuru

    2012-10-01

    A grazing-incidence flat-field extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer has been newly developed in HL-2A tokamak. Typical spectral lines are observed from intrinsic impurities of carbon, oxygen, iron, and extrinsic impurity of helium in the wavelength range of 20 Å-500 Å. Bremsstrahlung continuum is measured at different electron densities of HL-2A discharges to calibrate absolute sensitivity of the EUV spectrometer system and to measure effective ionic charge, Z(eff). The sensitivity of a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectrometer system is also absolutely calibrated in overlapped wavelength range of 300 Å-500 Å by comparing the intensity between VUV and EUV line emissions. PMID:23126850

  4. Absolute sensitivity calibration of vacuum and extreme ultraviolet spectrometer systems and Z{sub eff} measurement based on bremsstrahlung continuum in HL-2A tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Hangyu; Cui Zhengying; Fu Bingzhong; Sun Ping; Gao Yadong; Xu Yuan; Lu Ping; Yang Qingwei; Duan Xuru; Morita, Shigeru; Goto, Motoshi; Dong Chunfeng

    2012-10-15

    A grazing-incidence flat-field extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer has been newly developed in HL-2A tokamak. Typical spectral lines are observed from intrinsic impurities of carbon, oxygen, iron, and extrinsic impurity of helium in the wavelength range of 20 A-500 A. Bremsstrahlung continuum is measured at different electron densities of HL-2A discharges to calibrate absolute sensitivity of the EUV spectrometer system and to measure effective ionic charge, Z{sub eff}. The sensitivity of a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectrometer system is also absolutely calibrated in overlapped wavelength range of 300 A-500 A by comparing the intensity between VUV and EUV line emissions.

  5. High-resolution, vacuum-ultraviolet absorption spectrum of boron trifluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Patrick P.; Thompson, Alan K.; Vest, Robert E.; Sprague, Matthew K.; Irikura, Karl K.; Beasten, Amy; McComb, Jacob C.; Al-Sheikhly, Mohamad; Coplan, Michael A.; Clark, Charles W.

    2014-11-21

    In the course of investigations of thermal neutron detection based on mixtures of {sup 10}BF{sub 3} with other gases, knowledge was required of the photoabsorption cross sections of {sup 10}BF{sub 3} for wavelengths between 135 and 205 nm. Large discrepancies in the values reported in existing literature led to the absolute measurements reported in this communication. The measurements were made at the SURF III Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The measured absorption cross sections vary from 10{sup −20} cm{sup 2} at 135 nm to less than 10{sup −21} cm{sup 2} in the region from 165 to 205 nm. Three previously unreported absorption features with resolvable structure were found in the regions 135–145 nm, 150–165 nm, and 190–205 nm. Quantum mechanical calculations, using the TD-B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ variant of time-dependent density functional theory implemented in Gaussian 09, suggest that the observed absorption features arise from symmetry-changing adiabatic transitions.

  6. Vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of small methanol and methanol-water clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Musahid; Ahmed, Musahid; Wilson, Kevin R.; Belau, Leonid; Kostko, Oleg

    2008-05-12

    In this work we report on thevacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of small methanol and methanol-water clusters. Clusters of methanol with water are generated via co-expansion of the gas phase constituents in a continuous supersonic jet expansion of methanol and water seeded in Ar. The resulting clusters are investigated by single photon ionization with tunable vacuumultraviolet synchrotron radiation and mass analyzed using reflectron mass spectrometry. Protonated methanol clusters of the form (CH3OH)nH + (n=1-12) dominate the mass spectrum below the ionization energy of the methanol monomer. With an increase in water concentration, small amounts of mixed clusters of the form (CH3OH)n(H2O)H + (n=2-11) are detected. The only unprotonated species observed in this work are the methanol monomer and dimer. Appearance energies are obtained from the photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves for CH3OH +, (CH 3OH)2 +, (CH3OH)nH + (n=1-9), and (CH 3OH)n(H2O)H + (n=2-9 ) as a function of photon energy. With an increase in the water content in the molecular beam, there is an enhancement of photoionization intensity for methanol dimer and protonated methanol monomer at threshold. These results are compared and contrasted to previous experimental observations.

  7. Effects of vacuum-ultraviolet irradiation on copper penetration into low-k dielectrics under bias-temperature stress

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, X.; Zheng, H.; Xue, P.; Shohet, J. L.; King, S. W.; Nishi, Y.

    2015-01-05

    The effects of vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation on copper penetration into non-porous low-k dielectrics under bias-temperature stress (BTS) were investigated. By employing x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth-profile measurements on both as-deposited and VUV-irradiated SiCOH/Cu stacks, it was found that under the same BTS conditions, the diffusion depth of Cu into the VUV-irradiated SiCOH is higher than that of as-deposited SiCOH. On the other hand, under the same temperature-annealing stress (TS) without electric bias, the Cu distribution profiles in the VUV-irradiated SiCOH were same with that for the as-deposited SiCOH. The experiments suggest that in as-deposited SiCOH, the diffused Cu exists primarily in the atomic state, while in VUV-irradiated SiCOH, the diffused Cu is oxidized by the hydroxyl ions (OH{sup −}) generated from VUV irradiation and exists in the ionic state. The mechanisms for metal diffusion and ion injection in VUV irradiated low-k dielectrics are discussed.

  8. Vacuum ultra-violet damage and damage mitigation for plasma processing of highly porous organosilicate glass dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Marneffe, J.-F.; Zhang, L.; Heyne, M.; Lukaszewicz, M.; Porter, S. B.; Vajda, F.; Rutigliani, V.; el Otell, Z.; Krishtab, M.; Goodyear, A.; Cooke, M.; Verdonck, P.; Baklanov, M. R.

    2015-10-01

    Porous organosilicate glass thin films, with k-value 2.0, were exposed to 147 nm vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) photons emitted in a Xenon capacitive coupled plasma discharge. Strong methyl bond depletion was observed, concomitant with a significant increase of the bulk dielectric constant. This indicates that, besides reactive radical diffusion, photons emitted during plasma processing do impede dielectric properties and therefore need to be tackled appropriately during patterning and integration. The detrimental effect of VUV irradiation can be partly suppressed by stuffing the low-k porous matrix with proper sacrificial polymers showing high VUV absorption together with good thermal and VUV stability. In addition, the choice of an appropriate hard-mask, showing high VUV absorption, can minimize VUV damage. Particular processing conditions allow to minimize the fluence of photons to the substrate and lead to negligible VUV damage. For patterned structures, in order to reduce VUV damage in the bulk and on feature sidewalls, the combination of both pore stuffing/material densification and absorbing hard-mask is recommended, and/or the use of low VUV-emitting plasma discharge.

  9. A lithium-fluoride flashover ion source cleaned with a glow discharge and irradiated with vacuum-ultraviolet radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, E. J. T.; Woodworth, J. R.; Bieg, K. W.; Mehlhorn, T. A.; Stygar, W. A.; Sweeney, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    We have studied methods of varying the ion species generated by a lithium-fluoride overcoated anode in a 0.5-MV magnetically insulated ion diode. We found that cleaning the anode surface with a 13.6-MHz rf glow discharge or illuminating the anode with a pulsed soft x-ray, vacuum-ultraviolet (XUV) radiation source just before the accelerator pulse significantly altered the ion species of the ion beam produced by the diode. The glow-discharge plasma removed adsorbates (carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen) from the surface of the LiF flashover source. The ions seen were lithium and hydrogen. Unfortunately, the diode impedance with a lithium-fluoride anode was high and the ion efficiency was low; however, XUV irradiation of the surface dramatically lowered the impedance by desorbing neutrals from the ion source via photon-stimulated desorption. Current densities of ten times the Child-Langmuir space-charge limit were achieved under XUV irradiation. In particular, ion currents increased by over a factor of 3 when 12 mJ/cm2 of XUV radiation was used. However, with XUV irradiation the largest fraction of ions were fluorine, oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen, not lithium.

  10. High-resolution three-dimensional spin- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectrometer using vacuum ultraviolet laser light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaji, Koichiro; Harasawa, Ayumi; Kuroda, Kenta; Toyohisa, Sogen; Nakayama, Mitsuhiro; Ishida, Yukiaki; Fukushima, Akiko; Watanabe, Shuntaro; Chen, Chuangtian; Komori, Fumio; Shin, Shik

    2016-05-01

    We describe a spin- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (SARPES) apparatus with a vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) laser (hν = 6.994 eV) developed at the Laser and Synchrotron Research Center at the Institute for Solid State Physics, The University of Tokyo. The spectrometer consists of a hemispherical photoelectron analyzer equipped with an electron deflector function and twin very-low-energy-electron-diffraction-type spin detectors, which allows us to analyze the spin vector of a photoelectron three-dimensionally with both high energy and angular resolutions. The combination of the high-performance spectrometer and the high-photon-flux VUV laser can achieve an energy resolution of 1.7 meV for SARPES. We demonstrate that the present laser-SARPES machine realizes a quick SARPES on the spin-split band structure of a Bi(111) film even with 7 meV energy and 0.7∘ angular resolutions along the entrance-slit direction. This laser-SARPES machine is applicable to the investigation of spin-dependent electronic states on an energy scale of a few meV.

  11. Vacuum ultraviolet luminescence of wide band-gap solids studied using time-resolved spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhov, V. N.

    2014-04-01

    Some highlights of the time-resolved vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) luminescence spectroscopy of solids using synchrotron radiation (SR) are outlined, including studies of the unique phenomenon crossluminescence (CL) and the contribution of time-resolved VUV spectroscopy to the understanding of 5d-4f transitions of rare earth ions in solids. The main properties of CL studied at different SR sources are described and some unclear aspects of CL are pointed out. The results of recent studies of some CL-active nanosize materials are presented. We describe the time-resolved experiments which led to the discovery of 5d-4f luminescence in the deep VUV region (near 10 eV) of Gd3+ and Lu3+ ions incorporated into some wide band-gap fluoride hosts. The results of high-resolution (Δλ ˜ 0.5 Å) studies of 5d-4f emission and 4f-5d excitation spectra of Gd3+ and Lu3+, which allowed the detailed analysis of electron-lattice coupling in these systems, are presented. Possible new developments in the femtosecond time-resolved spectroscopy of solids with a free electron laser are discussed.

  12. Temperature-dependent evaluation of Nd:LiCAF optical properties as potential vacuum ultraviolet laser material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minami, Yuki; Arita, Ren; Cadatal-Raduban, Marilou; Pham, Minh Hong; Empizo, Melvin John Fernandez; Luong, Mui Viet; Hori, Tatsuhiro; Takabatake, Masahiro; Fukuda, Kazuhito; Mori, Kazuyuki; Yamanoi, Kohei; Shimizu, Toshihiko; Sarukura, Nobuhiko; Fukuda, Kentaro; Kawaguchi, Noriaki; Yokota, Yuui; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the temperature-dependent optical properties of Nd3+-doped LiCaAlF6 (Nd:LiCAF) in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) region. The 172-nm absorption edge does not seem to experience any significant blue shift as temperature is decreased from room temperature down to 30 K. This is confirmed by excitation spectra for the same temperature range. Several energy levels in the excited state configuration are observed. Based on these energy levels, the dominant emission peak at 177 nm is assigned to the allowed dipole transition from the 4f25d configuration of Nd3+ and the 4I11/2 level of the 4f3 ground state configuration. The position of the dominant 177-nm emission peak appears to be fixed across the temperature range considered. Our results suggest that the spectral overlap between the excitation and emission spectra should not increase as temperature is raised, possibly making Nd:LiCAF a potential VUV laser gain medium operating at room temperature.

  13. High-resolution three-dimensional spin- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectrometer using vacuum ultraviolet laser light.

    PubMed

    Yaji, Koichiro; Harasawa, Ayumi; Kuroda, Kenta; Toyohisa, Sogen; Nakayama, Mitsuhiro; Ishida, Yukiaki; Fukushima, Akiko; Watanabe, Shuntaro; Chen, Chuangtian; Komori, Fumio; Shin, Shik

    2016-05-01

    We describe a spin- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (SARPES) apparatus with a vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) laser (hν = 6.994 eV) developed at the Laser and Synchrotron Research Center at the Institute for Solid State Physics, The University of Tokyo. The spectrometer consists of a hemispherical photoelectron analyzer equipped with an electron deflector function and twin very-low-energy-electron-diffraction-type spin detectors, which allows us to analyze the spin vector of a photoelectron three-dimensionally with both high energy and angular resolutions. The combination of the high-performance spectrometer and the high-photon-flux VUV laser can achieve an energy resolution of 1.7 meV for SARPES. We demonstrate that the present laser-SARPES machine realizes a quick SARPES on the spin-split band structure of a Bi(111) film even with 7 meV energy and 0.7(∘) angular resolutions along the entrance-slit direction. This laser-SARPES machine is applicable to the investigation of spin-dependent electronic states on an energy scale of a few meV. PMID:27250396

  14. Ejecta Particle-Size Measurements in Vacuum and Helium Gas using Ultraviolet In-Line Fraunhofer Holography

    SciTech Connect

    Sorenson, Danny S.; Pazuchanics, Peter; Johnson, Randall P.; Malone, R. M.; Kaufman, M. I.; Tibbitts, A.; Tunnell, T.; Marks, D.; Capelle, G. A.; Grover, M.; Marshall, B.; Stevens, G. D.; Turley, W. D.; LaLone, B.

    2014-06-25

    An Ultraviolet (UV) in-line Fraunhofer holography diagnostic has been developed for making high-resolution spatial measurements of ejecta particles traveling at many mm/μsec. This report will discuss the development of the diagnostic including the high-powered laser system and high-resolution optical relay system. In addition, the system required to reconstruct the images from the hologram and the corresponding analysis of those images to extract particles will also be described. Finally, results from six high-explosive (HE), shock-driven Sn ejecta experiments will be presented. Particle size distributions will be shown that cover most of the ejecta velocities for experiments conducted in a vacuum, and helium gas environments. In addition, a modification has been made to the laser system that produces two laser pulses separated by 6.8 ns. This double-pulsed capability allows a superposition of two holograms to be acquired at two different times, thus allowing ejecta velocities to be measured directly. Results from this double pulsed experiment will be described.

  15. Rotationally Resolved Vacuum Ultraviolet Resonance-Enhanced Multiphoton Ionization (VUV REMPI) of Acetylene via the G̃ Rydberg State.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-May, Alice F; Grütter, Monika; Neugebohren, Jannis; Kitsopoulos, T N; Wodtke, Alec M; Harding, Dan J

    2016-07-14

    We present a 1 + 1' resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) scheme for acetylene via the linear G̃ 4sσ (1)Πu Rydberg state, offering partial rotational resolution and the possibility to detect excitation in both the cis- and trans-bending modes. The resonant transition to the G̃ state is driven by a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photon, generated by resonant four-wave mixing (FWM) in krypton. Ionization from the short-lived G̃ state then occurs quickly, driven by the high intensity of the residual light from the FWM process. We have observed nine bands in the region between 79 200 cm(-1) and 80 500 cm(-1) in C2H2 and C2D2. We compare our results with published spectra in this region and suggest alternative assignments for some of the Renner-Teller split bands. Similar REMPI schemes should be applicable to other small molecules with picosecond lifetime Rydberg states. PMID:27073931

  16. Photodissociation of methylnitrite in the vacuum ultraviolet. I. Identification and quantum yields of electronically excited NO products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahmani, F.; Lardeux, C.; Lavollée, M.; Solgadi, D.

    1980-08-01

    The fluorescence of the photofragments resulting from vacuum ultraviolet photodissociation of methyl nitrite (CH3ONO) in the gas phase has been studied using synchrotron radiation from Orsay Electron Storage Ring (ACO) as the source of excitation. In the spectral region between 1100 and 1600 Å where CH3ONO shows a diffuse absorption spectrum, the formation of NO in A 2Σ+ (v'=0,1,2), C 2Π and D 2Σ+ has been identified by time and energy-resolved spectra. The quantum yields of the photodissociation channels leading to the NO (A,C,D) states have been determined by comparison of the emission intensity with that of pure NO directly excited in A 2Σ+, C 2Π, v'=0, D 2Σ+, v'=0: φ (CH3ONO→NO A)=0.18±0.03 at λexc=1440 Å; φ (CH3ONO→NO C, v'=0)=0.07±0.02 at λexc=1380 Å; and φ (CH3ONO→NO D, v'=0)=0.05±0.02 at λexc=1200 Å.

  17. Evaluation of Thermal Control Coatings and Polymeric Materials Exposed to Ground Simulated Atomic Oxygen and Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamenetzky, R. R.; Vaughn, J. A.; Finckenor, M. M.; Linton, R. C.

    1995-01-01

    Numerous thermal control and polymeric samples with potential International Space Station applications were evaluated for atomic oxygen and vacuum ultraviolet radiation effects in the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory 5 eV Neutral Atomic Oxygen Facility and in the MSFC Atomic Oxygen Drift Tube System. Included in this study were samples of various anodized aluminum samples, ceramic paints, polymeric materials, and beta cloth, a Teflon-impregnated fiberglass cloth. Aluminum anodizations tested were black duranodic, chromic acid anodize, and sulfuric acid anodize. Paint samples consisted of an inorganic glassy black paint and Z-93 white paint made with the original PS7 binder and the new K2130 binder. Polymeric samples evaluated included bulk Halar, bulk PEEK, and silverized FEP Teflon. Aluminized and nonaluminized Chemfab 250 beta cloth were also exposed. Samples were evaluated for changes in mass, thickness, solar absorptance, and infrared emittance. In addition to material effects, an investigation was made comparing diffuse reflectance/solar absorptance measurements made using a Beckman DK2 spectroreflectometer and like measurements made using an AZ Technology-developed laboratory portable spectroreflectometer.

  18. System for time resolved spectral studies of pulsed atmospheric discharges in the visible to vacuum ultraviolet range

    SciTech Connect

    Laity, G.; Neuber, A.; Rogers, G.; Frank, K.

    2010-08-15

    Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) emission is believed to play a major role in the development of plasma streamers in pulsed atmospheric discharges, but detection of VUV light is difficult in pulsed experiments at atmospheric pressures. Since VUV light is absorbed in most standard optical materials as well, careful attention must be given to the selection of the lens and mirror optics used in these studies. Of highest interest is the VUV emission during the initial stage of pulsed atmospheric discharges, which has a typical duration in the nanosecond regime. An experiment was designed to study this fast initial stage of VUV emission coupled with fast optical imaging of streamer propagation, both with temporal resolution on the order of nanoseconds. A repetitive solid-state high voltage pulser was constructed which produces triggered flashover discharges with low jitter and consistent pulse amplitude. VUV emission is captured utilizing both photomultiplier and intensified charge-coupled device detectors during the fast stage of streamer propagation. These results are discussed in context with the streamer formation photographed in the visible wavelength regime with 3 ns exposure time.

  19. Photofragmentation of tetrahydrofuran molecules in the vacuum-ultraviolet region via superexcited states studied by fluorescence spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wasowicz, Tomasz J.; Dampc, Marcin; Zubek, Mariusz; Kivimaeki, Antti; Simone, Monica de; Coreno, Marcello

    2011-03-15

    Photofragmentation of tetrahydrofuran molecules in the vacuum-ultraviolet region, producing excited atomic and molecular fragments, has been studied over the energy range 14-68 eV using photon-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Excited hydrogen atoms H(n), n = 3-11, have been detected by observation of the H{sub {alpha}} to H{sub i} lines of the Balmer series. The diatomic CH(A{sup 2}{Delta}), CH(B{sup 2}{Sigma}{sup -}) and C{sub 2}(d{sup 3}{Pi}{sub g}) fragments, which are excited to low vibrational and high rotational levels are identified by their A{sup 2}{Delta}{yields}X{sup 2}{Pi}{sub r}, B{sup 2}{Sigma}{sup -}{yields}X{sup 2}{Pi}{sub r} and d{sup 3}{Pi}{sub g}{yields}a{sup 3}{Pi}{sub u} emission bands, respectively. Dissociation efficiency curves for CH(A{sup 2}{Delta}) and H(n), n = 3-7, have been obtained in the photon energy ranges from their appearance thresholds up to 68 eV. The appearance energies for CH(A{sup 2}{Delta}) and H(n), n = 3-7, have been determined and are compared with estimated fragmentation energy limits in order to discuss the possible fragmentation processes. In the present studies, superexcited states of tetrahydrofuran are found, which dissociate into the above excited atomic and molecular fragments.

  20. Measurements of Schottky barrier at the low-k SiOC:H/Cu interface using vacuum ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, X.; Pei, D.; Zheng, H.; Shohet, J. L.; King, S. W.; Lin, Y.-H.; Fung, H.-S.; Chen, C.-C.; Nishi, Y.

    2015-12-07

    The band alignment between copper interconnects and their low-k interlayer dielectrics is critical to understanding the fundamental mechanisms involved in electrical leakage in low-k/Cu interconnects. In this work, vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoemission spectroscopy is utilized to determine the potential of the Schottky barrier present at low-k a-SiOC:H/Cu interfaces. By examining the photoemission spectra before and after VUV exposure of a low-k a-SiOC:H (k = 3.3) thin film fabricated by plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition on a polished Cu substrate, it was found that photons with energies of 4.9 eV or greater can deplete accumulated charge in a-SiOC:H films, while VUV photons with energies of 4.7 eV or less, did not have this effect. These critical values were identified to relate the electric potential of the interface barrier between the a-SiOC:H and the Cu layers. Using this method, the Schottky barrier at the low-k a-SiOC:H (k = 3.3)/Cu interface was determined to be 4.8 ± 0.1 eV.

  1. Vacuum ultra-violet damage and damage mitigation for plasma processing of highly porous organosilicate glass dielectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Marneffe, J.-F. de Lukaszewicz, M.; Porter, S. B.; Vajda, F.; Rutigliani, V.; Verdonck, P.; Baklanov, M. R.; Zhang, L.; Heyne, M.; El Otell, Z.; Krishtab, M.; Goodyear, A.; Cooke, M.

    2015-10-07

    Porous organosilicate glass thin films, with k-value 2.0, were exposed to 147 nm vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) photons emitted in a Xenon capacitive coupled plasma discharge. Strong methyl bond depletion was observed, concomitant with a significant increase of the bulk dielectric constant. This indicates that, besides reactive radical diffusion, photons emitted during plasma processing do impede dielectric properties and therefore need to be tackled appropriately during patterning and integration. The detrimental effect of VUV irradiation can be partly suppressed by stuffing the low-k porous matrix with proper sacrificial polymers showing high VUV absorption together with good thermal and VUV stability. In addition, the choice of an appropriate hard-mask, showing high VUV absorption, can minimize VUV damage. Particular processing conditions allow to minimize the fluence of photons to the substrate and lead to negligible VUV damage. For patterned structures, in order to reduce VUV damage in the bulk and on feature sidewalls, the combination of both pore stuffing/material densification and absorbing hard-mask is recommended, and/or the use of low VUV-emitting plasma discharge.

  2. Ejecta Particle-Size Measurements in Vacuum and Helium Gas using Ultraviolet In-Line Fraunhofer Holography

    SciTech Connect

    Sorenson, D. S.; Pazuchanics, P.; Johnson, R.; Malone, R. M.; Kaufman, M. I.; Tibbitts, A.; Tunnell, T.; Marks, D.; Capelle, G. A.; Grover, M.; Marshall, B.; Stevens, G. D.; Turley, W. D.; LaLone, B.

    2014-06-30

    An ultraviolet (UV) in-line Fraunhofer holography diagnostic has been developed for making high-resolution spatial measurements of ejecta particles traveling at many mm/μsec. This report will discuss the development of the diagnostic, including the high-powered laser system and high-resolution optical relay system. In addition, we will also describe the system required to reconstruct the images from the hologram and the corresponding analysis of those images to extract particles. Finally, we will present results from six high-explosive (HE), shock-driven Sn-ejecta experiments. Particle-size distributions will be shown that cover most of the ejecta velocities for experiments conducted in a vacuum, and helium gas environments. In addition, a modification has been made to the laser system that produces two laser pulses separated by 6.8 ns. This double-pulsed capability allows a superposition of two holograms to be acquired at two different times, thus allowing ejecta velocities to be measured directly. Results from this double-pulsed experiment will be described.

  3. A new apparatus for study of pressure-dependent laminar premixed flames with vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Z. Y.; Wang, Y.; Tang, X. F.; Wu, W. H.; Qi, F.

    2013-01-01

    We report a home-made combustion apparatus for study of pressure-dependent laminar premixed flames with tunable vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry. The instrument consists of a flame chamber, a photoionization chamber with a single-stage sampling system, an ion transfer/storage system, and an orthogonal-acceleration reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Preliminary results of fuel-rich C2H4/O2/Ar flames at pressures of 30, 150, and 760 Torr have been obtained with this instrument. Compared to previous instruments [T. A. Cool, A. McIlroy, F. Qi, P. R. Westmoreland, L. Poisson, D. S. Peterka, and M. Ahmed, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 094102 (2005), 10.1063/1.2010307; F. Qi, R. Yang, B. Yang, C. Q. Huang, L. X. Wei, J. Wang, L. S. Sheng, and Y. W. Zhang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 084101 (2006)], 10.1063/1.2234855, performances of the new apparatus have higher mass resolution (˜3500 at m/z = 40), better detection limit (<1 ppm), and broader dynamic range (better than 5 order of magnitude).

  4. Characterization of phosphor materials for use in plasma display panel by time-resolved vacuum-ultraviolet laser spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, Y; Nakamura, K; Imasaka, T

    2001-11-15

    Phosphor materials that were manufactured for use in a plasma display panel (PDP) were investigated by employing a newly designed time-resolved vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) spectrometer, which consists of a pulsed VUV laser and a fast photodetector. The VUV spectrometer was used to collect quantum efficiency data as well as the rise and decay times for the PDP phosphor luminescence. Both the rise and decay times increased with decreasing excitation wavelength in the VUV region. This result can be explained by a change in the mechanisms of photoexcitation and luminescence, that is, from charge-transfer excitation to host-lattice excitation below 200 nm. The present instrument was also used for an evaluation of the phosphor materials (Ba(1 - x)MgAl10O17:Eu2+(x)) by changing the Eu2+ concentration. The obtained data suggest that the impurities and defects are located inside the host crystal. Thus, the VUV spectrometer constructed in this study has considerable potential for use in investigating the nature of PDP phosphor materials. PMID:11816576

  5. Effects of vacuum-ultraviolet irradiation on copper penetration into low-k dielectrics under bias-temperature stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, X.; King, S. W.; Zheng, H.; Xue, P.; Nishi, Y.; Shohet, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation on copper penetration into non-porous low-k dielectrics under bias-temperature stress (BTS) were investigated. By employing x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth-profile measurements on both as-deposited and VUV-irradiated SiCOH/Cu stacks, it was found that under the same BTS conditions, the diffusion depth of Cu into the VUV-irradiated SiCOH is higher than that of as-deposited SiCOH. On the other hand, under the same temperature-annealing stress (TS) without electric bias, the Cu distribution profiles in the VUV-irradiated SiCOH were same with that for the as-deposited SiCOH. The experiments suggest that in as-deposited SiCOH, the diffused Cu exists primarily in the atomic state, while in VUV-irradiated SiCOH, the diffused Cu is oxidized by the hydroxyl ions (OH-) generated from VUV irradiation and exists in the ionic state. The mechanisms for metal diffusion and ion injection in VUV irradiated low-k dielectrics are discussed.

  6. Vacuum-ultraviolet photoreduction of graphene oxide: Electrical conductivity of entirely reduced single sheets and reduced micro line patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Tu, Yudi; Ichii, Takashi; Utsunomiya, Toru; Sugimura, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-30

    We here report a scanning probe method to locally and directly research the electrical properties of vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) reduced graphene oxide. The measured electrical conductivity of individual VUV-reduced GO (VUV-rGO) sheets by using conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) reached 0.20 S·m{sup −1} after 64 min irradiation, which was clearly enhanced compared with the pristine GO. According to the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results, the recovered conductivity of VUV-rGO could be ascribed to the partial elimination of oxygen-containing functional groups and the rapid reconstruction of the C=C bonds. Heterogeneously distributed low- and high-conductivity domains (with a diameter of tens of nanometer to ca. 500 nm) were found from current mapping of the VUV-rGO sheet. By applying photomask lithography, rGO regions were drawn into single GO sheet and were researched by CAFM. The in-plane lateral conductivity of rGO regions increased obviously compared with pristine GO regions.

  7. Effects of vacuum ultraviolet irradiation on trapped charges and leakage currents of low-k organosilicate dielectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, H.; Guo, X.; Pei, D.; Shohet, J. L.; Ryan, E. T.; Nishi, Y.

    2015-05-11

    Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoemission spectroscopy is utilized to investigate the distribution of trapped charges within the bandgap of low dielectric constant (low-k) organosilicate (SiCOH) materials. It was found that trapped charges are continuously distributed within the bandgap of porous SiCOH and the center of the trapped states is 1.3 eV above the valence band of the tested sample. By comparing photoemission spectroscopic results before and after VUV exposure, VUV irradiation with photon energies between 7.6 and 8.9 eV was found to deplete trapped charge while UV exposure with photon energies less than 6.0 eV induces more trapped charges in tested samples. Current-Voltage (IV) characteristics results show that the reliability of dielectrics is improved after VUV irradiation with photon energies between 7.6 and 8.9 eV, while UV exposure results in an increased level of leakage current and a decreased breakdown voltage, both of which are harmful to the reliability of the dielectric. This work shows that VUV irradiation holds the potential to substitute for UV curing in microelectronic processing to improve the reliability of low-k dielectrics by mitigating the leakage currents and trapped charges induced by UV irradiation.

  8. Electronic State Spectroscopy of Halothane As Studied by ab Initio Calculations, Vacuum Ultraviolet Synchrotron Radiation, and Electron Scattering Methods.

    PubMed

    da Silva, F Ferreira; Duflot, D; Hoffmann, S V; Jones, N C; Rodrigues, F N; Ferreira-Rodrigues, A M; de Souza, G G B; Mason, N J; Eden, S; Limão-Vieira, P

    2015-08-01

    We present the first set of ab initio calculations (vertical energies and oscillator strengths) of the valence and Rydberg transitions of the anaesthetic compound halothane (CF3CHBrCl). These results are complemented by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption measurements over the wavelength range 115-310 nm (10.8-4.0 eV). The spectrum reveals several new features that were not previously reported in the literature. Spin-orbit effects have been considered in the calculations for the lowest-lying states, allowing us to explain the broad nature of the 6.1 and 7.5 eV absorption bands assigned to σ*(C-Br) ← nBr and σ*(C-Cl) ← n(Cl) transitions. Novel absolute photoabsorption cross sections from electron scattering data were derived in the 4.0-40.0 eV range. The measured absolute photoabsorption cross sections have been used to calculate the photolysis lifetime of halothane in the upper stratosphere (20-50 km). PMID:26171941

  9. Rotationally Resolved Vacuum Ultraviolet Laser Spectra of the 37Cl 21 1Σ +u← X1Σ +gTransition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P.; Okuda, I. V.; Dimov, S. S.; Lipson, R. H.

    1998-08-01

    Rotationally and isotopically resolved single-photon excitation spectra of jet-cooled Cl2in the wavelength region between 133 and 138 nm were recorded using a tunable vacuum ultraviolet "laser" generated by two-photon resonantly enhanced four-wave difference mixing in Kr gas. The dominant transition (11Σ+u←X1Σ+g) is well known theoretically and experimentally to involve a double-well excited state potential energy curve formed by a strong homogeneous Rydberg-state/ion-pair state avoided crossing. In this work, single isotopomer spectra were obtained by dispersing and detecting ions produced by (1 + 1‧) resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization in a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. In this way, rotational constants were deduced for the first time for many v‧ levels of the least abundant molecular isotope,37Cl2, which are both localized in the Rydberg well, and delocalized in the ion-pair portion of the 1-state potential energy curve. Our experimentally derived band origins andB‧vvalues test the practical validity of an analytical 11Σ+upotential energy function which is a modified version of the one first proposed by J. Wörmer, T. Möller, J. Stapelfeldt, G. Zimmerer, D. Haaks, S. Kampf, J. Le Calvé, and M. C. Castex (1988. Z. Phys. D,7,383-395).

