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Sample records for 3omega damage growth

  1. 3(omega) Damage: Growth Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlowski, M; Demos, S; Wu, Z-L; Wong, J; Penetrante, B; Hrubesh, L

    2001-02-22

    The design of high power UV laser systems is limited to a large extent by the laser-initiated damage performance of transmissive fused silica optical components. The 3{omega} (i.e., the third harmonic of the primary laser frequency) damage growth mitigation LDRD effort focused on understanding and reducing the rapid growth of laser-initiated surface damage on fused silica optics. Laser-initiated damage can be discussed in terms of two key issues: damage initiated at some type of precursor and rapid damage growth of the damage due to subsequent laser pulses. The objective of the LDRD effort has been the elucidation of laser-induced damage processes in order to quantify and potentially reduce the risk of damage to fused silica surfaces. The emphasis of the first two years of this effort was the characterization and reduction of damage initiation. In spite of significant reductions in the density of damage sites on polished surfaces, statistically some amount of damage initiation should always be expected. The early effort therefore emphasized the development of testing techniques that quantified the statistical nature of damage initiation on optical surfaces. This work led to the development of an optics lifetime modeling strategy that has been adopted by the NIF project to address damage-risk issues. During FY99 interest shifted to the damage growth issue which was the focus of the final year of this project. The impact of the remaining damage sites on laser performance can be minimized if the damage sites did not continue to grow following subsequent illumination. The objectives of the final year of the LDRD effort were to apply a suite of state-of-the-art characterization tools to elucidate the nature of the initiated damage sites, and to identify a method that effectively mitigates further damage growth. Our specific goal is to understand the cause for the rapid growth of damage sites so that we can develop and apply an effective means to mitigate it. The

  2. Laser damage growth with picosecond pulses.

    PubMed

    Sozet, Martin; Neauport, Jérôme; Lavastre, Eric; Roquin, Nadja; Gallais, Laurent; Lamaignère, Laurent

    2016-05-15

    Laser-induced damage growth has been investigated in the subpicosecond regime at 1030 nm. We have herein studied the growth of damage sites initiated on a high-reflective dielectric coating under subsequent laser irradiations at a constant fluence. We show through an experimental approach that growth can be triggered for fluences as low as 50% of the intrinsic damage threshold of the mirror. Moreover, once growth starts, damage areas increase linearly with the number of laser shots. The behavior of defect-induced damage sites has been observed more extensively, and it appears that their growth probability depends on their initiation fluence. PMID:27176998

  3. Low-Temperature Growth of DKDP for Improving Laser-Induced Damage resistance at 350nm

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, A K; Runkel, M; Hawley-Fedder, R A; Carman, M L; Torres, R A; Whitman, P K

    2000-12-06

    A set of twenty-three 20-L crystallizer runs exploring the importance of several engineering variables found that growth temperature is the most important variable controlling damage resistance of DKDP over the conditions investigated. Boules grown between 45 C and room temperature have a 50% probability of 3{omega} bulk damage that is 1.5 to 2 times higher than boules grown between 65 and 45 C. This raises their damage resistance above the NIF tripler specification for 8 J/cm{sup 2} operation by a comfortable margin. Solution impurity levels do not correlate with damage resistance for iron less than 200 ppb and aluminum less than 2000 ppb. The possibility that low growth temperatures could increase damage resistance in NIF-scale boules was tested by growing a large boule in a 1000-L crystallizer with a supplemental growth solution tank. Four samples representing early and late pyramid and prism growth are very close to the specification as best it is understood at the present. Implications of low temperature growth for meeting absorbance, homogeneity, and other material specifications are discussed.

  4. Phenomenological approach to mechanical damage growth analysis.

    PubMed

    Pugno, Nicola; Bosia, Federico; Gliozzi, Antonio S; Delsanto, Pier Paolo; Carpinteri, Alberto

    2008-10-01

    The problem of characterizing damage evolution in a generic material is addressed with the aim of tracing it back to existing growth models in other fields of research. Based on energetic considerations, a system evolution equation is derived for a generic damage indicator describing a material system subjected to an increasing external stress. The latter is found to fit into the framework of a recently developed phenomenological universality (PUN) approach and, more specifically, the so-called U2 class. Analytical results are confirmed by numerical simulations based on a fiber-bundle model and statistically assigned local strengths at the microscale. The fits with numerical data prove, with an excellent degree of reliability, that the typical evolution of the damage indicator belongs to the aforementioned PUN class. Applications of this result are briefly discussed and suggested. PMID:18999489

  5. Analysis of optics damage growth at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Z. M.; Nostrand, M.; Whitman, P.; Bude, J.

    2015-11-01

    Optics damage growth modeling and analysis at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) has been performed on fused silica. We will show the results of single shot growth comparisons, damage site lifetime comparisons as well as growth metrics for each individual NIF beamline. These results help validate the consistency of the damage growth models and allow us to have confidence in our strategic planning in regards to projected optic usage.

  6. Monitoring damage growth in titanium matrix composites using acoustic emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakuckas, J. G., Jr.; Prosser, W. H.; Johnson, W. S.

    1993-01-01

    The application of the acoustic emission (AE) technique to locate and monitor damage growth in titanium matrix composites (TMC) was investigated. Damage growth was studied using several optical techniques including a long focal length, high magnification microscope system with image acquisition capabilities. Fracture surface examinations were conducted using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The AE technique was used to locate damage based on the arrival times of AE events between two sensors. Using model specimens exhibiting a dominant failure mechanism, correlations were established between the observed damage growth mechanisms and the AE results in terms of the events amplitude. These correlations were used to monitor the damage growth process in laminates exhibiting multiple modes of damage. Results revealed that the AE technique is a viable and effective tool to monitor damage growth in TMC.

  7. Cyclic damage initiation and growth in bulk metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, Brian C.

    A high-cycle stress-life fatigue study was conducted on a Zr-based bulk metallic glass to investigate damage initiation and growth mechanisms. Stress-life tests were conducted using tension-tension, compression-tension and compression-compression loadings. Distributed damage was observed to initiate rapidly from pre-existing defects as either shear bands or mixed mode surface cracks that propagated at ˜49° to the maximum tensile stress axis. On reaching a characteristic size, surface damage abruptly changed orientation and continued to grow as mode I cracks. The growth rates of these "small" surface cracks were carefully characterized and shown to be consistent with "long" crack-growth rate behavior. Fatigue life was estimated from the observed initial defect sizes and "small" crack-growth rate behavior. The resulting life predictions were found to be consistent with measured stress life data for tension-tension loading suggesting that the apparent lack of a damage initiation stage may account for the low endurance limit measured. Several surface modification techniques were explored as possible methods to reduce the number of damage initiation sites and to increase the fatigue life and the endurance limit of metallic glasses. A focused ion beam (FIB) was used to introduce well-defined distributions of initial defects to systematically elucidate damage initiation and growth processes in a separate set of specimens. High-resolution techniques were used to characterize the effect of defect size, shape and orientation on damage initiation and the early stages of damage growth. Damage initiation was found to be a strong function of defect spacing and to correspond well with region of high equivalent stress. Damage growth was also observed to correspond to directions of high equivalent stress which is highly dependent of the spacing and orientation of defects. Rapid damage initiation and mode I damage growth was observed for closely spaced defects while longer

  8. The stochastic nature of growth of laser-induced damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, C. W.; Cross, David A.; Liao, Zhi M.; Norton, Mary A.; Negres, Raluca A.

    2015-07-01

    Laser fluence and operational tempo of ICF systems operating in the UV are typically limited by the growth of laser- induced damage on their final optics (primarily silica optics). In the early 2000 time frame, studies of laser damage growth with relevant large area beams revealed that for some laser conditions damage sites located on the exit surface of a fused silica optic grew following an exponential growth rule: D(n) = D0 exp (n α(φ)), where D is final site diameter, D0 is the initial diameter of the site, φ is the laser fluence, α(φ) is the growth coefficient, and n is the number of exposures. In general α is a linear function of φ, with a threshold of φTH. In recent years, it has been found that that growth behavior is actually considerably more complex. For example, it was found that α is not a constant for a given fluence but follows a probability distribution with a mean equal to α(φ). This is complicated by observations that these distributions are actually functions of the pulse shape, damage site size, and initial morphology of damage initiation. In addition, there is not a fixed fluence threshold for damage sites growth, which is better described by a probability of growth which depends on site size, morphology and laser fluence. Here will review these findings and discuss implications for the operation of large laser systems.

  9. Numerical study of damage growth in particulate composites

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Y.W.; Liu, C.T.

    1999-10-01

    A numerical study was conducted to simulate and predict damage initiation and growth around the crack tip in particulate composite specimens made of hard particles embedded in a soft rubber-like matrix material. Therefore, damage evolution in the matrix material around crack tips was investigated. The progressive damage was modeled using a micro/macro-approach which combined two levels of analyses like the micro-level and the macro-level analyses. Damage description was undertaken at the microlevel using a simplified three-dimensional unit-cell model and an isotropic continuum damage theory. The numerical study examined both thin and thick specimens with a short or long edge crack to understand the effects of specimen thickness and crack size on the damage initiation, growth, and saturation. Numerical results were compared with experimental data.

  10. Finite element prediction of fatigue damage growth in cancellous bone.

    PubMed

    Hambli, Ridha; Frikha, Sana; Toumi, Hechmi; Tavares, João Manuel R S

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic stresses applied to bones generate fatigue damage that affects the bone stiffness and its elastic modulus. This paper proposes a finite element model for the prediction of fatigue damage accumulation and failure in cancellous bone at continuum scale. The model is based on continuum damage mechanics and incorporates crack closure effects in compression. The propagation of the cracks is completely simulated throughout the damaged area. In this case, the stiffness of the broken element is reduced by 98% to ensure no stress-carrying capacities of completely damaged elements. Once a crack is initiated, the propagation direction is simulated by the propagation of the broken elements of the mesh. The proposed model suggests that damage evolves over a real physical time variable (cycles). In order to reduce the computation time, the integration of the damage growth rate is based on the cycle blocks approach. In this approach, the real number of cycles is reduced (divided) into equivalent blocks of cycles. Damage accumulation is computed over the cycle blocks and then extrapolated over the corresponding real cycles. The results show a clear difference between local tensile and compressive stresses on damage accumulation. Incorporating stiffness reduction also produces a redistribution of the peak stresses in the damaged region, which results in a delay in damage fracture. PMID:26077722

  11. Damage growth in composite laminates with interleaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goree, James G.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of placing interleaves between fiber reinforced plies in multilayered composite laminates is investigated. The geometry of the composite is idealized as two dimensional, isotropic, linearly elastic media made of a damaged layer bonded between two half planes and separated by thin interleaves of low extensional and shear moduli. The damage in the layer is taken in the form of a symmetric crack perpendicular to the interface and may extend up to the interface. The case of an H-shaped crack in the form of a broken layer with delamination along the interface is also analyzed. The interleaves are modeled as distributed shear and tension springs. Fourier integral transform techniques are used to develop solutions in terms of singular integral equations. An asymptotic analysis of the integral equations based on Muskhelishvili's techniques reveals logarithmically singular axial stresses in the half plane at the crack tips for the broken layer. For the H shaped crack, similar singularities are found to exist in the axial stresses at the interface crack tips in the layer and the half plane. The solution of the equations is found numerically for the stresses and displacements by using the Hadamard's concept of direct differentiation of Cauchy integrals as well as Gaussian integration techniques.

  12. Estimating crack growth in temperature damaged concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recalde, Juan Jose

    2009-12-01

    Evaluation of the structural condition of deteriorated concrete infrastructure and evaluation of new sustainable cementitious materials require an understanding of how the material will respond to applied loads and environmental exposures. A fundamental understanding of how microstructural changes in these materials relate to changes in mechanical properties and changes in fluid penetrability is needed. The ability to provide rapid, inexpensive assessment of material characteristics and relevant engineering properties is valuable for decision making and asset management purposes. In this investigation, the effects of changes in dynamic elastic properties with water content and fluid penetrability properties before and after a 300°C exposure were investigated based on estimates of the crack density parameter from dry and saturated cracked media. The experimental and analytical techniques described in this dissertation allow calculation of a value for the crack density parameter using nondestructive determination of wet and dry dynamic shear modulus of relatively thin disks. The techniques were used to compare a conventional concrete mixture to several mixtures with enhanced sustainability characteristics. The three enhanced sustainable materials investigated were a very high fly ash mixture, a magnesium phosphate cement based mortar, and a magnesium phosphate cement based concrete, and were compared to a conventional concrete mixture. The analysis provided both quantitative assessment of changes with high temperature damage and autogenous healing, and estimates of changes in mean crack trace lengths. The results showed that water interaction, deterioration due to damage, and autogenous healing recovery were different for the magnesium phosphate cement based mixtures than the portland cement based concrete mixtures. A strong correlation was found between log-transformed Air Permeability Index, dynamic shear modulus, and crack density parameter. The findings imply

  13. Damage segregation at fissioning may increase growth rates

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Steven N.; Steinsaltz, David

    2007-01-01

    A fissioning organism may purge unrepairable damage by bequeathing it preferentially to one of its daughters. Using the mathematical formalism of superprocesses, we propose a flexible class of analytically tractable models that allow quite general effects of damage on death rates and splitting rates and similarly general damage segregation mechanisms. We show that, in a suitable regime, the effects of randomness in damage segregation at fissioning are indistinguishable from those of randomness in the mechanism of damage accumulation during the organism’s lifetime. Moreover, the optimal population growth is achieved for a particular finite, non-zero level of combined randomness from these two sources. In particular, when damage accumulates deterministically, optimal population growth is achieved by a moderately unequal division of damage between the daughters, while too little or too much division is sub-optimal. Connections are drawn both to recent experimental results on inheritance of damage in protozoans, and to theories of aging and resource division between siblings. PMID:17442356

  14. Fatigue Crack Growth Database for Damage Tolerance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forman, R. G.; Shivakumar, V.; Cardinal, J. W.; Williams, L. C.; McKeighan, P. C.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this project was to begin the process of developing a fatigue crack growth database (FCGD) of metallic materials for use in damage tolerance analysis of aircraft structure. For this initial effort, crack growth rate data in the NASGRO (Registered trademark) database, the United States Air Force Damage Tolerant Design Handbook, and other publicly available sources were examined and used to develop a database that characterizes crack growth behavior for specific applications (materials). The focus of this effort was on materials for general commercial aircraft applications, including large transport airplanes, small transport commuter airplanes, general aviation airplanes, and rotorcraft. The end products of this project are the FCGD software and this report. The specific goal of this effort was to present fatigue crack growth data in three usable formats: (1) NASGRO equation parameters, (2) Walker equation parameters, and (3) tabular data points. The development of this FCGD will begin the process of developing a consistent set of standard fatigue crack growth material properties. It is envisioned that the end product of the process will be a general repository for credible and well-documented fracture properties that may be used as a default standard in damage tolerance analyses.

  15. A methodology to predict damage initiation, damage growth and residual strength in titanium matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakuckas, J. G., Jr.; Johnson, W. S.

    1994-01-01

    In this research, a methodology to predict damage initiation, damage growth, fatigue life, and residual strength in titanium matrix composites (TMC) is outlined. Emphasis was placed on micromechanics-based engineering approaches. Damage initiation was predicted using a local effective strain approach. A finite element analysis verified the prevailing assumptions made in the formulation of this model. Damage growth, namely, fiber-bridged matrix crack growth, was evaluated using a fiber bridging (FB) model which accounts for thermal residual stresses. This model combines continuum fracture mechanics and micromechanics analyses yielding stress-intensity factor solutions for fiber-bridged matrix cracks. It is assumed in the FB model that fibers in the wake of the matrix crack are idealized as a closure pressure, and an unknown constant frictional shear stress is assumed to act along the debond length of the bridging fibers. This frictional shear stress was used as a curve fitting parameter to the available experimental data. Fatigue life and post-fatigue residual strength were predicted based on the axial stress in the first intact 0 degree fiber calculated using the FB model and a three-dimensional finite element analysis.

  16. Autoimmune control of lesion growth in CNS with minimal damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathankumar, R.; Mohan, T. R. Krishna

    2013-07-01

    Lesions in central nervous system (CNS) and their growth leads to debilitating diseases like Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Alzheimer's etc. We developed a model earlier [1, 2] which shows how the lesion growth can be arrested through a beneficial auto-immune mechanism. We compared some of the dynamical patterns in the model with different facets of MS. The success of the approach depends on a set of control parameters and their phase space was shown to have a smooth manifold separating the uncontrolled lesion growth region from the controlled. Here we show that an optimal set of parameter values exist in the model which minimizes system damage while, at once, achieving control of lesion growth.

  17. Growth of laser initiated damage in fused silica at 1053 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, M A; Donohue, E E; Hollingsworth, W G; Feit, M D; Rubenchik, A M; Hackel, R P

    2004-11-10

    The effective lifetime of a laser optic is limited by both laser-induced damage and the subsequent growth of laser initiated damage sites. We have measured the growth rate of laser-induced damage on polished fused silica surfaces in 10 torr of air at 1053 nm at 10 ns. The data shows exponential growth in the lateral size of the damage site with shot number above a threshold fluence. The size of the initial damage influences the threshold for growth. We will compare the growth rates for input and output surface damage. Possible reasons for the observed growth behavior are discussed.

  18. Thermal conductivity of organic semi-conducting materials using 3omega and photothermal radiometry techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisdorffer, Frederic; Garnier, Bertrand; Horny, Nicolas; Renaud, Cedric; Chirtoc, Mihai; Nguyen, Thien-Phap

    2014-12-01

    Organic semiconductors for opto-electronic devices show several defects which can be enhanced while increasing the operating temperature. Their thermal management and especially the reduction of their temperature are of great interest. For the heat transfer study, one has to measure the thermal conductivity of thin film organic materials. However the major difficulty for this measurement is the very low thickness of the films which needs the use of very specific techniques. In our work, the 3-omega and photothermal radiometric methods were used to measure the thermal conductivity of thin film organic semiconducting material (Alq3). The measurements were performed as function of the thin film thickness from 45 to 785 nm and also of its temperature from 80 to 350 K. With the 3 omega method, a thermal conductivity value of 0.066 W.m-1K-1 was obtained for Alq3 thin film of 200 nm at room temperature, in close agreement with the photothermal value. Both techniques appear to be complementary: the 3 omega method is easier to implement for large temperature range and small thicknesses down to a few tens of nanometers whereas the photothermal method is more suitable for thicknesses over 200nm since it provides additional information such as the thin film volumetric heat capacity.

  19. Transient thermal conductivity and colloidal stability measurements of nanofluids by using the 3omega method.

    PubMed

    Oh, Dong-Wook; Kwon, Ohmyoung; Lee, Joon Sik

    2008-10-01

    Nanofluid is a mixture of nanoscale particles of metal, metal oxide or carbon nanotube and heat transfer fluids such as water and ethylene glycol. This work presents the application of the 3-omega (3omega) method for measuring the colloidal stability and the transient thermal conductivity of multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT), Al2O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles suspended in water or ethylene glycol. The microfabricated 3omega device is verified by comparing the measured thermal conductivities of pure fluids with the table values. After the validation, the transient thermal responses of the nanofluids are measured to evaluate the colloidal stability. All of Al2O3 nanofluid samples show a clear sign of sedimentation while the acid-treated MWCNT (tMWCNT) nanofluid and a couple of TiO2 nanofluids with pH control or surfactant addition are found to have excellent colloidal stability. The thermal conductivities of tMWCNT nanofluids in the de-ionized water and ethylene glycol are measured, which are found to be in good agreement with previous data. PMID:19198364

  20. Shrinkage and growth compensation in common sunflowers: refining estimates of damage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedgwick, James A.; Oldemeye, John L.; Swenson, Elizabeth L.

    1986-01-01

    Shrinkage and growth compensation of artificially damaged common sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) were studied in central North Dakota during 1981-1982 in an effort to increase accuracy of estimates of blackbird damage to sunflowers. In both years, as plants matured damaged areas on seedheads shrank at a greater rate than the sunflower heads themselves. This differential shrinkage resulted in an underestimation of the area damaged. Sunflower head and damaged-area shrinkage varied widely by time and degree of damage and by size of the seedhead damaged. Because variation in shrinkage by time of damage was so large, predicting when blackbird damage occurs may be the most important factor in estimating seed loss. Yield'occupied seed area was greater (P < 0.05) for damaged than undamaged heads and tended to increase as degree of damage inflicted increased, indicating growth compensation was occurring in response to lost seeds. Yields of undamaged seeds in seedheads damaged during early seed development were higher than those of heads damaged later. This suggested that there was a period of maximal response to damage when plants were best able to redirect growth to seeds remaining in the head. Sunflowers appear to be able to compensate for damage of ≤ 15% of the total hear area. Estimates of damage can be improved by applying empirical results of differential shrinkage and growth compensations.

  1. Growth of laser damage in fused silica: diameter to depth ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, M A; Adams, J J; Carr, C W; Donohue, E E; Feit, M D; Hackel, R P; Hollingsworth, W G; Jarboe, J A; Matthews, M; Rubenchik, A M; Spaeth, M L

    2007-10-29

    Growth of laser initiated damage plays a major role in determining optics lifetime in high power laser systems. Previous measurements have established that the lateral diameter grows exponentially. Knowledge of the growth of the site in the propagation direction is also important, especially so when considering techniques designed to mitigate damage growth, where it is required to reach all the subsurface damage. In this work, we present data on both the diameter and the depth of a growing exit surface damage sites in fused silica. Measured growth rates with both 351 nm illumination and with combined 351 nm and 1054 nm illumination are discussed.

  2. A SMALL-SCALE DAMAGE APPROACH TO PREDICT FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH IN CERAMIC MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Koeppel, Brian J.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2006-05-19

    This paper proposes a small-scale damage modeling approach to predict fatigue crack growth in ceramic materials. A fatigue damage model is formulated that uses two variables. One variable is the scalar damage variable governing the reduction of stiffness, and the other is the number of cycles. The damage evolution law is obtained based on thermodynamics of continuous media and a damage criterion containing a damage threshold function that depends on the damage variable and the cyclic loading parameters. The model has been implemented into the ABAQUS finite element code via user-subroutines and has been used in a modified boundary layer (MBL) modeling approach to analyze fatigue crack growth in a small fracture process zone situated at an initial crack tip. The model application is illustrated through an analysis of fatigue crack growth in an yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia material.

  3. Vinyl ethers containing a cyclic carbonate group. I. Synthesis of 3-(/omega/-vinyloxyalkoxy)propylene 1,2-carbonates

    SciTech Connect

    Nedolya, N.A.; Tatarova, T.F.; Vyalykh, E.P.; Trofimov, B.A.

    1989-01-10

    In order to synthesize 3-(/omega/-vinyloxyalkoxy)propylene 1,2-carbonates the authors studied the reaction of /omega/-vinyloxyalkoxymethyloxiranes with carbon dioxide at 140-180/degree/C, catalyzed by a tertiary amine (triethylamine). The main results from this reaction are described. The effect of the reaction conditions (solvent, concentration of catalyst, ratio of reagents, state of aggregation of the carbon dioxide, process temperature and time) on the result were studied for the case of 2-vinyloxyethoxymethyloxirane. The reaction leads with high yields to functional vinyl ethers of a new type - 3-(/omega/-vinyloxyalkoxy)propylene 1,2-carbonates.

  4. A physically-based continuum damage mechanics model for numerical prediction of damage growth in laminated composite plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Kevin Vaughan

    Rapid growth in use of composite materials in structural applications drives the need for a more detailed understanding of damage tolerant and damage resistant design. Current analytical techniques provide sufficient understanding and predictive capabilities for application in preliminary design, but current numerical models applicable to composites are few and far between and their development into well tested, rigorous material models is currently one of the most challenging fields in composite materials. The present work focuses on the development, implementation, and verification of a plane-stress continuum damage mechanics based model for composite materials. A physical treatment of damage growth based on the extensive body of experimental literature on the subject is combined with the mathematical rigour of a continuum damage mechanics description to form the foundation of the model. The model has been implemented in the LS-DYNA3D commercial finite element hydrocode and the results of the application of the model are shown to be physically meaningful and accurate. Furthermore it is demonstrated that the material characterization parameters can be extracted from the results of standard test methodologies for which a large body of published data already exists for many materials. Two case studies are undertaken to verify the model by comparison with measured experimental data. The first series of analyses demonstrate the ability of the model to predict the extent and growth of damage in T800/3900-2 carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) plates subjected to normal impacts over a range of impact energy levels. The predicted force-time and force-displacement response of the panels compare well with experimental measurements. The damage growth and stiffness reduction properties of the T800/3900-2 CFRP are derived using published data from a variety of sources without the need for parametric studies. To further demonstrate the physical nature of the model, a IM6

  5. Predictive modeling techniques for nanosecond-laser damage growth in fused silica optics.

    PubMed

    Liao, Zhi M; Abdulla, Ghaleb M; Negres, Raluca A; Cross, David A; Carr, Christopher W

    2012-07-01

    Empirical numerical descriptions of the growth of laser-induced damage have been previously developed. In this work, Monte-Carlo techniques use these descriptions to model the evolution of a population of damage sites. The accuracy of the model is compared against laser damage growth observations. In addition, a machine learning (classification) technique independently predicts site evolution from patterns extracted directly from the data. The results show that both the Monte-Carlo simulation and machine learning classification algorithm can accurately reproduce the growth of a population of damage sites for at least 10 shots, which is extremely valuable for modeling optics lifetime in operating high-energy laser systems. Furthermore, we have also found that machine learning can be used as an important tool to explore and increase our understanding of the growth process. PMID:22772252

  6. Home Remedy for Skin Cancer May Cause Damage, Mask New Growth

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_158984.html Home Remedy For Skin Cancer May Cause Damage, Mask New Growth 'Black ... promise of an "easy and natural" treatment for skin cancer, home remedies such as black salve can ...

  7. Creep crack growth predictions in INCO 718 using a continuum damage model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, K. P.; Wilson, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Creep crack growth tests have been carried out in compact type specimens of INCO 718 at 1200 F (649 C). Theoretical creep crack growth predictions have been carried out by incorporating a unified viscoplastic constitutive model and a continuum damage model into the ARAQUS nonlinear finite element program. Material constants for both the viscoplastic model and the creep continuum damage model were determined from tests carried out on uniaxial bar specimens of INCO 718 at 1200 F (649 C). A comparison of the theoretical creep crack growth rates obtained from the finite element predictions with the experimentally observed creep crack growth rates indicates that the viscoplastic/continuum damage model can be used to successfully predict creep crack growth in compact type specimens using material constants obtained from uniaxial bar specimens of INCO 718 at 1200 F (649 C).

  8. Laser Damage Growth in Fused Silica with Simultaneous 351 nm and 1053 nm irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, M A; Carr, A V; Carr, C W; Donohue, E E; Feit, M D; Hollingsworth, W G; Liao, Z; Negres, R A; Rubenchik, A M; Wegner, P J

    2008-10-24

    Laser-induced growth of optical damage often determines the useful lifetime of an optic in a high power laser system. We have extended our previous work on growth of laser damage in fused silica with simultaneous 351 nm and 1053 nm laser irradiation by measuring the threshold for growth with various ratios of 351 nm and 1053 nm fluence. Previously we reported that when growth occurs, the growth rate is determined by the total fluence. We now find that the threshold for growth is dependent on both the magnitude of the 351 nm fluence as well as the ratio of the 351 nm fluence to the 1053 nm fluence. Furthermore, the data suggests that under certain conditions the 1053 nm fluence does not contribute to the growth.

  9. Progressive damage and residual strength of notched composite laminates: A new effective crack growth model

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, L.; Afaghi-Khatibi, A.; Mai, Y.W.