  10. Photoluminescence properties of MgY4Si3O13:Gd3+, Tb3+ under vacuum ultraviolet excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wenyu; An, Shengli; Fan, Bin; Li, Songbo

    2013-07-01

    Gd3+ and Tb3+ co-doped MgY4Si3O13 green phosphors were prepared by a solid-state reaction. The photoluminescence properties in vacuum ultraviolet-visible (VUV-vis) range and decay properties were investigated in details. The f-d transition of Gd3+ ions and spin-allowed f-d transition of Tb3+ ions locate at about 134 nm and 239 nm, respectively. Two charge transfer bands of O2- → Gd3+ and O2- → Tb3+ overlap at about 155 nm. Some f-f transition of Tb3+ and Gd3+ ions are confirmed in VUV-vis range. Upon excitation at 172 nm, the optimal composition of MgY3.3Si3O13:0.5Gd3+, 0.2Tb3+ phosphor exhibits the characteristic transitions of Gd3+ and Tb3+ with chromaticity coordinate of (0.2849, 0.5843). The phosphor has a shorter decay time (2.13 ms) than that of Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ (4.56 ms). The results suggest that this green phosphor is a potential candidate for mercury-free luminescence lamps and plasma display panels (PDPs) application.

  11. Highly coherent vacuum ultraviolet radiation at the 15th harmonic with echo-enabled harmonic generation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemsing, E.; Dunning, M.; Hast, C.; Raubenheimer, T. O.; Weathersby, S.; Xiang, D.

    2014-07-01

    X-ray free-electron lasers are enabling access to new science by producing ultrafast and intense x rays that give researchers unparalleled power and precision in examining the fundamental nature of matter. In the quest for fully coherent x rays, the echo-enabled harmonic generation technique is one of the most promising methods. In this technique, coherent radiation at the high harmonic frequencies of two seed lasers is generated from the recoherence of electron beam phase space memory. Here we report on the generation of highly coherent and stable vacuum ultraviolet radiation at the 15th harmonic of an infrared seed laser with this technique. The experiment demonstrates two distinct advantages that are intrinsic to the highly nonlinear phase space gymnastics of echo-enabled harmonic generation in a new regime, i.e., high frequency up-conversion efficiency and insensitivity to electron beam phase space imperfections. Our results allow comparison and confirmation of predictive models and scaling laws, and mark a significant step towards fully coherent x-ray free-electron lasers that will open new scientific research.

  12. Improved Resolution of Hydrocarbon Structures and Constitutional Isomers in Complex Mixtures Using Gas Chromatography-Vacuum Ultraviolet-Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacman, Gabriel; Wilson, Kevin R.; Chan, Arthur W. H.; Worton, David R.; Kimmel, Joel R.; Nah, Theodora; Hohaus, Thorsten; Gonin, Marc; Kroll, Jesse H.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2012-01-30

    Understanding the composition of complex hydrocarbon mixtures is important for environmental studies in a variety of fields, but many prevalent compounds cannot be confidently identified using traditional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) techniques. In this study, we use vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) ionization to elucidate the structures of a traditionally “unresolved complex mixture” by separating components by GC retention time, tR, and mass-to-charge ratio, m/z, which are used to determine carbon number, NC, and the number of rings and double bonds, NDBE. Constitutional isomers are resolved on the basis of tR, enabling the most complete quantitative analysis to date of structural isomers in an environmentally relevant hydrocarbon mixture. Unknown compounds are classified in this work by carbon number, degree of saturation, presence of rings, and degree of branching, providing structural constraints. The capabilities of this analysis are explored using diesel fuel, in which constitutional isomer distribution patterns are shown to be reproducible between carbon numbers and follow predictable rules. Nearly half of the aliphatic hydrocarbon mass is shown to be branched, suggesting branching is more important in diesel fuel than previously shown. Lastly, the classification of unknown hydrocarbons and the resolution of constitutional isomers significantly improves resolution capabilities for any complex hydrocarbon mixture.

  13. The efficacy of post porosity plasma protection against vacuum-ultraviolet damage in porous low-k materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lionti, K.; Volksen, W.; Darnon, M.; Magbitang, T.; Dubois, G.

    2015-03-21

    As of today, plasma damage remains as one of the main challenges to the reliable integration of porous low-k materials into microelectronic devices at the most aggressive node. One promising strategy to limit damage of porous low-k materials during plasma processing is an approach we refer to as post porosity plasma protection (P4). In this approach, the pores of the low-k material are filled with a sacrificial agent prior to any plasma treatment, greatly minimizing the total damage by limiting the physical interactions between plasma species and the low-k material. Interestingly, the contribution of the individual plasma species to the total plasma damage is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the specific damaging effect of vacuum-ultraviolet (v-UV) photons on a highly porous, k = 2.0 low-k material and we assessed the P4 protective effect against them. It was found that the impact of the v-UV radiation varied depending upon the v-UV emission lines of the plasma. More importantly, we successfully demonstrated that the P4 process provides excellent protection against v-UV damage.

  14. Desorption Dynamics, Internal Energies and Imaging of Organic Molecules from Surfaces with Laser Desorption and Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) Photoionization

    SciTech Connect

    Kostko, Oleg; Takahashi, Lynelle K.; Ahmed, Musahid

    2011-04-05

    There is enormous interest in visualizing the chemical composition of organic material that comprises our world. A convenient method to obtain molecular information with high spatial resolution is imaging mass spectrometry. However, the internal energy deposited within molecules upon transfer to the gas phase from a surface can lead to increased fragmentation and to complications in analysis of mass spectra. Here it is shown that in laser desorption with postionization by tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation, the internal energy gained during laser desorption leads to minimal fragmentation of DNA bases. The internal temperature of laser-desorbed triacontane molecules approaches 670 K, whereas the internal temperature of thymine is 800 K. A synchrotron-based VUV postionization technique for determining translational temperatures reveals that biomolecules have translational temperatures in the range of 216-346 K. The observed low translational temperatures, as well as their decrease with increased desorption laser power is explained by collisional cooling. An example of imaging mass spectrometry on an organic polymer, using laser desorption VUV postionization shows 5 mu m feature details while using a 30 mu m laser spot size and 7 ns duration. Applications of laser desorption postionization to the analysis of cellulose, lignin and humic acids are briefly discussed.

  15. Attosecond transient absorption of argon atoms in the vacuum ultraviolet region: line energy shifts versus coherent population transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Wei; Warrick, Erika R.; Neumark, Daniel M.; Leone, Stephen R.

    2016-01-01

    Using attosecond transient absorption, the dipole response of an argon atom in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) region is studied when an external electromagnetic field is present. An isolated attosecond VUV pulse populates Rydberg states lying 15 eV above the argon ground state. A synchronized few-cycle near infrared (NIR) pulse modifies the oscillating dipoles of argon impulsively, leading to alterations in the VUV absorption spectra. As the NIR pulse is delayed with respect to the VUV pulse, multiple features in the absorption profile emerge simultaneously including line broadening, sideband structure, sub-cycle fast modulations, and 5-10 fs slow modulations. These features indicate the coexistence of two general processes of the light-matter interaction: the energy shift of individual atomic levels and coherent population transfer between atomic eigenstates, revealing coherent superpositions. An intuitive formula is derived to treat both effects in a unifying framework, allowing one to identify and quantify the two processes in a single absorption spectrogram.

  16. Effects of pH on photochemical decomposition of perfluorooctanoic acid in different atmospheres by 185nm vacuum ultraviolet.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Pengyi

    2014-11-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a persistent organic pollutant, receives increasing concerns due to its worldwide occurrence and resistance to most conventional treatment processes. The photochemical decomposition by 185nm vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) is one of the efficient methods for PFOA decomposition. The effects of pH on PFOA decomposition in nitrogen atmosphere or oxygen atmosphere were investigated. At its original pH (4.5) of PFOA aqueous solution, PFOA decomposed efficiently both in nitrogen and in oxygen atmosphere. However, when the pH increased to 12.0, PFOA decomposition was greatly inhibited in oxygen atmosphere, while it was greatly accelerated in nitrogen atmosphere with a very short half-life time (9min). Furthermore, fluorine atoms originally contained in PFOA molecules were almost completely transformed into fluoride ions. Two decomposition pathways have been proposed to explain the PFOA decomposition under different conditions. In acidic and neutral solutions, PFOA predominantly decomposes via the direct photolysis in both atmospheres; while in the alkaline solution and in the absence of oxygen, the decomposition of PFOA is mainly induced by hydrated electrons. PMID:25458674

  17. Conformation of membrane-bound proteins revealed by vacuum-ultraviolet circular-dichroism and linear-dichroism spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Koichi; Maki, Yasuyuki; Namatame, Hirofumi; Taniguchi, Masaki; Gekko, Kunihiko

    2016-03-01

    Knowledge of the conformations of a water-soluble protein bound to a membrane is important for understanding the membrane-interaction mechanisms and the membrane-mediated functions of the protein. In this study we applied vacuum-ultraviolet circular-dichroism (VUVCD) and linear-dichroism (LD) spectroscopy to analyze the conformations of α-lactalbumin (LA), thioredoxin (Trx), and β-lactoglobulin (LG) bound to phosphatidylglycerol liposomes. The VUVCD analysis coupled with a neural-network analysis showed that these three proteins have characteristic helix-rich conformations involving several helical segments, of which two amphiphilic or hydrophobic segments take part in interactions with the liposome. The LD analysis predicted the average orientations of these helix segments on the liposome: two amphiphilic helices parallel to the liposome surface for LA, two hydrophobic helices perpendicular to the liposome surface for Trx, and a hydrophobic helix perpendicular to and an amphiphilic helix parallel to the liposome surface for LG. This sequence-level information about the secondary structures and orientations was used to formulate interaction models of the three proteins at the membrane surface. This study demonstrates the validity of a combination of VUVCD and LD spectroscopy in conformational analyses of membrane-binding proteins, which are difficult targets for X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. PMID:26756612

  18. Theoretical interpretation of the vacuum ultraviolet reflectance of liquid helium and of the absorption spectra of helium microbubbles in aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, A. A.; Vigneron, J. P.; Donnelly, S. E.; Rife, J. C.

    1983-09-01

    The position and width of the helium resonance line 11S0-->21P1 are calculated for a high-density helium fluid. The theory aims at understanding the reflectivity data of Surko et al. for the low-temperature liquid-vapor interface and the absorption data of Rife et al. for room-temperature, high-pressure helium bubbles in aluminum. The theoretical ingredients of the model are (i) the long-range dipole interaction of an excited 2P atom with the rest of the fluid and with the metal substrate; (ii) the short-range Pauli pseudorepulsion arising from orthogonalization of the 2p-electron wave function with the 1s ground-state orbital of neighboring atoms; (iii) a statistical treatment of the high-density fluid based either on the experimentally measured radial pair distribution function of low-T liquid He, or on the Percus-Yevick distribution function of hard spheres and the theoretical equation of state of Young et al. for the He fluid in the bubbles; (iv) the standard static line-broadening theory to calculate the effect of Pauli repulsion on the line shapes. The theory provides a reasonably accurate understanding of the observed spectra in both the liquid and high-density gas, and can serve as a sound basis for interpretation of vacuum ultraviolet spectra in other gas-metal combinations.

  19. Carrier Conduction and Light Emission by Modification of Poly(alkylfluorene) Interface under Vacuum Ultraviolet Light Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmori, Yutaka; Kajii, Hirotake; Terashima, Daiki; Kusumoto, Yusuke

    2013-03-01

    Organic field effect transistors (OFETs) have been extensively studied for flexible electronics. The characteristics of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-dyl) (F8) modified by thermal or light are strongly dependent on the carrier transport and optical characteristics. We investigate all solution-processed OFETs with Ag nano-ink as gate electrodes patterned by Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) (172 nm). Bi-layer gate insulators of amorphous fluoro-polymer CYTOP (Asahi Glass Corp.) and poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) were used. Top-gate-type OFETs with ITO source/drain electrode utilizing F8 or poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT) as an active layer were fabricated, and investigated the carrier conduction and emission characteristic. Without VUV irradiation, both OFETs showed the ambipolar and light-emitting characteristics. On the other hand, F8 devices with VUV exhibited only p-type conduction. The quenching centers were generated in F8 layer by VUV irradiation, which are related to the electron trap sites at the interface. OFETs with F8BT showed both p- and n-type conduction even after VUV. F8BT suffers less damage by VUV and maintain light emission. Light emitting transistors were realized utilizing F8BT patterned by VUV irradiation. This research was partially supported financially by MEXT. The authors thank Harima Chemicals Inc. for providing Ag nano-ink.

  20. Photodissociation of CS2 in the vacuum ultraviolet - Determination of bond dissociation energy from the lowest vibrational level of the ground state CS2.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okabe, H.

    1972-01-01

    Photolysis in the vacuum ultraviolet results almost exclusively in the production of S(super-3)P atoms, which is in apparent violation of spin conservation. The threshold energy of incident photons required to produce fluorescence was used to calculate the bond dissociation energy (from the lowest vibrational level of the ground state), and the result agrees with the value previously derived from the photoionization of CS2. The fluorescence excitation spectrum shows peaks corresponding to Rydberg series I and II, indicating that the observed photodissociation of CS2 in the vacuum ultraviolet is mainly the result of predissociation from Rydberg states. The absorption coefficient of CS2 was measured in the region of 1200 to 1400 A.

  1. Absolute intensities of the vacuum ultraviolet spectra in oxide etch plasma processing discharges

    SciTech Connect

    WOODWORTH,JOSEPH R.; RILEY,MERLE E.; AMATUCCI,VINCENT A.; HAMILTON,THOMAS W.; ARAGON,BEN P.

    2000-05-01

    In this paper, the authors report the absolute intensities of ultraviolet light between 4.9 eV and 24 eV ( 250 nm to 50 mn ) striking a silicon wafer in a number of oxide-etch processing discharges. The emphasis is on photons with energies greater than 8.8 eV, which have enough energy to damage SiO{sub 2}. These discharges were in an inductively-driven Gaseous Electronics Conference reference cell which had been modified to more closely resemble commercial etching tools. Comparisons of measurements made through a side port in the cell and through a hole in the wafer indicate that the VUV light in these discharges is strongly trapped. For the pure halocarbon gases examined in these experiments (C{sub 2}F{sub 6}, CHF{sub 3}, C{sub 4}F{sub 8}), the fluxes of VUV photons to the wafer varied from 1 x 10{sup 15} to 3 x 10{sup 15} photons/cm{sup 2} sec or equivalently from 1.5 to 5 mW/cm{sup 2}. These measurements imply that 0.1% to 0.3% of the rf source power to these discharges ends up hitting the wafer as VUV photons for the typical 20 mT, 200 W rf discharges. For typical ashing discharges containing pure oxygen, the VUV intensities are slightly higher--about 8 mW/cm{sup 2} . As argon or hydrogen diluents are added to the fluorocarbon gases, the VUV intensities increase dramatically, with a 10/10/10 mixture of Ar/C{sub 2}F{sub 6}/H{sub 2} yielding VUV fluxes on the wafer 26 mW/cm{sup 2} and pure argon discharges yielding 52 mW/cm{sup 2} . Adding an rf bias to the wafer had only a small effect on the VUV observed through a side-port of the GEC cell.

  2. Development of vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy system for wide measurement range of number density using a dual-tube inductively coupled plasma light source

    SciTech Connect

    Kuwahara, Akira; Matsui, Makoto; Yamagiwa, Yoshiki

    2012-12-15

    A vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy system for a wide measurement range of atomic number densities is developed. Dual-tube inductively coupled plasma was used as a light source. The probe beam profile was optimized for the target number density range by changing the mass flow rate of the inner and outer tubes. This system was verified using cold xenon gas. As a result, the measurement number density range was extended from the conventional two orders to five orders of magnitude.

  3. Development of vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy system for wide measurement range of number density using a dual-tube inductively coupled plasma light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, Akira; Matsui, Makoto; Yamagiwa, Yoshiki

    2012-12-01

    A vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy system for a wide measurement range of atomic number densities is developed. Dual-tube inductively coupled plasma was used as a light source. The probe beam profile was optimized for the target number density range by changing the mass flow rate of the inner and outer tubes. This system was verified using cold xenon gas. As a result, the measurement number density range was extended from the conventional two orders to five orders of magnitude.

  4. Transmission imaging of sodium in the vacuum ultra-violet spectral range: new application for an intense VUV source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daido, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Yoji; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Fukuda, Takeshi; Nakagiri, Toshio; Kaku, Masanori; Kubodera, Shoichi; Pirozhkov, Alexander S.

    2013-09-01

    Metallic sodium (Na) was proposed as a transparent material in the vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) spectral range in 1930s and in 1960s. However no clear transmission has ever been demonstrated. In this paper we describe firstly the direct measurement of actual transmittance of a sodium samples in a spectral range longer than 115 nm which corresponds to the shortest transmission wavelength of magnesium fluoride (MgF2) windows, resulting in several tens of % transmittance of a 3 mm-thick solid sodium sample including MgF2 windows at the wavelength of ~120 nm. We also find very weak temperature dependency of the transmittance up to 150 degrees centigrade where the solid sample is melted at 97 degrees. The measured transmittance pushes us to make a simple imaging experiment illuminated by the VUV light through a 2-mm thick sodium sample, resulting in obtaining a clear image composed of 100 μm diameter tungsten mesh recorded on a two dimensional Charge Coupled Device detector. The result also opens a way to construct an optical imaging device for objects inside or through a solid or a liquid sodium medium. According to the present experiment, we can make a continuous real time transmission imaging for a liquid sodium sample if we use proper optical setup including an intense continuous VUV source or high repetition rated intense coherent source for holographic data acquisition. Such an experiment opens up a way to perform transmission imaging through or inside a sodium medium for characterization of hydrodynamic and material properties.

  5. FISM-P: A Model of the Vacuum Ultraviolet Irradiance Spectrum for Atmospheric Studies at Mars and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiemann, E.; Eparvier, F. G.; Chamberlin, P. C.

    2014-12-01

    The MAVEN probe includes the EUV instrument, which will be used to produce a model of the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV: 0-190 nm) spectrum at Mars. This VUV irradiance model is an iteration of the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM), an empirical model of the solar irradiance spectrum from 0.1 to 190 nm at 1 nm spectral resolution with a 1 minute time cadence. This latest iteration is called FISM-P, where the '-P' suffix stands for 'planetary', and estimates mean daily irradiances from 0.1 to 190 nm for every planet in the solar system from 1948 to the present through weighted interpolation of earth measured proxies. In addition to daily irradiances, planetary 1-minute (flaring) irradiances are available if the planet is positioned such that the flaring emissions are observed by instruments at Earth or MAVEN EUV at Mars. FISM is optimized to use the best available proxies for each layer of the solar atmosphere (chromosphere, transition region, cool corona, and hot corona). FISM-P uses both interpolated earth proxies (the MgII core-to-wing ratio, H Ly-a and F10.7) and, when available, the MAVEN EUV measurements (H Ly-α, 17-22 nm, and 0-6 nm) for improved accuracy at Mars. FISM has already been successfully used as an input for ionospheric and thermospheric models for Earth, Mars, as well as comparisons of photoelectrons at Earth and Mars, and surface charging of the moon. FISM-P now provides the capability for similar studies throughout the solar system; and the in situ VUV measurements by MAVEN EUV will result in the most accurate VUV spectrum to date at Mars.

  6. Roles of plasma-generated vacuum-ultraviolet photons and oxygen radicals in damaging nanoporous low-k films

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Joe; Graves, David B.

    2013-07-15

    One important class of low-k materials used as interconnect dielectrics employs methyl groups added to nanoporous SiO{sub 2} matrices. These carbon-doped oxide materials are known to be susceptible to damage from plasma species during various stages of plasma processing. Two key active species generated in O{sub 2} plasma are oxygen (O) radicals and vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photons. These species are known to cause carbon loss, resulting in damaging increases in dielectric constant throughout the film. However, the mechanisms through which this damage is incurred are poorly understood. By capping the substrate in different ways during plasma exposure, it is possible to expose films to either photons alone or O atoms alone. The authors report measurements of damage induced by VUV photons only, O radicals only, and the combination of O radicals and photons. Through HF stripping, they note that carbon extraction from photons and from radicals yields different outcomes; the profile of carbon concentration within the modified region is different for each case. Damage from photons alone can be modeled and model predictions are in good agreement with measurements. Damage from O atoms alone can only be modeled if it is assumed that the near-surface region has a significantly reduced diffusivity compared to the bulk of the film. Experiment and model agree that both photons alone and O radicals alone damage the material by removing carbon. When radicals and photons are present simultaneously during plasma exposure, however, more C removal appears to be occurring in the model than experimentally observed. Remarkably, if only radicals are exposed to the film after short (10-30 s) plasma exposures, very little additional damage is incurred during this radical-only exposure. The most straightforward interpretation of these results appears to be that photons combine synergistically with radicals in the pores to narrow the pores, thereby reducing film diffusivity in the C

  7. Effects of plasma and vacuum-ultraviolet exposure on the mechanical properties of low-k porous organosilicate glass

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, X.; Shohet, J. L.; Jakes, J. E.; Banna, S.; Nishi, Y.

    2014-07-28

    The effects of plasma exposure and vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation on the mechanical properties of low-k porous organosilicate glass (SiCOH) dielectric films were investigated. Nanoindentation measurements were made on SiCOH films before and after exposure to an electron-cyclotron-resonance plasma or a monochromatic synchrotron VUV beam, to determine the changes of film hardness, elastic modulus, and crack threshold due to these exposures. This permits the effects of ion bombardment and photon bombardment to be analyzed separately. The role of energetic ions was examined with a variety of inert plasma-exposure conditions. The role of VUV photons was analyzed as a function of synchrotron photon energy. It was found that both energetic ions and VUV photons with energies larger than the bond energy of the Si-O bond cause a significant increase in film hardness along with a smaller increase in elastic modulus and crack threshold. Differential Fourier transform infrared spectra and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy results show that the energetic ions affect the SiCOH properties mainly through physical bombardment, during which the ions transfer their momentum to the Si-O-Si backbone and transform them into more energetically stable Si-O-Si network structures. This results in the Si-O-Si network structures becoming densified. VUV photons assist reaction that increase the number of bridging O{sub 3}≡Si-O-Si≡O{sub 3} bonds and deplete nonbridging O{sub 3}≡Si-O and C-Si≡O{sub 3} bonds. This increased degree of cross linking in porous organosilicate dielectrics can substantially enhance their hardness and elastic modulus while showing no significant film shrinkage or densification.

  8. Space-resolved vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer system for edge impurity and temperature profile measurement in HL-2A

    SciTech Connect

    Cui Zhengying; Fu Bingzhong; Huang Yuan; Sun Ping; Gao Yadong; Xu Yuan; Lu Ping; Wang Quanming; Ding Xuantong; Yang Qingwei; Duan Xuru; Morita, Shigeru; Dong Chunfeng

    2010-04-15

    A 1 m normal incidence vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectrometer has been developed for spatial distribution measurement of edge impurity line emission in the wavelength range of 300-3200 A on HL-2A tokamak. A vertical profile of the impurity line emission is measured with a space-resolved slit placed between an entrance slit and a grating of the spectrometer. Two concave 1200 grooves/mm gratings blazed at 800 and 1500 A are set on a rotatable holder in the spectrometer, which gives wavelength dispersion of 0.12 mm/A. A back-illuminated charge-coupled device is used as a detector with an image size of 6.7x26.6 mm{sup 2} (26x26 {mu}m{sup 2}/pixel). An excellent spatial resolution of 2 mm is obtained with good spectral resolution of 0.15 A when the space-resolved slit of 50 {mu}m in width is used. The space-resolved spectra thus provide three radial profiles of emission line intensity, ion temperature, and poloidal rotation. The electron temperature can be measured by the intensity ratio, e.g., CIII 2s{sup 2}-2s3p (386 A)/2s{sup 2}-2s2p (977 A). The sensitivity of the spectrometer is calibrated in situ by using the VUV bremsstrahlung continuum radiation emitted from the tokamak plasma. A good performance of the spectrometer system for the edge impurity and temperature profile measurements is presented with results on Ohmic and H-mode discharges.

  9. A two-color infrared-vacuum ultraviolet laser pulsed field ionization photoelectron study of NH3.

    PubMed

    Bahng, Mi-Kyung; Xing, Xi; Baek, Sun Jong; Ng, C Y

    2005-08-22

    We have observed fully rotationally resolved transitions of the photoelectron vibrational bands 2(4), 2(5), 1(1)2(1), and 1(1)2(3) for ammonia cation (NH3+) by two-color infrared (IR)-vacuum ultraviolet (VUV)- pulsed field-ionization photoelectron (PFI-PE) measurements. By preparing an intermediate rovibrational state of neutral NH(3) with a known parity by IR excitation followed by VUV-PFI-PE measurements, we show that the photoelectron parity can be determined unambiguously. The IR-VUV-PFI-PE measurement of the 2(4) band clearly reveals the formation of both even and odd l states for the photoelectrons, where l is the orbital angular momentum quantum number. This observation is consistent with the conclusion that the lack of inversion symmetry for NH3 and NH3+ allows odd/even l mixings, rendering the production of both odd and even l states for the photoelectrons. Evidence is also found, indicating that the photoionization transitions with DeltaK=0 are strongly favored compared to that with DeltaK=3. For the 2(5), 1(1)2(1), and 1(1)2(3) bands, only DeltaK=0 transitions for the production of even l photoelectron states from the J'K'=2(0) rotational level of NH3(nu1=1) are observed. The preferential formation of even l photoelectron states for these vibrational bands is attributed to the fact that the DeltaK=0 transitions for the formation of odd l photoelectron states from the 2(0) rotational level of NH3(nu1=1) are suppressed by the constraint of nuclear-spin statistics. In addition to information obtained on the photoionization dynamics of NH3, this experiment also provides a more precise value of 3232+/-10 cm-1 for the nu1+ (N-H stretch) vibrational frequency of NH3+. PMID:16164295

  10. A technique for synergistic atomic oxygen and vacuum ultraviolet radiation durability evaluation of materials for use in LEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Banks, Bruce A.

    1996-01-01

    Material erosion data collected during flight experiments such as the Environmental Oxygen Interaction with Materials (EOIM)-3 and the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) have raised questions as to the sensitivity of material erosion to levels of atomic oxygen exposure and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation. The erosion sensitivity of some materials such as FEP Teflon used as a thermal control material on satellites in low Earth orbit (LEO), is particularly important but difficult to determine. This is in large part due to the inability to hold all but one exposure parameter constant during a flight experiment. This is also difficult to perform in a ground based facility, because often the variation of the level of atomic oxygen or VUV radiation also results in a change in the level of the other parameter. A facility has been developed which allows each parameter to be changed almost independently and offer broad area exposure. The resulting samples can be made large enough for mechanical testing. The facility uses an electron cyclotron resonance plasma source to provide the atomic oxygen. A series of glass plates is used to focus the atomic oxygen while filtering the VUV radiation from the plasma source. After filtering, atomic oxygen effective flux levels can still be measured which are as high as 7 x 10(exp 15) atoms/cm(exp 2)-sec which is adequate for accelerated testing. VUV radiation levels after filtering can be as low as 0.3 suns. Additional VUV suns can be added with the use of deuterium lamps which allow the VUV level to be changed while keeping the flux of atomic oxygen constant. This paper discusses the facility, and results from exposure of Kapton and FEP at pre-determined atomic oxygen flux and VUV sun levels.

  11. Photoluminescence of Tb 3+ and Mn 2+ activated Ca 8MgGd(PO 4) 7 under vacuum ultraviolet excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jia; Wang, Yuhua; Huang, Yan

    2011-06-01

    Novel Tb 3+ and Mn 2+ activated Ca 8MgGd(PO 4) 7 phosphors were synthesized by solid-state reaction and their photoluminescence properties in vacuum ultraviolet region were investigated for the first time. It can be observed from the excitation spectra that the host-related absorption band is located around 170 nm, and it overlaps the O 2- → Tb 3+ charge transfer band of Ca 8MgGd(PO 4) 7:Tb 3+ around 161 nm and the 3d 5 → 3d 44s transition band of Ca 8MgGd(PO 4) 7:Mn 2+ near 200 nm. The 4f-4f 5d spin-allowed and spin-forbidden transitions of Tb 3+ are verified to be located at 170-250 and 257-271 nm, respectively. Upon 147 nm excitation, the dominant emission peak intensity of the Ca 8MgGd 0.1(PO 4) 7:0.9Tb 3+ phosphor is about 2.7 times stronger than that of the commercial Zn 2SiO 4:Mn 2+ green phosphor, and the brightness of the former with a short decay time of 2.5 ms is about 98% of the latter's. The Ca 8MgGd(PO 4):Mn 2+ phosphor excited at 147 nm exhibits a deep red emission around 650 nm, which could be attributed to the 4T 1 → 6A 1 transition of Mn 2+, with the CIE index (0.679, 0.321). In a word, the results above indicate that both Tb 3+ and Mn 2+ activated Ca 8MgGd(PO 4) 7 phosphors could be promising for PDP or Hg-free lamp applications.

  12. Vacuum ultraviolet laser

    DOEpatents

    Berkowitz, J.; Ruscic, B.M.; Greene, J.P.

    1984-07-06

    Transitions from the 2p/sup 4/(/sup 1/S/sub 0/)3s /sup 2/S/sub 1/2/ state of atomic fluorine to all allowed loser states produces laser emission at six new wavelengths: 680.7A, 682.6A, 3592.7A, 3574.1A, 6089.2A, and 6046.8A. Coherent radiation at these new wavelengths can be generated in an atomic fluorine laser operated as an amplifier or as an oscillator.

  13. Vacuum ultraviolet laser

    DOEpatents

    Berkowitz, Joseph; Ruscic, Branko M.; Greene, John P.

    1986-01-01

    Transitions from the 2p.sup.4 (.sup.1 S.sub.0)3s .sup.2 S.sub.1/2 state of atomic fluorine to all allowed lower states produces laser emission at six new wavelengths: 680.7 .ANG., 682.6 .ANG., 3592.7 .ANG., 3574.1 .ANG., 6089.2 .ANG., and 6046.8 .ANG.. Coherent radiation at these new wavelengths can be generated in an atomic fluorine laser operated as an amplifier or as an oscillator.

  14. A HIGH-RESOLUTION PHOTOIONIZATION AND PHOTOELECTRON STUDY OF {sup 58}Ni USING A VACUUM ULTRAVIOLET LASER

    SciTech Connect

    Shi Xiaoyu; Huang Huang; Jacobson, Brian; Chang, Yih-Chung; Ng, C. Y.; Yin Qingzhu

    2012-03-01

    In order to provide high-resolution spectroscopic data of nickel ({sup 58}Ni) and its cation ({sup 58}Ni{sup +}) for the assignment of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) stellar spectra, we have obtained the photoionization efficiency (PIE) spectra of {sup 58}Ni by using a supersonically cooled laser ablation transition-metal beam source and a broadly tunable VUV laser in the range of 61,100-73,600 cm{sup -1}, covering the photoionization transitions: Ni{sup +} (3d{sup 92} D) <- Ni (3d{sup 8}4s{sup 23} D), Ni{sup +}(3d{sup 92} D) <- Ni(3d{sup 8}4s{sup 23} F), and Ni{sup +} (3d{sup 8}4s{sup 4} F) <- Ni(3d{sup 8}4s{sup 23} F). We have also measured the VUV laser pulsed-field-ionization-photoelectron (PFI-PE) spectra of {sup 58}Ni in these regions. The VUV-PFI-PE measurement has allowed the determination of a precise value of 61,619.89 {+-} 0.8 cm{sup -1} (7.6399 {+-} 0.0001 eV) for the ionization energy (IE) of {sup 58}Ni. Due to the narrow VUV laser optical bandwidth of 0.4 cm{sup -1} used in the present study, many complex autoionizing resonances exhibiting Fano line shape profiles are resolved in the PIE spectra. Four autoionizing Rydberg series originating from two-electron and one-electron excitations from the Ni(3d{sup 8}4s{sup 23} F{sub 4}) ground state to converge to the respective Ni{sup +}({sup 2} D{sub 3/2}) and Ni{sup +}({sup 4} F{sub J} ) (J = 9/2, 7/2, and 5/2) ion states are identified. The Rydberg analysis, along with VUV-PFI-PE measurements, has yielded highly precise IE values for the formation of these excited ionic states from the Ni(3d{sup 8}4s{sup 23} F{sub 4}) ground state. The IE values, relative photoionization cross sections, and autoionizing Rydberg resonances observed in the present study are relevant to astrophysics by enhancing the atomic database of iron group transition metal atoms and for understanding the Ni and Ni{sup +} contribution to the VUV opacity in the solar atmosphere.