    1997-12-31

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the residual strength of fiber reinforced metal laminates (FRMLs) and polymer matrix composite laminates (PMCLs) with a circular hole or sharp notch using an effective crack growth model (ECGM). Damage is assumed to initiate when the local normal stress at the hole edge/notch tip reaches the tensile strength or yield strength of the composite and metal layers, respectively. The damage in the constituent materials was modelled by fictitious cracks with cohesive stress acting on the crack surfaces, and the damage growth was simulated by extension of the fictitious cracks step by step and reduction of the cohesive stress with crack opening. The apparent fracture energy of composite layers and fracture toughness of metal layers were used to define the relationships between the tensile/yield strength and the critical crack opening. Based on the global equilibrium, an iterative technique was developed to evaluate the applied load required to produce the damage growth. The residual strength of notched composite laminates was defined by instability of the applied load and damage growth. The effect of hole/notch size on the residual strength was studied and the stress redistribution with damage growth was discussed. The residual strength simulated from ECGM correlated well with experimental data in the open literature.

  10. Review: Wind impacts on plant growth, mechanics and damage.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Barry; Berry, Peter; Moulia, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    Land plants have adapted to survive under a range of wind climates and this involve changes in chemical composition, physical structure and morphology at all scales from the cell to the whole plant. Under strong winds plants can re-orientate themselves, reconfigure their canopies, or shed needles, leaves and branches in order to reduce the drag. If the wind is too strong the plants oscillate until the roots or stem fail. The mechanisms of root and stem failure are very similar in different plants although the exact details of the failure may be different. Cereals and other herbaceous crops can often recover after wind damage and even woody plants can partially recovery if there is sufficient access to water and nutrients. Wind damage can have major economic impacts on crops, forests and urban trees. This can be reduced by management that is sensitive to the local site and climatic conditions and accounts for the ability of plants to acclimate to their local wind climate. Wind is also a major disturbance in many plant ecosystems and can play a crucial role in plant regeneration and the change of successional stage. PMID:26940495

  11. Growth of Laser Damage in SiO2 under Multiple Wavelength Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, M A; Donohue, E E; Feit, M D; Hackel, R P; Hollingsworth, W G; Rubenchik, A M; Spaeth, M L

    2005-10-28

    In laser systems using frequency conversion, multiple wavelengths will be present on optical components. We have investigated the growth of laser initiated damage in fused silica in the presence of multiple wavelengths. In particular, we measured growth at 351 nm in the presence of 1053 nm near the threshold of growth for 351 nm alone. The data shows that the sum fluence determines the onset of growth as well as the growth rate. The measured growth coefficient is consistent with all the energy being delivered at 351 nm. Additionally, we measured growth at 527 nm in the presence of 1053 nm near the threshold of growth at 527 nm alone. In this case, the sum fluence also determines the growth coefficient but the rate is consistent with all the energy being delivered at 1053 nm. We present the measurements and discuss possible reasons for the behavior.

  12. Laser-Induced Surface Damage of Optical Materials: Absorption Sources, Initiation, Growth, adn Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Papernov, S.; Schmid, A.W.

    2009-04-07

    Susceptibility to laser damage of optical-material surfaces originates from the nature of the surface as a transitional structure between optical-material bulk and its surroundings. As such, it requires technological processing to satisfy figure and roughness requirements and is also permanently subjected to environmental exposure. Consequently, enhanced absorption caused by mechanical structural damage or incorporation and sorption of microscale absorbing defects, even layers of organic materials, is always characteristic for optical-material surfaces. In this review physics of interaction of pulsed-laser radiation with surface imperfections for different types of optical materials (metals, semiconductors, dielectrics, etc.), mechanisms of damage initiation, damage morphology, and damage-site growth under repetitive pulse irradiation are discussed. Consideration is also given here to the surface treatments leading to the reduction of damage initiation sites, such as laser cleaning and conditioning, removal of the surface layers affected by the grinding/polishing process, and mitigation of the damage growth at already formed damage sites.

  13. Determination of laser damage initiation probability and growth on fused silica scratches

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, M A; Carr, C W; Cross, D A; Negres, R A; Bude, J D; Steele, W A; Monticelli, M V; Suratwala, T I

    2010-10-26

    Current methods for the manufacture of optical components inevitably leaves a variety of sub-surface imperfections including scratches of varying lengths and widths on even the finest finishes. It has recently been determined that these finishing imperfections are responsible for the majority of laser-induced damage for fluences typically used in ICF class lasers. We have developed methods of engineering subscale parts with a distribution of scratches mimicking those found on full scale fused silica parts. This much higher density of scratches provides a platform to measure low damage initiation probabilities sufficient to describe damage on large scale optics. In this work, damage probability per unit scratch length was characterized as a function of initial scratch width and post fabrication processing including acid-based etch mitigation processes. The susceptibility of damage initiation density along scratches was found to be strongly affected by the post etching material removal and initial scratch width. We have developed an automated processing procedure to document the damage initiations per width and per length of theses scratches. We show here how these tools can be employed to provide predictions of the performance of full size optics in laser systems operating at 351 nm. In addition we use these tools to measure the growth rate of a damage site initiated along a scratch and compare this to the growth measured on an isolated damage site.

  14. Theory of inception mechanism and growth of defect-induced damage in polyethylene cable insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra, S.; Montanari, G. C.; Mazzanti, G.

    2005-08-01

    We have investigated theoretically the inception mechanism and growth of the damage inside the insulation system of a polymeric cable under working conditions. We focused, in particular, our attention on damage originating from microscopic defects such as voids. In order to clarify the implications of these defects for cable failure, we have developed a theoretical model based on the theory of electrical avalanche solving numerically its basic equations. Calculations of the ionization rates of atmospheric gas filling the voids are done as a function of the applied electric stress and void dimensions. Estimates of the energy release and local damage in polyethylene produced by the resulting hot-electron discharge are given. The developed physical model of damage growth compares reasonably well with known experimental data.

  15. Crack Growth Prediction Methodology for Multi-Site Damage: Layered Analysis and Growth During Plasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark Anthony

    1999-01-01

    A finite element program has been developed to perform quasi-static, elastic-plastic crack growth simulations. The model provides a general framework for mixed-mode I/II elastic-plastic fracture analysis using small strain assumptions and plane stress, plane strain, and axisymmetric finite elements. Cracks are modeled explicitly in the mesh. As the cracks propagate, automatic remeshing algorithms delete the mesh local to the crack tip, extend the crack, and build a new mesh around the new tip. State variable mapping algorithms transfer stresses and displacements from the old mesh to the new mesh. The von Mises material model is implemented in the context of a non-linear Newton solution scheme. The fracture criterion is the critical crack tip opening displacement, and crack direction is predicted by the maximum tensile stress criterion at the crack tip. The implementation can accommodate multiple curving and interacting cracks. An additional fracture algorithm based on nodal release can be used to simulate fracture along a horizontal plane of symmetry. A core of plane strain elements can be used with the nodal release algorithm to simulate the triaxial state of stress near the crack tip. Verification and validation studies compare analysis results with experimental data and published three-dimensional analysis results. Fracture predictions using nodal release for compact tension, middle-crack tension, and multi-site damage test specimens produced accurate results for residual strength and link-up loads. Curving crack predictions using remeshing/mapping were compared with experimental data for an Arcan mixed-mode specimen. Loading angles from 0 degrees to 90 degrees were analyzed. The maximum tensile stress criterion was able to predict the crack direction and path for all loading angles in which the material failed in tension. Residual strength was also accurately predicted for these cases.

  16. Membrane damage by human islet amyloid polypeptide through fibril growth at the membrane.

    PubMed

    Engel, Maarten F M; Khemtémourian, Lucie; Kleijer, Cécile C; Meeldijk, Hans J D; Jacobs, Jet; Verkleij, Arie J; de Kruijff, Ben; Killian, J Antoinette; Höppener, Jo W M

    2008-04-22

    Fibrillar protein deposits (amyloid) in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans are thought to be involved in death of the insulin-producing islet beta cells in type 2 diabetes mellitus. It has been suggested that the mechanism of this beta cell death involves membrane disruption by human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP), the major constituent of islet amyloid. However, the molecular mechanism of hIAPP-induced membrane disruption is not known. Here, we propose a hypothesis that growth of hIAPP fibrils at the membrane causes membrane damage. We studied the kinetics of hIAPP-induced membrane damage in relation to hIAPP fibril growth and found that the kinetic profile of hIAPP-induced membrane damage is characterized by a lag phase and a sigmoidal transition, which matches the kinetic profile of hIAPP fibril growth. The observation that seeding accelerates membrane damage supports the hypothesis. In addition, variables that are well known to affect hIAPP fibril formation, i.e., the presence of a fibril formation inhibitor, hIAPP concentration, and lipid composition, were found to have the same effect on hIAPP-induced membrane damage. Furthermore, electron microscopy analysis showed that hIAPP fibrils line the surface of distorted phospholipid vesicles, in agreement with the notion that hIAPP fibril growth at the membrane and membrane damage are physically connected. Together, these observations point toward a mechanism in which growth of hIAPP fibrils, rather than a particular hIAPP species, is responsible for the observed membrane damage. This hypothesis provides an additional mechanism next to the previously proposed role of oligomers as the main cytotoxic species of amyloidogenic proteins. PMID:18408164

  17. Membrane damage by human islet amyloid polypeptide through fibril growth at the membrane

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Maarten F. M.; Khemtémourian, Lucie; Kleijer, Cécile C.; Meeldijk, Hans J. D.; Jacobs, Jet; Verkleij, Arie J.; de Kruijff, Ben; Killian, J. Antoinette; Höppener, Jo W. M.

    2008-01-01

    Fibrillar protein deposits (amyloid) in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans are thought to be involved in death of the insulin-producing islet β cells in type 2 diabetes mellitus. It has been suggested that the mechanism of this β cell death involves membrane disruption by human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP), the major constituent of islet amyloid. However, the molecular mechanism of hIAPP-induced membrane disruption is not known. Here, we propose a hypothesis that growth of hIAPP fibrils at the membrane causes membrane damage. We studied the kinetics of hIAPP-induced membrane damage in relation to hIAPP fibril growth and found that the kinetic profile of hIAPP-induced membrane damage is characterized by a lag phase and a sigmoidal transition, which matches the kinetic profile of hIAPP fibril growth. The observation that seeding accelerates membrane damage supports the hypothesis. In addition, variables that are well known to affect hIAPP fibril formation, i.e., the presence of a fibril formation inhibitor, hIAPP concentration, and lipid composition, were found to have the same effect on hIAPP-induced membrane damage. Furthermore, electron microscopy analysis showed that hIAPP fibrils line the surface of distorted phospholipid vesicles, in agreement with the notion that hIAPP fibril growth at the membrane and membrane damage are physically connected. Together, these observations point toward a mechanism in which growth of hIAPP fibrils, rather than a particular hIAPP species, is responsible for the observed membrane damage. This hypothesis provides an additional mechanism next to the previously proposed role of oligomers as the main cytotoxic species of amyloidogenic proteins. PMID:18408164

  18. Methods for Mitigating Growth of Laser-Initiated Surface Damage on DKDP Optics at 351nm

    SciTech Connect

    Hrubesh, L W; Brusasco, R B; Grundler, W; Norton, M A; Donohue, E E; Molander, W A; Thompson, S L; Strodtbeck, S R; Whitman, P K; Shirk, M D; Wegner, P J; Nostrand, M C; Burnham, A K

    2002-10-11

    We report an experimental investigation of mitigating surface damage growth at 351nm for machine-finished DKDP optics. The objective was to determine which methods could be applied to pre-initiated or retrieved-from-service optics, in order to stop further damage growth for large aperture DKDP optics used in high-peak-power laser applications. The test results, and the evaluation thereof, are presented for several mitigation methods applied to DKDP surface damage. The mitigation methods tested were CW-CO{sub 2} laser processing, aqueous wet-etching, short-pulse laser ablation, and micro-machining. We found that micro-machining, using a single crystal diamond tool to completely remove the damage pit, produces the most consistent results to halt the growth of surface damage on DKDP. We obtained the successful mitigation of laser-initiated surface damage sites as large as 0.14mm diameter, for up to 1000 shots at 351nm and fluences in the range of 2 to 13J/cm{sup 2}, {approx} 11ns pulse length. Data obtained to-date indicates that micro-machining is the preferred method to process large-aperture optics.

  19. A Numerical and Experimental Study of Damage Growth in a Composite Laminate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McElroy, Mark; Ratcliffe, James; Czabaj, Michael; Wang, John; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo

    2014-01-01

    The present study has three goals: (1) perform an experiment where a simple laminate damage process can be characterized in high detail; (2) evaluate the performance of existing commercially available laminate damage simulation tools by modeling the experiment; (3) observe and understand the underlying physics of damage in a composite honeycomb sandwich structure subjected to low-velocity impact. A quasi-static indentation experiment has been devised to provide detailed information about a simple mixed-mode damage growth process. The test specimens consist of an aluminum honeycomb core with a cross-ply laminate facesheet supported on a stiff uniform surface. When the sample is subjected to an indentation load, the honeycomb core provides support to the facesheet resulting in a gradual and stable damage growth process in the skin. This enables real time observation as a matrix crack forms, propagates through a ply, and then causes a delamination. Finite element analyses were conducted in ABAQUS/Explicit(TradeMark) 6.13 that used continuum and cohesive modeling techniques to simulate facesheet damage and a geometric and material nonlinear model to simulate core crushing. The high fidelity of the experimental data allows a detailed investigation and discussion of the accuracy of each numerical modeling approach.

  20. Real Time Fatigue Damage Growth Assessment of a Composite Three-Stringer Panel Using Passive Thermography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Burke, Eric R.; Horne, Michael R.; Bly, James B.

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue testing of advanced composite structures is critical to validate both structural designs and damage prediction models. In-situ inspection methods are necessary to track damage onset and growth as a function of load cycles. Passive thermography is a large area, noncontact inspection technique that is used to detect composite damage onset and growth in real time as a function of fatigue cycles. The thermal images are acquired in synchronicity to the applied compressive load using a dual infrared camera acquisition system for full (front and back) coverage. Image processing algorithms are investigated to increase defect contrast areas. The thermal results are compared to non-immersion ultrasound inspections and acoustic emission data.