  15. Very high spectral resolution obtained with SU5: A vacuum ultraviolet undulator-based beamline at Super-ACO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahon, Laurent; Alcaraz, Christian; Marlats, Jean-Louis; Lagarde, Bruno; Polack, François; Thissen, Roland; Lepère, Didier; Ito, Kenji

    2001-02-01

    In this article we wish to report on the commissioning of the SU5 undulator-based beamline, whose primary scientific goal deals with high-resolution spectroscopy and photon-induced dynamics in the vacuum ultraviolet range on dilute species. In order to achieve such a scientific program, we have conceived an original optical design, centered around a 6.65 m off-plane Eagle monochromator equipped with two gratings (2400 and 4300 l/mm) illuminated by an astigmatic prefocusing optical system. The different components of the actual beamline, such as the optical elements, their holders/manipulators and the monochromator are described, with a special emphasis on critical aspects such as the mechanical resolution and stability, the vibrations limitations, and the thermal stability. Then, a spectral calibration procedure of the monochromator is described, followed by the presentation of the measured performances of the beamline in terms of ultimate resolution and flux. Owing to a gas phase ion yield experiment on rare gases, we have been able to measure a raw linewidth of 184 μeV at 21.61 eV (18s' line of Ne) corresponding to a resolving power of 117 000 and a raw (respectively, lifetime-deconvoluted) linewidth of 119 μeV (respectively, 76 μeV) at 15.82 eV (13s' line of Ar) corresponding to a raw resolving power of 133 000 (respectively, 208 000). The ultimate targeted 105 resolving power is therefore observed on most of the VUV range, which corresponds to an unprecedented performance. The measured photon flux in a 1/50 000 bandwidth is in reasonable agreement with the expected values lying in the 1010-109 photon/s range over the VUV range. These very satisfactory performances, with a slit-limited resolution down to about 15 μm slits aperture, are due to the special care which has been paid at both the conception and construction stages concerning critical issues such as the optical and mechanical design, the vibrations, the driving/encoding system, and the slope errors

  16. Impact of Xe partial pressure on the production of excimer vacuum ultraviolet emission for plasma display panels

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Di; Zhang Xiong; Kajiyama, Hiroshi

    2012-08-01

    In this work, the effect of the Xe partial pressure on the excimer vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) emission intensity of the plasma display panels is investigated, both by measuring the spectral emission directly and by two-dimensional simulations. Experimentally, we find that at the high Xe partial pressure levels, there is an supra-linear increase of excimer VUV radiation and that determines the strong increase of luminance at the high pressures and high voltage. Due to the increase of the luminance and the almost unchanged discharge current, the luminous efficacy strongly increases with the Xe partial pressure. In addition, we also investigated the dynamics of the VUV generation, by measuring the decay time of the excimer VUV light as a function of the gas pressure. It is found that the decay time decreases with the increase of gas pressure. The spatial characteristics of the excimer VUV emission are also discussed. Different from the Ne and near-infrared emission, the excimer VUV emission is generated near the surface of the electrodes and increases uniformly on both sides of the anode and cathode (i.e., the bulk plasma region). Most importantly, it is found that the VUV production occurs during the afterglow period, while it is almost zero at the moment of the discharge itself. From the simulations, it can be seen that the Xe{sub 2}*({sup 3}{Sigma}{sub u}{sup +}) excimer species, which are generated from Xe*(1s{sub 5}), play a dominant role in the excimer VUV emission output at the high Xe partial pressure. The two-dimensional simulations also show that the strong increase of Xe excimer excitation states in the case of high pressure is mainly the result of the high conversion efficiency of the Xe excimer states, especially in the afterglow period. Due to the high conversion efficiency of Xe excitation species to Xe excimer species by the high collision rate in the case of high pressure, there is a strong increase of excimer VUV production, especially from the cathode.

  17. VUV dissociative excitation cross sections of H2O, NH3, and CH4 by electron impact. [Vacuum Ultra-Violet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, H. D.; Mentall, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    Absolute excitation functions for excited fragments resulting from electron bombardment of H2O, NH3, and CH4 by low-energy electrons (0 to 300 eV) have been measured in the vacuum ultraviolet (1100 to 1950 A). The predominant emission for each molecule was the H Lyman-alpha line, while the O I, N I, C I, and C II emissions were at least an order of magnitude weaker. Absolute cross sections at 100 eV are given along with the appearance potential of the various processes and the possible dissociative-excitation channels through which such processes proceed.

  18. Upper limits for stereoselective photodissociation of free amino acids in the vacuum ultraviolet region and at the C 1s edge

    SciTech Connect

    Pruemper, Georg; Viefhaus, Jens; Cvejanovic, Slobodan; Rolles, Daniel; Gessner, Oliver; Lischke, Toralf; Hentges, Rainer; Wienberg, Christian; Mahler, Willy; Becker, Uwe; Langer, Burkhard; Prosperi, Tommaso; Zema, Nicola; Turchini, Stefano; Zada, Birgitt; Senf, Fred

    2004-06-01

    We measured the total and partial ion yields of the two chiral amino acids alanine and serine in the gas phase both in the vacuum ultraviolet region and at the C(1s) edge using circularly polarized light. We did not detect any circular dichroism asymmetry larger than 1x10{sup -3}. A similar measurement of fixed-in-space amino acids yielded an upper limit of 1x10{sup -2} for the stereoselective effect of circularly polarized light. The results obtained are relevant for quantitative models of stereoselective photodecomposition of amino acids that try to explain the homochirality of life.

  19. Direct detection of vacuum ultraviolet radiation through an optical sampling orifice: determination of nonmetals in gaseous samples by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, B.R.; Houk, R.S.; Wiederin, D.R.; Fassel, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    A copper cone with a sampling orifice is attached to the entrance slit chamber or a monochromator and inserted directly into an inductively couples plasma (ICP) to sample vacuum ultraviolet (vacuum UV) radiation emitted by the plasma. A unique interface with low dead volume (<40 ..mu..L) is used for introduction of gaseous samples directly into the axial channel of the ICP. Injection of a gaseous mixture of compounds containing the elements Br, C, Cl, and S results in detection limits of 50, 30, 80 and 20 pg, respectively. These detection limits are by far the best obtained for these elements by ICP atomic emission spectroscopy (AES) and are comparable to those obtained by AES with He plasmas. Precision of the analyte emission intensities is 2% relative standard deviation or better.

  20. Size-dependent emission efficiency and luminescence characteristics of YBO{sub 3}:Tb{sup 3+} nanocrystals under vacuum ultraviolet excitations

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Prashant K.; Dutta, Ranu K.; Pandey, Avinash C.

    2012-09-01

    The luminous efficiency and lifetime of plasma display panels (PDPs) are directly related to the performance of phosphors used in PDPs, thus higher efficiency, higher stability against high temperature processes, and a long lifetime along with good color chromaticity against vacuum-ultraviolet radiation are major concerns in selecting suitable phosphors for PDPs. In the same pursuit, well crystallized pure hexagonal phase YBO{sub 3}:Tb{sup 3+} nanocrystals were prepared using co-precipitation method. The prepared YBO{sub 3}:Tb{sup 3+} nanocrystals showed bright green luminescence, color chromaticity (0.21, 0.61), and could be assigned to {sup 5}D{sub 4}{yields}{sup 7}F{sub j} transitions (j = 2-6) due to electric dipole-dipole interaction of Tb{sup 3+} ions. The vacuum ultraviolet photoluminescence spectroscopy of the prepared YBO{sub 3}:Tb{sup 3+} nanocrystals showed size dependent nonlinear luminescence enhancement with relatively shorter life time as compared to the commercial bulk YBO{sub 3}:Tb{sup 3+} phosphor. The quenching concentration of Tb{sup 3+} doping for ({sup 5}D{sub 4}{yields}{sup 7}F{sub 5}) transition was found significantly enhanced with the decrease in particle size suggesting it an ideal green phosphor for plasma display panels. The possible explanation for size-dependent emission efficiency and observed luminescence characteristics were proposed via charge transfer process and lowering of the structural symmetry.

  1. Vacuum ultraviolet photolysis of diclofenac and the effects of its treated aqueous solutions on the proliferation and migratory responses of Tetrahymena pyriformis.

    PubMed

    Arany, Eszter; Láng, Júlia; Somogyvári, Dávid; Láng, Orsolya; Alapi, Tünde; Ilisz, István; Gajda-Schrantz, Krisztina; Dombi, András; Kőhidai, László; Hernádi, Klára

    2014-01-15

    The effects of dissolved O2, phosphate buffer and the initial concentration of diclofenac on the vacuum ultraviolet photolysis of this contaminant molecule were studied. Besides kinetic measurements, the irradiated, multicomponent samples were characterized via the proliferation and migratory responses (in sublethal concentrations) of the bioindicator eukaryotic ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis. The results suggest that hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen atoms and hydroperoxyl radicals may all contribute to the degradation of diclofenac. The aromatic by-products of diclofenac were presumed to include a hydroxylated derivative, 1-(8-chlorocarbazolyl)acetic acid and 1-(8-hydroxycarbazolyl)acetic acid. The biological activity of photoexposed samples reflected the chemical transformation of diclofenac and was also dependent on the level of dissolved O2. The increase in toxicity of samples taken after different irradiation times did not exceed a factor of two. Our results suggest that the combination of vacuum ultraviolet photolysis with toxicity and chemotactic measurements can be a valuable method for the investigation of the elimination of micropollutants. PMID:24091123

  2. Luminescence properties of Ca4Y6(SiO4)6O:RE3+ (RE = Eu, Tb, Dy, Sm and Tm) under vacuum ultraviolet excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Yan; Wang, Yuhua; Liu, Bitao; Zhang, Feng

    2012-03-01

    The vacuum ultraviolet excited luminescent properties of Eu3+, Tb3+, Dy3+, Sm3+ and Tm3+ in the matrices of Ca4Y6(SiO4)6O were investigated. The bands at about 173 nm in the vacuum ultraviolet excited spectra were attributed to host lattice absorption of the matrix Ca4Y6(SiO4)6O. For Eu3+-doped samples, the O2- → Eu3+ CTB was identified at 258 nm. Typical 4f-5d absorption bands in the region of 195-300 nm were observed in Tb3+-doped samples. For Dy3+-doped and Sm3+-doped samples, the broad excitation bands consisted of host absorptions, CTB and f-d transition. For Tm3+-doped samples, the O2- → Tm3+ CTB was located at 191 nm. About the color purity and emission intensity, Ca4Y6(SiO4)6O:Tb3+ is an attractive candidate of green light PDP phosphor, and Ca4Y6(SiO4)6O:Dy3+ has potential application in the field of mercury-free lamps.

  3. Electronic state spectroscopy by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption, He(I) photoelectron spectroscopy and ab initio calculations of ethyl acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Śmialek, Malgorzata A.; Łabuda, Marta; Guthmuller, Julien; Hubin-Franskin, Marie-Jeanne; Delwiche, Jacques; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning; Jones, Nykola C.; Mason, Nigel J.; Limão-Vieira, Paulo

    2016-06-01

    The high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption spectrum of ethyl acetate, C4H8O2, is presented over the energy range 4.5-10.7 eV (275.5-116.0 nm). Valence and Rydberg transitions and their associated vibronic series observed in the photoabsorption spectrum, have been assigned in accordance with new ab initio calculations of the vertical excitation energies and oscillator strengths. Also, the photoabsorption cross sections have been used to calculate the photolysis lifetime of this ester in the upper stratosphere (20-50 km). Calculations have also been carried out to determine the ionisation energies and fine structure of the lowest ionic state of ethyl acetate and are compared with a newly recorded photoelectron spectrum (from 9.5 to 16.7 eV). Vibrational structure is observed in the first photoelectron band of this molecule for the first time.

  4. Note: Design and tests of a 13 kA-6.5 kV thyristor switch for a pulsed inductive vacuum ultraviolet source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teske, C.; Lee, B.-J.; Jacoby, J.; Schweizer, W.; Sun, J. Chao

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, the design, construction, and test procedure of a closing switch prototype based on thyristors is described. In particular, details are given about the design criteria and about the triggering board architecture, which is a high side biased, self supplied unit using the electrical energy derived from a local snubber network for the gate drive. The structure guarantees a hard firing gate pulse for the required high dI /dt application. Further, the results of the prototype tests are presented and discussed. The stack assembly has a holding voltage of 6.5 kV and is used for switching a series resonant circuit with a ringing frequency of 12 kHz for a pulsed inductive vacuum ultraviolet source. Maximum current amplitudes of 13 kA and pulse energies of more than 600 J were switched during the test procedure.

  5. Absolute atomic oxygen and nitrogen densities in radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure cold plasmas: Synchrotron vacuum ultra-violet high-resolution Fourier-transform absorption measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Niemi, K.; O'Connell, D.; Gans, T.; Oliveira, N. de; Joyeux, D.; Nahon, L.; Booth, J. P.

    2013-07-15

    Reactive atomic species play a key role in emerging cold atmospheric pressure plasma applications, in particular, in plasma medicine. Absolute densities of atomic oxygen and atomic nitrogen were measured in a radio-frequency driven non-equilibrium plasma operated at atmospheric pressure using vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) absorption spectroscopy. The experiment was conducted on the DESIRS synchrotron beamline using a unique VUV Fourier-transform spectrometer. Measurements were carried out in plasmas operated in helium with air-like N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} (4:1) admixtures. A maximum in the O-atom concentration of (9.1 {+-} 0.7) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} m{sup -3} was found at admixtures of 0.35 vol. %, while the N-atom concentration exhibits a maximum of (5.7 {+-} 0.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} m{sup -3} at 0.1 vol. %.

  6. Note: a novel vacuum ultraviolet light source assembly with aluminum-coated electrodes for enhancing the ionization efficiency of photoionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhixiang; Wang, Jian; Qiu, Keqing; Liu, Chengyuan; Qi, Fei; Pan, Yang

    2014-04-01

    A novel vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light source assembly (VUVLSA) for enhancing the ionization efficiency of photoionization mass spectrometer has been described. The VUVLSA composes of a Krypton lamp and a pair of disk electrodes with circular center cavities. The two interior surfaces that face the photoionization region were aluminum-coated. VUV light can be reflected back and forth in the photoionization region between the electrodes, thus the photoionization efficiency can be greatly enhanced. The performances of two different shaped electrodes, the coated double flat electrodes (DFE), and double conical electrodes, were studied. We showed that the signal amplification of coated DFE is around 4 times higher than that of uncoated electrodes without VUV light reflection. The relationship between the pressure of ionization chamber and mass signal enhancement has also been studied. PMID:24784688

  7. Development of two-channel prototype ITER vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer with back-illuminated charge-coupled device and microchannel plate detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Seon, C. R.; Choi, S. H.; Cheon, M. S.; Pak, S.; Lee, H. G.; Biel, W.; Barnsley, R.

    2010-10-15

    A vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectrometer of a five-channel spectral system is designed for ITER main plasma impurity measurement. To develop and verify the system design, a two-channel prototype system is fabricated with No. 3 (14.4-31.8 nm) and No. 4 (29.0-60.0 nm) among the five channels. The optical system consists of a collimating mirror to collect the light from source to slit, two holographic diffraction gratings with toroidal geometry, and two different electronic detectors. For the test of the prototype system, a hollow cathode lamp is used as a light source. To find the appropriate detector for ITER VUV system, two kinds of detectors of the back-illuminated charge-coupled device and the microchannel plate electron multiplier are tested, and their performance has been investigated.

  8. Morphological study into the temperature dependence of solid ammonia under astrochemical conditions using vacuum ultraviolet and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dawes, Anita; Mukerji, Robin J; Davis, Michael P; Holtom, Philip D; Webb, Sarah M; Sivaraman, Bhalamurugan; Hoffmann, Søren V; Shaw, David A; Mason, Nigel J

    2007-06-28

    The authors present the results of a morphological study of solid ammonia using both Fourier-transform infrared and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectroscopy. Dramatic changes in the VUV and infrared spectra at temperatures between 65 and 85 K provide a deeper insight into the structure of ammonia ice particularly with the observation of an exciton transition at 194 nm (6.39 eV) in the VUV spectrum, revealing a structure that is composed of crystallites. A complementary structure is observed in the IR spectrum at 1100 cm(-1) which is assigned to the symmetric deformation of ammonia molecules at the surfaces of the crystallites. Such spectral signatures may be used to identify the environment within which the ammonia ice is formed and provide a new route for obtaining information on the physical and chemical conditions occurring within the interstellar medium, on the surfaces of planetary bodies, and in Kuiper belt objects. PMID:17614581

  9. Supercontinuum generation in the vacuum ultraviolet through dispersive-wave and soliton-plasma interaction in a noble-gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermolov, A.; Mak, K. F.; Frosz, M. H.; Travers, J. C.; Russell, P. St. J.

    2015-09-01

    We report on the generation of a three-octave-wide supercontinuum extending from the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) to the near infrared, spanning at least 113-1000 nm (i.e., 11 -1.2 eV ), in He-filled hollow-core kagome-style photonic crystal fiber. Numerical simulations confirm that the main mechanism is an interaction between dispersive-wave emission and plasma-induced blue-shifted soliton recompression around the fiber zero dispersion frequency. The VUV part of the supercontinuum, the modeling of which proves to be coherent and possesses a simple phase structure, has sufficient bandwidth to support single-cycle pulses of 500 asec duration. We also demonstrate, in the same system, the generation of narrower-band VUV pulses through dispersive-wave emission, tunable from 120 to 200 nm with efficiencies exceeding 1 % and VUV pulse energies in excess of 50 nJ.

  10. Design and construction of a compact end-station at NSRRC for circular-dichroism spectra in the vacuum-ultraviolet region.

    PubMed

    Liu, Szu Heng; Lin, Yi Hung; Huang, Liang Jen; Luo, Shiang Wen; Tsai, Wan Lin; Chiang, Su Yu; Fung, Hok Sum

    2010-11-01

    A synchrotron-radiation-based circular-dichroism end-station has been implemented at beamline BL04B at the National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC) in Taiwan for biological research. The design and performance of this compact end-station for measuring circular-dichroism spectra in the vacuum-ultraviolet region are described. The linearly polarized light from the beamline is converted to modulated circularly polarized light with a LiF photoelastic modulator to provide a usable wavelength region of 130-330 nm. The light spot at the sample position is 5 mm × 5 mm at a slit width of 300 µm and provides a flux greater than 1 × 10(11) photons s(-1) (0.1% bandwidth)(-1). A vacuum-compatible cell made of two CaF(2) windows has a variable path length from 1.3 µm to 1 mm and a temperature range of 253-363 K. Measured CD spectra of (1S)-(+)-10-camphorsulfonic acid and proteins demonstrated the ability of this system to extend the wavelength down to 172 nm in aqueous solution and 153 nm in hexafluoro-2-propanol. PMID:20975221

  11. Performance of PF BL-13A, a vacuum ultraviolet and soft X-ray undulator beamline for studying organic thin films adsorbed on surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyoshima, Akio; Kikuchi, Takashi; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Mase, Kazuhiko; Amemiya, Kenta; Ozawa, Kenichi

    2013-03-01

    We report on the present status of a vacuum ultraviolet and soft X-ray undulator beamline, BL-13A, located at the Photon Factory. BL-13A is mainly dedicated to the study of organic thin films adsorbed on well-defined surfaces, using angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The photon-energy resolution (E/ΔE) is estimated to be about 10000 at a photon energy of 64 eV with an exit-slit width of 30 μm. The photon intensity is estimated to be 2.9 × 1012 to 5.6 × 108 photons/s for photon energies of 30-1600 eV with an exit-slit width of 100 μm at the ring current of 450 mA. An ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) chamber equipped with an electron-energy analyzer (Gamma Data/Scienta, SES 200) is used as the main end station for ARPES, XPS, and XAS measurements. A sample can be transferred from a UHV chamber for sample preparation or from a UHV chamber for the evaporation of organic materials. The sample-holder acceptors are equipped with a heating and cooling system. The overall electron-energy resolution is estimated to be about 12 meV at a photon energy of 30 eV.

  12. Single photon ionization and chemical ionization combined ion source based on a vacuum ultraviolet lamp for orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hua, Lei; Wu, Qinghao; Hou, Keyong; Cui, Huapeng; Chen, Ping; Wang, Weiguo; Li, Jinghua; Li, Haiyang

    2011-07-01

    A novel combined ion source based on a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) lamp with both single photon ionization (SPI) and chemical ionization (CI) capabilities has been developed for an orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometer (oaTOFMS). The SPI was accomplished using a commercial 10.6 eV krypton discharge lamp with a photon flux of about 10(11) photons s(-1), while the CI was achieved through ion-molecule reactions with O(2)(+) reactant ions generated by photoelectron ionization at medium vacuum pressure (MVP). To achieve high ionization efficiency, the ion source pressure was elevated to 0.3 mbar and the photoionization length was extended to 36 mm. As a result, limits of detection (LODs) down to 3, 4, and 6 ppbv were obtained for benzene, toluene, and p-xylene in MVP-SPI mode, and values of 8 and 10 ppbv were obtained for toluene and chloroform, respectively, in SPI-CI mode. As it is feasible to switch between MVP-SPI mode and SPI-CI mode rapidly, this system is capable of monitoring complex organic mixtures with a wide range of ionization energies (IEs). The analytical capacity of this system was demonstrated by measuring dehydrogenation products of long-chain paraffins to olefins through direct capillary sampling and drinking water disinfection byproducts from chlorine through a membrane interface. PMID:21591696

  13. Development of phosphor scintillator-based detectors for soft x-ray and vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy of magnetically confined fusion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Regan, S. P.; May, M. J.; Finkenthal, M.; Moos, H. W.

    2003-10-01

    Specialized soft x-ray and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) diagnostics used to monitor impurity emissions from fusion plasmas are often placed in a very challenging experimental environment. Detectors in these diagnostics must be simple; mechanically robust; immune to electromagnetic interference, energetic particles, and magnetic fields up to several tesla; ultra-high-vacuum compatible; and able to withstand bakeout temperatures up to 300 °C. The design and the photometric calibration of a detector consisting of a P45 phosphor (Y2O2S:Tb), two incoherent fiber-optic bundles coupled with a vacuum feedthrough fiber-optic faceplate, and a photomultiplier tube (PMT) are reported. We have successfully operated the detectors of this type in novel soft x-ray and VUV diagnostics on several fusion plasma facilities. Measurements of the visible photon throughput of the silica/silica incoherent fiber-optic bundle, and the light loss associated with the coupling of the two fibers with the faceplate are presented. In addition, improved absolute measurements of the conversion efficiency of the P45/PMT photodetector based upon the use of a PMT with a bialkali photocathode instead of a multialkali one are presented for the soft x-ray and VUV range of photon wavelengths. The conversion efficiency is defined as the ratio of the photoelectrons ejected from the photocathode of a visible detector, which are excited by the scintillated photons that are emitted from the phosphor in a solid angle of 2π, to the number of soft x-ray photons incident on the phosphor. Sensitive electronic gain measurements of the PMT using the visible scintillated light from the P45 phosphor are compared with the gain measurements supplied by the manufacturer of the PMT, which were performed with a tungsten filament lamp operated at 2856 K.

  14. Survivorship in micro fungi and crustacean resting stages during ultraviolet (UV) and vacuum land testing of EXPOSE unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, Victor; Alekseev, Victor; Novikova, Nataliya; Sychev, Vladimir; Levinskikh, Margarita; Deshevaya, Elena; Brancelj, Anton; Malyavin, Stanislav

    Dormancy protects animals and plants in harsh environmental conditions within a special resting phases of life cycle lasting from months up to hundred years. This phenomenon is perspective for space researches on interplanetary quarantine within space missions. Direct experiments in open space supported in principle the fact of survivorship of bacteria and fungi spores in open space during long time experiments (Novikova et al. 2007). The rate of survivorship in long-term mission was low but enough to conclude that biological invasion to Mars is a real danger. The possibility for resting stages to survive under UV treatment in vacuum without some protection was not clear. To test it dormant stages (spores) of primitive fungi Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus sydowii, Penicillium expansum, and Penicillium aurantiogriseum derived from ISS environment were used in the land EXPOSE imitation of outside space station UV and vacuum conditions. Survivorship in resting eggs of some crustaceans with dried (cladoceran Daphnia magna, fair-shrimp Streptocephalus torvicornis and ostracode Eucypris ornate from hemi desert Caspian area) and wet diapause state (copepod Mixodiaptomus tatricus from the Tatra mountains, altitude 1510 m) was tested also. The total UV dose of 9,1x10 to the 4th KJ/m2 during this imitation was accomplished with a SOL 2000 sun simulator lamp. The final vacuum value achieved during EST was 10 to the minus 6 Pa. Temperature during the experiment fluctuated in the range 19-25 o C. Micro fungi showed a high level of survivorship in samples treated with UV samples varied from 95 till 100 Supported by RFBR grant 07-04-00006.

  15. Mimicking Martian dust: An in-vacuum dust deposition system for testing the ultraviolet sensors on the Curiosity rover

    SciTech Connect

    Sobrado, J. M. Martín-Soler, J.; Martín-Gago, J. A.

    2015-10-15

    We have designed and developed an in-vacuum dust deposition system specifically conceived to simulate and study the effect of accumulation of Martian dust on the electronic instruments of scientific planetary exploration missions. We have used this device to characterize the dust effect on the UV sensor of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station in the Mars science Laboratory mission of NASA in similar conditions to those found on Mars surface. The UV sensor includes six photodiodes for measuring the radiation in all UV wavelengths (direct incidence and reflected); it is placed on the body of Curiosity rover and it is severely affected by the dust deposited on it. Our experimental setup can help to estimate the duration of reliable reading of this instrument during operation. We have used an analogous of the Martian dust in chemical composition (magnetic species), color, and density, which has been characterized by X-ray spectroscopy. To ensure a Brownian motion of the dust during its fall and a homogeneous coverage on the instrumentation, the operating conditions of the vacuum vessel, determined by partial pressures and temperature, have to be modified to account for the different gravities of Mars with respect to Earth. We propose that our designed device and operational protocol can be of interest to test optoelectronic instrumentation affected by the opacity of dust, as can be the degradation of UV photodiodes in planetary exploration.

  16. Mimicking Martian dust: An in-vacuum dust deposition system for testing the ultraviolet sensors on the Curiosity rover.

    PubMed

    Sobrado, J M; Martín-Soler, J; Martín-Gago, J A

    2015-10-01

    We have designed and developed an in-vacuum dust deposition system specifically conceived to simulate and study the effect of accumulation of Martian dust on the electronic instruments of scientific planetary exploration missions. We have used this device to characterize the dust effect on the UV sensor of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station in the Mars science Laboratory mission of NASA in similar conditions to those found on Mars surface. The UV sensor includes six photodiodes for measuring the radiation in all UV wavelengths (direct incidence and reflected); it is placed on the body of Curiosity rover and it is severely affected by the dust deposited on it. Our experimental setup can help to estimate the duration of reliable reading of this instrument during operation. We have used an analogous of the Martian dust in chemical composition (magnetic species), color, and density, which has been characterized by X-ray spectroscopy. To ensure a Brownian motion of the dust during its fall and a homogeneous coverage on the instrumentation, the operating conditions of the vacuum vessel, determined by partial pressures and temperature, have to be modified to account for the different gravities of Mars with respect to Earth. We propose that our designed device and operational protocol can be of interest to test optoelectronic instrumentation affected by the opacity of dust, as can be the degradation of UV photodiodes in planetary exploration. PMID:26520990

  17. Mimicking Martian dust: An in-vacuum dust deposition system for testing the ultraviolet sensors on the Curiosity rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobrado, J. M.; Martín-Soler, J.; Martín-Gago, J. A.

    2015-10-01

    We have designed and developed an in-vacuum dust deposition system specifically conceived to simulate and study the effect of accumulation of Martian dust on the electronic instruments of scientific planetary exploration missions. We have used this device to characterize the dust effect on the UV sensor of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station in the Mars science Laboratory mission of NASA in similar conditions to those found on Mars surface. The UV sensor includes six photodiodes for measuring the radiation in all UV wavelengths (direct incidence and reflected); it is placed on the body of Curiosity rover and it is severely affected by the dust deposited on it. Our experimental setup can help to estimate the duration of reliable reading of this instrument during operation. We have used an analogous of the Martian dust in chemical composition (magnetic species), color, and density, which has been characterized by X-ray spectroscopy. To ensure a Brownian motion of the dust during its fall and a homogeneous coverage on the instrumentation, the operating conditions of the vacuum vessel, determined by partial pressures and temperature, have to be modified to account for the different gravities of Mars with respect to Earth. We propose that our designed device and operational protocol can be of interest to test optoelectronic instrumentation affected by the opacity of dust, as can be the degradation of UV photodiodes in planetary exploration.

  18. Electrical conductivity of cluster-assembled carbon/titania nanocomposite films irradiated by highly focused vacuum ultraviolet photon beams

    SciTech Connect

    Amati, M.; Lenardi, C.; Agostino, R. G.; Caruso, T.; Ducati, C.; La Rosa, S.; Bongiorno, G.; Cassina, V.; Podesta, P.; Ravagnan, L.; Piseri, P.; Milani, P.

    2007-03-15

    We investigated the electrical transport properties of nanostructured carbon and carbon/titanium oxide nanocomposite films produced by supersonic cluster beam deposition and irradiated by highly focused vacuum UV photon beam. We have observed a relevant increase of the density of states at Fermi level, suggesting that the films acquire a 'metallic' character. This is confirmed by the increment of the conductivity of four orders of magnitude for pure nanostructured carbon films and at least eight orders of magnitude for films containing 9 at. % of titanium. A partial reversibility of the process is observed by exposing the modified films to molecular oxygen or directly to air. We demonstrate the capability of writing micrometric conductive strips (2-3 {mu}m width and 60 {mu}m length) and controlling the variation of the conductivity as a function of the titanium concentration.

  19. Vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopic properties of rare earth (RE=Ce,Tb,Eu,Tm,Sm)-doped hexagonal KCaGd(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z. J.; Yuan, J. L.; Duan, C. J.; Xiong, D. B.; Chen, H. H.; Zhao, J. T.; Zhang, G. B.; Shi, C. S.

    2007-11-01

    Hexagonal KCaGd(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}:RE{sup 3+} (RE=Ce,Tb,Eu,Tm,Sm) were synthesized by coprecipitation method and their vacuum ultraviolet-ultraviolet (VUV-UV) spectroscopic properties were investigated. The bands at about 165 nm in the VUV excitation spectra are attributed to the host lattice absorptions. For Ce{sup 3+}-doped samples, the bands at 207, 256, 275, and 320 nm are assigned to the 4f-5d transitions of Ce{sup 3+} in KCaGd(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}. For Tb{sup 3+}-doped sample, the bands at 203 and 222 nm are related to the 4f-5d spin-allowed transitions. For Eu{sup 3+}-doped sample, the O{sup 2-}-Eu{sup 3+} charge-transfer band (CTB) at 229 nm is observed, and the fine emission spectrum of Eu{sup 3+} indicates that Eu{sup 3+} ions prefer to occupy Gd{sup 3+} or Ca{sup 2+} sites in the host lattice. For Tm{sup 3+}- and Sm{sup 3+}-doped samples, the O{sup 2-}-Tm{sup 3+} and O{sup 2-}-Sm{sup 3+} CTBs are observed to be at 176 and 186 nm, respectively. From the standpoints of the absorption band, color purity, and luminescent intensity, Tb{sup 3+}-doped KCaGd(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} is a potential candidate for 172 nm excited green plasma display phosphors.

  20. Determination of Spectroscopic Properties of Atmospheric Molecules from High Resolution Vacuum Ultraviolet Cross Section and Wavelength Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, W. H.; Yoshino, K.

    1999-01-01

    We have studied the spectroscopy and the cross sections of the simple molecules of atmospheric interest such as oxygen, nitric oxide, carbon dioxide, and water. We have made cross section measurements on an absolute base without the effects from the limited instrumental resolution. We have used the following different instruments- the grating spectrometer (6.65-m at CfA, 3-m at Photon Factory), VUV Fourier transform spectrometer at Imperial College, and then moved the same one to the Photon Factory. Selection of the instruments depend on the appearance of molecular bands, and their wavelength region. For example, the cross section measurements of Doppler limited bands can been done with the Fourier transform spectrometer at the very high resolution (0.025/ cm resolution). All of these spectroscopic measurements are needed for accurate calculations of the production of atomic oxygen penetration of solar radiation into the Earth's atmosphere, and photochemistry of minor molecules.

  1. Vacuum ultraviolet photolysis of hydrogenated amorphous carbons. III. Diffusion of photo-produced H2 as a function of temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Doménech, R.; Dartois, E.; Muñoz Caro, G. M.

    2016-06-01

    Context. Hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) has been proposed as one of the carbonaceous solids detected in the interstellar medium. Energetic processing of the a-C:H particles leads to the dissociation of the C-H bonds and the formation of hydrogen molecules and small hydrocarbons. Photo-produced H2 molecules in the bulk of the dust particles can diffuse out to the gas phase and contribute to the total H2 abundance. Aims: We have simulated this process in the laboratory with plasma-produced a-C:H and a-C:D analogs under astrophysically relevant conditions to investigate the dependence of the diffusion as a function of temperature. Methods: Experimental simulations were performed in a high-vacuum chamber, with complementary experiments carried out in an ultra-high-vacuum chamber. Plasma-produced a-C:H and a-C:D analogs were UV-irradiated using a microwave-discharged hydrogen flow lamp. Molecules diffusing to the gas-phase were detected by a quadrupole mass spectrometer, providing a measurement of the outgoing H2 or D2 flux. By comparing the experimental measurements with the expected flux from a one-dimensional diffusion model, a diffusion coefficient D could be derived for experiments carried out at different temperatures. Results: Dependence on the diffusion coefficient D with the temperature followed an Arrhenius-type equation. The activation energy for the diffusion process was estimated (ED(H2) = 1660 ± 110 K, ED(D2) = 2090 ± 90 K), as well as the pre-exponential factor (D0(H2) = 0.0007 cm2 s-1, D0(D2) = 0.0045 cm2 s-1). Conclusions: The strong decrease of the diffusion coefficient at low dust particle temperatures exponentially increases the diffusion times in astrophysical environments. Therefore, transient dust heating by cosmic rays needs to be invoked for the release of the photo-produced H2 molecules in cold photon-dominated regions, where destruction of the aliphatic component in hydrogenated amorphous carbons most probably takes place.

  2. The electronic states of 1,2,4-triazoles: A study of 1H- and 1-methyl-1,2,4-triazole by vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and a comparison with ab initio configuration interaction computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Michael H.; Camp, Philip J.; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning; Jones, Nykola C.; Head, Ashley R.; Lichtenberger, Dennis L.

    2012-03-01

    The first vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectrum of a 1,2,4-triazole has been obtained and analyzed in detail, with assistance from both an enhanced UV photoelectron spectroscopic study and ab initio multi-reference multi-root configuration interaction procedures. For both 1H- and 1-methyl-1,2,4-triazoles, the first ionization energy bands show complex vibrational structure on the low-energy edges of otherwise unstructured bands. Detailed analysis of these bands confirms the presence of three ionized states. The 6-7 eV VUV spectral region shows an unusual absorption plateau, which is interpreted in terms of the near degeneracy of the first two ionization energies, leading to a pseudo Jahn-Teller effect. The "fingerprint" of the ionization spectrum yields band origins for several Rydberg states. The configuration interaction study shows that although the equilibrium structure for the first cation is effectively planar, the second cation shows significant twisting of the ring system. Some calculated singlet electronic states also show skeletal twisting in which the ring C-H is substantially out of plane.

  3. Ultraviolet-enhanced photodetection in a graphene/SiO{sub 2}/Si capacitor structure with a vacuum channel

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Myungji; Kim, Hong Koo

    2015-09-14

    We report photodetection properties of a graphene/oxide/silicon capacitor structure with a nanoscale vacuum channel. The photogenerated two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) inversion charges at SiO{sub 2}/Si interface are extracted out to air and transported along the void channel at low bias voltage (<5 V). A monolayer graphene, placed on top of SiO{sub 2} and suspended on the void channel, is utilized as a photon-transparent counter-electrode to the 2DEG layer and a collector electrode for the out-of-plane transported electrons, respectively. The photocurrent extracted through a void channel reveals high responsivity (1.0 A/W at 633 nm) as measured in a broad spectral range (325–1064 nm), especially demonstrating a UV-enhanced performance (0.43 A/W responsivity and 384% internal quantum efficiency at 325 nm). The mechanisms underlying photocarrier generation, emission, and transport in a suspended-graphene/SiO{sub 2}/Si structure are proposed.

  4. Conformation of one- and two-chain high molecular weight urokinase analyzed by small-angle neutron scattering and vacuum ultraviolet circular dichroism

    SciTech Connect

    Mangel, W.F.; Lin, B.H.; Ramakrishnan, V. )

    1991-05-25

    The structures of one- and two-chain high molecular weight human urokinase were analyzed by small-angle neutron scattering and vacuum ultraviolet circular dichroism. Both one- and two-chain high molecular weight urokinases exhibited a radius of gyration of 31 A and a maximum dimension of 90 A. Neither parameter was affected by the presence of lysine sufficient to saturate all the lysine-binding sites in human plasminogen. These physical parameters are consistent with the sedimentation coefficient of high molecular weight urokinase and indicate that both proteins are highly asymmetric. Neither protein contained much alpha-helix or parallel beta-sheet. Most of the secondary structure was in the form of antiparallel beta-sheet and beta-turns, very similar to the secondary structure of plasminogen. The macroscopic kinetic constants, Km and kcat, for the hydrolysis of (pyroGlu-Gly-Arg-NH)2-rhodamine by two-chain high molecular weight urokinase and low molecular weight urokinase which lacks the epidermal growth factor and kringle domains were similar. These structural and kinetic data are consistent with the domains in both forms of urokinase being independent structural and functional units.

  5. Full observation of ultrafast cascaded radiationless transitions from S2(ππ(∗)) state of pyrazine using vacuum ultraviolet photoelectron imaging.

    PubMed

    Horio, Takuya; Spesyvtsev, Roman; Nagashima, Kazuki; Ingle, Rebecca A; Suzuki, Yoshi-Ichi; Suzuki, Toshinori

    2016-07-28

    A photoexcited molecule undergoes multiple deactivation and reaction processes simultaneously or sequentially, which have been observed by combinations of various experimental methods. However, a single experimental method that enables complete observation of the photo-induced dynamics would be of great assistance for such studies. Here we report a full observation of cascaded electronic dephasing from S2(ππ(*)) in pyrazine (C4N2H4) by time-resolved photoelectron imaging (TRPEI) using 9.3-eV vacuum ultraviolet pulses with a sub-20 fs time duration. While we previously demonstrated a real-time observation of the ultrafast S2(ππ(*)) → S1(nπ(*)) internal conversion in pyrazine using TRPEI with UV pulses, this study presents a complete observation of the dynamics including radiationless transitions from S1 to S0 (internal conversion) and T1(nπ(*)) (intersystem crossing). Also discussed are the role of (1)Au(nπ(*)) in the internal conversion and the configuration interaction of the S2(ππ(*)) electronic wave function. PMID:27475360

  6. Comparison of surface vacuum ultraviolet emissions with resonance level number densities. II. Rare-gas plasmas and Ar-molecular gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Boffard, John B. Lin, Chun C.; Wang, Shicong; Wendt, Amy E.; Culver, Cody; Radovanov, Svetlana; Persing, Harold

    2015-03-15

    Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) emissions from excited plasma species can play a variety of roles in processing plasmas, including damaging the surface properties of materials used in semiconductor processing. Depending on their wavelength, VUV photons can easily transmit thin upper dielectric layers and affect the electrical characteristics of the devices. Despite their importance, measuring VUV fluxes is complicated by the fact that few materials transmit at VUV wavelengths, and both detectors and windows are easily damaged by plasma exposure. The authors have previously reported on measuring VUV fluxes in pure argon plasmas by monitoring the concentrations of Ar(3p{sup 5}4s) resonance atoms that produce the VUV emissions using noninvasive optical emission spectroscopy in the visible/near-infrared wavelength range [Boffard et al., J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A 32, 021304 (2014)]. Here, the authors extend this technique to other rare-gases (Ne, Kr, and Xe) and argon-molecular gas plasmas (Ar/H{sub 2}, Ar/O{sub 2}, and Ar/N{sub 2}). Results of a model for VUV emissions that couples radiation trapping and the measured rare-gas resonance level densities are compared to measurements made with both a calibrated VUV photodiode and a sodium salicylate fluorescence detection scheme. In these more complicated gas mixtures, VUV emissions from a variety of sources beyond the principal resonance levels of the rare gases are found to contribute to the total VUV flux.

  7. Airfoil sampling of a pulsed Laval beam with tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry: Application to low--temperature kinetics and product detection

    SciTech Connect

    Soorkia, Satchin; Liu, Chen-Lin; Savee, John D; Ferrell, Sarah J; Leone, Stephen R; Wilson, Kevin R

    2011-10-12

    A new pulsed Laval nozzle apparatus with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron photoionization quadrupole mass spectrometry is constructed to study low-temperature radicalneutralchemical reactions of importance for modeling the atmosphere of Titan and the outer planets. A design for the sampling geometry of a pulsed Laval nozzle expansion has beendeveloped that operates successfully for the determination of rate coefficients by time-resolved mass spectrometry. The new concept employs airfoil sampling of the collimated expansion withexcellent sampling throughput. Time-resolved profiles of the high Mach number gas flow obtained by photoionization signals show that perturbation of the collimated expansion by theairfoil is negligible. The reaction of C2H with C2H2 is studied at 70 K as a proof-of-principle result for both low-temperature rate coefficient measurements and product identification basedon the photoionization spectrum of the reaction product versus VUV photon energy. This approach can be used to provide new insights into reaction mechanisms occurring at kinetic ratesclose to the collision-determined limit.

  8. Absolutely calibrated vacuum ultraviolet spectra in the 150-250-nm range from plasmas generated by the NIKE KrF laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seely, J. F.; Feldman, Uri; Holland, G. E.; Weaver, J. L.; Mostovych, A. N.; Obenschain, S. P.; Schmitt, A. J.; Lehmberg, R.; Kjornarattanawanich, Benjawan; Back, C. A.

    2005-06-01

    High-resolution vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectra were recorded from plasmas generated by the NIKE KrF laser for the purpose of observing emission from the two-plasmon decay instability (TPDI) at 2/3 the NIKE wavelength (165nm). The targets were irradiated by up to 43 overlapping beams with intensity up to ≈1014W/cm2 and with beam smoothing by induced spatial incoherence (ISI). The targets consisted of planar foils of CH, BN, Al, Si, S, Ti, Pd, and Au. Titanium-doped silica aerogels in Pyrex cylinders were also irradiated. The spectra of the target elements were observed from charge states ranging from the neutral atoms to five times ionized. The spectrometer was absolutely calibrated using synchrotron radiation, and absolute VUV plasma emission intensities were determined. Emission from the TPDI at 165-nm wavelength was not observed from any of the irradiated targets. An upper bound on the possible TPDI emission was less than 4×10-8 the incident NIKE laser energy. The NIKE laser radiation backscattered from the silica aerogel targets at 248nm was typically 6×10-6 the incident NIKE laser energy, and the spectral broadening corresponded to the 1-THz bandwidth of the ISI smoothing. The spectra from the moderately charged plasma ions (up to five times ionized), spectral linewidths, absolute continuum emission level, and slope of the continuum were consistent with plasma temperatures in the 100-300-eV range.

  9. Determination of ionization energies of CnN (n=4-12): Vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization experiments and theoretical calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Kostko, Oleg; Zhou, Jia; Sun, Bian Jian; Lie, Jie Shiuan; Chang, Agnes H.H.; Kaiser, Ralf I.; Ahmed, Musahid

    2010-03-02

    Results from single photon vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of astrophysically relevant CnN clusters, n = 4 - 12, in the photon energy range of 8.0 eV to 12.8 eV are presented. The experimental photoionization efficiency curves, combined with electronic structure calculations, provide improved ionization energies of the CnN species. A search through numerous nitrogen-terminated CnN isomers for n=4-9 indicates that the linear isomer has the lowest energy, and therefore should be the most abundant isomer in the molecular beam. Comparison with calculated results also shed light on the energetics of the linear CnN clusters, particularly in the trends of the even-carbon and the odd-carbon series. These results can help guide the search of potential astronomical observations of these neutral molecules together with their cations in highly ionized regions or regions with a high UV/VUV photon flux (ranging from the visible to VUV with flux maxima in the Lyman-a region) in the interstellar medium.

  10. Determination of ionization energies of CnN (n=4-12): Vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization experiments and theoretical calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Kostko, Oleg; Zhou, Jia; Sun, Bian Jian; Lie, Jie Shiuan; Chang, Agnes H.H.; Kaiser, Ralf I.; Ahmed, Musahid

    2010-06-10

    Results from single photon vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of astrophysically relevant CnN clusters, n = 4 - 12, in the photon energy range of 8.0 eV to 12.8 eV are presented. The experimental photoionization efficiency curves, combined with electronic structure calculations, provide improved ionization energies of the CnN species. A search through numerous nitrogen-terminated CnN isomers for n=4-9 indicates that the linear isomer has the lowest energy, and therefore should be the most abundant isomer in the molecular beam. Comparison with calculated results also shed light on the energetics of the linear CnN clusters, particularly in the trends of the even-carbon and the odd-carbon series. These results can help guide the search of potential astronomical observations of these neutral molecules together with their cations in highly ionized regions or regions with a high UV/VUV photon flux (ranging from the visible to VUV with flux maxima in the Lyman- region) in the interstellar medium.

  11. The formation of heterointerface defects in Au/Cu films on Si substrates under direct current in a vacuum ultraviolet environment.

    PubMed

    Yan, Kai; Yao, Wenqing; Yang, Liping; Cao, Jiangli; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Lixia; Zhu, Yongfa

    2016-02-01

    Au/Cu metallic films were deposited on p-Si(100) substrates with and without an Au upper layer by magnetron sputtering. The defect formation and nanoscale interfacial evolution at the Au/Cu and Cu/Si interfaces were studied by using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The results showed that an increase in defects at the heterointerfaces and in the surface layer was induced by the effect of a direct current (DC) in a vacuum ultraviolet (UV) environment, which could provide more channels for the removal of atoms. The directed migration of atomic clusters in the films was caused by the effect of the DC, which also aggravated the defects' expansion and led to the formation of Au-Cu intermetallic compounds (IMCs). In addition, the voids formed at the interface between the Au/Cu films and the Si substrates were found to be mainly related to the generation of the material Au2Cu3. PMID:26778294

  12. Vacuum ultraviolet emission spectrum measurement of a microwave-discharge hydrogen-flow lamp in several configurations: Application to photodesorption of CO ice

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.-J.; Wu, C.-Y. R.; Chuang, K.-J.; Chu, C.-C.; Yih, T.-S.; Muñoz Caro, G. M.; Nuevo, M.; Ip, W.-H.

    2014-01-20

    We report measurements of the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) emission spectra of a microwave-discharge hydrogen-flow lamp (MDHL), a common tool in astrochemistry laboratories working on ice VUV photoprocessing. The MDHL provides hydrogen Ly-α (121.6 nm) and H{sub 2} molecular emission in the 110-180 nm range. We show that the spectral characteristics of the VUV light emitted in this range, in particular the relative proportion of Ly-α to molecular emission bands, strongly depend on the pressure of H{sub 2} inside the lamp, the lamp geometry (F type versus T type), the gas used (pure H{sub 2} versus H{sub 2} seeded in He), and the optical properties of the window used (MgF{sub 2} versus CaF{sub 2}). These different configurations are used to study the VUV irradiation of CO ice at 14 K. In contrast to the majority of studies dedicated to the VUV irradiation of astrophysical ice analogs, which have not taken into consideration the emission spectrum of the MDHL, our results show that the processes induced by photons in CO ice from a broad energy range are different and more complex than the sum of individual processes induced by monochromatic sources spanning the same energy range, as a result of the existence of multistate electronic transitions and discrepancy in absorption cross sections between parent molecules and products in the Ly-α and H{sub 2} molecular emission ranges.

  13. A straightforward method for Vacuum-Ultraviolet flux measurements: The case of the hydrogen discharge lamp and implications for solid-phase actinometry

    SciTech Connect

    Fulvio, D. E-mail: dfu@oact.inaf.it; Brieva, A. C.; Jäger, C.; Cuylle, S. H.; Linnartz, H.; Henning, T.

    2014-07-07

    Vacuum-Ultraviolet (VUV) radiation is responsible for the photo-processing of simple and complex molecules in several terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments. In the laboratory such radiation is commonly simulated by inexpensive and easy-to-use microwave-powered hydrogen discharge lamps. However, VUV flux measurements are not trivial and the methods/devices typically used for this purpose, mainly actinometry and calibrated VUV silicon photodiodes, are not very accurate or expensive and lack of general suitability to experimental setups. Here, we present a straightforward method for measuring the VUV photon flux based on the photoelectric effect and using a gold photodetector. This method is easily applicable to most experimental setups, bypasses the major problems of the other methods, and provides reliable flux measurements. As a case study, the method is applied to a microwave-powered hydrogen discharge lamp. In addition, the comparison of these flux measurements to those obtained by O{sub 2} actinometry experiments allow us to estimate the quantum yield (QY) values QY{sub 122} = 0.44 ± 0.16 and QY{sub 160} = 0.87 ± 0.30 for solid-phase O{sub 2} actinometry.

  14. On BaMgAl{sub 10}O{sub 17}:Eu{sup 2+} phosphor degradation mechanism by vacuum-ultraviolet excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Bizarri, G.; Moine, B.

    2005-12-01

    Additional to a correct color and a high efficiency, phosphors for plasma display panels must maintain their light output for thousands of hours. Often the degradation is the restricting factor in using phosphors. In this article, the mechanism of luminance decrease in blue-emitting BaMgAl{sub 10}O{sub 17}:Eu{sup 2+} phosphor during the operation of the PDPs has been studied. It is shown experimentally that the aging process is mainly due to the vacuum-ultraviolet excitation (VUV). It is demonstrated that the degradation mechanism can be accelerated by using a 193 nm laser excitation. Based on excitation, reflectance, thermoluminescence spectra, and aging or annealing processes by laser excitation, the main causes of the degradation are demonstrated. The aging process can be separated in two different processes according to the temperature: a first one, at low temperature, corresponding to the autoionization of luminescent centers (Eu{sup 2+}{yields}Eu{sup 3+}); and a second one, at high temperature, linked to the formation of traps in the phosphor. These traps induce a perturbation of the energy migration in the phosphor. In addition, the relevant parameters of trap formation are highlighted: density of the VUV excitation, temperature, and atmosphere/pressure surrounding the phosphor. A model of BaMgAl{sub 10}O{sub 17}:Eu{sup 2+} phosphor degradation mechanism is proposed.

  15. Improved resolution of hydrocarbon structures and constitutional isomers in complex mixtures using Gas Chromatography-Vacuum Ultraviolet-Mass Spectrometry (GC-VUV-MS)

    SciTech Connect

    Aerosol Dynamics Inc; Aerodyne Research, Inc.,; Tofwerk AG, Thun; Isaacman, Gabriel; Wilson, Kevin R.; Chan, Arthur W. H.; Worton, David R.; Kimmel, Joel R.; Nah, Theodora; Hohaus, Thorsten; Gonin, Marc; Kroll, Jesse H.; Worsnop, Doug R.; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2011-09-13

    Understanding the composition of complex hydrocarbon mixtures is important for environmental studies in a variety of fields, but many prevalent compounds cannot be confidently identified using traditional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. This work uses vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) ionization to elucidate the structures of a traditionally"unresolved complex mixture" by separating components by GC retention time, tR, and mass-to-charge ratio, m/Q, which are used to determine carbon number, NC, and the number of rings and double bonds, NDBE. Constitutional isomers are resolved based on tR, enabling the most complete quantitative analysis to date of structural isomers in an environmentally-relevant hydrocarbon mixture. Unknown compounds are classified in this work by carbon number, degree of saturation, presence of rings, and degree of branching, providing structural constraints. The capabilities of this analysis are explored using diesel fuel, in which constitutional isomer distribution patterns are shown to be reproducible between carbon numbers and follow predictable rules. Nearly half of the aliphatic hydrocarbon mass is shown to be branched, suggesting branching is more important in diesel fuel than previously shown. The classification of unknown hydrocarbons and the resolution of constitutional isomers significantly improves resolution capabilities for any complex hydrocarbon mixture.

  16. Valence and Ionic Lowest-Lying Electronic States of Isobutyl Formate Studied by High-Resolution Vacuum Ultraviolet Photoabsorption, Photoelectron Spectroscopy, and Ab Initio Calculations.

    PubMed

    Śmiałek, M A; Łabuda, M; Guthmuller, J; Hoffmann, S V; Jones, N C; MacDonald, M A; Zuin, L; Mason, N J; Limão-Vieira, P

    2015-08-13

    The highest resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption spectrum of isobutyl formate, C5H10O2, yet reported is presented over the energy range 4.5-10.7 eV (275.5-118.0 nm) revealing several new spectral features. Valence and Rydberg transitions and their associated vibronic series observed in the photoabsorption spectrum have been assigned in accordance with new ab initio calculations of the vertical excitation energies and oscillator strengths. Calculations have also been carried out to determine the ionization energies and fine structure of the lowest ionic state of isobutyl formate and are compared with a newly recorded photoelectron spectrum (from 9.0 to 27.0 eV). The value of the first ionization energy was determined to be 10.508 eV (adiabatic) and 10.837 eV (vertical). New vibrational structure is observed in the first photoelectron band, predominantly resulting from C-O and C═O stretches of the molecule. The photoabsorption cross sections have been used to calculate the photolysis lifetime of isobutyl formate in the upper stratosphere (20-50 km), indicating that the hydroxyl radical processes will be the main loss process for isobutyl formate. PMID:26176891

  17. Full observation of ultrafast cascaded radiationless transitions from S2(ππ∗) state of pyrazine using vacuum ultraviolet photoelectron imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horio, Takuya; Spesyvtsev, Roman; Nagashima, Kazuki; Ingle, Rebecca A.; Suzuki, Yoshi-ichi; Suzuki, Toshinori

    2016-07-01

    A photoexcited molecule undergoes multiple deactivation and reaction processes simultaneously or sequentially, which have been observed by combinations of various experimental methods. However, a single experimental method that enables complete observation of the photo-induced dynamics would be of great assistance for such studies. Here we report a full observation of cascaded electronic dephasing from S2(ππ*) in pyrazine (C4N2H4) by time-resolved photoelectron imaging (TRPEI) using 9.3-eV vacuum ultraviolet pulses with a sub-20 fs time duration. While we previously demonstrated a real-time observation of the ultrafast S2(ππ*) → S1(nπ*) internal conversion in pyrazine using TRPEI with UV pulses, this study presents a complete observation of the dynamics including radiationless transitions from S1 to S0 (internal conversion) and T1(nπ*) (intersystem crossing). Also discussed are the role of 1Au(nπ*) in the internal conversion and the configuration interaction of the S2(ππ*) electronic wave function.

  18. Airfoil sampling of a pulsed Laval beam with tunable vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry: application to low-temperature kinetics and product detection.

    PubMed

    Soorkia, Satchin; Liu, Chen-Lin; Savee, John D; Ferrell, Sarah J; Leone, Stephen R; Wilson, Kevin R

    2011-12-01

    A new pulsed Laval nozzle apparatus with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron photoionization quadrupole mass spectrometry is constructed to study low-temperature radical-neutral chemical reactions of importance for modeling the atmosphere of Titan and the outer planets. A design for the sampling geometry of a pulsed Laval nozzle expansion has been developed that operates successfully for the determination of rate coefficients by time-resolved mass spectrometry. The new concept employs airfoil sampling of the collimated expansion with excellent sampling throughput. Time-resolved profiles of the high Mach number gas flow obtained by photoionization signals show that perturbation of the collimated expansion by the airfoil is negligible. The reaction of C(2)H with C(2)H(2) is studied at 70 K as a proof-of-principle result for both low-temperature rate coefficient measurements and product identification based on the photoionization spectrum of the reaction product versus VUV photon energy. This approach can be used to provide new insights into reaction mechanisms occurring at kinetic rates close to the collision-determined limit. PMID:22225233

  19. Airfoil sampling of a pulsed Laval beam with tunable vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry: Application to low-temperature kinetics and product detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soorkia, Satchin; Liu, Chen-Lin; Savee, John D.; Ferrell, Sarah J.; Leone, Stephen R.; Wilson, Kevin R.

    2011-12-01

    A new pulsed Laval nozzle apparatus with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron photoionization quadrupole mass spectrometry is constructed to study low-temperature radical-neutral chemical reactions of importance for modeling the atmosphere of Titan and the outer planets. A design for the sampling geometry of a pulsed Laval nozzle expansion has been developed that operates successfully for the determination of rate coefficients by time-resolved mass spectrometry. The new concept employs airfoil sampling of the collimated expansion with excellent sampling throughput. Time-resolved profiles of the high Mach number gas flow obtained by photoionization signals show that perturbation of the collimated expansion by the airfoil is negligible. The reaction of C2H with C2H2 is studied at 70 K as a proof-of-principle result for both low-temperature rate coefficient measurements and product identification based on the photoionization spectrum of the reaction product versus VUV photon energy. This approach can be used to provide new insights into reaction mechanisms occurring at kinetic rates close to the collision-determined limit.

  20. Infrared Vacuum-Ultraviolet Laser Pulsed Field Ionization-Photoelectron Study of CH₃Br⁺(X˜ 2E3/2)

    SciTech Connect

    Xing, X.; Wang, P.; Reed, Beth; Baek, Sun-Jong; Ng, Cheuk-Yiu

    2008-10-02

    The research described in this product was performed in part in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. By preparing methyl bromide (CH₃Br) in selected rotational levels of the CH₃Br(X˜ 1A1; V1 = 1) state with infrared (IR) laser excitation prior to vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) laser pulsed field ionization-photoelectron (PFI-PE) measurements, we have observed rotationally resolved photoionization transitions to the CH₃Br⁺(X˜ 2E3/2; V1 + = 1) state, where V1 and V1 + are the symmetric C-H stretching vibrational mode for the neutral and cation, respectively. The VUV-PFI-PE origin band for CH₃Br⁺(X˜ 2E3/2) has also been measured. The simulation of these IR-VUV-PFI-PE and VUV-PFI-PE spectra have allowed the determination of the V1 + vibrational frequency (2901.8 ( 0.5 cm-1) and the ionization energies of the origin band (85 028.3 ( 0.5 cm-1) and the V1 + ) 1 r V1 ) 1 band (84 957.9 ( 0.5 cm-1).

  1. A Vacuum Ultraviolet Absorption Array Spectrometer as a Selective Detector for Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography: Concept and First Results.

    PubMed

    Gröger, Thomas; Gruber, Beate; Harrison, Dale; Saraji-Bozorgzad, Mohammad; Mthembu, Makhosazana; Sutherland, Aimée; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2016-03-15

    Fast and selective detectors are very interesting for comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC). This is particularly true if the detector system can provide additional spectroscopic information on the compound structure and/or functionality. Other than mass spectrometry (MS), only optical spectroscopic detectors are able to provide selective spectral information. However, until present the application of optical spectroscopy technologies as universal detectors for GC × GC has been restricted mainly due to physical limitations such as insufficient acquisition speed or high detection limits. A recently developed simultaneous-detection spectrometer working in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) region of 125-240 nm overcomes these limitations and meets all the criteria of a universal detector for GC × GC. Peak shape and chromatographic resolution is preserved and unique spectral information, complementary to mass spectrometry data, is gained. The power of this detector is quickly recognized as it has the ability to discriminate between isomeric compounds or difficult to separate structurally related isobaric species; thus, it provides additional selectivity. A further promising feature of this detector is the data analysis concept of spectral filtering, which is accomplished by targeting special electronic transitions that allows for a fast screening of GC × GC chromatograms for designated compound classes. PMID:26810390

  2. Printable Top-Gate-Type Polymer Light-Emitting Transistors with Surfaces of Amorphous Fluoropolymer Insulators Modified by Vacuum Ultraviolet Light Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajii, Hirotake; Terashima, Daiki; Kusumoto, Yusuke; Ikezoe, Ikuya; Ohmori, Yutaka

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the fabrication and electrical and optical properties of top-gate-type polymer light-emitting transistors with the surfaces of amorphous fluoropolymer insulators, CYTOP (Asahi Glass) modified by vacuum ultraviolet light (VUV) treatment. The surface energy of CYTOP, which has a good solution barrier property was increased by VUV irradiation, and the gate electrode was fabricated by solution processing on the CYTOP film using the Ag nano-ink. The influence of VUV irradiation on the optical properties of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT) films with various gate insulators was investigated to clarify the passivation effect of gate insulators. It was found that the poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) film prevented the degradation of the F8BT layer under VUV irradiation because the PMMA film can absorb VUV. The solution-processed F8BT device with multilayer PMMA/CYTOP insulators utilizing a gate electrode fabricated using the Ag nano-ink exhibited both the ambipolar characteristics and yellow-green emission.

  3. Vacuum ultra-violet emission of plasma discharges with high Xe partial pressure using a cathode protective layer with high secondary electron emission

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Di; Song, Le; Zhang, Xiong; Kajiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-02-14

    In this work, the mechanism of the vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) emission of plasma discharges, with high Xe partial pressure and high ion-induced secondary electrons emission protective layer, is studied by measuring the VUV light emission directly and comparing it with two-dimensional simulations. From the panel measurement, we find that the high intensity of excimer VUV mainly contributes to the high luminous efficacy of SrCaO-plasma display panels (PDP) at a low sustain voltage. The unchanged Xe excitation efficiency indicates that the electron temperature is not decreased by the high secondary electrons emission protective layer, even though the sustain voltage is much lower. From the two-dimensional simulations, we can find that the ratio of excimer VUV to resonant VUV, which is determined by the collision rate in the discharge, is only significantly affected by the Xe partial pressure, while it is independent of the sustain voltage and the secondary-electrons-emission capability of protective layer. The unchanged average electron energy at the moment when the electric field becomes maximum confirms that the improvement of the VUV production efficiency mainly is attributed to the increase in electron heating efficiency of a PDP with high ion-induced secondary electrons emission protective layer. Combining the experimental and the simulation results, we conclude about the mechanism by which the VUV production is improved for the plasma display panel with a high Xe partial pressure and a cold cathode with high ion-induced secondary electrons emission.

  4. Versatile high-repetition-rate phase-locked chopper system for fast timing experiments in the vacuum ultraviolet and x-ray spectral region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plogmaker, Stefan; Linusson, Per; Eland, John H. D.; Baker, Neville; Johansson, Erik M. J.; Rensmo, Hâkan; Feifel, Raimund; Siegbahn, Hans

    2012-01-01

    A novel light chopper system for fast timing experiments in the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) and x-ray spectral region has been developed. It can be phase-locked and synchronized with a synchrotron radiation storage ring, accommodating repetition rates in the range of ˜8 to ˜120 kHz by choosing different sets of apertures and subharmonics of the ring frequency (MHz range). Also the opening time of the system can be varied from some nanoseconds to several microseconds to meet the needs of a broad range of applications. Adjusting these parameters, the device can be used either for the generation of single light pulses or pulse packages from a microwave driven, continuous He gas discharge lamp or from storage rings which are otherwise often considered as quasi-continuous light sources. This chopper can be utilized for many different kinds of experiments enabling, for example, unambiguous time-of-flight (TOF) multi-electron coincidence studies of atoms and molecules excited by a single light pulse as well as time-resolved visible laser pump x-ray probe electron spectroscopy of condensed matter in the valence and core level region.

  5. Versatile high-repetition-rate phase-locked chopper system for fast timing experiments in the vacuum ultraviolet and x-ray spectral region.