  1. SHOCK INITIATION EXPERIMENTS PLUS IGNITION AND GROWTH MODELING OF DAMAGED LX-04 CHARGES

    SciTech Connect

    Chidester, S K; Garcia, F; Vandersall, K S; Tarver, C M

    2009-06-23

    Shock initiation experiments were performed on mechanically and thermally damaged LX-04 (85% HMX and 15% Viton by weight) to obtain in-situ manganin pressure gauge data and run distances to detonation at various shock pressures. The LX-04 charges were damaged mechanically by applying a compressive load of 600 psi for 20,000 cycles, thus creating many small narrow cracks, or by cutting wedge shaped parts that were then loosely reassembled, thus creating a few large cracks. The thermal damaged LX-04 charges were heated to 190 C for a long enough time for the beta to delta phase transition to occur and then cooled to ambient temperature. Mechanically damaged LX-04 exhibited only slightly increased shock sensitivity, while the thermally damaged LX-04 was much more shock sensitive. The pristine LX-04 Ignition and Growth model, modified only by igniting a larger amount of explosive during shock compression based on the damaged charge density, accurately calculated the increased shock sensitivity of the three damaged charges.

  2. A new conceptual model for damage zone evolution with fault growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Joussineau, G.; Aydin, A.

    2006-12-01

    component of the damage zone is the outer damage zone which has a larger and more variable thickness and a lower fracture frequency than the inner zone. The origin and evolution of the inner and outer damage zones are closely related to the history of the fault development as shown in a new conceptual model for damage zone evolution with fault growth. This model forms the basis for a better predictive tool for the attributes of damage zones associated with both large faults that have resolvable slip magnitude and smaller sub-seismic faults in the subsurface.

  3. Analysis and prediction of Multiple-Site Damage (MSD) fatigue crack growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawicke, D. S.; Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A technique was developed to calculate the stress intensity factor for multiple interacting cracks. The analysis was verified through comparison with accepted methods of calculating stress intensity factors. The technique was incorporated into a fatigue crack growth prediction model and used to predict the fatigue crack growth life for multiple-site damage (MSD). The analysis was verified through comparison with experiments conducted on uniaxially loaded flat panels with multiple cracks. Configuration with nearly equal and unequal crack distribution were examined. The fatigue crack growth predictions agreed within 20 percent of the experimental lives for all crack configurations considered.

  4. Optics Performance at 1(omega), 2 (omega), and 3 (omega): Final Report on LDRD Project 03-ERD-071

    SciTech Connect

    Honig, J; Adams, J; Carr, C; Demos, S; Feit, M; Mehta, N; Norton, M; Nostrand, M; Rubenchik, A; Spaeth, M

    2006-02-08

    The interaction of intense laser light with dielectric materials is a fundamental applied science problem that is becoming increasingly important with the rapid development of ever more powerful lasers. To better understand the behavior of optical components in large fusion-class laser systems, we are systematically studying the interaction of high-fluence, high-power laser light with high-quality optical components, with particular interest on polishing/finishing and stress-induced defects and surface contamination. We focus on obtaining comparable measurements at three different wavelengths, 1{omega} (1053 nm), 2{omega} (527 nm), and 3{omega} (351 nm).

  5. Nutriomes and personalised nutrition for DNA damage prevention, telomere integrity maintenance and cancer growth control.

    PubMed

    Fenech, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    DNA damage at the base sequence and chromosome level is a fundamental cause of developmental and degenerative diseases. Multiple micronutrients and their interactions with the inherited and/or acquired genome determine DNA damage and genomic instability rates. The challenge is to identify for each individual the combination of micronutrients and their doses (i.e. the nutriome) that optimises genome stability, including telomere integrity and functionality and DNA repair. Using nutrient array systems with high-content analysis diagnostics of DNA damage, cell death and cell growth, it is possible to define, on an individual basis, the optimal nutriome for DNA damage prevention and cancer growth control. This knowledge can also be used to improve culture systems for cells used in therapeutics such as stem cells to ensure that they are not genetically aberrant when returned to the body. Furthermore, this information could be used to design dietary patterns that deliver the micronutrient combinations and concentrations required for preventing DNA damage by micronutrient deficiency or excess. Using this approach, new knowledge could be obtained to identify the dietary restrictions and/or supplementations required to control specific cancers, which is particularly important given that reliable validated advice is not yet available for those diagnosed with cancer. PMID:24114494

  6. Helicopter rotor blade frequency evolution with damage growth and signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Niranjan; Ganguli, Ranjan

    2005-05-01

    Structural damage in materials evolves over time due to growth of fatigue cracks in homogenous materials and a complicated process of matrix cracking, delamination, fiber breakage and fiber matrix debonding in composite materials. In this study, a finite element model of the helicopter rotor blade is used to analyze the effect of damage growth on the modal frequencies in a qualitative manner. Phenomenological models of material degradation for homogenous and composite materials are used. Results show that damage can be detected by monitoring changes in lower as well as higher mode flap (out-of-plane bending), lag (in-plane bending) and torsion rotating frequencies, especially for composite materials where the onset of the last stage of damage of fiber breakage is most critical. Curve fits are also proposed for mathematical modeling of the relationship between rotating frequencies and cycles. Finally, since operational data are noisy and also contaminated with outliers, denoising algorithms based on recursive median filters and radial basis function neural networks and wavelets are studied and compared with a moving average filter using simulated data for improved health-monitoring application. A novel recursive median filter is designed using integer programming through genetic algorithm and is found to have comparable performance to neural networks with much less complexity and is better than wavelet denoising for outlier removal. This filter is proposed as a tool for denoising time series of damage indicators.

  7. Propagule size and predispersal damage by insects affect establishment and early growth of mangrove seedlings.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Wayne P; Kennedy, Peter G; Mitchell, Betsy J

    2003-05-01

    Variation in rates of seedling recruitment, growth, and survival can strongly influence the rate and course of forest regeneration following disturbance. Using a combination of field sampling and shadehouse experiments, we investigated the influence of propagule size and predispersal insect damage on the establishment and early growth of the three common mangrove species on the Caribbean coast of Panama: Avicennia germinans, Laguncularia racemosa, and Rhizophora mangle. In our field samples, all three species exhibited considerable intraspecific variation in mature propagule size, and suffered moderate to high levels of predispersal attack by larval insects. Rates of insect attack were largely independent of propagule size both within and among trees. Our experimental studies using undamaged mature propagules showed that, for all three species, seedlings established at high rates regardless of propagule size. However, propagule size did have a marked effect on early seedling growth: seedlings that developed from larger propagules grew more rapidly. Predispersal insect infestations that had destroyed or removed a substantial amount of tissue, particularly if that tissue was meristematic or conductive, reduced the establishment of propagules of all three species. The effect of sublethal tissue damage or loss on the subsequent growth of established seedlings varied among the three mangrove species. For Avicennia, the growth response was graded: for a propagule of a given size, the more tissue lost, the slower the growth of the seedling. For Laguncularia, the response to insect attack appeared to be all-or-none. If the boring insect penetrated the outer spongy seed coat and reached the developing embryo, it usually caused sufficient damage to prevent a seedling from developing. On the other hand, if the insect damaged but did not penetrate the seed coat, a completely healthy seedling developed and its growth rate was indistinguishable from a seedling developing from an

  8. Eugenol-inhibited root growth in Avena fatua involves ROS-mediated oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Nitina; Singh, Harminder Pal; Batish, Daizy Rani; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Plant essential oils and their constituent monoterpenes are widely known plant growth retardants but their mechanism of action is not well understood. We explored the mechanism of phytotoxicity of eugenol, a monoterpenoid alcohol, proposed as a natural herbicide. Eugenol (100-1000 µM) retarded the germination of Avena fatua and strongly inhibited its root growth compared to the coleoptile growth. We further investigated the underlying physiological and biochemical alterations leading to the root growth inhibition. Eugenol induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to oxidative stress and membrane damage in the root tissue. ROS generation measured in terms of hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical content increased significantly in the range of 24 to 144, 21 to 91, 46 to 173% over the control at 100 to 1000 µM eugenol, respectively. The disruption in membrane integrity was indicated by 25 to 125% increase in malondialdehyde (lipid peroxidation byproduct), and decreased conjugated diene content (~10 to 41%). The electrolyte leakage suggesting membrane damage increased both under light as well as dark conditions measured over a period from 0 to 30 h. In defense to the oxidative damage due to eugenol, a significant upregulation in the ROS-scavenging antioxidant enzyme machinery was observed. The activities of superoxide dismutases, catalases, ascorbate peroxidases, guaiacol peroxidases and glutathione reductases were elevated by ~1.5 to 2.8, 2 to 4.3, 1.9 to 5.0, 1.4 to 3.9, 2.5 to 5.5 times, respectively, in response to 100 to 1000 µM eugenol. The study concludes that eugenol inhibits early root growth through ROS-mediated oxidative damage, despite an activation of the antioxidant enzyme machinery. PMID:25752432

  9. Mitigation of Laser Damage Growth in Fused Silica with a Galvanometer Scanned CO2 Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, I L; Guss, G M; Hackel, R P

    2005-10-28

    At the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), mitigation of laser surface damage growth on fused silica using single and multiple CO{sub 2} laser pulses has been consistently successful for damage sites whose lateral dimensions are less than 100 {micro}m, but has not been for larger sites. Cracks would often radiate outward from the damage when a CO{sub 2} pulse was applied to the larger sites. An investigation was conducted to mitigate large surface damage sites using galvanometer scanning of a tightly focused CO{sub 2} laser spot over an area encompassing the laser damage. It was thought that by initially scanning the CO{sub 2} spot outside the damage site, radiating crack propagation would be inhibited. Scan patterns were typically inward moving spirals starting at radii somewhat larger than that of the damage site. The duration of the mitigation spiral pattern was {approx}110 ms during which a total of {approx}1.3 J of energy was delivered to the sample. The CO{sub 2} laser spot had a 1/e{sup 2}-diameter of {approx}200 {micro}m. Thus, there was general heating of a large area around the damage site while rapid evaporation occurred locally at the laser spot position in the spiral. A 30 to 40 {micro}m deep crater was typically generated by this spiral with a diameter of {approx}600 {micro}m. The spiral would be repeated until there was no evidence of the original damage in microscope images. Using this technique, damage sites as large as 300 mm in size did not display new damage after mitigation when exposed to fluences exceeding 22 J/cm{sup 2} at 355 nm, 7.5 ns. It was found necessary to use a vacuum nozzle during the mitigation process to reduce the amount of re-deposited fused silica. In addition, curing spiral patterns at lower laser powers were used to presumably ''re-melt'' any re-deposited fused silica. A compact, shearing interferometer microscope was developed to permit in situ measurement of the depth of

  10. Time-temperature analysis of damage initiation and growth in composite laminates

    SciTech Connect

    Negesh, S.

    1992-01-01

    Polymer-based composites are used in aerospace structures due to their high strength to weight ratio. However polymers also exhibit time-dependent behavior and this behavior may in turn be affected by high temperature and humid environments. Long-term effects manifest themselves in the form of loss of stiffness and/or strength. And, in this regard, the contributing factors could stem from the time-dependent material behavior as well as the accumulation of damages in time. Clearly, generic methodology is needed which addresses the fundamental issues caused by both of the contributing factors. The objective of the present study is to investigate the time-dependent damage initiation and growth behavior associated with the various sublaminate damage modes in polymer-based composites. A quasi-three dimensional finite element procedure is first developed based on the linear theory of viscoelasticity for simulating sublaminate damages in composite laminates. Specifically the unidirectional plies of the laminate are represented by a set of linear anisotropic, viscoelastic constitutive relations. Damage modes in the forms of transverse cracks, delamination of fiber-wise splitting are incorporated in the analysis by means of appropriately evolving local boundary conditions. Calculation of the stress fields and fracture parameters such as the strain energy release rates (G) and the stress intensity factors (K) associated with the different modes of damage and a different stages of evolution are also made a part of the routine. Numerical solutions are obtained by a convolution as well as a quasi-elastic technique. To illustrate the applicability of the numerical routine, the problem of fiber-wise splitting is chosen. Since fiber-wise splitting is a mixed-mode type of failure, an appropriate mixed-mode fracture criterion is needed for predicting its onset and growth.

  11. Accelerated Aging Experiments for Prognostics of Damage Growth in Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, Abhinav; Goebel, Kai Frank; Larrosa, Cecilia C.; Janapati, Vishnuvardhan; Roy, Surajit; Chang, Fu-Kuo

    2011-01-01

    Composite structures are gaining importance for use in the aerospace industry. Compared to metallic structures their behavior is less well understood. This lack of understanding may pose constraints on their use. One possible way to deal with some of the risks associated with potential failure is to perform in-situ monitoring to detect precursors of failures. Prognostic algorithms can be used to predict impending failures. They require large amounts of training data to build and tune damage model for making useful predictions. One of the key aspects is to get confirmatory feedback from data as damage progresses. These kinds of data are rarely available from actual systems. The next possible resource to collect such data is an accelerated aging platform. To that end this paper describes a fatigue cycling experiment with the goal to stress carbon-carbon composite coupons with various layups. Piezoelectric disc sensors were used to periodically interrogate the system. Analysis showed distinct differences in the signatures of growing failures between data collected at conditions. Periodic X-radiographs were taken to assess the damage ground truth. Results after signal processing showed clear trends of damage growth that were correlated to damage assessed from the X-ray images.

  12. Temperature-dependent quantitative 3{omega} scanning thermal microscopy: Local thermal conductivity changes in NiTi microstructures induced by martensite-austenite phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Chirtoc, M.; Gibkes, J.; Wernhardt, R.; Pelzl, J.; Wieck, A.