    PubMed

    Plogmaker, Stefan; Linusson, Per; Eland, John H D; Baker, Neville; Johansson, Erik M J; Rensmo, Håkan; Feifel, Raimund; Siegbahn, Hans

    2012-01-01

    A novel light chopper system for fast timing experiments in the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) and x-ray spectral region has been developed. It can be phase-locked and synchronized with a synchrotron radiation storage ring, accommodating repetition rates in the range of ~8 to ~120 kHz by choosing different sets of apertures and subharmonics of the ring frequency (MHz range). Also the opening time of the system can be varied from some nanoseconds to several microseconds to meet the needs of a broad range of applications. Adjusting these parameters, the device can be used either for the generation of single light pulses or pulse packages from a microwave driven, continuous He gas discharge lamp or from storage rings which are otherwise often considered as quasi-continuous light sources. This chopper can be utilized for many different kinds of experiments enabling, for example, unambiguous time-of-flight (TOF) multi-electron coincidence studies of atoms and molecules excited by a single light pulse as well as time-resolved visible laser pump x-ray probe electron spectroscopy of condensed matter in the valence and core level region. PMID:22299937

  6. Versatile high-repetition-rate phase-locked chopper system for fast timing experiments in the vacuum ultraviolet and x-ray spectral region

    SciTech Connect

    Plogmaker, Stefan; Johansson, Erik M. J.; Rensmo, Haakan; Feifel, Raimund; Siegbahn, Hans; Linusson, Per; Eland, John H. D.; Baker, Neville

    2012-01-15

    A novel light chopper system for fast timing experiments in the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) and x-ray spectral region has been developed. It can be phase-locked and synchronized with a synchrotron radiation storage ring, accommodating repetition rates in the range of {approx}8 to {approx}120 kHz by choosing different sets of apertures and subharmonics of the ring frequency (MHz range). Also the opening time of the system can be varied from some nanoseconds to several microseconds to meet the needs of a broad range of applications. Adjusting these parameters, the device can be used either for the generation of single light pulses or pulse packages from a microwave driven, continuous He gas discharge lamp or from storage rings which are otherwise often considered as quasi-continuous light sources. This chopper can be utilized for many different kinds of experiments enabling, for example, unambiguous time-of-flight (TOF) multi-electron coincidence studies of atoms and molecules excited by a single light pulse as well as time-resolved visible laser pump x-ray probe electron spectroscopy of condensed matter in the valence and core level region.

  7. Vacuum ultra-violet emission of CF4 and CF3I containing plasmas and Their effect on low-k materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    el Otell, Z.; Šamara, V.; Zotovich, A.; Hansen, T.; de Marneffe, J.-F.; Baklanov, M. R.

    2015-10-01

    CF3I was suggested as a replacement of CF4 gas to decrease the plasma-induced damage (PID) on low-k dielectrics during etching. This proposal is investigated by means of plasma emission measurements and material characterisation. The experiments were conducted in a 300 mm capacitively coupled plasma source. The vacuum ultraviolet (VUV, 30≤slant λ ≤slant 220 nm) plasma emission was measured for discharges generated in a pure or a mixture of argon, CF4 and/or CF3I, since VUV plays a major role in PID. However, CF3I containing discharges were found to have a stronger emission than CF4 in the VUV range. Nevertheless, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy and κ-value measurements showed that there is almost no difference between the damage caused by CF3I or CF4 containing plasmas, while etching in a capacitively coupled plasma source. It is proposed that the damage caused by CF3I with lower F*-density but higher VUV-photon flux is similar to the damage caused by CF4, with higher F*-density but lower VUV-photon flux.

  8. Application of the semi-empirical method to determine the spatial distribution function for thermalized photoelectrons created by vacuum ultraviolet or high-energy irradiation of some nonpolar dielectric liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guelfucci, J. P.; Fitte-Rey, J.; Casanovas, J.; Baird, J. K.

    1997-06-01

    A semi-empirical method is tested to determine the spatial distribution function of the thermalized photoelectrons, created by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) or γ irradiations of some liquid alkanes. It seems that modified exponentials must be associated to the thermalization process on VUV irradiation. A Gaussian distribution function could be used for high-energy irradiation. The partial inadequacy of the method in the case of high-energy irradiation can be imputed to the existence of multiple ion pair recombinations.

  9. Effects of excitation wavelength and Y{sup 3+} content on luminescent properties of YMO{sub 4}:Dy{sup 3+} (M = V, P) phosphors induced by ultraviolet excitation

    SciTech Connect

    He, Yuyang; Zhao, Maiqun; Song, Yanyan; Zhao, Gaoyang

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: ► The color temperature of YPO{sub 4}:Dy{sup 3+} phosphor can be controlled by changing excitation wavelength. ► Y{sub x}VO{sub 4}:Dy{sup 3+} phosphors were synthesized by chemical precipitation method. ► Little excessive Y{sup 3+} content can make body color of YVO{sub 4}:Dy{sup 3+} phosphor become white even if sintered above 1100 °C. -- Abstract: Y{sub 0.99}VO{sub 4}:0.01Dy{sup 3+}, Y{sub 0.99}PO{sub 4}:0.01Dy{sup 3+} and Y{sub x}VO{sub 4}:0.01Dy{sup 3+} phosphors were synthesized by chemical co-precipitation method. All the samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence spectroscopy. XRD results show that the samples only have single tetragonal structure and the crystallinity of Y{sub 0.99}VO{sub 4}:0.01Dy{sup 3+} phosphor is higher than that of Y{sub 0.99}PO{sub 4}:0.01Dy{sup 3+} phosphor when the heat treatment process is same. Photoluminescence excitation spectra results show that the Y{sub 0.99}VO{sub 4}:0.01Dy{sup 3+} and Y{sub 0.99}PO{sub 4}:0.01Dy{sup 3+} phosphors can be efficiently excited by ultraviolet light from 250 nm to 380 nm, the former have a wide Dy{sup 3+}–O{sup 2−} charge transfer band ranging from 260 nm to 350 nm including a peak at 310 nm, the latter have four peaks at 294 nm, 326 nm, 352 nm and 365 nm. Emission spectra of all the samples exhibit a strong blue emission (483 nm) and another strong yellow emission (574 nm). Moreover, the yellow-to-blue emission intensity ratio and color temperature of emission of Dy{sup 3+} are strongly related to excitation wavelength in Y{sub 0.99}PO{sub 4}:0.01Dy{sup 3+} phosphor, but it is almost not in Y{sub 0.99}VO{sub 4}:0.01Dy{sup 3+} phosphor. For Y{sub x}VO{sub 4}:0.01Dy{sup 3+} (x = 0.94, 0.97, 0.99, 1.01, 1.03) phosphors, with increasing value of x, the body color of phosphor changes from yellow to white and the strongest peak in excitation spectra shifts a little to shorter wavelength. It is detrimental to luminous intensity when Y

  10. Effects of dimerization on the photoelectron angular distribution parameters from chiral camphor enantiomers obtained with circularly polarized vacuum-ultraviolet radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Nahon, Laurent; Garcia, Gustavo A.; Soldi-Lose, Heloiese; Daly, Steven; Powis, Ivan

    2010-09-15

    As an intermediate state of matter between the free monomeric gas phase and the solid state, clusters may exhibit a specific electronic structure and photoionization dynamics that can be unraveled by different types of electron spectroscopies. From mass-selected ion yield scans measured for photoionization of (R)-camphor, the ionization potentials (IPs) of the monomer (8.66{+-}0.01 eV), and of the homochiral dimer ({<=}8.37{+-}0.01 eV) and trimer ({<=}8.30{+-}0.01 eV) were obtained. These spectra, combined with threshold photoelectron spectroscopy and velocity map ion imaging, allow us to show that the camphor monomer and dimer photoionization channels are decoupled, i.e., that the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of the dimer does not undergo a dissociative ionization process that would lead to a spurious contribution to the monomer ion channel. Therefore mass selection, as achieved in our imaging photoelectron-photoion coincidence experiments, leads to size selection of the nascent monomer or dimer species. Since both the monomer and dimer are chiral, their photoelectron angular distribution (PAD) not only involves the usual {beta} anisotropy parameter but also a chiral asymmetry parameter b{sub 1} that can generate a forward-backward asymmetry in the PAD. This has been investigated using circularly polarized light (CPL) to record the photoelectron circular dichroism (PECD) in the near-threshold vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization region. Analysis of size-selected electron images recorded with left- and right-handed CPL shows that over the first 1.5 eV above the HOMO orbital ionization potentials (IPs), the {beta} parameter is not affected by the dimerization process, while the chiral b{sub 1} parameter shows clear differences between the monomer and the dimer, confirming that PECD is a subtle long-range probe of the molecular potential.

  11. Electronic Structure and Optical Properties of Cu2ZnGeSe4 : First-Principles Calculations and Vacuum-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Ellipsometric Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, S. G.; Park, J.-S.; Donohue, A. L.; Christensen, S. T.; To, B.; Beall, C.; Wei, S.-H.; Repins, I. L.

    2015-11-01

    Cu2ZnGeSe4 is of interest for the development of next-generation thin-film photovoltaic technologies. To understand its electronic structure and related fundamental optical properties, we perform first-principles calculations for three structural variations: kesterite, stannite, and primitive-mixed CuAu phases. The calculated data are compared with the room-temperature dielectric function ɛ =ɛ1+i ɛ2 spectrum of polycrystalline Cu2ZnGeSe4 determined by vacuum-ultraviolet spectroscopic ellipsometry in the photon-energy range of 0.7 to 9.0 eV. Ellipsometric data are modeled with the sum of eight Tauc-Lorentz oscillators, and the best-fit model yields the band-gap and Tauc-gap energies of 1.25 and 1.19 eV, respectively. A comparison of overall peak shapes and relative intensities between experimental spectra and the calculated ɛ data for three structural variations suggests that the sample may not have a pure (ordered) kesterite phase. The complex refractive index N =n +i k , normal-incidence reflectivity R , and absorption coefficients α are calculated from the modeled ɛ spectrum, which are also compared with those of Cu2ZnSnSe4 . The spectral features for Cu2ZnGeSe4 appear to be weaker and broader than those for Cu2ZnSnSe4 , which is possibly due to more structural imperfections presented in Cu2ZnGeSe4 than Cu2ZnSnSe4 .

  12. Photoionization of helium atoms irradiated with intense vacuum ultraviolet free-electron laser light. Part I. Experimental study of multiphoton and single-photon processes

    SciTech Connect

    Laarmann, T.; Guertler, P.; Laasch, W.; Schulz, J.; Wabnitz, H.; Moeller, T.; Castro, A.R.B. de

    2005-08-15

    The interaction of He atoms with intense vacuum-ultraviolet light of a free-electron laser is investigated using time-of-flight mass spectroscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy. The atoms were irradiated with 100 fs pulses at 95 nm wavelength, which corresponds to {approx}13 eV photon energy. The ionization of He atoms is observed at a peak intensity of 10{sup 10}-10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2}, which is due both to nonlinear multiphoton ionization with the fundamental wavelength and single-photon ionization with third harmonic radiation of the free-electron laser. The observation of two sharp photoelectron peaks in the kinetic energy spectra, that are separated by the photon energy, is in agreement with the numerical solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. The calculation was done using the fully quantized field and a limited but representative set of basis states. The ionization rate dependence on the laser peak intensity indicates that: (a) The low-energy peak in the photoelectron spectra is mainly due to two-photon absorption of the fundamental, but (b) the high-energy peak at 15.4 eV is probably due to third harmonic FEL radiation. The theoretically predicted contribution from three-photon absorption of the fundamental is of about the same order of magnitude and could not be separated from the third harmonic background signal. Particularly, the photoelectron spectra and He{sup +} time-of-flight data give evidence that the intensity of third harmonic light is high enough to perform single-shot spectroscopy on gas phase samples.

  13. Characterization of intermolecular structure of β(2)-microglobulin core fragments in amyloid fibrils by vacuum-ultraviolet circular dichroism spectroscopy and circular dichroism theory.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Koichi; Hiramatsu, Hirotsugu; Gekko, Kunihiko; Namatame, Hirofumi; Taniguchi, Masaki; Woody, Robert W

    2014-03-20

    Intermolecular structures are important factors for understanding the conformational properties of amyloid fibrils. In this study, vacuum-ultraviolet circular dichroism (VUVCD) spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD) theory were used for characterizing the intermolecular structures of β2-microglobulin (β2m) core fragments in the amyloid fibrils. The VUVCD spectra of β2m20-41, β2m21-31, and β2m21-29 fragments in the amyloid fibrils exhibited characteristic features, but they were affected not only by the backbone conformations but also by the aromatic side-chain conformations. To estimate the contributions of aromatic side-chains to the spectra, the theoretical spectra were calculated from the simulated structures of β2m21-29 amyloid fibrils with various types of β-sheet stacking (parallel or antiparallel) using CD theory. We found that the experimental spectrum of β2m21-29 fibrils is largely affected by aromatic-backbone couplings, which are induced by the interaction between transitions within the aromatic and backbone chromophores, and these couplings are sensitive to the type of stacking among the β-sheets of the fibrils. Further theoretical analyses of simulated structures incorporating mutated aromatic residues suggested that the β2m21-29 fibrils are composed of amyloid accumulations in which the parallel β-sheets stack in an antiparallel manner and that the characteristic Phe-Tyr interactions among the β-sheet stacks affect the aromatic-backbone coupling. These findings indicate that the coupling components, which depend on the characteristic intermolecular structures, induce the spectral differences among three fragments in the amyloid fibrils. These advanced spectral analyses using CD theory provide a useful method for characterizing the intermolecular structures of protein and peptide fragment complexes. PMID:24512563

  14. Effusive molecular beam-sampled Knudsen flow reactor coupled to vacuum ultraviolet single photon ionization mass spectrometry using an external free radical source

    SciTech Connect

    Leplat, N.; Rossi, M. J.

    2013-11-15

    A new apparatus using vacuum ultraviolet single photon ionization mass spectrometry (VUV SPIMS) of an effusive molecular beam emanating from a Knudsen flow reactor is described. It was designed to study free radical-molecule kinetics over a significant temperature range (300–630 K). Its salient features are: (1) external free radical source, (2) counterpropagating molecular beam and diffuse VUV photon beam meeting in a crossed-beam ion source of a quadrupole mass spectrometer with perpendicular ion extraction, (3) analog detection of the photocurrent of the free radical molecular cation, and (4) possibility of detecting both free radicals and closed shell species in the same apparatus and under identical reaction conditions owing to the presence of photoelectrons generated by the photoelectric effect of the used VUV-photons. The measured thermal molecular beam-to-background ratio was 6.35 ± 0.39 for Ar and 10.86 ± 1.59 for i-C{sub 4}H{sub 10} at 300 K, a factor of 2.52 and 1.50 smaller, respectively, than predicted from basic gas-dynamic considerations. Operating parameters as well as the performance of key elements of the instrument are presented and discussed. Coupled to an external free radical source a steady-state specific exit flow of 1.6 × 10{sup 11} and 5.0 × 10{sup 11} molecule s{sup −1} cm{sup −3} of C{sub 2}H{sub 5}{sup •} (ethyl) and t-C{sub 4}H{sub 9}{sup •} (t-butyl) free radicals have been detected using VUV SPIMS at their molecular ion m/z 29 and 57, respectively, at 300 K.

  15. Effusive molecular beam-sampled Knudsen flow reactor coupled to vacuum ultraviolet single photon ionization mass spectrometry using an external free radical source.

    PubMed

    Leplat, N; Rossi, M J

    2013-11-01

    A new apparatus using vacuum ultraviolet single photon ionization mass spectrometry (VUV SPIMS) of an effusive molecular beam emanating from a Knudsen flow reactor is described. It was designed to study free radical-molecule kinetics over a significant temperature range (300-630 K). Its salient features are: (1) external free radical source, (2) counterpropagating molecular beam and diffuse VUV photon beam meeting in a crossed-beam ion source of a quadrupole mass spectrometer with perpendicular ion extraction, (3) analog detection of the photocurrent of the free radical molecular cation, and (4) possibility of detecting both free radicals and closed shell species in the same apparatus and under identical reaction conditions owing to the presence of photoelectrons generated by the photoelectric effect of the used VUV-photons. The measured thermal molecular beam-to-background ratio was 6.35 ± 0.39 for Ar and 10.86 ± 1.59 for i-C4H10 at 300 K, a factor of 2.52 and 1.50 smaller, respectively, than predicted from basic gas-dynamic considerations. Operating parameters as well as the performance of key elements of the instrument are presented and discussed. Coupled to an external free radical source a steady-state specific exit flow of 1.6 × 10(11) and 5.0 × 10(11) molecule s(-1) cm(-3) of C2H5(●) (ethyl) and t-C4H9(●) (t-butyl) free radicals have been detected using VUV SPIMS at their molecular ion m/z 29 and 57, respectively, at 300 K. PMID:24289411

  16. Effects of dimerization on the photoelectron angular distribution parameters from chiral camphor enantiomers obtained with circularly polarized vacuum-ultraviolet radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahon, Laurent; Garcia, Gustavo A.; Soldi-Lose, Héloïse; Daly, Steven; Powis, Ivan

    2010-09-01

    As an intermediate state of matter between the free monomeric gas phase and the solid state, clusters may exhibit a specific electronic structure and photoionization dynamics that can be unraveled by different types of electron spectroscopies. From mass-selected ion yield scans measured for photoionization of (R)-camphor, the ionization potentials (IPs) of the monomer (8.66±0.01 eV), and of the homochiral dimer (⩽8.37±0.01 eV) and trimer (⩽8.30±0.01 eV) were obtained. These spectra, combined with threshold photoelectron spectroscopy and velocity map ion imaging, allow us to show that the camphor monomer and dimer photoionization channels are decoupled, i.e., that the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of the dimer does not undergo a dissociative ionization process that would lead to a spurious contribution to the monomer ion channel. Therefore mass selection, as achieved in our imaging photoelectron-photoion coincidence experiments, leads to size selection of the nascent monomer or dimer species. Since both the monomer and dimer are chiral, their photoelectron angular distribution (PAD) not only involves the usual β anisotropy parameter but also a chiral asymmetry parameter b1 that can generate a forward-backward asymmetry in the PAD. This has been investigated using circularly polarized light (CPL) to record the photoelectron circular dichroism (PECD) in the near-threshold vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization region. Analysis of size-selected electron images recorded with left- and right-handed CPL shows that over the first 1.5 eV above the HOMO orbital ionization potentials (IPs), the β parameter is not affected by the dimerization process, while the chiral b1 parameter shows clear differences between the monomer and the dimer, confirming that PECD is a subtle long-range probe of the molecular potential.

  17. A Fourier transform spectrometer without a beam splitter for the vacuum ultraviolet range: From the optical design to the first UV spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, N. de; Polack, F.; Vervloet, M.; Nahon, L.; Joyeux, D.; Phalippou, D.; Rodier, J. C.

    2009-04-15

    We describe a Fourier transform (FT) spectrometer designed to operate down to 60 nm (20 eV) on a synchrotron radiation beamline for high resolution absorption spectrometry. As far as we know, such an instrument is not available below 140 nm mainly because manufacturing accurate and efficient beam splitters remains a major problem at these wavelengths, especially if a wide bandwidth operation is desired. In order to overcome this difficulty, we developed an interferometer based on wave front division instead of amplitude division. It relies on a modified Fresnel bimirror configuration that requires only flat mirrors. The instrument provides path difference scanning through the translation of one reflector. During the scanning, the moving reflector is controlled by an optical system that keeps its direction constant within a tolerable value and provides an accurate interferometric measurement of the path difference variation. Therefore, a regular interferogram sampling is obtained, producing a nominal spectral impulse response and an accurate spectral calibration. The first results presented in this paper show a measured spectral resolution of {delta}{sigma}=0.33 cm{sup -1} (interval between spectral samples). This was obtained with a sampling interval of 29 nm (path difference) and 512 K samples from a one-sided interferogram using a cosine FT. Such a sampling interval should allow the recording of large bandwidth spectra down to {lambda}=58 nm with an ultimate resolving power of 500 000 at this wavelength. In order to check the instrument performances, we first recorded an interferogram from a He-Ne stabilized laser. This provided the actual spectral impulse function, which was found to be fully satisfactory. The determination of the impulse response distortion and of the noise on the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectral range provided accurate information in the sampling error profile over a typical scan. Finally, the instrument has been moved to the SU5 undulator

  18. A Fourier transform spectrometer without a beam splitter for the vacuum ultraviolet range: From the optical design to the first UV spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, N.; Joyeux, D.; Phalippou, D.; Rodier, J. C.; Polack, F.; Vervloet, M.; Nahon, L.

    2009-04-01

    We describe a Fourier transform (FT) spectrometer designed to operate down to 60 nm (20 eV) on a synchrotron radiation beamline for high resolution absorption spectrometry. As far as we know, such an instrument is not available below 140 nm mainly because manufacturing accurate and efficient beam splitters remains a major problem at these wavelengths, especially if a wide bandwidth operation is desired. In order to overcome this difficulty, we developed an interferometer based on wave front division instead of amplitude division. It relies on a modified Fresnel bimirror configuration that requires only flat mirrors. The instrument provides path difference scanning through the translation of one reflector. During the scanning, the moving reflector is controlled by an optical system that keeps its direction constant within a tolerable value and provides an accurate interferometric measurement of the path difference variation. Therefore, a regular interferogram sampling is obtained, producing a nominal spectral impulse response and an accurate spectral calibration. The first results presented in this paper show a measured spectral resolution of δσ =0.33 cm-1 (interval between spectral samples). This was obtained with a sampling interval of 29 nm (path difference) and 512 K samples from a one-sided interferogram using a cosine FT. Such a sampling interval should allow the recording of large bandwidth spectra down to λ&dotbelow;>=58 nm with an ultimate resolving power of 500 000 at this wavelength. In order to check the instrument performances, we first recorded an interferogram from a He-Ne stabilized laser. This provided the actual spectral impulse function, which was found to be fully satisfactory. The determination of the impulse response distortion and of the noise on the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectral range provided accurate information in the sampling error profile over a typical scan. Finally, the instrument has been moved to the SU5 undulator

  19. Infrared-Vacuum Ultraviolet Pulsed Field Ionization-Photoelectron Study of C₂H₄ + Using a High-Resolution Infrared Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Xing, Xi; Reed, Beth; Bahng, Mi-Kyung; Ng, Cheuk-Yiu

    2008-02-20

    The research described in this product was performed in part in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The infrared (IR)-vacuum ultraviolet (VUV)-pulsed field ionization-photoelectron (IR-VUV-PFI-PE) spectrum for C₂H₄(X 1Ag, V11 = 1, N'Ka'Kc'=3₀₃) in the VUV range of 83 000-84 800 cm-1 obtained using a single mode infrared laser revealed 24 rotationally resolved vibrational bands for the ion C₂H₄ +(X 2B3u) ground state. The frequencies and symmetry of the vibrational bands thus determined, together with the anharmonic frequency predictions calculated at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVQZ level, have allowed the unambiguous assignment of these vibrational bands. These bands are mostly combination bands. The measured frequencies of these bands yield the fundamental frequencies for V8 + ) 1103± ( 10 cm-1 and V10 + ) 813 ( 10 cm-1 of C₂H₄ +(X 2B3u), which have not been determined previously. The present IR-VUV-PFI-PE study also provides truly rovibrationally selected and resolved state-to-state cross sections for the photoionization transitions C₂H₄(X~1Ag; V11, N'Ka'Kc') → C₂H₄ +(X~ 2B3u; Vi +, N+ Ka +Kc +), where N'Ka'Kc' denotes the rotational level of C₂H₄(X~ 1Ag; V11), and Vi + and N+ Ka +Kc + represent the vibrational and rotational states of the cation.

  20. Creating breakthroughs at 3M.

    PubMed

    von Hippel, E; Thomke, S; Sonnack, M

    1999-01-01

    Most senior managers want their product development teams to create break-throughs--new products that will allow their companies to grow rapidly and maintain high margins. But more often they get incremental improvements to existing products. That's partly because companies must compete in the short term. Searching for breakthroughs is expensive and time consuming; line extensions can help the bottom line immediately. In addition, developers simply don't know how to achieve breakthroughs, and there is usually no system in place to guide them. By the mid-1990s, the lack of such a system was a problem even for an innovative company like 3M. Then a project team in 3M's Medical-Surgical Markets Division became acquainted with a method for developing breakthrough products: the lead user process. The process is based on the fact that many commercially important products are initially thought of and even prototyped by "lead users"--companies, organizations, or individuals that are well ahead of market trends. Their needs are so far beyond those of the average user that lead users create innovations on their own that may later contribute to commercially attractive breakthroughs. The lead user process transforms the job of inventing breakthroughs into a systematic task of identifying lead users and learning from them. The authors explain the process and how the 3M project team successfully navigated through it. In the end, the team proposed three major new product lines and a change in the division's strategy that has led to the development of breakthrough products. And now several more divisions are using the process to break away from incrementalism. PMID:10621267

  1. Genetics Home Reference: 3-M syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions 3-M syndrome 3-M syndrome Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description 3-M syndrome is a disorder that causes short ...

  2. Valence and ionic lowest-lying electronic states of ethyl formate as studied by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption, He(I) photoelectron spectroscopy, and ab initio calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Śmiałek, M. A.; Duflot, D.; Mason, N. J.; Hoffmann, S. V.; Jones, N. C.; Limão-Vieira, P.

    2014-09-14

    The highest resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption spectrum of ethyl formate, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OCHO, yet reported is presented over the wavelength range 115.0–275.5 nm (10.75–4.5 eV) revealing several new spectral features. Valence and Rydberg transitions and their associated vibronic series, observed in the photoabsorption spectrum, have been assigned in accordance with new ab initio calculations of the vertical excitation energies and oscillator strengths. Calculations have also been carried out to determine the ionization energies and fine structure of the lowest ionic state of ethyl formate and are compared with a newly recorded He(I) photoelectron spectrum (from 10.1 to 16.1 eV). New vibrational structure is observed in the first photoelectron band. The photoabsorption cross sections have been used to calculate the photolysis lifetime of ethyl formate in the upper stratosphere (20–50 km)

  3. Valence and ionic lowest-lying electronic states of ethyl formate as studied by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption, He(I) photoelectron spectroscopy, and ab initio calculations.

    PubMed

    Śmiałek, M A; Łabuda, M; Guthmuller, J; Hubin-Franskin, M-J; Delwiche, J; Duflot, D; Mason, N J; Hoffmann, S V; Jones, N C; Limão-Vieira, P

    2014-09-14

    The highest resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption spectrum of ethyl formate, C2H5OCHO, yet reported is presented over the wavelength range 115.0-275.5 nm (10.75-4.5 eV) revealing several new spectral features. Valence and Rydberg transitions and their associated vibronic series, observed in the photoabsorption spectrum, have been assigned in accordance with new ab initio calculations of the vertical excitation energies and oscillator strengths. Calculations have also been carried out to determine the ionization energies and fine structure of the lowest ionic state of ethyl formate and are compared with a newly recorded He(I) photoelectron spectrum (from 10.1 to 16.1 eV). New vibrational structure is observed in the first photoelectron band. The photoabsorption cross sections have been used to calculate the photolysis lifetime of ethyl formate in the upper stratosphere (20-50 km). PMID:25217920

  4. Ultraviolet atomic emission detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, W.; Peterson, N. C.; Bass, A. M.; Kurylo, M. J., III (Inventor)

    1972-01-01

    A device and method are provided for performing qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis through the utilization of a vacuum UV chromatographic detector. The method involves the use of a carrier gas at low pressure. The gas carries a sample to a gas chromatograph column; the column output is directed to a microwave cavity. In this cavity, a low pressure microwave discharge produces fragmentation of the compounds present and generates intense atomic emissions in the vacuum ultraviolet. These emissions are isolated by a monochromator and measured by photometer to establish absolute concentration for the elements.

  5. Deciphering the structure of isomeric oligosaccharides in a complex mixture by tandem mass spectrometry: photon activation with vacuum ultra-violet brings unique information and enables definitive structure assignment.

    PubMed

    Ropartz, David; Lemoine, Jérôme; Giuliani, Alexandre; Bittebière, Yann; Enjalbert, Quentin; Antoine, Rodolphe; Dugourd, Philippe; Ralet, Marie-Christine; Rogniaux, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    Carbohydrates have a wide variety of structures whose complexity and heterogeneity challenge the field of analytical chemistry. Tandem mass spectrometry, with its remarkable sensitivity and high information content, provides key advantages to addressing the structural elucidation of polysaccharides. Yet, classical fragmentation by collision-activated dissociation (CAD) in many cases fails to reach a comprehensive structural determination, especially when isomers have to be differentiated. In this work, for the first time, vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) synchrotron radiation is used as the activation process in tandem mass spectrometry of large oligosaccharides. Compared to low energy CAD (LE-CAD), photon activated dissociation brought more straightforward and valuable structural information. The outstanding feature was that complete series of informative ions were produced, with only minor neutral losses. Moreover, systematic fragmentation rules could be drawn thus facilitating the definitive assignments of fragment identities. As a result, most of the structures present in a complex mixture of oligogalacturonans could be comprehensively resolved, including many isomers differing in the position of methyl groups along the galacturonic acid backbone. PMID:24356224

  6. Comparison of the vacuum-ultraviolet radiation response of HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si dielectric stacks with SiO{sub 2}/Si

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhyaya, G. S.; Shohet, J. L.

    2007-02-12

    Vacuum ultraviolet (vuv) emitted during plasma processing degrades dielectrics by generating electron-hole pairs. VUV-induced charging of SiO{sub 2}/p-Si and HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/p-Si dielectric stacks are compared. For SiO{sub 2}/p-Si, charging is observed for photon energies >15 eV by ionization of dielectric atoms from photoinjected electrons. In HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/p-Si, charging is observed for photon >10 eV and is due to ionization by photoinjected electrons and by H{sup +} trapping in the HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} bulk. Hydrogen appears during annealing at the Si-SiO{sub 2} interface forming Si-H, which, during irradiation, is depassivated by photoinjected electrons. The authors conclude that dielectric charging in thin oxides (<10 nm) occurs more easily in HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} than in SiO{sub 2}.

  7. Electronic excitation of carbonyl sulphide (COS) by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption and electron-impact spectroscopy in the energy region from 4 to 11 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Limão-Vieira, P.; Ferreira da Silva, F.; Almeida, D.; Hoshino, M.; Tanaka, H.; Mogi, D.; Tanioka, T.; Mason, N. J.; Hoffmann, S. V.; Hubin-Franskin, M.-J.; Delwiche, J.

    2015-02-14

    The electronic state spectroscopy of carbonyl sulphide, COS, has been investigated using high resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy in the energy range of 4.0–10.8 eV. The spectrum reveals several new features not previously reported in the literature. Vibronic structure has been observed, notably in the low energy absorption dipole forbidden band assigned to the (4π←3π) ({sup 1}Δ←{sup 1}Σ{sup +}) transition, with a new weak transition assigned to ({sup 1}Σ{sup −}←{sup 1}Σ{sup +}) reported here for the first time. The absolute optical oscillator strengths are determined for ground state to {sup 1}Σ{sup +} and {sup 1}Π transitions. Based on our recent measurements of differential cross sections for the optically allowed ({sup 1}Σ{sup +} and {sup 1}Π) transitions of COS by electron impact, the optical oscillator strength f{sub 0} value and integral cross sections (ICSs) are derived by applying a generalized oscillator strength analysis. Subsequently, ICSs predicted by the scaling are confirmed down to 60 eV in the intermediate energy region. The measured absolute photoabsorption cross sections have been used to calculate the photolysis lifetime of carbonyl sulphide in the upper stratosphere (20–50 km)

  8. Electronic excitation of carbonyl sulphide (COS) by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption and electron-impact spectroscopy in the energy region from 4 to 11 eV.

    PubMed

    Limão-Vieira, P; Ferreira da Silva, F; Almeida, D; Hoshino, M; Tanaka, H; Mogi, D; Tanioka, T; Mason, N J; Hoffmann, S V; Hubin-Franskin, M-J; Delwiche, J

    2015-02-14

    The electronic state spectroscopy of carbonyl sulphide, COS, has been investigated using high resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy in the energy range of 4.0-10.8 eV. The spectrum reveals several new features not previously reported in the literature. Vibronic structure has been observed, notably in the low energy absorption dipole forbidden band assigned to the (4π←3π) ((1)Δ←(1)Σ(+)) transition, with a new weak transition assigned to ((1)Σ(-)←(1)Σ(+)) reported here for the first time. The absolute optical oscillator strengths are determined for ground state to (1)Σ(+) and (1)Π transitions. Based on our recent measurements of differential cross sections for the optically allowed ((1)Σ(+) and (1)Π) transitions of COS by electron impact, the optical oscillator strength f0 value and integral cross sections (ICSs) are derived by applying a generalized oscillator strength analysis. Subsequently, ICSs predicted by the scaling are confirmed down to 60 eV in the intermediate energy region. The measured absolute photoabsorption cross sections have been used to calculate the photolysis lifetime of carbonyl sulphide in the upper stratosphere (20-50 km). PMID:25681902

  9. Communication: Rovibrationally selected study of the N{sub 2}{sup +}(X; v{sup +}= 1, N{sup +}= 0-8) + Ar charge transfer reaction using the vacuum ultraviolet laser pulsed field ionization-photoion method

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Yih Chung; Xu Hong; Xu Yuntao; Lu Zhou; Ng, C. Y.; Chiu, Yu-Hui; Levandier, Dale J.