    2008-09-15

    We develop the theoretical description of 3{omega} signals from the resistive Wollaston thermal probe (ThP) of a scanning thermal microscope (SThM) in terms of an equivalent low-pass filter. The normalized amplitude and phase frequency spectra are completely characterized by a single parameter, the crossover frequency f{sub c}(k) depending on the sample thermal conductivity k. The application concerns polycrystalline NiTi shape memory alloy microstructured by focused Ga ion beam milling and implantation. The calibration of the ThP combined with a novel two-step normalization procedure allowed quantitative exploitation of 3{omega} signal variations as small as -1.75% in amplitude and 0.60 deg. in phase upon heating the sample from room temperature to 100 deg. C. This corresponds to k increase of 23.9% that is consistent with the expected thermal conductivity variation due to martensite-austenite structural phase transition. To our knowledge this is for the first time that SThM 3{omega} phase information is used quantitatively as well. The static, calibrated 3{omega} measurements are complementary to 3{omega} SThM images of the patterned sample surface. The local SThM measurement of temperature-dependent thermal conductivity opens the possibility to imaging structural phase transitions at submicron scale.

  13. DNA damage response in male gametes of Cyrtanthus mackenii during pollen tube growth

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, Tomonari; Takagi, Keiichi; Hoshino, Yoichiro; Abe, Tomoko

    2013-01-01

    Male gametophytes of plants are exposed to environmental stress and mutagenic agents during the double fertilization process and therefore need to repair the DNA damage in order to transmit the genomic information to the next generation. However, the DNA damage response in male gametes is still unclear. In the present study, we analysed the response to DNA damage in the generative cells of Cyrtanthus mackenii during pollen tube growth. A carbon ion beam, which can induce DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), was used to irradiate the bicellular pollen, and then the irradiated pollen grains were cultured in a liquid culture medium. The male gametes were isolated from the cultured pollen tubes and used for immunofluorescence analysis. Although inhibitory effects on pollen tube growth were not observed after irradiation, sperm cell formation decreased significantly after high-dose irradiation. After high-dose irradiation, the cell cycle progression of generative cells was arrested at metaphase in pollen mitosis II, and phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX) foci, an indicator of DSBs, were detected in the majority of the arrested cells. However, these foci were not detected in cells that were past metaphase. Cell cycle progression in irradiated generative cells is regulated by the spindle assembly checkpoint, and modification of the histones surrounding the DSBs was confirmed. These results indicate that during pollen tube growth generative cells can recognize and manage genomic lesions using DNA damage response pathways. In addition, the number of generative cells with γH2AX foci decreased with culture prolongation, suggesting that the DSBs in the generative cells are repaired. PMID:23550213

  14. Recombinant Human Epidermal Growth Factor Accelerates Recovery of Mouse Small Intestinal Mucosa After Radiation Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kang Kyoo; Jo, Hyang Jeong; Hong, Joon Pio; Lee, Sang-wook Sohn, Jung Sook; Moon, Soo Young; Yang, Sei Hoon; Shim, Hyeok; Lee, Sang Ho; Ryu, Seung-Hee; Moon, Sun Rock

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: To determine whether systemically administered recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) accelerates the recovery of mouse small intestinal mucosa after irradiation. Methods and Materials: A mouse mucosal damage model was established by administering radiation to male BALB/c mice with a single dose of 15 Gy applied to the abdomen. After irradiation, rhEGF was administered subcutaneously at various doses (0.04, 0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 mg/kg/day) eight times at 2- to 3-day intervals. The evaluation methods included histologic changes of small intestinal mucosa, change in body weight, frequency of diarrhea, and survival rate. Results: The recovery of small intestinal mucosa after irradiation was significantly improved in the mice treated with a high dose of rhEGF. In the mice that underwent irradiation without rhEGF treatment, intestinal mucosal ulceration, mucosal layer damage, and severe inflammation occurred. The regeneration of villi was noticeable in mice treated with more than 0.2 mg/kg rhEGF, and the villi recovered fully in mice given more than 1 mg/kg rhEGF. The frequency of diarrhea persisting for more than 3 days was significantly greater in the radiation control group than in the rhEGF-treated groups. Conclusions: Systemic administration of rhEGF accelerates recovery from mucosal damage induced by irradiation. We suggest that rhEGF treatment shows promise for the reduction of small intestinal damage after irradiation.

  15. Transforming growth factor-beta1 mediates cellular response to DNA damage in situ

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewan, Kenneth B.; Henshall-Powell, Rhonda L.; Ravani, Shraddha A.; Pajares, Maria Jose; Arteaga, Carlos; Warters, Ray; Akhurst, Rosemary J.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2002-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 is rapidly activated after ionizing radiation, but its specific role in cellular responses to DNA damage is not known. Here we use Tgfbeta1 knockout mice to show that radiation-induced apoptotic response is TGF-beta1 dependent in the mammary epithelium, and that both apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation in response to DNA damage decrease as a function of TGF-beta1 gene dose in embryonic epithelial tissues. Because apoptosis in these tissues has been shown previously to be p53 dependent, we then examined p53 protein activation. TGF-beta1 depletion, by either gene knockout or by using TGF-beta neutralizing antibodies, resulted in decreased p53 Ser-18 phosphorylation in irradiated mammary gland. These data indicate that TGF-beta1 is essential for rapid p53-mediated cellular responses that mediate cell fate decisions in situ.

  16. Glutathione-deficient Plasmodium berghei parasites exhibit growth delay and nuclear DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Padín-Irizarry, Vivian; Colón-Lorenzo, Emilee E; Vega-Rodríguez, Joel; Castro, María Del R; González-Méndez, Ricardo; Ayala-Peña, Sylvette; Serrano, Adelfa E

    2016-06-01

    Plasmodium parasites are exposed to endogenous and exogenous oxidative stress during their complex life cycle. To minimize oxidative damage, the parasites use glutathione (GSH) and thioredoxin (Trx) as primary antioxidants. We previously showed that disruption of the Plasmodium berghei gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (pbggcs-ko) or the glutathione reductase (pbgr-ko) genes resulted in a significant reduction of GSH in intraerythrocytic stages, and a defect in growth in the pbggcs-ko parasites. In this report, time course experiments of parasite intraerythrocytic development and morphological studies showed a growth delay during the ring to schizont progression. Morphological analysis shows a significant reduction in size (diameter) of trophozoites and schizonts with increased number of cytoplasmic vacuoles in the pbggcs-ko parasites in comparison to the wild type (WT). Furthermore, the pbggcs-ko mutants exhibited an impaired response to oxidative stress and increased levels of nuclear DNA (nDNA) damage. Reduced GSH levels did not result in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage or protein carbonylations in neither pbggcs-ko nor pbgr-ko parasites. In addition, the pbggcs-ko mutant parasites showed an increase in mRNA expression of genes involved in oxidative stress detoxification and DNA synthesis, suggesting a potential compensatory mechanism to allow for parasite proliferation. These results reveal that low GSH levels affect parasite development through the impairment of oxidative stress reduction systems and damage to the nDNA. Our studies provide new insights into the role of the GSH antioxidant system in the intraerythrocytic development of Plasmodium parasites, with potential translation into novel pharmacological interventions. PMID:26952808

  17. Development of a Process Model for CO(2) Laser Mitigation of Damage Growth in Fused Silica

    SciTech Connect

    Feit, M D; Rubenchik, A M; Boley, C; Rotter, M D

    2003-11-01

    A numerical model of CO{sub 2} laser mitigation of damage growth in fused silica has been constructed that accounts for laser energy absorption, heat conduction, radiation transport, evaporation of fused silica and thermally induced stresses. This model will be used to understand scaling issues and effects of pulse and beam shapes on material removal, temperatures reached and stresses generated. Initial calculations show good agreement of simulated and measured material removal. The model has also been applied to LG-770 glass as a prototype red blocker material.

  18. The role of growth factors on hepatic damage in rats with obstructive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Turk, Ozgur; Badak, Bartu; Ates, Ersin; Dundar, Emine; Sutken, Emine

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the affect and the role of growth factors on liver damage. 110 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 11 groups: a sham group, a control group, HGF, EGF, IGF, TGF groups of irreversible jaundiced rats and a control group and HGF, EGF, IGF, and TGF groups of reversible jaundiced rats (n = 10). In the irreversible jaundiced groups, the common bile duct was explorated, double ligated, and cut. 150 μg/kg/day HGF, 5 μg/kg/day EGF, 5 μg/kg/day IGF, and 5 μg/kg/day TGF β-1 were injected intraperitoneally after the seventh post-operative day. In the reversible jaundiced group, the common bile duct was ligated and the ligation was resolved on the seventh post-operative day. For 5 days, growth factors were injected at the same dose. Ductal proliferation scores significantly decreased after growth factor administration in the EGF-A and TGF-A groups. Furthermore, ductal proliferation was decreased in the TGF-B group. As a result of this study, HGF was effective in the irreversible jaundiced groups and ineffective in the reversible jaundice groups. EGF was effective in the reversible jaundiced groups and ineffective in the irreversible jaundiced groups. In both the irreversible jaundiced and reversible jaundiced groups, IGF was ineffective, although TGF β-1 was effective. We believe that these results arise from the positive effects of effective doses of growth factor on liver damage. PMID:27540507

  19. Attenuation of internal organ damages by exogenously administered epidermal growth factor (EGF) in burned rodents.

    PubMed

    Berlanga, Jorge; Lodos, Jorge; López-Saura, Pedro

    2002-08-01

    Major burns are associated with multiple internal organ damages, including necrosis of the gastrointestinal mucosa. Failure of the intestinal barrier is a serious complication in burned patients. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a mitogenic polypeptide that stimulates wound repair and affords protection to the gastric mucosa. We examined whether a single systemic intervention with EGF prevents organ systems damages, following full-thickness scalds (25-30%) in rodents. Animals were randomly assigned to receive an intraperitoneal injection of EGF (30 microg/kg in mice, 10 microg/kg in rats) or saline solution, 30 min prior thermal injury in mice or after the cutaneous injury in rats. General clinical condition and mortality during 24h were recorded. Animals were autopsied and histopathological and histomorphometric studies were conducted. Mice treated with EGF exhibited a milder clinical evolution and acute lethality was significantly reduced as compared to saline counterparts (P<0.01). Histopathological and morphometric analysis showed that EGF significantly reduced intestinal necrosis and contributed to preserve jejunoileal architecture in mice (P<0.05) and rats (P<0.01). The onset of renal hemorrhagic foci was significantly reduced in EGF-treated groups (P<0.01). Lung damages appeared attenuated in EGF-treated animals. These data indicate the salutary effects of EGF by attenuating internal complications associated to thermal injuries. Further studies are warranted to fully elucidate the usefulness of this therapy. PMID:12163282

  20. Growth arrest specific protein 6 participates in DOCA-induced target-organ damage.

    PubMed

    Park, Joon-Keun; Theuer, Stefanie; Kirsch, Torsten; Lindschau, Carsten; Klinge, Uwe; Heuser, Arnd; Plehm, Ralph; Todiras, Mihai; Carmeliet, Peter; Haller, Hermann; Luft, Friedrich C; Muller, Dominik N; Fiebeler, Anette

    2009-08-01

    Growth arrest-specific protein 6 (Gas 6) is involved in inflammatory kidney diseases, vascular remodeling, cell adhesion, and thrombus formation. We explored a role for Gas 6 in aldosterone-induced target organ damage. We observed that Gas 6 was upregulated in rats with high aldosterone levels. Mineralocorticoid receptor blockade prevented target organ damage and decreased the elevated Gas 6 expression. Vascular smooth muscle cells given aldosterone increased their Gas 6 expression in vitro. To test the pathophysiological relevance, we investigated the effects of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) on Gas 6 gene-deleted ((-/-)) mice. After 6 weeks DOCA, Gas 6(-/-) mice developed similar telemetric blood pressure elevations compared to wild-type mice but were protected from cardiac hypertrophy. Cardiac expression of interleukin 6 and collagen IV was blunted in Gas 6(-/-) mice, indicating reduced inflammation and fibrosis. Gas 6(-/-) mice also had an improved renal function with reduced albuminuria, compared to wild-type mice. Renal fibrosis and fibronectin deposition in the kidney were also reduced. Gas 6 deficiency reduces the detrimental effects of aldosterone on cardiac and renal remodeling independent of blood pressure reduction. Gas 6 appears to play a role in mineralocorticoid receptor-mediated target organ damage. Furthermore, because warfarin interferes with Gas 6 protein expression, the findings could be of clinical relevance for anticoagulant choices. PMID:19564549

  1. Observations of fatigue crack initiation and damage growth in notched titanium matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naik, Rajiv A.; Johnson, W. S.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose was to characterize damage initiation and growth in notched titanium matrix composites at room temperature. Double edge notched or center open hole SCS-6/Ti-15-3 specimens containing 0 deg plies or containing both 0 and 90 deg plies were fatigued. The specimens were tested in the as-fabricated (ASF) and in heat-treated conditions. A local strain criterion using unnotched specimen fatigue data was successful in predicting fatigue damage initiation. The initiation stress level was accurately predicted for both a double edge notched unidirectional specimen and a cross-plied center hole specimen. The fatigue produced long multiple cracks growing from the notches. These fatigue cracks were only in the matrix material and did not break the fibers in their path. The combination of matrix cracking and fiber/matrix debonding appears to greatly reduce the stress concentration around the notches. The laminates that were heat treated showed a different crack growth pattern. In the ASF specimens, matrix cracks had a more tortuous path and showed considerable more crack branching. For the same specimen geometry and cyclic stress, the (0/90/0) laminate with a hole had far superior fatigue resistance than the matrix only specimen with a hole.

  2. Observations of fatigue crack initiation and damage growth in notched titanium matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naik, R. A.; Johnson, W. S.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose was to characterize damage initiation and growth in notched titanium matrix composites at room temperature. Double edge notched or center open hole SCS-6/Ti-15-3 specimens containing 0 deg plies or containing both 0 and 90 deg plies were fatigued. The specimens were tested in the as-fabricated (ASF) and in heat-treated conditions. A local strain criterion using unnotched specimen fatigue data was successful in predicting fatigue damage initiation. The initiation stress level was accurately predicted for both a double edge notched unidirectional specimen and a cross-plied center hole specimen. The fatigue produced long multiple cracks growing from the notches. These fatigue cracks were only in the matrix material and did not break the fibers in their path. The combination of matrix cracking and fiber/matrix debonding appears to greatly reduce the stress concentration around the notches. The laminates that were heat treated showed a different crack growth pattern. In the ASF specimens, matrix cracks had a more tortuous path and showed considerable more crack branching. For the same specimen geometry and cyclic stress, the (0/90/0) laminate with a hole had far superior fatigue resistance than the matrix only specimen with a hole.

  3. Growth Characteristics, Bile Sensitivity, and Freeze Damage in Colonial Variants of Lactobacillus acidophilus†

    PubMed Central

    Klaenhammer, T. R.; Kleeman, E. G.

    1981-01-01

    Rough (R) and smooth (S) colonial variants were isolated from a heterogeneous culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus RL8K. R and S types were stable upon repeated transfer on agar, but revertant colonies did appear after broth transfers. When propagated in commercial MRS broth, R and S cultures showed similar growth characteristics, and both cell types were insensitive to freezing and frozen storage at −20°C. Alternatively, during growth in scratch MRS broth, R cultures shifted to a reduced rate of growth during the late logarithmic phase. R cells grown under these conditions were susceptible to death by freezing and injury at −20°C. Microscopically, R cells were observed as long gram-positive rods with small nonstainable blebs protruding from the cell wall. In bile sensitivity studies of R and S cells plated on MRS agar plus oxgall, the S culture was resistant to 1% bile, whereas the R culture was sensitive to 0.6% bile. Differences in the bile resistance and freeze damage of R and S cells suggest that colonial and cellular morphologies are important considerations for the selection of Lactobacillus strains as dietary adjuncts and for the development of growth conditions for preparing frozen concentrated cultures from either cell type. Images PMID:16345799

  4. Air- and Dustborne Mycoflora in Houses Free of Water Damage and Fungal Growth

    PubMed Central

    Horner, W. Elliott; Worthan, Anthony G.; Morey, Philip R.

    2004-01-01

    Typically, studies on indoor fungal growth in buildings focus on structures with known or suspected water damage, moisture, and/or indoor fungal growth problems. Reference information on types of culturable fungi and total fungal levels are generally not available for buildings without these problems. This study assessed 50 detached single-family homes in metropolitan Atlanta, Ga., to establish a baseline of “normal and typical” types and concentrations of airborne and dustborne fungi in urban homes which were predetermined not to have noteworthy moisture problems or indoor fungal growth. Each home was visually examined, and samples of indoor and outdoor air and of indoor settled dust were taken in winter and summer. The results showed that rankings by prevalence and abundance of the types of airborne and dustborne fungi did not differ from winter to summer, nor did these rankings differ when air samples taken indoors were compared with those taken outdoors. Water indicator fungi were essentially absent from both air and dust samples. The air and dust data sets were also examined specifically for the proportions of colonies from ecological groupings such as leaf surface fungi and soil fungi. In the analysis of dust for culturable fungal colonies, leaf surface fungi constituted a considerable portion (>20%) of the total colonies in at least 85% of the samples. Thus, replicate dust samples with less than 20% of colonies from leaf surface fungi are unlikely to be from buildings free of moisture or mold growth problems. PMID:15528497

  5. Damage growth in Si during self-ion irradiation: A study of ion effects over an extended energy range

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, O.W.; El-Ghor, M.K.; White, C.W.

    1989-01-01

    Damage nucleation/growth in single-crystal Si during ion irradiation is discussed. For MeV ions, the rate of growth as well as the damage morphology are shown to vary widely along the track of the ion. This is attributed to a change in the dominant, defect-related reactions as the ion penetrates the crystal. The nature of these reactions were elucidated by studying the interaction of MeV ions with different types of defects. The defects were introduced into the Si crystal prior to high-energy irradiation by self-ion implantation at a medium energy (100 keV). Varied damage morphologies were produced by implanting different ion fluences. Electron microscopy and ion-channeling measurements, in conjunction with annealing studies, were used to characterize the damage. Subtle changes in the predamage morphology are shown to result in markedly different responses to the high-energy irradiation, ranging from complete annealing of the damage to rapid growth. These divergent responses occur over a narrow range of dose (2--3 /times/ 10/sup 14/ cm/sup /minus/2/) of the medium-energy ions; this range also marks a transition in the growth behavior of the damage during the predamage implantation. A model is proposed which accounts for these observations and provides insight into ion-induced growth of amorphous layers in Si and the role of the amorphous/crystalline interface in this process. 15 refs, 9 figs.

  6. Peridynamic theory for modeling three-dimensional damage growth in metallic and composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro

    A recently introduced nonlocal peridynamic theory removes the obstacles present in classical continuum mechanics that limit the prediction of crack initiation and growth in materials. It is also applicable at different length scales. This study presents an alternative approach for the derivation of peridynamic equations of motion based on the principle of virtual work. It also presents solutions for the longitudinal vibration of a bar subjected to an initial stretch, propagation of a pre-existing crack in a plate subjected to velocity boundary conditions, and crack initiation and growth in a plate with a circular cutout. Furthermore, damage growth in composites involves complex and progressive failure modes. Current computational tools are incapable of predicting failure in composite materials mainly due to their mathematical structure. However, the peridynamic theory removes these obstacles by taking into account non-local interactions between material points. Hence, an application of the peridynamic theory to predict how damage propagates in fiber reinforced composite materials subjected to mechanical and thermal loading conditions is presented. Finally, an analysis approach based on a merger of the finite element method and the peridynamic theory is proposed. Its validity is established through qualitative and quantitative comparisons against the test results for a stiffened composite curved panel with a central slot under combined internal pressure and axial tension. The predicted initial and final failure loads, as well as the final failure modes, are in close agreement with the experimental observations. This proposed approach demonstrates the capability of the PD approach to assess the durability of complex composite structures.

  7. Laser damage initiation and growth of antireflection coated S-FAP crystal surfaces prepared by pitch lap and magnetorheological finishing

    SciTech Connect

    Stolz, C J; Menapace, J A; Schaffers, K I; Bibeau, C; Thomas, M D; Griffin, A J

    2005-10-31

    Antireflection (AR) coatings typically damage at the interface between the substrate and coating. Therefore the substrate finishing technology can have an impact on the laser resistance of the coating. For this study, AR coatings were deposited on Yb:S-FAP [Yb{sup 3+}:Sr{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}F] crystals that received a final polish by both conventional pitch lap finishing as well as magnetorheological finishing (MRF). SEM images of the damage morphology reveals laser damage originates at scratches and at substrate coating interfacial absorbing defects. Previous damage stability tests on multilayer mirror coatings and bare surfaces revealed damage growth can occur at fluences below the initiation fluence. The results from this study suggest the opposite trend for AR coatings. Investigation of unstable HR and uncoated surface damage morphologies reveals significant radial cracking that is not apparent with AR damage due to AR delamination from the coated surface with few apparent cracks at the damage boundary. Damage stability tests show that coated Yb:S-FAP crystals can operate at 1057 nm at fluences around 20 J/cm{sup 2} at 10 ns; almost twice the initiation damage threshold.

  8. Growth control switch by a DNA-damage-inducible toxin-antitoxin system in Caulobacter crescentus.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Clare L; Martins, Daniel; Redder, Peter; Frandi, Antonio; Mignolet, Johann; Chapalay, Julien Bortoli; Chambon, Marc; Turcatti, Gerardo; Viollier, Patrick H

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial toxin-antitoxin systems (TASs) are thought to respond to various stresses, often inducing growth-arrested (persistent) sub-populations of cells whose housekeeping functions are inhibited. Many such TASs induce this effect through the translation-dependent RNA cleavage (RNase) activity of their toxins, which are held in check by their cognate antitoxins in the absence of stress. However, it is not always clear whether specific mRNA targets of orthologous RNase toxins are responsible for their phenotypic effect, which has made it difficult to accurately place the multitude of TASs within cellular and adaptive regulatory networks. Here, we show that the TAS HigBA of Caulobacter crescentus can promote and inhibit bacterial growth dependent on the dosage of HigB, a toxin regulated by the DNA damage (SOS) repressor LexA in addition to its antitoxin HigA, and the target selectivity of HigB's mRNA cleavage activity. HigB reduced the expression of an efflux pump that is toxic to a polarity control mutant, cripples the growth of cells lacking LexA, and targets the cell cycle circuitry. Thus, TASs can have outcome switching activity in bacterial adaptive (stress) and systemic (cell cycle) networks. PMID:27572440

  9. Neuron Growth on Carbon Nanotube Thread Bio-Scaffolds for Repair of Central Nervous System Damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mast, David; Pixley, Sarah; Schulz, Mark; Shanov, Vessilin

    2012-02-01

    Approximately 11,000 new spinal cord injuries occur each year. Repairing such central nervous system (CNS) damage has proven to be very difficult. We report on in vitro experiments using carbon nanotube (CNT) threads as a bio-scaffold for promoting CNS repair via directed neuron regrowth along the CNT material. Mouse brain neurospheres, containing neuronal stem cells, neurons and support glia, were observed to attach to and grow along laminin-coated CNT threads in vitro. However, due to their limited mobility, only neurospheres close to the threads attach. To increase cellular attachment to the threads, we exploit the fact that these cells can exhibit enhanced, directed migration along an externally applied electric field. Recent in vitro cell growth was carried out in chambers containing several parallel CNT threads with electrical connections extending out of the incubator so that a voltage applied across adjacent threads established an appropriate electric field. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy, Cyclic Voltammetry and dc and ac IV measurements were used to monitor cell growth and attachment as a function of applied electric field and time. Cell migration and attachment were also investigated using time lapse photography in a separate growth chamber mounted on the stage of an optical microscope.

  10. DAF-16/FoxO and EGL-27/GATA promote developmental growth in response to persistent somatic DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Babu, Vipin; Ermolaeva, Maria A.; Müller, Roman-Ulrich; Frommolt, Peter; Williams, Ashley B.; Greiss, Sebastian; Schneider, Jennifer I.; Benzing, Thomas; Schermer, Bernhard; Schumacher, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Genome maintenance defects cause complex disease phenotypes characterized by developmental failure, cancer susceptibility, and premature aging. It remains poorly understood how DNA damage responses function during organismal development and maintain tissue functionality when DNA damage accumulates with aging. Here we show that the FoxO transcription factor DAF-16 is activated in response to DNA damage during development while the DNA damage responsiveness of DAF-16 declines with aging. We find that in contrast to its established role in mediating starvation arrest, DAF-16 alleviates DNA damage-induced developmental arrest and even in the absence of DNA repair promotes developmental growth and enhances somatic tissue functionality. We demonstrate that the GATA transcription factor EGL-27 co-regulates DAF-16 target genes in response to DNA damage and together with DAF-16 promotes developmental growth. We propose that EGL-27/GATA activity specifies DAF-16 mediated DNA damage responses to enable developmental progression and to prolong tissue functioning when DNA damage persists. PMID:25419847

  11. Methods for Mitigating Growth of Laser-Initiated Surface Damage on Fused Silcia Optics at 351nm

    SciTech Connect

    Hrubesh, L W; Norton, M A; Molander, W A; Donohue, E E; Maricle, S M; Penetrante, B M; Brusasco, R M; Grundler, W; Butler, J A; Carr, J W; Hill, R M; Summers, L J; Feit, M D; Rubenchik, A; Key, M H; Wegner, P J; Burnham, A K; Hackel, L A; Kozlowski, M R

    2001-12-12

    We report a summary of the surface damage, growth mitigation effort at 351nm for polished fused silica optics. The objective was to experimentally validate selected methods that could be applied to pre-initiated or retrieved-from-service optics, to stop further damage growth. A specific goal was to obtain sufficient data and information on successful methods for fused silica optics to select a single approach for processing large aperture, fused-silica optics used in high-peak-power laser applications. This paper includes the test results and the evaluation thereof, for several mitigation methods for fused silica surfaces. The mitigation methods tested in this study are wet chemical etching, cold plasma etching, CW-CO{sub 2} laser processing, and micro-flame torch processing. We found that CW-CO{sub 2} laser processing produces the most significant and consistent results to halt laser-induced surface damage growth on fused silica. We recorded successful mitigation of the growth of laser-induced surface damage sites as large as 0.5mm diameter, for 1000 shots at 351nm and fluences in the range of 8 to 13J/cm{sup 2}, {approx}11ns pulse length. We obtained sufficient data for elimination of damage growth using CO{sub 2} laser processing on sub-aperture representative optics, to proceed with application to large aperture ({approx}40 x 40cm{sup 2}) fused silica.