    2011-05-28

    By employing an electric field pulsing scheme for vacuum ultraviolet laser pulsed field ionization-photoion (PFI-PI) measurements, we have been able to prepare a rovibrationally selected PFI-PI beam of N{sub 2}{sup +}(v{sup +}= 1, N{sup +}) with not only high intensity and high quantum state purity, but also high kinetic energy resolution, allowing absolute total cross sections [{sigma}(v{sup +}= 1, N{sup +})] for the N{sub 2}{sup +}(X; v{sup +}= 1, N{sup +}) + Ar, N{sup +}= 0-8 charge transfer reaction to be measured at center-of-mass collision energies (E{sub cm}) down to thermal energies. The {sigma}(v{sup +}= 1, N{sup +}= 0-8) values determined at E{sub cm}= 0.04-10.00 eV are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions based on the Landau-Zener-Stueckelberg formulism. Taking into account the experimental uncertainties, the {sigma}(v{sup +}= 1, N{sup +}), N{sup +}= 0-8, measured at E{sub cm}= 1.56 eV are found to be independent of N{sup +}.

  10. Communication: rovibrationally selected study of the N2+(X; v+=1, N+= 0-8) + Ar charge transfer reaction using the vacuum ultraviolet laser pulsed field ionization-photoion method.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yih Chung; Xu, Hong; Xu, Yuntao; Lu, Zhou; Chiu, Yu-Hui; Levandier, Dale J; Ng, C Y

    2011-05-28

    By employing an electric field pulsing scheme for vacuum ultraviolet laser pulsed field ionization-photoion (PFI-PI) measurements, we have been able to prepare a rovibrationally selected PFI-PI beam of N(2)(+)(v(+) = 1, N(+)) with not only high intensity and high quantum state purity, but also high kinetic energy resolution, allowing absolute total cross sections [σ(v(+) = 1, N(+))] for the N(2)(+)(X; v(+) = 1, N(+)) + Ar, N(+) = 0-8 charge transfer reaction to be measured at center-of-mass collision energies (E(cm)) down to thermal energies. The σ(v(+) = 1, N(+) = 0-8) values determined at E(cm) = 0.04-10.00 eV are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions based on the Landau-Zener-Stückelberg formulism. Taking into account the experimental uncertainties, the σ(v(+) = 1, N(+)), N(+) = 0-8, measured at E(cm) = 1.56 eV are found to be independent of N(+). PMID:21639416

  11. Ultraviolet Waves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molde, Trevor

    1973-01-01

    Outlines the discovery and nature of ultraviolet light, discusses some applications for these wavelengths, and describes a number of experiments with ultraviolet radiation suitable for secondary school science classes. (JR)

  12. Vacuum force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yongquan

    2015-03-01

    To study on vacuum force, we must clear what is vacuum, vacuum is a space do not have any air and also ray. There is not exist an absolute the vacuum of space. The vacuum of space is relative, so that the vacuum force is relative. There is a certain that vacuum vacuum space exists. In fact, the vacuum space is relative, if the two spaces compared to the existence of relative vacuum, there must exist a vacuum force, and the direction of the vacuum force point to the vacuum region. Any object rotates and radiates. Rotate bend radiate- centripetal, gravity produced, relative gravity; non gravity is the vacuum force. Gravity is centripetal, is a trend that the objects who attracted wants to Centripetal, or have been do Centripetal movement. Any object moves, so gravity makes the object curve movement, that is to say, the radiation range curve movement must be in the gravitational objects, gravity must be existed in non vacuum region, and make the object who is in the region of do curve movement (for example: The earth moves around the sun), or final attracted in the form gravitational objects, and keep relatively static with attract object. (for example: objects on the earth moves but can't reach the first cosmic speed).

  13. SAGE III/Meteor - 3M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Full view of the SAGE III Bench Checkout Unit, Collimated Source Bench (CSB), Portable Image Generator (PIG) on tripod, and Stratospheric Aerosol Gastropheric Experiment (SAGE)/Meteor - 3M flight instrument. Photographed in building 1250, 40 foot clean room.

  14. SAGE III/Meteor - 3M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    From left to right: Richard Rawls, Chip Holloway, and Art Hayhurst standing next to the Stratospheric Aerosol Gastropheric Experiment (SAGE)/Meteor - 3M flight instrument. Photographed in building 1250, 40 foot clean room.

  15. SAGE III/Meteor - 3M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Back view of the SAGE III Bench Checkout Unit, Portable Image Generator (PIG) on tripod, and the Stratospheric Aerosol Gastropheric Experiment (SAGE)/Meteor - 3M flight instrument. Photographed in building 1250, 40 foot clean room.

  16. Time-resolved vacuum-ultraviolet emission (λ  =  60-120 nm) from a high pressure DBD-excited helium plasma: formation mechanisms of the fast component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carman, R. J.; Ganesan, R.; Kane, D. M.

    2016-03-01

    We report time and wavelength resolved studies of the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) emission from a windowless dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in helium. Short-pulse voltage excitation is utilised to clearly resolve the fast and slow temporal components of the Hopfield continuum between λ  =  60-120 nm. Experimental results and theoretical modelling of the spectral distributions indicate that the two components of the VUV emission must originate from the same radiating molecular state—\\text{He}2\\ast≤ft({{\\text{A}}1}Σ\\text{u}+\\right) , and that two distinct pumping mechanisms populate this state. The time evolution of the fast component is found to correlate with that from the (0,0) molecular transition \\text{He}2\\ast≤ft({{\\text{E}}1}{{\\Pi}\\text{g}}-~{{\\text{A}}1}Σ\\text{u}+\\right) (λ  =  513.4 nm). Thus the \\text{He}2\\ast≤ft({{\\text{A}}1}{}Σ\\text{u}+\\right) state is initially rapidly pumped via radiative cascade from higher \\text{He}2\\ast(n=3) molecular states. In addition, the observed band emissions from the molecular \\text{He}2\\ast≤ft({{\\text{E}}1}{{\\Pi}\\text{g}}\\right) v=0 and \\text{He}2\\ast≤ft({{\\text{F}}1}Σ\\text{u}+\\right) v=0 states and the line emissions from the atomic He*(n  =  3) states all exhibit similar temporal behaviour during the discharge excitation period. Our results are consistent with the recent report of Frost et al (J. Phys. B 34 1569 2001) concerning the existence of a so-called ‘neglected channel’ to fast \\text{He}2\\ast production from He*(n  =  3) atomic state precursors.

  17. Electronic Structure and Optical Properties of Cu2ZnGeSe4. First-Principles Calculations and Vacuum-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Ellipsometric Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Sukgeun; Park, Ji-Sang; Donohue, Andrea; Christensen, Steven T.; To, Bobby; Beall, Carolyn; Wei, Su-Huai; Repins, Ingid L.

    2015-11-19

    Cu2ZnGeSe4 is of interest for the development of next-generation thin-film photovoltaic technologies. To understand its electronic structure and related fundamental optical properties, we perform first-principles calculations for three structural variations: kesterite, stannite, and primitive-mixed CuAu phases. The calculated data are compared with the room-temperature dielectric functionϵ=ϵ1+iϵ2 spectrum of polycrystalline Cu2ZnGeSe4 determined by vacuum-ultraviolet spectroscopic ellipsometry in the photon-energy range of 0.7 to 9.0 eV. Ellipsometric data are modeled with the sum of eight Tauc-Lorentz oscillators, and the best-fit model yields the band-gap and Tauc-gap energies of 1.25 and 1.19 eV, respectively. A comparison of overall peak shapes and relative intensities between experimental spectra and the calculated ϵ data for three structural variations suggests that the sample may not have a pure (ordered) kesterite phase. We found that the complex refractive index N=n+ik, normal-incidence reflectivity R, and absorption coefficients α are calculated from the modeled ϵ spectrum, which are also compared with those of Cu2ZnSnSe4 . The spectral features for Cu2ZnGeSe4 appear to be weaker and broader than those for Cu2ZnSnSe4 , which is possibly due to more structural imperfections presented in Cu2ZnGeSe4 than Cu2ZnSnSe4 .

  18. Concerning neutral flux shielding in the U-3M torsatron

    SciTech Connect

    Dreval, N. B.

    2015-03-15

    The volume of the torsatron U-3M vacuum chamber is about 70 m{sup 3}, whereas the plasma volume is about 0.3 m{sup 3}. The large buffer volume of the chamber serves as a source of a substantial neutral flux into the U-3M plasma. A fraction of this flux falls onto the torsatron helical coils located in front of the plasma, due to which the dynamics of neutral influx into the plasma modifies. The shielding of the molecular flux from the buffer volume into the plasma is estimated using numerical calculations. Only about 10% of the incident flux reaches the plasma volume. Estimates show that about 20% of atoms escape beyond the helical coils without colliding with them. Under these conditions, the helical coils substantially affect the neutral flux. A discharge regime with a hot low-density plasma produced by a frame antenna is considered. The spatial distribution of the molecular density produced in this regime by the molecular flux from the chamber buffer volume after it has passed between the helical coils is calculated. The contributions of the fluxes emerging from the side and inner surfaces of the helical coils are considered. The calculations show that the shape of the spatial distribution of the molecular density differs substantially from the shape of the magnetic surfaces.

  19. Concerning neutral flux shielding in the U-3M torsatron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreval, N. B.

    2015-03-01

    The volume of the torsatron U-3M vacuum chamber is about 70 m3, whereas the plasma volume is about 0.3 m3. The large buffer volume of the chamber serves as a source of a substantial neutral flux into the U-3M plasma. A fraction of this flux falls onto the torsatron helical coils located in front of the plasma, due to which the dynamics of neutral influx into the plasma modifies. The shielding of the molecular flux from the buffer volume into the plasma is estimated using numerical calculations. Only about 10% of the incident flux reaches the plasma volume. Estimates show that about 20% of atoms escape beyond the helical coils without colliding with them. Under these conditions, the helical coils substantially affect the neutral flux. A discharge regime with a hot low-density plasma produced by a frame antenna is considered. The spatial distribution of the molecular density produced in this regime by the molecular flux from the chamber buffer volume after it has passed between the helical coils is calculated. The contributions of the fluxes emerging from the side and inner surfaces of the helical coils are considered. The calculations show that the shape of the spatial distribution of the molecular density differs substantially from the shape of the magnetic surfaces.

  20. The Block-P 3M algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastwood, J. W.

    2008-07-01

    The Block-P 3M algorithm is a new development of the P 3M (particle-particle/particle-mesh) method [J. Eastwood, Optimal P 3M algorithms for molecular dynamics simulations, in: M. Hooper (Ed.), Computational Methods in Classical and Quantum Physics, Advance Publications Ltd, 1976, pp. 206-228; R. Hockney, J. Eastwood, Computer Simulation using Particles, McGraw-Hill, 1981 (Student Ed., Adam-Hilger, 1988)] for boundary integral and N-body calculations. It gives O(NlogN) complexity and O(N) storage of action-at-a-distance convolution sums for non-uniform distributions of sources and for any displacement invariant Green's function. It gives optimal accuracy and, unlike the Fast Multipole Method, it does not suffer from low frequency breakdown problems.

  1. A 3M high temperature dielectric film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampl, Edward, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The performance characteristics of a dielectric film are summarized. Additionally, the film's environmental and chemical properties are listed: low shrinkage to 300 C; moisture insensitive; low outgassing under vacuum; excellent surface qualities--easy metallization of film; flame retardant; and low smoke generation. A series of graphs that display the performance characteristics of the film are also presented.

  2. Induced ClO vacuum ultraviolet fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colussi, A. J.; Sander, S. P.

    1991-01-01

    Some vibronic transitions of ClO such as G(v-prime = 11 )-X(v-double prime = 10), G(v-prime = 5)-X(v-double prime = 3) and H(v-prime = 4)-X(v-double prime = 2), which promote overtones of X(2pi3/2) to bound Rydberg states, are nearly resonant with the 130.6 nm O-atom emission line and possess sizable Franck-Condon factors. On this basis broadband detection of 'O atom' fluorescence in experiments involving vibrationally excited ClO(X) is ascribed to the radiative decay of ClO(G, H) rather than to the formation of O atoms; these observations raise the probability of monitoring ClO(X; v = 0) by VUV-induced fluorescence.

  3. Vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption study of SO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nee, J. B.; Lee, L. C.

    1986-01-01

    The photoabsorption of SO was investigated by producing the radicals from a pulsed discharge of a trace of SO2 in Ar. The photoabsorption cross section of SO in the 115-135 nm region was measured. A repulsive potential curve is constructed from the observed photoabsorption spectrum.

  4. Femtosecond spectroscopy with vacuum ultraviolet pulse pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, Tom; Wright, Travis; Stooke, Adam; Khurmi, Champak; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Liu, Yanwei; Falcone, Roger; Belkacem, Ali

    2011-06-17

    We combine different wavelengths from an intense high-order harmonics source with variable delay at the focus of a split-mirror interferometer to conduct pump-probe experiments on gas-phase molecules. We report measurements of the time resolution (< 44fs) and spatial profiles (4 {micro}m x 12 {micro}m) at the focus of the apparatus. We demonstrate the utility of this two-color, high-order-harmonic technique by time resolving molecular hydrogen elimination from C{sub 2} H{sub 4} excited into its absorption band at 161nm.

  5. Vacuum ultraviolet photodissociation of hydrogen bromide.

    PubMed

    Su, Shu; Dorenkamp, Yvonne; Yu, Shengrui; Wodtke, Alec M; Dai, Dongxu; Yuan, Kaijun; Yang, Xueming

    2016-06-01

    Photodissociation dynamics of HBr at a series of photolysis wavelengths in the range of 123.90-125.90 nm and at around 137.0 nm have been studied using the H atom Rydberg "tagging" time-of-flight technique. The branching fractions between the channels forming ground Br((2)P3/2) and spin-orbit excited Br((2)P1/2) atoms together with the angular distributions of the products corresponding to these two channels have been measured. The photolysis wavelengths in this work excited the HBr molecule from the ground state X (1)Σ(+) to various Rydberg states and the V (1)Σ(+) ion-pair valence state. Predissociation via these states displays rich behavior, indicating the influence of the nature of initially excited states and the coupling to other bound or repulsive states on the predissociation dynamics. PMID:27210285

  6. "Scrubbing" Data for D3M

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercurius, Neil

    2005-01-01

    Data-driven decision-making (D3M) appears to be the new buzz phrase for this century, the information age. On the education front, teachers and administrators are engaging in data-centered dialog in grade-level meetings, lounges, hallways, and classrooms as they brainstorm toward closing the gap in student achievement. Clearly, such discussion…

  7. Preparation and spectroscopic properties of rare-earth (RE) (RE = Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Tm)-activated K{sub 2}LnZr(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} (Ln = Y, La, Gd and Lu) phosphate in vacuum ultraviolet region

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Lin, Xiao; Zhao, Jing-Tai; Zhang, Guo-Bin

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► We report the VUV spectroscopic properties of rare-earth ions in K{sub 2}LnZr(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}. ► The O{sup 2−}-Eu{sup 3+} charge transfer bands at about 220 nm have been observed. ► The 4f–5d spin-allowed and spin-forbidden transitions of Tb{sup 3+} have been observed. ► There is energy transfer between the host and rare-earth activators. -- Abstract: Rare earth (RE = Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy and Tm)-activated K{sub 2}LnZr(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} (Ln = Y, La, Gd and Lu) have been synthesized by solid-state reaction method, and their vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) excitation luminescent characteristics have been investigated. The band in the wavelength range of 130–157 nm and the other one range from 155 to 216 nm with the maximum at about 187 nm in the VUV excitation spectra of these compounds are attributed to the host lattice absorption and O–Zr charge transfer transition, respectively. The charge transfer bands (CTB) of O{sup 2−}-Sm{sup 3+}, O{sup 2−}-Dy{sup 3+} and O{sup 2−}-Tm{sup 3+}, in Sm{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+}-activated samples, have not been obviously observed probably because the 2p electrons of oxygen are tightly bound to the zirconium ion in the host lattice. For Eu{sup 3+}-activated samples, the relatively weak O{sup 2−}-Eu{sup 3+} CTB at about 220 nm is observed. And for Tb{sup 3+}-activated samples, the bands at 223 and 258 nm are related to the 4f-5d spin-allowed and spin-forbidden transitions of Tb{sup 3+}, respectively. It is observed that there is energy transfer between the host lattice and the luminescent activators (e.g. Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}). From the standpoint of luminescent efficiency, color purity and chemical stability, K{sub 2}GdZr(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}:Sm{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+} are attractive candidates for novel yellow, red, green-emitting PDP phosphors.

  8. VACUUM TRAP

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, H.S.

    1959-09-15

    An improved adsorption vacuum trap for use in vacuum systems was designed. The distinguishing feature is the placement of a plurality of torsionally deformed metallic fins within a vacuum jacket extending from the walls to the central axis so that substantially all gas molecules pass through the jacket will impinge upon the fin surfaces. T fins are heated by direct metallic conduction, thereby ol taining a uniform temperature at the adeorbing surfaces so that essentially all of the condensible impurities from the evacuating gas are removed from the vacuum system.

  9. Inactivation of Listeria on Frankfurter Surfaces Using UVC Radiation and Vacuum-Steam-Vacuum Pasteurization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes, a psychrotrophic food-borne pathogen, is a frequent post-process contaminant on ready-to-eat meat (RTE) products including frankfurters. Both Ultraviolet (254 nm) radiation and Vacuum-Steam-Vacuum (VSV) surface steam pasteurization are FDA approved technologies that can be u...

  10. Vacuum Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Biltoft, P J

    2004-10-15

    The environmental condition called vacuum is created any time the pressure of a gas is reduced compared to atmospheric pressure. On earth we typically create a vacuum by connecting a pump capable of moving gas to a relatively leak free vessel. Through operation of the gas pump the number of gas molecules per unit volume is decreased within the vessel. As soon as one creates a vacuum natural forces (in this case entropy) work to restore equilibrium pressure; the practical effect of this is that gas molecules attempt to enter the evacuated space by any means possible. It is useful to think of vacuum in terms of a gas at a pressure below atmospheric pressure. In even the best vacuum vessels ever created there are approximately 3,500,000 molecules of gas per cubic meter of volume remaining inside the vessel. The lowest pressure environment known is in interstellar space where there are approximately four molecules of gas per cubic meter. Researchers are currently developing vacuum technology components (pumps, gauges, valves, etc.) using micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. Miniature vacuum components and systems will open the possibility for significant savings in energy cost and will open the doors to advances in electronics, manufacturing and semiconductor fabrication. In conclusion, an understanding of the basic principles of vacuum technology as presented in this summary is essential for the successful execution of all projects that involve vacuum technology. Using the principles described above, a practitioner of vacuum technology can design a vacuum system that will achieve the project requirements.

  11. Ultraviolet Extensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Side-by-Side Comparison Click on image for larger view

    This ultraviolet image from NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer shows the Southern Pinwheel galaxy, also know as Messier 83 or M83. It is located 15 million light-years away in the southern constellation Hydra.

    Ultraviolet light traces young populations of stars; in this image, young stars can be seen way beyond the main spiral disk of M83 up to 140,000 light-years from its center. Could life exist around one of these far-flung stars? Scientists say it's unlikely because the outlying regions of a galaxy are lacking in the metals required for planets to form.

    The image was taken at scheduled intervals between March 15 and May 20, 2007. It is one of the longest-exposure, or deepest, images ever taken of a nearby galaxy in ultraviolet light. Near-ultraviolet light (or longer-wavelength ultraviolet light) is colored yellow, and far-ultraviolet light is blue.

    What Lies Beyond the Edge of a Galaxy The side-by-side comparison shows the Southern Pinwheel galaxy, or M83, as seen in ultraviolet light (right) and at both ultraviolet and radio wavelengths (left). While the radio data highlight the galaxy's long, octopus-like arms stretching far beyond its main spiral disk (red), the ultraviolet data reveal clusters of baby stars (blue) within the extended arms.

    The ultraviolet image was taken by NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer between March 15 and May 20, 2007, at scheduled intervals. Back in 2005, the telescope first photographed M83 over a shorter period of time. That picture was the first to reveal far-flung baby stars forming up to 63,000 light-years from the edge of the main spiral disk. This came as a surprise to astronomers because a galaxy's outer territory typically lacks high densities of star-forming materials.

    The newest picture of M83 from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer is shown at the right, and was taken over a longer period of

  12. Vacuum Virtues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathey, Allen

    2007-01-01

    Upright vacuums, like cars, vary in quality, features and performance. Like automobiles, some uprights are reliable, others may be problematic, and some become a problem as a result of neglect or improper use. So, how do education institutions make an informed choice and, having done so, ensure that an upright vacuum goes the distance? In this…

  13. Vacuum mechatronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackwood, Susan; Belinski, Steven E.; Beni, Gerardo

    1989-01-01

    The discipline of vacuum mechatronics is defined as the design and development of vacuum-compatible computer-controlled mechanisms for manipulating, sensing and testing in a vacuum environment. The importance of vacuum mechatronics is growing with an increased application of vacuum in space studies and in manufacturing for material processing, medicine, microelectronics, emission studies, lyophylisation, freeze drying and packaging. The quickly developing field of vacuum mechatronics will also be the driving force for the realization of an advanced era of totally enclosed clean manufacturing cells. High technology manufacturing has increasingly demanding requirements for precision manipulation, in situ process monitoring and contamination-free environments. To remove the contamination problems associated with human workers, the tendency in many manufacturing processes is to move towards total automation. This will become a requirement in the near future for e.g., microelectronics manufacturing. Automation in ultra-clean manufacturing environments is evolving into the concept of self-contained and fully enclosed manufacturing. A Self Contained Automated Robotic Factory (SCARF) is being developed as a flexible research facility for totally enclosed manufacturing. The construction and successful operation of a SCARF will provide a novel, flexible, self-contained, clean, vacuum manufacturing environment. SCARF also requires very high reliability and intelligent control. The trends in vacuum mechatronics and some of the key research issues are reviewed.

  14. Rovibrationally selected ion-molecule collision study using the molecular beam vacuum ultraviolet laser pulsed field ionization-photoion method: charge transfer reaction of N2(+)(X 2Σg+; v+ = 0-2; N+ = 0-9) + Ar.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yih Chung; Xu, Yuntao; Lu, Zhou; Xu, Hong; Ng, C Y

    2012-09-14

    We have developed an ion-molecule reaction apparatus for state-selected absolute total cross section measurements by implementing a high-resolution molecular beam vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser pulsed field ionization-photoion (PFI-PI) ion source to a double-quadrupole double-octopole ion-guide mass spectrometer. Using the total cross section measurement of the state-selected N(2)(+)(v(+), N(+)) + Ar charge transfer (CT) reaction as an example, we describe in detail the design of the VUV laser PFI-PI ion source used, which has made possible the preparation of reactant N(2)(+)(X (2)Σ(g)(+), v(+) = 0-2, N(+) = 0-9) PFI-PIs with high quantum state purity, high intensity, and high kinetic energy resolution. The PFI-PIs and prompt ions produced in the ion source are shown to have different kinetic energies, allowing the clean rejection of prompt ions from the PFI-PI beam by applying a retarding potential barrier upstream of the PFI-PI source. By optimizing the width and amplitude of the pulsed electric fields employed to the VUV-PFI-PI source, we show that the reactant N(2)(+) PFI-PI beam can be formed with a laboratory kinetic energy resolution of ΔE(lab) = ± 50 meV. As a result, the total cross section measurement can be conducted at center-of-mass kinetic energies (E(cm)'s) down to thermal energies. Absolute total rovibrationally selected cross sections σ(v(+) = 0-2, N(+) = 0-9) for the N(2)(+)(X (2)Σ(g)(+); v(+) = 0-2, N(+) = 0-9) + Ar CT reaction have been measured in the E(cm) range of 0.04-10.0 eV, revealing strong vibrational enhancements and E(cm)-dependencies of σ(v(+) = 0-2, N(+) = 0-9). The thermochemical threshold at E(cm) = 0.179 eV for the formation of Ar(+) from N(2)(+)(X; v(+) = 0, N(+)) + Ar was observed by the measured σ(v(+) = 0), confirming the narrow ΔE(cm) spread achieved in the present study. The σ(v(+) = 0-2; N(+)) values obtained here are compared with previous experimental and theoretical results. The theoretical predictions

  15. Ultraviolet observations of comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Code, A. D.; Houck, T. E.; Lillie, C. F.

    1972-01-01

    The first observations of a comet in the vacuum ultraviolet were obtained on January 14, 1970, when OAO-2 recorded the spectrum of the bright comet Tago-Sato-Kosaka (1969g). The observations revealed, among other things, the predicted extensive hydrogen Lyman alpha halo. OAO-2 continued to collect spectrophotometric measurements of this comet throughout January of that year; a photograph of the nucleus in Lyman alpha revealed finer scale structures. In February of 1970, the bright comet Bennet (1969i) became favorable for space observations. On the basis of the OAO discovery, OGO-V made several measurements of comet Bennet with low spatial resolution photometers. Comet Enke was detected by OGO in January of 1971 at a large heliocentric distance from its Lyman alpha emission.

  16. Vacuum leak detector features higher sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrington, A. E.

    1970-01-01

    Technique for measuring partial pressures utilizes extremely large resonance scattering cross section of xenon at 1471 angstroms to scatter light in a vacuum cell. Output signal of ultraviolet-sensitive photodetector is proportional to the partial pressure and to the rate of inleakage of xenon probe gas.

  17. Gas-phase actionmetry for uv and vacuum uv spectral regions (review)

    SciTech Connect

    Pravilov, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    The authors review the photochemical behavior of a wide range of candidate materials for use in ultraviolet spectrometers and photodetectors for spectral determination in the ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet region. Among the materials are ethylene, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, hexafluoroacetone, oxygen, azomethane, hydrobromic acid, phosgene, and nitrosyl chloride. Test results are tabulated and compared.

  18. Photon stimulated desorption from a vacuum chamber at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Kobari, T.; Halama, H.J.

    1987-07-01

    In our search for surfaces exhibiting the lowest photon stimulated desorption, we have exposed a 3-m-long beam tube to photons from the vacuum ultraviolet ring of the National Synchrotron Light Source having critical energy of --500 eV. Desorption of H/sub 2/, CH/sub 4/, CO, and CO/sub 2/, which are the main gas species, was studied as a function of the beam dose for the following surface treatments: standard chemical cleaning, Ar 10% O/sub 2/ glow discharge, N/sub 2/ glow discharge, and radio frequency glow discharge using O/sub 2/ disassociation. In addition, we measured the desorption as a function of vertical collimator position. N/sub 2/ glow discharge treatment yielded the lowest desorption.

  19. Reduce costs with vacuum excavation

    SciTech Connect

    Vitale, S.A.

    1983-09-01

    Although vacuum excavation equipment and methods are in their infancy, this developing technology offers tremendous promise for the future. The author explains Brooklyn Union Gas Co.'s experience with five vacuum trucks and the procedures that are used. In recent years, the higher cost of natural gas has increased the need for gas utilities to reduce their operating expenses. One way, which has been successful at Brooklyn Union Gas, is the use of vacuum excavation. Although vacuum excavation equipment and techniques are in their infancy, this developing technology offers substantial savings today and tremendous promise for the future. Brooklyn Union started its vacuum digging program by locating keyhole cutoffs--small surface openings ranging from 1 ft by 1 ft to 1 1/2 ft by 1 1/2 ft (0.3 m to 0.45 m square). It is no easy task to accurately locate a service that was installed 60 years ago. Reading the street indications, locating an existing curb valve or repair opening, gaining access to the building, making a physical lineup, and using an M-scope, plus any other tools available, have produced a high success rate.

  20. Vacuum phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, Youichi; Ohsaka, Hiromichi; Jitsuiki, Kei; Yoshizawa, Toshihiko; Takeuchi, Ikuto; Omori, Kazuhiko; Oode, Yasumasa; Ishikawa, Kouhei

    2016-08-01

    This article describes the theory of the formation of the vacuum phenomenon (VP), the detection of the VP, the different medical causes, the different locations of the presentation of the VP, and the differential diagnoses. In the human body, the cavitation effect is recognized on radiological studies; it is called the VP. The mechanism responsible for the formation of the VP is as follows: if an enclosed tissue space is allowed to expand as a rebound phenomenon after an external impact, the volume within the enclosed space will increase. In the setting of expanding volume, the pressure within the space will decrease. The solubility of the gas in the enclosed space will decrease as the pressure of the space decreases. Decreased solubility allows a gas to leave a solution. Clinically, the pathologies associated with the VP have been reported to mainly include the normal joint motion, degeneration of the intervertebral discs or joints, and trauma. The frequent use of CT for trauma patients and the high spatial resolution of CT images might produce the greatest number of chances to detect the VP in trauma patients. The VP is observed at locations that experience a traumatic impact; thus, an analysis of the VP may be useful for elucidating the mechanism of an injury. When the VP is located in the abdomen, it is important to include perforation of the digestive tract in the differential diagnosis. The presence of the VP in trauma patients does not itself influence the final outcome. PMID:27147527

  1. Detailed gas and diesel vehicle emissions: PTR-MS measurements of real-time VOC profiles and comprehensive characterization of primary emissions for IVOC, SVOC, and LVOC by gas chromatography with vacuum ultra-violet ionization mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozd, G.; Frodin, B.; Zhao, Y.; Franklin, J. P.; Cross, E. S.; Saleh, R.; Saliba, G.; Lambe, A. T.; Sardar, S.; Maldonado, H.; Russell, L. M.; Kroll, J. H.; Robinson, A. L.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past fifteen years US vehicle emissions standards have dramatically improved, with the goal of reducing urban air pollution. Recent studies demonstrate secondary organic aerosol (SOA) to be the dominant contributor to urban organic aerosol, but controversy remains regarding the contributions of different vehicle types to SOA. Increased potency for SOA formation from non methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) from newer vehicles that meet tighter emission standards has also been observed. Both speciation and temporal resolution of vehicular emissions are critical for predicting SOA formation. The relative importance of diesel and gasoline emissions to SOA formation depends critically on speciation. Experiments were conducted at the California Air Resources Board Haagen-Smit Laboratory to better understand SOA formation for low, ultra-low, super ultra-low and partial zero emission vehicles (LEV, ULEV, SULEV, PZEV). Exhaust was sampled on filters and adsorbent tubes to measure intermediate-, semi-, and low-volatility NMHC (IVOC, SVOC, LVOC). A proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) measured volatile organics (VOC) emissions with high time-resolution. Analysis of filters and adsorbent tubes using gas chromatography with vacuum-ultra-violet ionization mass spectrometry provided unprecedented characterization of emissions according to degree of branching, number of cyclic rings, aromaticity, and molecular weight. ULEV vehicles show the composition distributions of primary particulate emissions peak for compounds in the SVOC range. PZEV vehicle emissions peak in the IVOC range. Diesel vehicles have up to ten times higher emissions than gasoline vehicles; their distributions have significant IVOC levels and peak in the SVOC/LVOC range. Our measurements are used to predict potential SOA formation by vehicle standard class and the relative SOA formation for diesel and gasoline vehicles. PTR-MS measurement show VOC emissions after cold start occur almost entirely

  2. Fabrication and metrology study for M3M of TMT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xiao

    2014-09-01

    The M3M (Mirror 3 Mirror) of TMT (Thirty Meter Telescope) project is a3.5m×2.5m solid flat elliptical mirror. CIOMP is responsible for the fabrication of the M3M. A primary study on the fabrication and metrology is done in the past 2 years, and this paper introduces our work on the project. The fabrication strategy is based on large orbital tools and a plan combining with multiple measure methods is developed based on the requirement of M3M. A concept of dualsupporting system is also studied in the program to reduce the effect of gravity deformation.

  3. Engineering support for an ultraviolet imager for the ISTP mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torr, Douglas G.