  12. Fatigue crack growth spectrum simplification: Facilitation of on-board damage prognosis systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, Matthew Adam

    2009-12-01

    Better lifetime predictions of systems subjected to fatigue loading are needed in support of the optimization of the costs of life-cycle engineering. In particular, the climate is especially encouraging for the development of safer aircraft. One issue is that aircraft experience complex fatigue loading and current methods for the prediction of fatigue damage accumulation rely on intensive computational tools that are not currently carried onboard during flight. These tools rely on complex models that are made more difficult by the complicated load spectra themselves. This presents an overhead burden as offline analysis must be performed at an offsite facility. This architecture is thus unable to provide online, timely information for on-board use. The direct objective of this research was to facilitate the real-time fatigue damage assessments of on-board systems with a particular emphasis on aging aircraft. To achieve the objective, the goal of this research was to simplify flight spectra. Variable-amplitude spectra, in which the load changes on a cycle-by-cycle basis, cannot readily be supported by an onboard system because the models required to predict fatigue crack growth during variable-amplitude loading are too complicated. They are too complicated because variable-amplitude fatigue crack growth analysis must be performed on a cycle-by-cycle basis as no closed-form solution exists. This makes these calculations too time-consuming and requires impractical, heavy onboard systems or offsite facilities. The hypothesis is to replace a variable-amplitude spectrum with an equivalent constant-amplitude spectrum. The advantage is a dramatic reduction in the complexity of the problem so that damage predictions can be made onboard by simple, fast calculations in real-time without the need to add additional weight to the aircraft. The intent is to reduce the computational burden and facilitate on-board projection of damage evolution and prediction for the accurate

  13. Growth factor independence-1 antagonizes a p53-induced DNA damage response pathway in lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Khandanpour, Cyrus; Phelan, James D.; Vassen, Lothar; Schütte, Judith; Chen, Riyan; Horman, Shane R.; Gaudreau, Marie-Claude; Krongold, Joseph; Zhu, Jinfang; Paul, William E.; Dührsen, Ulrich; Göttgens, Bertie; Grimes, H. Leighton; Möröy, Tarik

    2013-01-01

    Summary Most patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) fail current treatments highlighting the need for better therapies. Since oncogenic signaling activates a p53-dependent DNA-damage response and apoptosis, leukemic cells must devise appropriate countermeasures. We show here that growth factor independence 1 (Gfi1) can serve such a function, since Gfi1 ablation exacerbates p53 responses, and lowers the threshold for p53-induced cell death. Specifically, Gfi1 restricts p53 activity and expression of pro-apoptotic p53 targets such as Bax, Noxa (Pmaip1) and Puma (Bbc3). Subsequently, Gfi1 ablation cures mice from leukemia and limits the expansion of primary human T-ALL xenografts in mice. This suggests that targeting Gfi1 could improve the prognosis of patients with T-ALL or other lymphoid leukemias. PMID:23410974

  14. Growth inhibition and oxidative damage of Microcystis aeruginosa induced by crude extract of Sagittaria trifolia tubers.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiang; Liu, Yunguo; Zhang, Pingyang; Zeng, Guangming; Cai, Xiaoxi; Liu, Shaobo; Yin, Yicheng; Hu, Xinjiang; Hu, Xi; Tan, Xiaofei

    2016-05-01

    Aquatic macrophytes are considered to be promising in controlling harmful cyanobacterial blooms. In this research, an aqueous extract of Sagittaria trifolia tubers was prepared to study its inhibitory effect on Microcystis aeruginosa in the laboratory. Several physiological indices of M. aeruginosa, in response to the environmental stress, were analyzed. Results showed that S. trifolia tuber aqueous extract significantly inhibited the growth of M. aeruginosa in a concentration-dependent way. The highest inhibition rate reached 90% after 6 day treatment. The Chlorophyll-a concentration of M. aeruginosa cells decreased from 343.1 to 314.2μg/L in the treatment group. The activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase and the content of reduced glutathione in M. aeruginosa cells initially increased as a response to the oxidative stress posed by S. trifolia tuber aqueous extract, but then decreased as time prolonged. The lipid peroxidation damage of the cyanobacterial cell membranes was reflected by the malondialdehyde level, which was notably higher in the treatment group compared with the controls. It was concluded that the oxidative damage of M. aeruginosa induced by S. trifolia tuber aqueous extract might be one of the mechanisms for the inhibitory effects. PMID:27155407

  15. Growth hormone reverses excitotoxic damage induced by kainic acid in the green iguana neuroretina.

    PubMed

    Ávila-Mendoza, José; Mora, Janeth; Carranza, Martha; Luna, Maricela; Arámburo, Carlos

    2016-08-01

    It is known that growth hormone (GH) is expressed in extrapituitary tissues, including the nervous system and ocular tissues, where it is involved in autocrine/paracrine actions related to cell survival and anti-apoptosis in several vertebrates. Little is known, however, in reptiles, so we analyzed the expression and distribution of GH in the eye of green iguana and its potential neuroprotective role in retinas that were damaged by the intraocular administration of kainic acid (KA). It was found, by Western blotting, that GH-immunoreactivity (GH-IR) was expressed as two isoforms (15 and 26kDa, under reducing conditions) in cornea, vitreous, retina, crystalline, iris and sclera, in varying proportions. Also, two bands for the growth hormone receptor (GHR)-IR were observed (70 and 44kDa, respectively) in the same tissues. By immunofluorescence, GH-IR was found in neurons present in several layers of the neuroretina (inner nuclear [INL], outer nuclear [ONL] and ganglion cell [GCL] layers) as determined by its co-existence with NeuN, but not in glial cells. In addition, GH and GHR co-expression was found in the same cells, suggesting paracrine/autocrine interactions. KA administration induced retinal excitotoxic damage, as determined by a significant reduction of the cell density and an increase in the appearance of apoptotic cells in the INL and GCL. In response to KA injury, both endogenous GH and Insulin-like Growth Factor I (IGF-I) expression were increased by 70±1.8% and 33.3±16%, respectively. The addition of exogenous GH significantly prevented the retinal damage produced by the loss of cytoarchitecture and cell density in the GCL (from 4.9±0.79 in the control, to 1.45±0.2 with KA, to 6.35±0.49cell/mm(2) with KA+GH) and in the INL (19.12±1.6, 10.05±1.9, 21.0±0.8cell/mm(2), respectively) generated by the long-term effect of 1mM KA intraocular administration. The co-incubation with a specific anti-GH antibody, however, blocked the protective effect of GH

  16. Imaging System to Measure Kinetics of Material Cluster Ejection During Exit-Surface Damage Initiation and Growth in Fused Silica

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, R N; Negres, R A; Demos, S G

    2009-10-29

    Laser-induced damage on the surface of optical components typically is manifested by the formation of microscopic craters that can ultimately degrade the optics performance characteristics. It is believed that the damage process is the result of the material exposure to high temperatures and pressures within a volume on the order of several cubic microns located just below the surface. The response of the material following initial localized energy deposition by the laser pulse, including the timeline of events and the individual processes involved during this timeline, is still largely unknown. In this work we introduce a time-resolved microscope system designed to enable a detailed investigation of the sequence of dynamic events involved during surface damage. To best capture individual aspects of the damage timeline, this system is employed in multiple imaging configurations (such as multi-view image acquisition at a single time point and multi-image acquisition at different time points of the same event) and offers sensitivity to phenomena at very early delay times. The capabilities of this system are demonstrated with preliminary results from the study of exit-surface damage in fused silica. The time-resolved images provide information on the material response immediately following laser energy deposition, the processes later involved during crater formation or growth, the material ejecta kinetics, and overall material motion and transformation. Such results offer insight into the mechanisms governing damage initiation and growth in the optical components of ICF class laser systems.

  17. Effects of diphenyl diselenide on growth, oxidative damage, and antioxidant response in silver catfish.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Charlene; Marins, Aline; Murussi, Camila; Pretto, Alexandra; Leitemperger, Jossiele; Loro, Vania Lucia

    2016-01-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary diphenyl diselenide [(PhSe)2] at different concentrations (1.5, 3.0, and 5.0 mg/kg) on growth, oxidative damage and antioxidant parameters in silver catfish after 30 and 60 days. Fish fed with 5.0 mg/kg of (PhSe)2 experienced a significant decrease in weight, length, and condition factor after 30 days and these parameters increased after 60 days. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and protein carbonyl (PC) decreased in the liver of silver catfish supplemented with (PhSe)2 after 30 days at all concentrations, while after 60 days these parameters decreased in liver, gills, brain, and muscle. Supplementation with (PhSe)2 induced a decrease in catalase (CAT) activity from liver only after 60 days of feeding. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) decreased at 5.0 mg/kg after 30 and 60 days and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was enhanced at 1.5 and 3.0 mg/kg after 30 and 60 days. Silver catfish supplemented for 30 days showed a significant increase in liver glutathione S-transferase (GST) at 3.0 mg/kg, while after 60 days GST activity increased in liver at 1.5, 3.0, and 5.0 mg/kg and in gills at 3.0 and 5.0 mg/kg of (PhSe)2. After 30 days, non-protein thiols (NPSH) did not change, while after 60 days NPSH increased in liver, gills, brain, and muscle. In addition, ascorbic acid (AA) levels after 30 days increased in liver at three concentrations and in gills and muscle at 1.5 mg/kg, while after 60 days, AA increased at all concentrations in all and tissues tested. Thus, diet supplemented with (PhSe)2 for 60 days could be more effective for silver catfish. Although the concentration of 5.0 mg/kg showed decreased growth parameters, concentrations of 1.5 and 3.0 mg/kg, in general, decreased oxidative damage and increased antioxidant defenses. PMID:26520260

  18. Fracture and crack growth in orthotropic laminates. Part 2: Experimental determination of internal damage growth in unidirectional boron/aluminum composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goree, J. G.

    1982-01-01

    The fracture behavior of unidirectional boron/aluminum composite laminates is investigated in order to verify the results of mathematical models. These models predict the stresses and displacements of fibers and the amount of damage growth in a center-notched lamina as a function of the applied remote stress and the matrix and fiber material properties. The damage may take the form of longitudinal yielding and splitting in the matrix as well as stable transverse damage consisting of broken fibers and matrix yielding ahead of the notch. A brittle lacquer coating is used to detect the yielding in the matrix while X-ray techniques are used to detemine the number of broken fibers in the laminate. The notched strengths and the amounts of damage found in the experimental specimens agree well with those predicted by the mathematical model.

  19. DAMAGE POTENTIAL OF GRASSHOPPERS (ORTHOPTERA: ACRIDIDAE) ON EARLY GROWTH STAGES OF SMALL-GRAINS AND CANOLA UNDER SUBARCTIC CONDITIONS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small-grains, such as barley and oats, have been successfully grown under subarctic conditions but little is known about their response to herbivory by grasshoppers, especially during seedling stages. A growth chamber study quantified and characterized damage to above- and below-ground plant parts ...

  20. Inhibition of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Improves Myelination and Attenuates Tissue Damage of Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Si; Ju, Peijun; Tjandra, Editha; Yeap, Yeeshan; Owlanj, Hamed; Feng, Zhiwei

    2016-10-01

    Preventing demyelination and promoting remyelination of denuded axons are promising therapeutic strategies for spinal cord injury (SCI). Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition was reported to benefit the neural functional recovery and the axon regeneration after SCI. However, its role in de- and remyelination of axons in injured spinal cord is unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of EGFR inhibitor, PD168393 (PD), on the myelination in mouse contusive SCI model. We found that expression of myelin basic protein (MBP) in the injured spinal cords of PD treated mice was remarkably elevated. The density of glial precursor cells and oligodendrocytes (OLs) was increased and the cell apoptosis in lesions was attenuated after PD168393 treatment. Moreover, PD168393 treatment reduced both the numbers of OX42 + microglial cells and glial fibrillary acidic protein + astrocytes in damaged area of spinal cords. We thus conclude that the therapeutic effects of EGFR inhibition after SCI involves facilitating remyelination of the injured spinal cord, increasing of oligodendrocyte precursor cells and OLs, as well as suppressing the activation of astrocytes and microglia/macrophages. PMID:26883518

  1. Mitigation of Laser Damage Growth in Fused Silica NIF Optics with a Galvanometer Scanned Carbon Dioxide Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, I L; Draggoo, V; Guss, G M; Hackel, R P; Norton, M A

    2006-04-06

    Economic operation of the National Ignition Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory depends on controlling growth of laser damage in the large, high cost optics exposed to UV light at 351 nm. Mitigation of the growth of damage sites on fused silica surfaces greater than several hundred microns in diameter has been previously reported by us using galvanometer scanning of a tightly focused 10.6 {micro}m CO{sub 2} laser spot over an area encompassing the laser damage. Further investigation revealed that fused silica vapor re-deposited on the surface as ''debris'' led to laser damage at unexpectedly low fluences when exposed to multiple laser shots at 351 nm. Additionally, laser power and spatial mode fluctuations in the mitigation laser led to poor repeatability of the process. We also found that the shape of the mitigation pit could produce downstream intensification that could damage other NIF optics. Modifications were made to both the laser system and the mitigation process in order to address these issues. Debris was completely eliminated by these changes, but repeatability and downstream intensification issues still persist.

  2. Mitigation of laser damage growth in fused silica NIF optics with a galvanometer scanned CO II laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bass, Isaac L.; Draggoo, Vaughn G.; Guss, Gabriel M.; Hackel, Richard P.; Norton, Mary A.

    2006-05-01

    Economic operation of the National Ignition Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory depends on controlling growth of laser damage in the large, high cost optics exposed to UV light at 351 nm. Mitigation of the growth of damage sites on fused silica surfaces greater than several hundred microns in diameter has been previously reported by us using galvanometer scanning of a tightly focused 10.6 μm CO II laser spot over an area encompassing the laser damage. Further investigation revealed that fused silica vapor re-deposited on the surface as "debris" led to laser damage at unexpectedly low fluences when exposed to multiple laser shots at 351 nm. Additionally, laser power and spatial mode fluctuations in the mitigation laser led to poor repeatability of the process. We also found that the shape of the mitigation pit could produce downstream intensification that could damage other NIF optics. Modifications were made to both the laser system and the mitigation process in order to address these issues. Debris was completely eliminated by these changes, but repeatability and downstream intensification issues still persist.