    1991-01-01

    Design and development activities were carried out for the Ultraviolet Imager (UVI) to be flown on the Polar Spacecraft of the INternational Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) Mission. The following tasks were performed: (1) design and fabrication of prototype/engineering model of the UVI imager; (2) preliminary design review; (3) vacuum ultraviolet filter design; (4) auroral energy deposition code; (5) model of LBH vehicle glow; (6) laboratory measurement program of collision cross-sections; and (7) support of ISTP meetings.

  4. Natural vacuum electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leggett, Nickolaus

    1990-01-01

    The ambient natural vacuum of space is proposed as a basis for electron valves. Each valve is an electron controlling structure similiar to a vacuum tube that is operated without a vacuum sustaining envelope. The natural vacuum electron valves discussed offer a viable substitute for solid state devices. The natural vacuum valve is highly resistant to ionizing radiation, system generated electromagnetic pulse, current transients, and direct exposure to space conditions.

  5. Germanium detector vacuum encapsulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, N. W.; Malone, D. F.; Pehl, R. H.; Cork, C. P.; Luke, P. N.; Landis, D. A.; Pollard, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes an encapsulation technology that should significantly improve the viability of germanium gamma-ray detectors for a number of important applications. A specialized vacuum chamber has been constructed in which the detector and the encapsulating module are processed in high vacuum. Very high vacuum conductance is achieved within the valveless encapsulating module. The detector module is then sealed without breaking the chamber vacuum. The details of the vacuum chamber, valveless module, processing, and sealing method are presented.

  6. Biological applications of ultraviolet free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, J.C.

    1997-10-01

    This review examines the possibilities for biological research using the three ultraviolet free-electron lasers that are nearing operational status in the US. The projected operating characteristics of major interest in biological research of the free-electron lasers at Brookhaven National Laboratory, the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, and Duke University are presented. Experimental applications in the areas of far- and vacuum ultraviolet photophysics and photochemistry, structural biology, environmental photobiology, and medical research are discussed and the prospects for advances in these areas, based upon the characteristics of the new ultraviolet free-electron lasers, are evaluated.

  7. The RHIC vacuum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, R.; Hseuh, H. C.; Lee, R. C.; McIntyre, G.; Pate, D.; Smart, L.; Sondericker, J.; Weiss, D.; Welch, K.

    2003-03-01

    There are three vacuum systems in RHIC: the insulating vacuum vessels housing the superconducting magnets, the cold beam tubes surrounded by the superconducting magnets, and the warm beam tube sections at the insertion regions and the experimental regions. These systems have a cumulative length over 10 km and a total volume over 3000 m 3. Conventional ultrahigh vacuum technology was used in the design and construction of the cold and warm beam vacuum systems with great success. The long and large insulating vacuum volumes without vacuum barriers require careful management of the welding and leak checking of the numerous helium line joints. There are about 1500 vacuum gauges and pumps serial-linked to eight PLCs distributed around RHIC, which allow the monitoring and control of these devices through Ethernet networks to remote control consoles. With the exception of helium leaks through the cryogenic valve boxes into the insulating vacuum volumes, the RHIC vacuum systems have performed well beyond expectations.

  8. Quantum yields of decomposition and homo-dimerization of solid L-alanine induced by 7.2 eV Vacuum ultraviolet light irradiation: an estimate of the half-life of L-alanine on the surface of space objects.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Yudai; Nakagawa, Kazumichi

    2011-08-01

    One of the leading hypotheses regarding the origin of prebiotic molecules on primitive Earth is that they formed from inorganic molecules in extraterrestrial environments and were delivered by meteorites, space dust and comets. To evaluate the availability of extraterrestrial amino acids, it is necessary to examine their decomposition and oligomerization rates as induced by extraterrestrial energy sources, such as vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and X-ray photons and high energy particles. This paper reports the quantum yields of decomposition ((8.2 ± 0.7) × 10(-2) photon(-1)) and homo-dimerization ((1.2 ± 0.3) × 10(-3) photon(-1)) and decomposition of the dimer (0.24 ± 0.06 photon(-1)) of solid L-alanine (Ala) induced by VUV light with an energy of 7.2 eV. Using these quantum yields, the half-life of L-Ala on the surface of a space object in the present earth orbit was estimated to be about 52 days, even when only photons with an energy of 7.2 eV emitted from the present Sun were considered. The actual half-life of solid L-Ala on the surface of a space object orbit around the present day Earth would certainly be much shorter than our estimate, because of the added effect of photons and particles of other energies. Thus, we propose that L-Ala needs to be shielded from solar VUV in protected environments, such as the interior of a meteorite, within a time scale of days after synthesis to ensure its arrival on the primitive Earth. PMID:21461647

  9. Indian Vacuum Society: The Indian Vacuum Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, T. K.

    2008-03-01

    The Indian Vacuum Society (IVS) was established in 1970. It has over 800 members including many from Industry and R & D Institutions spread throughout India. The society has an active chapter at Kolkata. The society was formed with the main aim to promote, encourage and develop the growth of Vacuum Science, Techniques and Applications in India. In order to achieve this aim it has conducted a number of short term courses at graduate and technician levels on vacuum science and technology on topics ranging from low vacuum to ultrahigh vacuum So far it has conducted 39 such courses at different parts of the country and imparted training to more than 1200 persons in the field. Some of these courses were in-plant training courses conducted on the premises of the establishment and designed to take care of the special needs of the establishment. IVS also regularly conducts national and international seminars and symposia on vacuum science and technology with special emphasis on some theme related to applications of vacuum. A large number of delegates from all over India take part in the deliberations of such seminars and symposia and present their work. IVS also arranges technical visits to different industries and research institutes. The society also helped in the UNESCO sponsored post-graduate level courses in vacuum science, technology and applications conducted by Mumbai University. The society has also designed a certificate and diploma course for graduate level students studying vacuum science and technology and has submitted a syllabus to the academic council of the University of Mumbai for their approval, we hope that some colleges affiliated to the university will start this course from the coming academic year. IVS extended its support in standardizing many of the vacuum instruments and played a vital role in helping to set up a Regional Testing Centre along with BARC. As part of the development of vacuum education, the society arranges the participation of

  10. Ultraviolet spectroscopy of cometary comae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Paul D.

    1991-01-01

    During the past decade, vacuum ultraviolet spectra of over 30 comets have been obtained with the IUE satellite observatory. With few exceptions, the spectra of these comets appear to be similar, with OH and H produced by the photodissociation of water being the dominant species and emissions of C, O, S, CS and CO2(+) usually present. Although signs of variabiity of many kinds in comet spectra appear, the evidence from the UV observations suggests that all comets have the same basic chemical composition and that observed differences are due to evolution and ageing processes. During the 1985-86 apparition of Comet Halley, spectra were also obtained by other spacecraft and by sounding rocket instruments, including a long-slit imaging spectrograph.

  11. Strategic stories: how 3M is rewriting business planning.

    PubMed

    Shaw, G; Brown, R; Bromiley, P

    1998-01-01

    Virtually all business plans are written as a list of bullet points. Despite the skill or knowledge of their authors, these plans usually aren't anything more than lists of "good things to do." For example: Increase sales by 10%. Reduce distribution costs by 5%. Develop a synergistic vision for traditional products. Rarely do these lists reflect deep thought or inspire commitment. Worse, they don't specify critical relationships between the points, and they can't demonstrate how the goals will be achieved. 3M executive Gordon Shaw began looking for a more coherent and compelling way to present business plans. He found it in the form of strategic stories. Telling stories was already a habit of mind at 3M. Stories about the advent of Post-it Notes and the invention of masking tape help define 3M's identity. They're part of the way people at 3M explain themselves to their customers and to one another. Shaw and his coauthors examine how business plans can be transformed into strategic narratives. By painting a picture of the market, the competition, and the strategy needed to beat the competition, these narratives can fill in the spaces around the bullet points for those who will approve and those who will implement the strategy. When people can locate themselves in the story, their sense of commitment and involvement is enhanced. By conveying a powerful impression of the process of winning, narrative plans can mobilize an entire organization. PMID:10179653

  12. The Role of Training at 3M Company

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training and Development Journal, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The interview with L. W. Lehr, President of the U.S. Operation of the 3M Company, presents a management view of the company's training and development activities. The activities are based on behavior modification programs and organizational development approaches. (EC)

  13. Deployment of a Pair of 3 M telescopes in Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Finnegan, G.; Adams, B.; Butler, K.; Cardoza, J.; Colin, P.; Hui, C. M.; Kieda, D.; Kirkwood, D.; Kress, D.; Kress, M.; LeBohec, S.; McGuire, C.; Newbold, M.; Nunez, P.; Pham, K.

    2008-12-24

    Two 3 m telescopes are being installed in Grantsville Utah. They are intended for the testing of various approaches to the implementation of intensity interferometry using Cherenkov Telescopes in large arrays as receivers as well as for the testing of novel technology cameras and electronics for ground based gamma-ray astronomy.

  14. Stephen Hawking bags big new 3m physics prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Hamish

    2013-01-01

    A massive 3m in prize money has gone to the British cosmologist Stephen Hawking for his work on black holes, quantum gravity and the early universe. The award is one of two "special fundamental physics prizes" from the Fundamental Physics Prize Foundation, which was set up earlier this year by the Russian physicist-turned-entrepreneur Yuri Milner.

  15. Optimizing process vacuum condensers

    SciTech Connect

    Lines, J.R.; Tice, D.W.

    1997-09-01

    Vacuum condensers play a critical role in supporting vacuum processing operations. Although they may appear similar to atmospheric units, vacuum condensers have their own special designs, considerations and installation needs. By adding vacuum condensers, precondensers and intercondensers, system cost efficiency can be optimized. Vacuum-condensing systems permit reclamation of high-value product by use of a precondenser, or reduce operating costs with intercondensers. A precondenser placed between the vacuum vessel and ejector system will recover valuable process vapors and reduce vapor load to an ejector system--minimizing the system`s capital and operating costs. Similarly, an intercondenser positioned between ejector stages can condense motive steam and process vapors and reduce vapor load to downstream ejectors as well as lower capital and operating costs. The paper describes vacuum condenser systems, types of vacuum condensers, shellside condensing, tubeside condensing, noncondensable gases, precondenser pressure drop, system interdependency, equipment installation, and equipment layout.

  16. Radiation hard vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, Gordon E.

    1990-03-06

    A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction.

  17. Radiation hard vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, Gordon E.

    1990-01-01

    A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction.

  18. The Classical Vacuum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Timothy H.

    1985-01-01

    The classical vacuum of physics is not empty, but contains a distinctive pattern of electromagnetic fields. Discovery of the vacuum, thermal spectrum, classical electron theory, zero-point spectrum, and effects of acceleration are discussed. Connection between thermal radiation and the classical vacuum reveals unexpected unity in the laws of…

  19. Simulation of the synergistic low Earth orbit effects of vacuum thermal cycling, vacuum UV radiation, and atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Degroh, Kim K.; Stidham, Curtis R.; Stueber, Thomas J.; Dever, Therese M.; Rodriguez, Elvin; Terlep, Judith A.

    1992-01-01

    In order to assess the low Earth orbit (LEO) durability of candidate space materials, it is necessary to use ground laboratory facilities which provide LEO environmental effects. A facility combining vacuum thermal cycling and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation has been designed and constructed at NASA Lewis Research Center for this purpose. This facility can also be operated without the VUV lamps. An additional facility can be used to provide VUV exposure only. By utilizing these facilities, followed by atomic oxygen exposure in an RF plasma asher, the effects of the individual vacuum thermal cycling and VUV environments can be compared to the effect of the combined vacuum thermal cycling/VUV environment on the atomic oxygen durability of materials. The synergistic effects of simulated LEO environmental conditions on materials were evaluated by first exposing materials to vacuum thermal cycling, VUV, and vacuum thermal cycling/VUV environments followed by exposure to atomic oxygen in an RP plasma asher. Candidate space power materials such as atomic oxygen protected polyimides and solar concentrator mirrors were evaluated using these facilities. Characteristics of the Vacuum Thermal Cycling/VUV Exposure Facility which simulates the temperature sequences and solar ultraviolet radiation exposure that would be experienced by a spacecraft surface in LEO are discussed. Results of durability evaluations of some candidate space power materials to the simulated LEO environmental conditions will also be discussed. Such results have indicated that for some materials, atomic oxygen durability is affected by previous exposure to thermal cycling and/or VUV exposure.

  20. Testing of the 3M Company Composite Conductor

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, John P; Rizy, D Tom; Kisner, Roger A

    2010-10-01

    The 3M Company has developed a high-temperature low-sag conductor referred to as Aluminum-Conductor Composite-Reinforced or ACCR. The conductor uses an aluminum metal matrix material to replace the steel in conventional conductors. The objective of this work is to accelerate the commercial acceptance by electric utilities of this new conductor design by testing four representative conductor classes in controlled conditions. A unique facility called the Powerline Conductor Accelerated Testing (PCAT) Facility was built at ORNL for testing overhead conductors. The PCAT has been uniquely designed for testing overhead bare transmission line conductors at high currents and temperatures after they have been installed and tensioned to the manufacturer's specifications. The ability to operate a transmission line conductor in this manner does not exist elsewhere in the United States. Four classes of ACCR cable designed by the 3M Company have been successfully test at ORNL small, medium, large and small/compact. Based on these and other manufacturer tests, the 3M Company has successfully introduced the ACCR into the commercial market and has completed over twenty installations for utility companies.

  1. Vacuum ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of atoms and molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.

    1978-01-01

    For a complete study of the photoionization of atoms and molecules it is essential to make use of the technique of Photoelectron Spectroscopy and the continuum characteristics of synchrotron radiation. A brief review is given of the application of the above techniques in measuring partial photoionization cross sections and the angular distribution assymetry parameter beta. Selected results are given, which are compared to theoretical values.

  2. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization and photodissociation of polyatomic molecules and radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, C.Y.

    1993-12-01

    In the past decade, tremendous progress has been made in understanding the photodissociation (PD) dynamics of triatomic molecules. However, the PD study of radicals, especially polyatomic radicals, has remained essentially an unexplored research area. Detailed state-to-state PD cross sections for radicals in the UV and VUV provide challenges not only for dynamical calculations, but also for ab initio quantum chemical studies. The authors have developed a laser based pump-probe apparatus for the measurement of absolute PD cross sections for CH{sub 3}S and HS is summarized.

  3. Quantitative photoabsorption and fluorescence study of HCl in vacuum ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nee, J. B.; Suto, M.; Lee, L. C.

    1986-01-01

    The photoabsorption and fluorescence cross sections of HCl were measured in the 106-185 nm region. Sharp absorption bands appear at wavelengths shorter than 135 nm, and fluorescence occurs at several excited states. The fluorescence cross sections are generally quite small, indicating that the excited states are strongly predissociative. The molecular processes for producing the VUV and UV fluorescences are investigated, and the Rydberg characteristics of the strong absorption bands are discussed.

  4. Effects of Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation on Thin Polyimide Films Evaluated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Messer, Russell K.; Powers, Charles; Townsend, Jacqueline A.; Wooldridge, Eve

    2001-01-01

    NASA anticipates launching the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) mission-- whose purpose is to examine the origins of our universe by making measurements in the infrared portion of the spectrum--in 2009. So that the telescope can operate at very low temperatures (less than 100 K), a halo orbit about the second Lagrangian point (L2) is being considered because it is far from Earth and its reflected sunlight. The Sun-Earth L2 point is located 1.53 10(exp 6) km from the Earth in the direction away from the Sun. This mission presents new challenges in many areas of technology, including the development of a multilayer insulation sunshield for the telescope. This sunshield is required to be large (proposed dimensions of approximately 33 by 14 m), storable, deployable, and lightweight. In addition, its polymer film layers must be seamable, foldable, and resistant to tearing and creep, with low outgassing. The sunshield must maintain its structural integrity and its Sun-facing side must maintain a low solar absorptance to thermal emittance ratio (alpha/epsilon) over the planned 10-yr mission duration including over 80,000 hr facing constant sunlight.

  5. Photoionization and absorption spectrum of formaldehyde in the vacuum ultraviolet.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mentall, J. E.; Gentieu, E. P.; Krauss, M.; Neumann, D.

    1971-01-01

    The measurements have been conducted in the spectral range from 600 to 2000 A. Integrated oscillator strengths were determined for a number of strong Rydberg transitions above 1200 A. From the photoionization curve the first adiabatic ionization potential was found to be 10.87 plus or minus 0.01 eV. As an aid in interpreting the absorption spectrum, theoretical calculations were made using a single-configuration self-consistent field procedure for the Rydberg states and a model which included mixing between the Rydberg and valence states.

  6. Ultrafast Molecular Dynamics Studied with Vacuum Ultraviolet Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Travis William

    Studying the ultrafast dynamics of small molecules can serve as the first step in understanding the dynamics in larger chemically and biologically relevant molecules. To make direct comparisons with existing computational techniques, the photons used in pump-probe spectroscopy must make perturbative transitions between the electronic states of isolated small molecules. In this dissertation experimental investigations of ultrafast dynamics in electronic excitations of neutral ethylene and carbon dioxide are discussed. These experiments are performed using VUV/XUV femtosecond pulses as pump and probe. To make photons with sufficient energy for single photon transitions, VUV and XUV light is generated by high harmonic generation (HHG) using a high pulse energy (≈30--40 mJ) Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser. Sufficient flux must be generated to enable splitting of the HHG light into pump and probe arms. The system produces >1010 photons per shot, corresponding to nearly 10 MW of peak power in the XUV. Using a high flux of high energy photons creates a unique set of challenges when designing a detector capable of performing pump-probe experiments. A velocity map imaging (VMI) detector has been designed to address these challenges, and has become a successful tool facilitating studies into molecular dynamics that were not possible before its implementation. The emphasis on using high energy, single photon transitions allowed theoretical calculations to be directly compared to experimental yields for the first time. This comparison resolved a long standing issue in the excited state lifetime of ethylene, and provided a confirmation of the branching ratio between the two nonadiabatic relaxation pathways that return ethylene back to its ground state from the pi*. The participation of the 3s Rydberg state has also been measured by collecting the time resolved photoelectron spectrum during the dynamics on ethylene's pi* excited state, confirming calculations predicting the effect of the 3s. In carbon dioxide the first time resolved measurement in the lowest electronic excitation of carbon dioxide has been performed. A high kinetic energy release channel shows the signature of wavepacket dynamics within the excited state manifold. Deviation from the direct dissociation predicted for the pumped state provides experimental evidence confirming theoretical predictions of nonadiabatic transitions within the lowest lying electronically excited states.

  7. 3M heavy duty roto peen: Baseline report; Summary

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The roto peen scaler allows for the selective removal of concrete substrates. The peen is a tungsten carbide shot brazed to a hardened steel rivet that is supported by a heavy duty flexible flap. The peens are coupled with a commercially available piece of equipment that is used to scabble or remove the concrete. The scabbled debris is then collected into 55 gallon drums by means of a vacuum system. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  8. Photodiode-Based, Passive Ultraviolet Dosimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, Jason A.; Gray, Perry

    2004-01-01

    Simple, passive instruments have been developed for measuring the exposure of material specimens to vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation from the Sun. Each instrument contains a silicon photodiode and a coulometer. The photocharge generated in the photodiode is stored in the coulometer. The accumulated electric charge measured by use of the coulometer is assumed to be proportional to the cumulative dose of VUV radiation expressed in such convenient units as equivalent Sun hours (ESH) [defined as the number of hours of exposure to sunlight at normal incidence]. Intended originally for use aboard spacecraft, these instruments could also be adapted to such terrestrial uses as monitoring the curing of ultraviolet-curable epoxies. Each instrument includes a photodiode and a coulometer assembly mounted on an interface plate (see figure). The photodiode assembly includes an aluminum housing that holds the photodiode, a poly(tetrafluoroehylene) cosine receptor, and a narrow-band optical filter. The cosine receptor ensures that the angular response of the instrument approximates the ideal angular response (proportional to the cosine of the angle of incidence). The filter is chosen to pass the ultraviolet wavelength of interest in a specific experiment. The photodiode is electrically connected to the coulometer. The factor of proportionality between the charge stored in the coulometer and ultraviolet dosage (in units of ESH) is established, prior to use, in calibration experiments that involve the use of lamps and current sources traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology.

  9. Atmospheric ultraviolet remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huffman, Robert E.

    Techniques and applications of the ultraviolet wavelength region are examined. The topics addressed include: radiometry, sensors, space operations, the earth's atmosphere, solar photoabsorption, photon cross sections, airglow, aurora, scattering and fluorescence, atmospheric ultraviolet backgrounds, radiance and transmission codes, ozone and lower atmospheric composition, upper atmospheric composition and density, global auroral imaging, and ionospheric electron density.

  10. GAM observation in the TUMAN-3M tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulanin, V. V.; Askinazi, L. G.; Belokurov, A. A.; Kornev, V. A.; Lebedev, V.; Petrov, A. V.; Tukachinsky, A. S.; Vildjunas, M. I.; Wagner, F.; Yashin, A. Yu

    2016-04-01

    Results of an experimental study of geodesic acoustic modes (GAM) in the TUMAN-3M tokamak are reported. With Doppler backscattering (DBS) the basic properties of the GAM such as frequency, conditions for the GAM existence and the GAM radial location have been identified. The two-frequency Doppler reflectometer system was employed to reveal an interplay between low frequency sheared poloidal rotation, ambient turbulence level and the GAM intensity. Bicoherence analysis of the DBS data evidences the presence of a nonlinear interaction between the GAM and plasma turbulence.

  11. Vacuum pump aids ejectors

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.E.

    1982-12-01

    The steam ejector/vacuum pump hybrid system has been operating satisfactorily since the summer of 1981. This system has essentially been as troublefree as the all-ejector system and, of course, has provided a substantial cost savings. Construction is currently under way to convert the vacuum system of another crude still which is equipped with steam ejectors and barometric condensers to the hybrid system of steam ejectors, surface condensers, and vacuum pumps. This current project is even more financially attractive because it allows a dirty water cooling tower which serves the barometric condensers to be shut down. Providing a vacuum for crude distillation vacuum towers with this hybrid system is by no means the only application of this technique. Any vacuum system consisting of all steam ejectors would be a candidate for this hybrid system and the resulting savings in energy.

  12. Vacuum leak detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazokas, G. P. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A leak detector for use with high vacuum seals as used in feedthroughs and hatch covers for manned spacecraft and vacuum systems is described. Two thermistors are used, one exposed directly to vacuum and the other exposed to a secondary chamber formed by the seal being monitored and a second auxiliary seal. Leakage into the secondary chamber causes an unbalance of an electrical bridge circuit in which the thermistors are connected.

  13. 3M corporate incinerator environmental monitoring study and risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, J.B.; Elnabarawy, M.T.; Pilney, J.

    1998-12-31

    A one-year multi-media environmental monitoring study was performed around the 3M Cottage Grove Facility. Particulate metals from the 3M Corporate hazardous waste incinerator were the focus of the study. Two environmental media were of primary interest: area soil sampling was conducted to investigate the impact of past incinerator emissions on the environment, and ambient air monitoring was conducted to address current impacts. Over 180 soil samples were taken from both agricultural and forested land in the vicinity of the Facility. More than 25 chemical parameters were then quantified in the samples. The potential impacts of past emissions from the incinerator were assessed by comparing chemical concentrations from locations where incinerator impacts were expected to be greatest (based on air dispersion modeling) to chemical concentrations in matched samples from sites expected to be least impacted. The ambient air monitoring network consisted of six stations. Source-receptor modeling was used to determine the most likely contribution of the incinerator and six additional major area sources for the air monitoring (i.e. filter) data at each station. The model provided a best-fit analysis regarding the likely contributions of each source to the sample results. The results of these evaluations lead to the conclusion that the current emissions from this Facility do not present an unacceptable risk to human health.

  14. Hamline/3M Project: Liaison for Curricular Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rundquist, Andy

    2002-03-01

    This project was designed to catalyze curricular changes to better prepare students for the workplace. Industrial managers provided a list of 16 characteristics valued in the workplace: most were NOT related to science course content. The project formed 5 teams each including 3M professionals and students. Each team developed curricular changes in one of the 16 areas. Team goals were to improve skills in communication, data analysis, business/economics, team problem solving, and culture competency. Curricular changes realized include communication skill activities embodied in science courses and faculty communication teaching skill seminars, self learning tools in data analysis, statistics and model building, a new course developed with assistance from 3M personnel focussing on topics directly related to technological industries, high performance team problem solving training/coaching for faculty and workshops for students and faculty relative to importance of cultural competencies in the workplace, and a new course focusing on culture, team problem solving and conflict resolution in the technical workplace. Process for developing and content of curricular changes will be reported.

  15. Hamline/3M Corp. Project: Liason for Curricular Change*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artz, Jerry L.

    2002-04-01

    This project was designed to catalyze curricular changes to better prepare students for the workplace. Industrial managers provided a list of 16 characteristics valued in the workplace; most were NOT related to science course content. The project formed 5 teams each including 3M professionals and students. Each team developed curricular changes in one of the 16 areas. Team goals were to improve skills in communication, data analysis, business/economics, team problem solving, and cultural competency. Curricular changes realized include communication skill activities embodied in science courses and faculty communication teaching skill seminars; self learning tools in data analysis, statistics and model building; a new course developed with assistance from 3M personnel focusing on topics directly related to technological industries; high performance team problem solving training/coaching for faculty; workshops for students and faculty relative to importance of cultural competencies in the workplace; and a new course focusing on culture, team problem solving and conflict resolution in the technical workplace. Process for developing and content of curricular changes will be reported. *Thanks to: NSF GOALI CHE-99010782

  16. Dinosaur extinction: closing the ‘3 m gap’

    PubMed Central

    Lyson, Tyler R.; Bercovici, Antoine; Chester, Stephen G. B.; Sargis, Eric J.; Pearson, Dean; Joyce, Walter G.

    2011-01-01

    Modern debate regarding the extinction of non-avian dinosaurs was ignited by the publication of the Cretaceous–Tertiary (K–T) asteroid impact theory and has seen 30 years of dispute over the position of the stratigraphically youngest in situ dinosaur. A zone devoid of dinosaur fossils reported from the last 3 m of the Upper Cretaceous, coined the ‘3 m gap’, has helped drive controversy. Here, we report the discovery of the stratigraphically youngest in situ dinosaur specimen: a ceratopsian brow horn found in a poorly rooted, silty, mudstone floodplain deposit located no more than 13 cm below the palynologically defined boundary. The K–T boundary is identified using three criteria: (i) decrease in Cretaceous palynomorphs without subsequent recovery, (ii) the existence of a ‘fern spike’, and (iii) correlation to a nearby stratigraphic section where primary extraterrestrial impact markers are present (e.g. iridium anomaly, spherules, shocked quartz). The in situ specimen demonstrates that a gap devoid of non-avian dinosaur fossils does not exist and is inconsistent with the hypothesis that non-avian dinosaurs were extinct prior to the K–T boundary impact event. PMID:21752814

  17. Vacuum probe surface sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahlava, B. A. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A vacuum probe surface sampler is described for rapidly sampling relatively large surface areas which possess relatively light loading densities of micro-organism, drug particles or the like. A vacuum head with a hollow handle connected to a suitable vacuum source is frictionally attached to a cone assembly terminating in a flared tip adapted to be passed over the surface to be sampled. A fine mesh screen carried by the vacuum head provides support for a membrane filter which collects the microorganisms or other particles. The head assembly is easily removed from the cone assembly without contacting the cone assembly with human hands.

  18. NSLS II Vacuum System

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, M.; Doom, L.; Hseuh, H.; Longo, C.; Settepani, P.; Wilson, K.; Hu, J.

    2009-09-13

    National Synchrotron Light Source II, being constructed at Brookhaven, is a 3-GeV, 500 mA, 3rd generation synchrotron radiation facility with ultra low emittance electron beams. The storage ring vacuum system has a circumference of 792 m and consists of over 250 vacuum chambers with a simulated average operating pressure of less than 1 x 10{sup -9} mbar. A summary of the update design of the vacuum system including girder supports of the chambers, gauges, vacuum pumps, bellows, beam position monitors and simulation of the average pressure will be shown. A brief description of the techniques and procedures for cleaning and mounting the chambers are given.

  19. Ultraviolet absorption hygrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gersh, M.E.; Bien, F.; Bernstein, L.S.

    1986-12-09

    An ultraviolet absorption hygrometer is provided including a source of pulsed ultraviolet radiation for providing radiation in a first wavelength region where water absorbs significantly and in a second proximate wavelength region where water absorbs weakly. Ultraviolet radiation in the first and second regions which has been transmitted through a sample path of atmosphere is detected. The intensity of the radiation transmitted in each of the first and second regions is compared and from this comparison the amount of water in the sample path is determined. 5 figs.

  20. Ultraviolet absorption hygrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gersh, Michael E.; Bien, Fritz; Bernstein, Lawrence S.

    1986-01-01

    An ultraviolet absorption hygrometer is provided including a source of pulsed ultraviolet radiation for providing radiation in a first wavelength region where water absorbs significantly and in a second proximate wavelength region where water absorbs weakly. Ultraviolet radiation in the first and second regions which has been transmitted through a sample path of atmosphere is detected. The intensity of the radiation transmitted in each of the first and second regions is compared and from this comparison the amount of water in the sample path is determined.

  1. Testing of the 3M Company ACCR Conductor

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, J.P.; RIzy, D.T.; Kisner, R.A.; Deve, H.E.

    2010-09-15

    The 3M Company has developed a high-temperature low-sag conductor referred to as Aluminum- Conductor Composite-Reinforced or ACCR. The conductor uses an aluminum metal matrix material to replace the steel in conventional conductors so the core has a lower density and higher conductivity. The objective of this work is to accelerate the commercial acceptance by electric utilities of these new conductor designs by testing four representative conductor classes in controlled conditions. Overhead transmission lines use bare aluminum conductor strands wrapped around a steel core strands to transmit electricity. The typical cable is referred to as aluminum-conductor steel-reinforced (ACSR). The outer strands are aluminum, chosen for its conductivity, low weight, and low cost. The center strand is of steel for the strength required to support the weight without stretching the aluminum due to its ductility. The power density of a transmission corridor has been directly increased by increasing the voltage level. Transmission voltages have increased from 115-kV to 765- kV over the past 80 years. In the United States, further increasing the voltage level is not feasible at this point in time, so in order to further increase the power density of a transmission corridor, conductor designs that increase the current carrying capability have been examined. One of the key limiting factors in the design of a transmission line is the conductor sag which determines the clearance of the conductor above ground or underlying structures needed for electrical safety. Increasing the current carrying capability of a conductor increases the joule heating in the conductor which increases the conductor sag. A conductor designed for high-temperature and lowsag operation requires an engineered modification of the conductor materials. To make an advanced cable, the 3M Company solution has been the development of a composite conductor consisting of Nextel ceramic fibers to replace the steel core and

  2. Working in a Vacuum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathey, Allen

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses several myths about vacuum cleaners and offers tips on evaluating and purchasing this essential maintenance tool. These myths are: (1) Amps mean performance; (2) Everyone needs high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA): (3) Picking up a "bowling ball" shows cleaning power; (4) All vacuum bags are the same; (5)…

  3. Divergences in the vacuum energy for frequency-dependent interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Vassilevich, D. V.

    2009-03-15

    We propose a method for determining ultraviolet divergences in the vacuum energy for systems whose spectrum of perturbations is defined through a nonlinear spectrum problem, i.e., when the fluctuation operator itself depends on the frequency. The method is applied to the plasma shell model, which describes some properties of the interaction of electromagnetic field with fullerenes. We formulate a scalar model, which simplifies the matrix structure, but keeps the frequency dependence of the plasma shell, and calculate the ultraviolet divergences in the case when the plasma sheet is slightly curved. The divergent terms are expressed in terms of surface integrals of corresponding invariants.

  4. Microfabricated triggered vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Roesler, Alexander W.; Schare, Joshua M.; Bunch, Kyle

    2010-05-11

    A microfabricated vacuum switch is disclosed which includes a substrate upon which an anode, cathode and trigger electrode are located. A cover is sealed over the substrate under vacuum to complete the vacuum switch. In some embodiments of the present invention, a metal cover can be used in place of the trigger electrode on the substrate. Materials used for the vacuum switch are compatible with high vacuum, relatively high temperature processing. These materials include molybdenum, niobium, copper, tungsten, aluminum and alloys thereof for the anode and cathode. Carbon in the form of graphitic carbon, a diamond-like material, or carbon nanotubes can be used in the trigger electrode. Channels can be optionally formed in the substrate to mitigate against surface breakdown.

  5. Radiative lifetimes in B I using ultraviolet and vacuum-ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Brian, T. R.; Lawler, J. E.

    1992-01-01

    Radiative lifetimes of the eight lowest even parity levels in the doublet system of B I are measured using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence in the UV and VUV on an atomic beam of boron. The accurate lifetimes provide a base for improved determination of absolute transition probabilities in B I. The techniques described are broadly applicable to measurement of lifetimes of levels with transitions in the visible, UV, and VUV in almost any element.

  6. 3M heavy duty roto peen: Baseline report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The heavy-duty roto peen technology was being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the human factors assessment for safety and health issues. The heavy-duty roto peen allows for the selective removal of concrete substrates. The peen is a tungsten carbide shot brazed to a hardened steel rivet that is supported by a heavy-duty flexible flap. The shot rivet is kept captive to the tool by mounting the roto peen in a slotted hub. The heavy-duty roto peen is designed to be used with several commercially available pieces of equipment. The equipment being used will determine the width of each pass. The equipment being used with the roto peen is then connected to a vacuum system for dust collection during scabbling. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  7. 3M heavy duty roto peen: Baseline report; Greenbook (chapter)

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The heavy-duty roto peen technology is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the human factors assessment for safety and health issues. The heavy-duty roto peen allows for the selective removal of concrete substrates. The peen is a tungsten carbide shot brazed to a hardened steel rivet that is supported by a heavy-duty flexible flap. The shot rivet is kept captive to the tool by mounting the roto peen in a slotted hub. The heavy-duty roto peen is designed to be used with several commercially available pieces of equipment. The equipment being used will determine the width of each pass. The equipment being used with the roto peen is then connected to a vacuum system for dust collection during scabbling. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  8. Housing protects laser in vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canali, V. G.

    1978-01-01

    Airtight housing encloses laser for easy alinement and operation in high-vacuum chamber. Beam is transmitted through window into vacuum chamber. Flexible line runs through vacuum chamber to outside, maintaining laser enclosure at atmospheric pressure.

  9. Spherically symmetric static spacetimes in vacuum f(T) gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Ferraro, Rafael; Fiorini, Franco

    2011-10-15

    We show that Schwarzschild geometry remains as a vacuum solution for those four-dimensional f(T) gravitational theories behaving as ultraviolet deformations of general relativity. In the gentler context of three-dimensional gravity, we also find that the infrared-deformed f(T) gravities, like the ones used to describe the late cosmic speed up of the Universe, have as the circularly symmetric vacuum solution a Deser-de Sitter or a Banados, Teitelboim and Zanelli-like spacetime with an effective cosmological constant depending on the infrared scale present in the function f(T).

  10. Rovibrationally selected ion-molecule collision study using the molecular beam vacuum ultraviolet laser pulsed field ionization-photoion method: Charge transfer reaction of N{sub 2}{sup +}(X {sup 2}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup +}; v{sup +}= 0-2; N{sup +}= 0-9) + Ar

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Yih Chung; Xu Yuntao; Lu Zhou; Xu Hong; Ng, C. Y.

    2012-09-14

    We have developed an ion-molecule reaction apparatus for state-selected absolute total cross section measurements by implementing a high-resolution molecular beam vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser pulsed field ionization-photoion (PFI-PI) ion source to a double-quadrupole double-octopole ion-guide mass spectrometer. Using the total cross section measurement of the state-selected N{sub 2}{sup +}(v{sup +}, N{sup +}) + Ar charge transfer (CT) reaction as an example, we describe in detail the design of the VUV laser PFI-PI ion source used, which has made possible the preparation of reactant N{sub 2}{sup +}(X {sup 2}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup +}, v{sup +}= 0-2, N{sup +}= 0-9) PFI-PIs with high quantum state purity, high intensity, and high kinetic energy resolution. The PFI-PIs and prompt ions produced in the ion source are shown to have different kinetic energies, allowing the clean rejection of prompt ions from the PFI-PI beam by applying a retarding potential barrier upstream of the PFI-PI source. By optimizing the width and amplitude of the pulsed electric fields employed to the VUV-PFI-PI source, we show that the reactant N{sub 2}{sup +} PFI-PI beam can be formed with a laboratory kinetic energy resolution of {Delta}E{sub lab}={+-} 50 meV. As a result, the total cross section measurement can be conducted at center-of-mass kinetic energies (E{sub cm}'s) down to thermal energies. Absolute total rovibrationally selected cross sections {sigma}(v{sup +}= 0-2, N{sup +}= 0-9) for the N{sub 2}{sup +}(X {sup 2}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup +}; v{sup +}= 0-2, N{sup +}= 0-9) + Ar CT reaction have been measured in the E{sub cm} range of 0.04-10.0 eV, revealing strong vibrational enhancements and E{sub cm}-dependencies of {sigma}(v{sup +}= 0-2, N{sup +}= 0-9). The thermochemical threshold at E{sub cm}= 0.179 eV for the formation of Ar{sup +} from N{sub 2}{sup +}(X; v{sup +}= 0, N{sup +}) + Ar was observed by the measured {sigma}(v{sup +}= 0), confirming the narrow {Delta}E{sub cm} spread achieved in

  11. Vacuum deposition system

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, S.; Bark, D.

    1990-05-31

    The Physics Section vacuum deposition system is available for several types of thin film techniques. This vacuum evaporation system operates in the high vacuum range. The evaporation source is a resistive heating element, either a boat or a filament design. Coating is then line of sight from the source. Substrates to be coated can have a maximum diameter of 17 inches. At this time the variations in the thickness of the coatings can be controlled, by monitor, to within about 100 angstroms. The system diagrams follow the Operation Procedures and the Sample Coating Procedures provided in this document. 3 figs.

  12. Thermophoretic vacuum wand

    DOEpatents

    Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott; Rader, Daniel John

    2000-01-01

    A thermophoretic vacuum wand that is particularly suited for transporting articles in a cleanroom environment so that potential particle contaminants in the air do not become adhered to the surface of the article is described. The wand includes a housing having a platen with a front surface with suction port(s) through the platen; a vacuum source for applying a negative pressure to the suction port(s); and heating device for the object. Heating the article when it is held by the vacuum wand affords thermophoretic protection that effectively prevents particles in the air from depositing onto the article.

  13. Thermophoretic vacuum wand

    DOEpatents

    Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott; Rader, Daniel John

    2001-01-01

    A thermophoretic vacuum wand that is particularly suited for transporting articles in a cleanroom environment so that potential particle contaminants in the air do not become adhered to the surface of the article is described. The wand includes a housing having a platen with a front surface with suction port(s) through the platen; a vacuum source for applying a negative pressure to the suction port(s); and heating device for the object. Heating the article when it is held by the vacuum wand affords thermophoretic protection that effectively prevents particles in the air from depositing onto the article.

  14. Collapse of vacuum bubbles in a vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Kin-Wang; Wang, Shang-Yung

    2011-02-15

    We revisit the dynamics of a false vacuum bubble in a background de Sitter spacetime. We find that there exists a large parameter space that allows the bubble to collapse into a black hole or to form a wormhole. This may have interesting implications for the creation of a baby universe in the laboratory, the string landscape where the bubble nucleation takes place among a plenitude of metastable vacua, and the inflationary physics.

  15. Vacuum Camera Cooler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laugen, Geoffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    Acquiring cheap, moving video was impossible in a vacuum environment, due to camera overheating. This overheating is brought on by the lack of cooling media in vacuum. A water-jacketed camera cooler enclosure machined and assembled from copper plate and tube has been developed. The camera cooler (see figure) is cup-shaped and cooled by circulating water or nitrogen gas through copper tubing. The camera, a store-bought "spy type," is not designed to work in a vacuum. With some modifications the unit can be thermally connected when mounted in the cup portion of the camera cooler. The thermal conductivity is provided by copper tape between parts of the camera and the cooled enclosure. During initial testing of the demonstration unit, the camera cooler kept the CPU (central processing unit) of this video camera at operating temperature. This development allowed video recording of an in-progress test, within a vacuum environment.

  16. Welding space vacuum technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. Barry

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to assist the EH 42 Division in putting together a vacuum system that could attain the desired pressure and be large enough to accommodate the gas-metal arc (GMA) welding fixture apparatus. A major accomplishment was the design and fabrication of the controller/annunciator for the 4' by 8' system. It contains many safety features such as thermocouple set point relays that will only allow inlet and exit gas and vacuum valves to be operated at pre-selected system pressures, and a fail safe mode for power interruptions and operator mistakes. It is felt that significant progress was made in this research effort to weld in a vacuum environment. With continued efforts to increase the pump speeds for vacuum chambers and further studies on weld fixtures and gas inlet pressures, the NASA program will be successful.

  17. International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm, Karl-Heinz

    1992-01-01

    The observation, data reduction, and interpretation of ultraviolet spectra (obtained with the International Ultraviolet Explorer) of Herbig-Haro objects, stellar jets, and (in a few cases) reflection nebulae in star-forming regions is discussed. Intermediate results have been reported in the required semi-annual reports. The observations for this research were obtained in 23 (US1) IUE shifts. The spectra were taken in the low resolution mode with the large aperture. The following topics were investigated: (1) detection of UV spectra of high excitation Herbig-Haro (HH) objects, identification of emission lines, and a preliminary study of the energy distribution of the ultraviolet continuum; (2) details of the continuum energy distribution of these spectra and their possible interpretation; (3) the properties of the reddening (extinction) of HH objects; (4) the possible time variation of strong emission lines in high excitation HH objects; (5) the ultraviolet emission of low excitation HH objects, especially in the fluorescent lines of the H2 molecule; (6) the ultraviolet emission in the peculiar object HH24; (7) the spatial emission distribution of different lines and different parts of the continuum in different HH objects; and (8) some properties of reflection nebula, in the environment of Herbig-Haro objects. Each topic is discussed.

  18. TFTR diagnostic vacuum controller

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.; Persons, R.

    1981-01-01

    The TFTR diagnostic vacuum controller (DVC) provides in conjunction with the Central Instrumentation Control and Data Acquisition System (CICADA), control and monitoring for the pumps, valves and gauges associated with each individual diagnostic vacuum system. There will be approximately 50 systems on TFTR. Two standard versions of the controller (A and B) wil be provided in order to meet the requirements of two diagnostic manifold arrangements. All pump and valve sequencing, as well as protection features, will be implemented by the controller.

  19. Vacuum deposited polymer/silver reflector material

    SciTech Connect

    Affinito, J.; Martin, P.; Gross, M.; Bennett, W.

    1994-07-01

    Weatherable, low cost, front surface, solar reflectors on flexible substrates would be highly desirable for lamination to solar concentrator panels. The method to be described in this paper may permit such reflector material to be fabricated for less than 50 cents per square foot. Vacuum deposited Polymer/Silver/Polymer reflectors and Fabry-Perot interference filters were fabricated in a vacuum web coating operation on polyester substrates. Reflectivities were measured in the wavelength range from .4 {mu}m to .8 {mu}m. It is hoped that a low cost substrate can be used with the substrate laminated to the concentrator and the weatherable acrylic polymer coating facing the sun. This technique should be capable of deposition line speeds approaching 1500 linear feet/minute. Central to this technique is a new vacuum deposition process for the high rate deposition of polymer films. This polymer process involves the flash evaporation of an acrylic monomer onto a moving substrate. The monomer is subsequently cured by an electron beam or ultraviolet light. This high speed polymer film deposition process has been named the PML process - for Polymer Multi-Layer.

  20. New Standards for Ultraviolet Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, D. H.

    1971-01-01

    Guidelines covering safe levels for exposure to ultraviolet radiation in an occupational environment are reported. The guidelines clarify the spectral radiant exposure doses and relative spectral effectiveness of ultraviolet radiation required to elicit adverse biologic effects.

  1. Exploring the structure of the quenched QCD vacuum with overlap fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Ilgenfritz, E.-M.; Koller, K.; Koma, Y.; Schierholz, G.; Streuer, T.; Weinberg, V.

    2007-08-01

    Overlap fermions have an exact chiral symmetry on the lattice and are thus an appropriate tool for investigating the chiral and topological structure of the QCD vacuum. We study various chiral and topological aspects of quenched gauge field configurations. This includes the localization and chiral properties of the eigenmodes, the local structure of the ultraviolet-filtered field strength tensor, as well as the structure of topological charge fluctuations. We conclude that the vacuum has a multifractal structure.

  2. ISABELLE vacuum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Halama, H J

    1980-01-01

    The Intersecting Storage Accelerator (ISABELLE) consists of two rings having a circumference of 3.8 km each. In these rings superconducting magnets, held at 4 K, bend and focus the proton beam which is accelerated up to 400 GeV. Due to very different pressure requirements, ISABELLE has two completely independent vacuum systems. One, which operates at 1 x 10/sup -11/ Torr, provides a very clean environment for the circulating proton beam. Here only ion and titanium sublimation pumps are used to provide the vacuum. The other system maintains superconducting magnet vessels at a pressure below 1 x 10/sup -4/ Torr, since at this pressure the gas conduction becomes negligible. In this so-called insulating vacuum system, turbomolecular pumps pump the inadvertent small helium leaks. Other gases are cryocondensed on the cold surfaces of the cryogenic system. The basic element of ISABELLE known as Full Cell containing 45 meters of beam tube, 8 pumping stations, 8 superconducting magnets and complete instrumentation has been constructed, leak checked and tested. All design parameters have been achieved in both vacuum systems. The two vacuum systems are described with particular emphasis on the influence of superconducting magnets in the selection of materials and UHV components.

  3. Line Tunable Ultraviolet Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Brian M.; Barnes, Norman P.

    2004-01-01

    An ultraviolet laser is demonstrated using a dual wavelength Nd:YAG oscillator, sum frequency and second harmonic process. Synchronous pulses at 1.052 and 1.319 micrometers are amplified, mixed and subsequently doubled, producing pulses at 0.293 micrometers.

  4. International Ultraviolet Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This report is the November 6, 1996 - October 9, 1997, IUE Final Report for the International Ultraviolet Explorer Final Archive contract. The ultimate objective of this contract is the completion of the archival reprocessing of all IUE data obtained at GSFC between 1978 and 1995.

  5. Ultraviolet radiation changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenzie, Richard L.; Frederick, John E.; Ilyas, Mohammad; Filyushkin, V.; Wahner, Andreas; Stamnes, K.; Muthusubramanian, P.; Blumthaler, M.; Roy, Colin E.; Madronich, Sasha

    1991-01-01

    A major consequence of ozone depletion is an increase in solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation received at the Earth's surface. This chapter discusses advances that were made since the previous assessment (World Meteorological Organization (WMO)) to our understanding of UV radiation. The impacts of these changes in UV on the biosphere are not included, because they are discussed in the effects assessment.

  6. Psoriasis and ultraviolet radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Farber, E.M.; Nall, L. )

    1993-09-01

    Prevention and detection screening programs as a public health service in curtailing the ever-increasing incidence of all forms of skin cancer are reviewed. The effect of solar and artificial ultraviolet radiation on the general population and persons with psoriasis is examined. 54 refs.

  7. Pre-inflationary vacuum in the cosmic microwave background

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Brian A.; Kinney, William H.

    2007-09-15

    We consider the effects on the primordial power spectrum of a period of radiation-dominated expansion prior to the inflationary era. If inflation lasts a total of only 60 e-folds or so, the boundary condition for quantum modes cannot be taken in the short-wavelength limit as in the standard perturbation calculation. Instead, the boundary condition is set by the vacuum state of the prior radiation-dominated epoch, which only corresponds to the inflationary vacuum state in the ultraviolet limit. This altered vacuum state results in a modulation of the inflationary power spectrum. We calculate the modification to a best-fit model from the WMAP3 data set, and find that power is suppressed at large scales. The modified power spectrum is favored only very weakly by the WMAP3 temperature and polarization data.

  8. Improving Vacuum Cleaners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Under a Space Act Agreement between the Kirby company and Lewis Research Center, NASA technology was applied to a commercial vacuum cleaner product line. Kirby engineers were interested in advanced operational concepts, such as particle flow behavior and vibration, critical factors to improve vacuum cleaner performance. An evaluation of the company 1994 home care system, the Kirby G4, led to the refinement of the new G5 and future models. Under the cooperative agreement, Kirby had access to Lewis' holography equipment, which added insight into how long a vacuum cleaner fan would perform, as well as advanced computer software that can simulate the flow of air through fans. The collaboration resulted in several successes including fan blade redesign and continuing dialogue on how to improve air-flow traits in various nozzle designs.

  9. K-130 Cyclotron vacuum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, R. C.; Bhattacharya, S.; Bhole, R. B.; Roy, Anindya; Pal, Sarbajit; Mallik, C.; Bhandari, R. K.

    2012-11-01

    The vacuum system for K-130 cyclotron has been operational since 1977. It consists of two sub-systems, main vacuum system and beam line vacuum system. The main vacuum system is designed to achieve and maintain vacuum of about 1 × 10-6 mbar inside the 23 m3 volume of acceleration chamber comprising the Resonator tank and the Dee tank. The beam line vacuum system is required for transporting the extracted beam with minimum loss. These vacuum systems consist of diffusion pumps backed by mechanical pumps like roots and rotary pumps. The large vacuum pumps and valves of the cyclotron vacuum system were operational for more than twenty five years. In recent times, problems of frequent failures and maintenance were occurring due to aging and lack of appropriate spares. Hence, modernisation of the vacuum systems was taken up in order to ensure a stable high voltage for radio frequency system and the extraction system. This is required for efficient acceleration and transportation of high intensity ion beam. The vacuum systems have been upgraded by replacing several pumps, valves, gauges and freon units. The relay based control system for main vacuum system has also been replaced by PLC based state of the art control system. The upgraded control system enables inclusion of additional operational logics and safety interlocks into the system. The paper presents the details of the vacuum system and describes the modifications carried out for improving the performance and reliability of the vacuum system.

  10. VACUUM SEALING MEANS FOR LOW VACUUM PRESSURES

    DOEpatents

    Milleron, N.

    1962-06-12

    S>A vacuum seal is designed in which the surface tension of a thin layer of liquid metal of low vapor pressure cooperates with adjacent surfaces to preclude passages of gases across pressure differentials as low as 10/sup -8/ mm Hg. Mating contiguous surfaces composed of copper, brass, stainless steel, nickel, molybdenum, tungsten, tantalum, glass, quartz, and/or synthetic mica are disposed to provide a maximum tolerance, D, expressed by 2 gamma /P/sub 1/, where gamma is the coefflcient of the surface tension of the metal sealant selected in dynes/cm/sub 2/. Means for heating the surfaces remotely is provided where temperatures drop below about 250 deg C. A sealant consisting of an alloy of gallium, indium, and tin, among other combinations tabulated, is disposed therebetween after treating the surfaces to improve wettability, as by ultrasonic vibrations, the surfaces and sealants being selected according to the anticipated experimental conditions of use. (AEC)

  11. Langmuir vacuum and superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veklenko, B. A.

    2012-06-01

    It is shown that, in the "jelly" model of cold electron-ion plasma, the interaction between electrons and the quantum electromagnetic vacuum of Langmuir waves involves plasma superconductivity with an energy gap proportional to the energy of the Langmuir quantum.

  12. Langmuir vacuum and superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Veklenko, B. A.

    2012-06-15

    It is shown that, in the 'jelly' model of cold electron-ion plasma, the interaction between electrons and the quantum electromagnetic vacuum of Langmuir waves involves plasma superconductivity with an energy gap proportional to the energy of the Langmuir quantum.

  13. Sorption vacuum trap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrington, A. E.; Caruso, A. J.

    1970-01-01

    Modified sorption trap for use in high vacuum systems contains provisions for online regeneration of sorbent material. Trap is so constructed that it has a number of encapsulated resistance heaters and a valving and pumping device for removing gases from heated sorbing material. Excessive downtime is eliminated with this trap.

  14. Vacuum arc deposition devices

    SciTech Connect

    Boxman, R.L.; Zhitomirsky, V.N.

    2006-02-15

    The vacuum arc is a high-current, low-voltage electrical discharge which produces a plasma consisting of vaporized and ionized electrode material. In the most common cathodic arc deposition systems, the arc concentrates at minute cathode spots on the cathode surface and the plasma is emitted as a hypersonic jet, with some degree of contamination by molten droplets [known as macroparticles (MPs)] of the cathode material. In vacuum arc deposition systems, the location and motion of the cathode spots are confined to desired surfaces by an applied magnetic field and shields around undesired surfaces. Substrates are mounted on a holder so that they intercept some portion of the plasma jet. The substrate often provides for negative bias to control the energy of depositing ions and heating or cooling to control the substrate temperature. In some systems, a magnetic field is used to guide the plasma around an obstacle which blocks the MPs. These elements are integrated with a deposition chamber, cooling, vacuum gauges and pumps, and power supplies to produce a vacuum arc deposition system.

  15. Various unique vacuum holders

    SciTech Connect

    Gregar, J.S.

    1992-12-01

    Glassblowers use vacuum holding devices to support a flat plate in the glassflowing lathe to seal onto the end of, or inside of, a glass cylinder. Glassblowing blowhose swivels tend to leak; a rotating union from the hydraulics industry is better. Various graphite holder designs are described.

  16. Vacuum Kundt waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, David; Milson, Robert; Coley, Alan

    2013-03-01

    We discuss the invariant classification of vacuum Kundt waves using the Cartan-Karlhede algorithm and determine the upper bound on the number of iterations of the Karlhede algorithm to classify the vacuum Kundt waves (Collins (1991 Class. Quantum Grav. 8 1859-69), Machado Ramos (1996 Class. Quantum Grav. 13 1589)). By choosing a particular coordinate system we partially construct the canonical coframe used in the classification to study the functional dependence of the invariants arising at each iteration of the algorithm. We provide a new upper bound, q ⩽ 4, and show that this bound is sharp by analyzing the subclass of Kundt waves with invariant count beginning with (0, 1,…) to show that the class with invariant count (0, 1, 3, 4, 4) exists. This class of vacuum Kundt waves is shown to be unique as the only set of metrics requiring the fourth covariant derivatives of the curvature. We conclude with an invariant classification of the vacuum Kundt waves using a suite of invariants.

  17. Tara vacuum system

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R.S.; Brindza, P.; Goodrich, P.; Gaudreau, M.P.

    1985-11-01

    The Tara tandem mirror experiment vacuum system will be discussed including system design, specifications, and performance required for plug thermal barrier operation. A detailed description of the major pumpig systems, reflux control, plasma pumping, measurement and control, fast gas handling and quality control procedures will be presented. Data from the two 5 month periods of operation will be presented.

  18. Vacuum compatible miniature CCD camera head

    DOEpatents

    Conder, Alan D.

    2000-01-01

    A charge-coupled device (CCD) camera head which can replace film for digital imaging of visible light, ultraviolet radiation, and soft to penetrating x-rays, such as within a target chamber where laser produced plasmas are studied. The camera head is small, capable of operating both in and out of a vacuum environment, and is versatile. The CCD camera head uses PC boards with an internal heat sink connected to the chassis for heat dissipation, which allows for close(0.04" for example) stacking of the PC boards. Integration of this CCD camera head into existing instrumentation provides a substantial enhancement of diagnostic capabilities for studying high energy density plasmas, for a variety of military industrial, and medical imaging applications.

  19. Vacuum compatible miniature CCD camera head

    SciTech Connect

    Conder, A.D.

    2000-06-20

    A charge-coupled device (CCD) camera head is disclosed which can replace film for digital imaging of visible light, ultraviolet radiation, and soft to penetrating x-rays, such as within a target chamber where laser produced plasmas are studied. The camera head is small, capable of operating both in and out of a vacuum environment, and is versatile. The CCD camera head uses PC boards with an internal heat sink connected to the chassis for heat dissipation, which allows for close (0.04 inches for example) stacking of the PC boards. Integration of this CCD camera head into existing instrumentation provides a substantial enhancement of diagnostic capabilities for studying high energy density plasmas, for a variety of military, industrial, and medical imaging applications.

  20. Ultraviolet phototherapy for pruritus.

    PubMed

    Rivard, Jennifer; Lim, Henry W

    2005-01-01

    Ultraviolet-based therapy has been used to treat various pruritic conditions including pruritus in chronic renal failure, atopic dermatitis, HIV, aquagenic pruritus and urticaria, solar, chronic, and idiopathic urticaria, urticaria pigmentosa, polycythemia vera, pruritic folliculitis of pregnancy, breast carcinoma skin infiltration, Hodgkin's lymphoma, chronic liver disease, and acquired perforating dermatosis, among others. Various mechanisms of action for phototherapy have been posited. Treatment limitations, side effects, and common dosing protocols are reviewed. PMID:16297008

  1. Demonstrations with a Vacuum: Old Demonstrations for New Vacuum Pumps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Explains mechanisms of 19th-century vacuum pumps. Describes demonstrations using the pump including guinea and feather tube, aurora tube, electric egg, Gassiots cascade, air mill, bell in vacuum, density and buoyancy of air, fountain in vacuum, mercury shower, palm and bladder glasses, Bacchus demonstration, pneumatic man-lifter, and Magdeburg…

  2. Tritium handling in vacuum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, J.T.; Coffin, D.O.

    1986-10-01

    This report provides a course in Tritium handling in vacuum systems. Topics presented are: Properties of Tritium; Tritium compatibility of materials; Tritium-compatible vacuum equipment; and Tritium waste treatment.

  3. Research on fluorescence from photoionization, photodissociation, and vacuum, along with bending quantrum study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Judge, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    Reports of research concerning the fluorescence of CS2 are presented. Fluorescence from fragments of CS2 vapor produced by vacuum ultraviolet radiation, and fluorescence from photoionization of CS2 vapor are discussed along with fluorescence produced by photodissociation of CS2, and fluorescence from photoionization of OCS.

  4. 21 CFR 179.39 - Ultraviolet radiation for the processing and treatment of food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... products Without ozone production: high fat-content food irradiated in vacuum or in an inert atmosphere... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ultraviolet radiation for the processing and treatment of food. 179.39 Section 179.39 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  5. 21 CFR 179.39 - Ultraviolet radiation for the processing and treatment of food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... products Without ozone production: high fat-content food irradiated in vacuum or in an inert atmosphere... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ultraviolet radiation for the processing and treatment of food. 179.39 Section 179.39 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  6. Research in extreme ultraviolet and far ultraviolet astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labov, S. E.

    1985-01-01

    Instruments designed to explore different aspects of far and extreme ultraviolet cosmic radiation were studied. The far ultraviolet imager (FUVI) was flown on the Aries sounding rocket. Its unique large format 75mm detector mapped out the far ultraviolet background radiation with a resolution of only a few arc minutes. Analysis of this data indicates to what extent the FUVI background is extra galactic in origin. A power spectrum of the spatial fluctuations will have direct consequences for galactic evolution.

  7. A radiation hard vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1988-07-19

    A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction. 3 figs.

  8. Reaction Mechanism of Extreme Ultraviolet Resists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toriumi, Minoru; Kaneyama, Koji; Itani, Toshiro

    2008-06-01

    Molecular resist of polyphenol was evaluated as an extreme-ultraviolet resist compared with a polymer resist of poly(tert-butoxycarbonylhydroxystyrene). X-ray reflectometry was used to determine the resist-film density and measurement accuracy was improved. The molecular resist shows higher sensitivity of 3 mJ/cm2 than the polymer resist of 4 mJ/cm2. The deprotection mechanism was approximated by simple reaction equations and Fourier-transform infrared spectra was interpreted to give the products of a quantum yield and a deprotection rate constant as 9.7×10-8 and 8.1×10-8 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 for molecular and polymer resists. The higher sensitivity of the molecular resist is due to the larger efficiency of the reaction mechanism.

  9. Bakeout Chamber Within Vacuum Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Daniel M.; Soules, David M.; Barengoltz, Jack B.

    1995-01-01

    Vacuum-bakeout apparatus for decontaminating and measuring outgassing from pieces of equipment constructed by mounting bakeout chamber within conventional vacuum chamber. Upgrade cost effective: fabrication and installation of bakeout chamber simple, installation performed quickly and without major changes in older vacuum chamber, and provides quantitative data on outgassing from pieces of equipment placed in bakeout chamber.

  10. Insertion device vacuum system designs

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyer, E.

    1988-05-01

    Synchrotron light source insertion device vacuum systems now in operation and systems proposed for the future are reviewed. An overview of insertion devices is given and four generic vacuum chamber designs, transition section design and pumping considerations are discussed. Examples of vacuum chamber systems are presented.

  11. Portable vacuum object handling device

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Gordon H.

    1983-08-09

    The disclosure relates to a portable device adapted to handle objects which are not to be touched by hand. A piston and bore wall form a vacuum chamber communicating with an adaptor sealably engageable with an object to be lifted. The piston is manually moved and set to establish vacuum. A valve is manually actuatable to apply the vacuum to lift the object.

  12. Surge-damping vacuum valve

    DOEpatents

    Bullock, Jack C.; Kelly, Benjamin E.

    1980-01-01

    A valve having a mechanism for damping out flow surges in a vacuum system which utilizes a slotted spring-loaded disk positioned adjacent the valve's vacuum port. Under flow surge conditions, the differential pressure forces the disk into sealing engagement with the vacuum port, thereby restricting the flow path to the slots in the disk damping out the flow surge.

  13. Solar heated vacuum flask

    SciTech Connect

    Posnansky, M.

    1980-04-08

    The wall of a protective jacket of a vacuum flask, containing a double-walled vessel whose walls are permeable to solar radiation , includes parts capable of being swung open. These parts and a wall part situated between them each have a reflective coating. The reflective surfaces of these coatings, viewed in crosssection, extend along a parabola when the movable wall parts are opened out, so that incident solar radiation is collected in the core zone of the vessel. A solar-radiation absorbing member may be disposed in this core zone, E.G., a metal tube having a black outer surface. Liquid contents of such a vacuum flask can be heated by means of solar energy.

  14. Compact vacuum insulation embodiments

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1992-04-28

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point' or line' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included. 26 figs.

  15. Compact vacuum insulation

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1993-01-05

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point'' or line'' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line'' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point'' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  16. Compact vacuum insulation

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K.; Potter, Thomas F.

    1993-01-01

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially "point" or "line" contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form "line" contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively "point" contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  17. Compact vacuum insulation embodiments

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K.; Potter, Thomas F.

    1992-01-01

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially "point" or "line" contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form "line" contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively "point" contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  18. Vacuum tool manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, William T.

    1993-01-01

    Apparatus for manipulating a vacuum hose in a reactor vessel comprises a housing with two opposing openings, an arm carried by the housing and deployable from a stowed position essentially completely within the housing to an extended position where the arm extends through the two openings in a generally horizontal position. The arm preferably has a two-fingered gripping device for gripping the vacuum hose but may carry a different end effector such as a grinding wheel. The fingers are opened and closed by one air cylinder. A second air cylinder extends the device. A third air cylinder within the housing pivotally pulls the opposing end of the arm into the housing via a pivoting member pivotally connected between the third air cylinder shaft and the arm.

  19. An automated vacuum system

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins, W.H. ); Vaughn, G.D. ); Bridgman, C. )

    1991-01-01

    Software tools available with the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) control system provide the capability to express a control problem as a finite state machine. System states and transitions are expressed in terms of accelerator parameters and actions are taken based on state transitions. This is particularly useful for sequencing operations which are modal in nature or are unwieldy when implemented with conventional programming. State diagrams are automatically translated into code which is executed by the control system. These tools have been applied to the vacuum system for the GTA accelerator to implement automatic sequencing of operations. With a single request, the operator may initiate a complete pump-down sequence. He can monitor the progress and is notified if an anomaly occurs requiring intervention. The operator is not required to have detailed knowledge of the vacuum system and is protected from taking inappropriate actions. 1 ref., 6 figs.

  20. Can vacuum energy gravitate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad Datta, Dhurjati

    1995-03-01

    In this essay we discuss an interesting recent development in semiclassical gravity. Using an improved Born-Oppenheimer approximation, the semiclassical reduction of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation turns out to give important insights into the nature and the level of validity of the semi-classical Einstein equations (SCEE). Back reactions from the quantized matter fields in SCEE are shown to be completely determined by adiabatically induced geometricU(N) gauge potentials. The finite energy from the vacuum polarization, in particular, is found to be intimately related to the ‘magnetic’ type geometric gauge potential. As a result the vacuum energy in a universe emerging from a ‘source-free’ flat simply-connected superspace is gauge equivalent to zero, leading to some dramatic consequences.