  3. A novel DNA damage-inducible transcript, gadd7, inhibits cell growth, but lacks a protein product.

    PubMed Central

    Hollander, M C; Alamo, I; Fornace, A J

    1996-01-01

    gadd7 cDNA was isolated from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells on the basis of increased levels of RNA following treatment with UV radiation. The transcript for gadd7, as well as for four other gadd genes, was found to increase rapidly and coordinately following several different types of DNA damage and more slowly following other stresses that elicit growth arrest. Agents that induce gadd7 RNA include alkylating agents, such as methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and mechlorethamine HCl (HN2), oxidizing agents, such as hydrogen peroxide, and growth arrest signals, such as medium depletion (starvation). Since growth arrest is a cellular consequence of many types of DNA damage in normal cells, it was thought that gadd7 may play a role in the cellular response to DNA damage. Indeed, overexpression of gadd7 led to a decrease in cell growth. Interestingly, gadd7 cDNA does not contain an appreciable open reading frame and does not appear to encode a protein product, but instead may function at the RNA level. PMID:8649973

  4. Characterization of exposure dependent fatigue crack growth kinetics and damage mechanisms for aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ro, Yunjo

    The effect of environmental exposure [given by the ratio of water vapor pressure to the loading frequency (PH2O/f)] on fatigue crack growth rates (FCGR) and damage mechanisms has been investigated for Al-Cu-Li/Mg alloys tested at constant stress intensity range (DeltaK = KMAX - KMIN). Different exposure dependences of the FCGR are explained by H-embrittlement and 3 rate-limiting processes that are similar for each alloy and aging condition. It is shown that the dislocation slip character (heterogeneous planar vs. wavy) controls FCGR at low to moderate exposures, rather than alloy composition and strengthening precipitate reactivity. However, the benefit of planar slip is significantly reduced at higher exposures. An SEM-based electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD)/stereology method was used to successfully quantify changes in fatigue fracture surface crystallography as a function of exposure for a peak aged Al-Cu-Li alloy and an under-aged Al-Cu-Mg alloy. Near-{111} slip band cracking (SBC) observed under high vacuum conditions is gradually replaced by near-{001}/{011} and high index, {hkl}, cracking planes as PH2O/f is increased. The complete absence of near-{111} SBC at higher exposures suggests H enhanced decohesion rather than slip based damage process enhanced by H. This conclusion was substantiated by direct TEM observation. Focused Ion Beam (FIB) milling was used to produce thin foils for TEM, which successfully revealed the underlying dislocation structure at the crack surface and within surrounding materials in under-aged Al-Cu-Mg tested at exposure conditions of ˜10 -8 and 50 Pa·sec. Both conditions exhibit a similar layer of dislocation cells just below the fracture surface which abruptly changes to localized slip bands away from the fracture surface, confirming the presence of a strain gradient at the crack tip. However, the thickness of the substructure layer and slip band width observed at ˜10-8 Pa·sec was larger than those observed at 50 Pa

  5. Combining Passive Thermography and Acoustic Emission for Large Area Fatigue Damage Growth Assessment of a Composite Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Horne, Michael R.; Madaras, Eric I.; Burke, Eric R.

    2016-01-01

    Passive thermography and acoustic emission data were obtained for improved real time damage detection during fatigue loading. A strong positive correlation was demonstrated between acoustic energy event location and thermal heating, especially if the structure under load was nearing ultimate failure. An image processing routine was developed to map the acoustic emission data onto the thermal imagery. This required removing optical barrel distortion and angular rotation from the thermal data. The acoustic emission data were then mapped onto thermal data, revealing the cluster of acoustic emission event locations around the thermal signatures of interest. By combining both techniques, progression of damage growth is confirmed and areas of failure are identified. This technology provides improved real time inspections of advanced composite structures during fatigue testing.Keywords: Thermal nondestructive evaluation, fatigue damage detection, aerospace composite inspection, acoustic emission, passive thermography

  6. DNA Damage Responses in Prokaryotes: Regulating Gene Expression, Modulating Growth Patterns, and Manipulating Replication Forks

    PubMed Central

    Kreuzer, Kenneth N.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the area of bacterial DNA damage responses are reviewed here. The SOS pathway is still the major paradigm of bacterial DNA damage response, and recent studies have clarified the mechanisms of SOS induction and key physiological roles of SOS including a very major role in genetic exchange and variation. When considering diverse bacteria, it is clear that SOS is not a uniform pathway with one purpose, but rather a platform that has evolved for differing functions in different bacteria. Relating in part to the SOS response, the field has uncovered multiple apparent cell-cycle checkpoints that assist cell survival after DNA damage and remarkable pathways that induce programmed cell death in bacteria. Bacterial DNA damage responses are also much broader than SOS, and several important examples of LexA-independent regulation will be reviewed. Finally, some recent advances that relate to the replication and repair of damaged DNA will be summarized. PMID:24097899

  7. A Phenomenological Model for Mechanically Mediated Growth, Remodeling, Damage, and Plasticity of Gel-Derived Tissue Engineered Blood Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Raykin, Julia; Rachev, Alexander I.

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical stimulation has been shown to dramatically improve mechanical and functional properties of gel-derived tissue engineered blood vessels (TEBVs). Adjusting factors such as cell source, type of extracellular matrix, cross-linking, magnitude, frequency, and time course of mechanical stimuli (among many other factors) make interpretation of experimental results challenging. Interpretation of data from such multifactor experiments requires modeling. We present a modeling framework and simulations for mechanically mediated growth, remodeling, plasticity, and damage of gel-derived TEBVs that merge ideas from classical plasticity, volumetric growth, and continuum damage mechanics. Our results are compared with published data and suggest that this model framework can predict the evolution of geometry and material behavior under common experimental loading scenarios. PMID:19831486

  8. Comparing the use of mid-infrared versus far-infrared lasers for mitigating damage growth on fused silica

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Steven T.; Matthews, Manyalibo J.; Elhadj, Selim; Cooke, Diane; Guss, Gabriel M.; Draggoo, Vaughn G.; Wegner, Paul J.

    2010-05-10

    Laser-induced growth of optical damage can limit component lifetime and, therefore, increase operating costs of large-aperture fusion-class laser systems. While far-infrared (IR) lasers have been used previously to treat laser damage on fused silica optics and render it benign, little is known about the effectiveness of less-absorbing mid-IR lasers for this purpose. In this study, we quantitatively compare the effectiveness and efficiency of mid-IR (4.6 {mu}m) versus far-IR (10.6 {mu}m) lasers in mitigating damage growth on fused silica surfaces. The nonlinear volumetric heating due to mid-IR laser absorption is analyzed by solving the heat equation numerically, taking into account the temperature-dependent absorption coefficient {alpha}(T) at {lambda}=4.6 {mu}m, while far-IR laser heating is well described by a linear analytic approximation to the laser-driven temperature rise. In both cases, the predicted results agree well with surface temperature measurements based on IR radiometry, as well as subsurface fictive temperature measurements based on confocal Raman microscopy. Damage mitigation efficiency is assessed using a figure of merit (FOM) relating the crack healing depth to laser power required, under minimally ablative conditions. Based on our FOM, we show that, for cracks up to at least 500 {mu}m in depth, mitigation with a 4.6 {mu}m mid-IR laser is more efficient than mitigation with a 10.6 {mu}m far-IR laser. This conclusion is corroborated by direct application of each laser system to the mitigation of pulsed laser-induced damage possessing fractures up to 225 {mu}m in depth.

  9. Morphology And Microstructure in Fused Silica Induced By High Fluence Ultraviolet 3omega (355 Nm) Laser Pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, J.; Ferriera, J.L.; Lindsey, E.F.; Haupt, D.L.; Hutcheon, I.D.; Kinney, J.H.

    2007-08-08

    The morphology and microstructure induced in high quality fused silica by UV (355 nm) laser pulses at high fluence (10-45 J/cm{sup 2}) have been investigated using a suite of microscopic and spectroscopic tools. The laser beam has a near-Gaussian profile with a 1/e{sup 2} diameter of 0.98 mm at the sample plane and a pulse length FWHM (full width at half maximum) of 7.5 ns. The damage craters consist of a molten core region (thermal explosion), surrounded by a near concentric region of fractured material. The latter arises from propagation of lateral cracks induced by the laser-generated shock waves, which also compact the crater wall, {approx} 10 {micro}m thick and {approx} 20% higher in density. The size of the damage crater varies with laser fluence, number of pulses, and laser irradiation history. In the compaction layer, there is no detectable change in the Si/O stoichiometry to within {+-} 1.6% and no crystalline nano-particles of Si were observed. Micro- (1-10 {micro}m) and nano- (20-200 nm) cracks are found, however. A lower valence Si{sup 3+} species on the top 2-3 nm of the compaction layer is evident from the Si 2p XPS. The results are used to construct a physical model of the damage crater and to gain critical insight into laser damage process.

  10. Slow Crack Growth Analysis of Advanced Structural Ceramics Under Combined Loading Conditions: Damage Assessment in Life Prediction Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    2000-01-01

    Slow crack growth analysis was performed with three different loading histories including constant stress-rate/constant stress-rate testing (Case I loading), constant stress/constant stress-rate testing (Case II loading), and cyclic stress/constant stress-rate testing (Case III loading). Strength degradation due to slow crack growth arid/or damage accumulation was determined numerically as a Function of percentage of interruption time between the two loading sequences for a given loading history. The numerical solutions were examined with the experimental data determined at elevated temperatures using four different advanced ceramic materials, two silicon nitrides, one silicon carbide and one alumina for the Case I loading history, and alumina for the Case II loading history. The numerical solutions were in reasonable agreement with the experimental data, indicating that notwithstanding some degree of creep deformation presented for some test materials slow crack growth was a governing mechanism associated with failure for all the test material&

  11. Slow Crack Growth Analysis of Advanced Structural Ceramics Under Combined Loading Conditions: Damage Assessment in Life Prediction Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S. R.; Gyekenyesi, J. P.

    2001-01-01

    Slow crack growth analysis was performed with three different loading histories including constant stress- rate/constant stress-rate testing (Case I loading), constant stress/constant stress-rate testing (Case II loading), and cyclic stress/constant stress-rate testing (Case III loading). Strength degradation due to slow crack growth and/or damage accumulation was determined numerically as a function of percentage of interruption time between the two loading sequences for a given loading history. The numerical solutions were examined with the experimental data determined at elevated temperatures using four different advanced ceramic materials, two silicon nitrides, one silicon carbide and one alumina for the Case I loading history, and alumina for the Case II loading history. The numerical solutions were in reasonable agreement with the experimental data, indicating that notwithstanding some degree of creep deformation presented for some test materials slow crack growth was a governing mechanism associated with failure for all the rest materials.

  12. Slow Crack Growth Analysis of Advanced Structural Ceramics Under Combined Loading Conditions: Damage Assessment in Life Prediction Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    2000-01-01

    Slow crack growth analysis was performed with three different loading histories including constant stress-rate/constant stress-rate testing (Case 1 loading), constant stress/constant stress-rate testing (Case 2 loading), and cyclic stress/constant stress-rate testing (Case 2 loading). Strength degradation due to slow crack growth and/or damage accumulation was determined numerically as a function of percentage of interruption time between the two loading sequences for a given loading history. The numerical solutions were examined with the experimental data determined at elevated temperatures using four different advanced ceramic materials, two silicon nitrides, one silicon carbide and one alumina for the Case 1 loading history, and alumina for the Case 3 loading history. The numerical solutions were in reasonable agreement with the experimental data, indicating that notwithstanding some degree of creep deformation presented for some test materials slow crack growth was a governing mechanism associated with failure for all the test materials.

  13. Systemic DNA Damage Accumulation Under in Vivo Tumor Growth can be Inhibited by the Antioxidant Tempol

    PubMed Central

    Georgakilas, Alexandros G.; Redon, Christophe E.; Ferguson, Nicholas F.; Kryston, Thomas B.; Parekh, Palak; Dickey, Jennifer S.; Nakamura, Asako J.; Mitchell, James B.; Bonner, William M.; Martin, Olga A.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Recently we found that mice bearing subcutaneous non-metastatic tumors exhibited elevated levels of two types of complex DNA damage, i.e., double-strand breaks and oxidatively-induced clustered DNA lesions in various tissues throughout the body, both adjacent to and distant from the tumor site. This DNA damage was dependent on CCL2, a cytokine involved in the recruitment and activation of macrophages, suggesting that this systemic DNA damage was mediated via tumor-induced chronic inflammatory responses involving cytokines, activation of macrophages, and consequent free radical production. If free radicals are involved, then a diet containing an antioxidant may decrease the distant DNA damage. Results Here we repeated our standard protocol in cohorts of two syngeneic tumor-bearing C57BL/6NCr mice that were on a Tempol-supplemented diet. We show that double-strand break and oxidatively-induced clustered DNA lesion levels were considerably decreased, about 2-3 fold, in the majority of tissues studied from the tumor-bearing mice fed the antioxidant Tempol compared to the control tumor-bearing mice. Similar results were also observed in nude mice suggesting that the Tempol effects are independent of functioning adaptive immunity. Conclusions This is the first in vivo study demonstrating the effect of a dietary antioxidant on abscopal DNA damage in tissues distant from a localized source of genotoxic stress. These findings may be important for understanding the mechanisms of genomic instability and carcinogenesis caused by chronic stress-induced systemic DNA damage and for developing preventative strategies. PMID:25069035

  14. Additive and non-additive effects of simulated leaf and inflorescence damage on survival, growth and reproduction of the perennial herb Arabidopsis lyrata.

    PubMed

    Puentes, Adriana; Ågren, Jon

    2012-08-01

    Herbivores may damage both leaves and reproductive structures, and although such combined damage may affect plant fitness non-additively, this has received little attention. We conducted a 2-year field experiment with a factorial design to examine the effects of simulated leaf (0, 12.5, 25, or 50% of leaf area removed) and inflorescence damage (0 vs. 50% of inflorescences removed) on survival, growth and reproduction in the perennial herb Arabidopsis lyrata. Leaf and inflorescence damage negatively and independently reduced flower, fruit and seed production in the year of damage; leaf damage also reduced rosette size by the end of the first season and flower production in the second year. Leaf damage alone reduced the proportion of flowers forming a fruit and fruit production per plant the second year, but when combined with inflorescence damage no such effect was observed (significant leaf × inflorescence damage interaction). Damage to leaves (sources) caused a greater reduction in future reproduction than did simultaneous damage to leaves and inflorescences (sinks). This demonstrates that a full understanding of the effects of herbivore damage on plant fitness requires that consequences of damage to vegetative and reproductive structures are evaluated over more than 1 year and that non-additive effects are considered. PMID:22349755

  15. Combining passive thermography and acoustic emission for large area fatigue damage growth assessment of a composite structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Horne, Michael R.; Madaras, Eric I.; Burke, Eric R.

    2016-05-01

    Passive thermography and acoustic emission data were obtained for improved real time damage detection during fatigue loading. A strong positive correlation was demonstrated between acoustic energy event location and thermal heating, especially if the structure under load was nearing ultimate failure. An image processing routine was developed to map the acoustic emission data onto the thermal imagery. This required removing optical barrel distortion and angular rotation from the thermal data. The acoustic emission data were then mapped onto thermal data, revealing the cluster of acoustic emission event locations around the thermal signatures of interest. By combining both techniques, progression of damage growth is confirmed and areas of failure are identified. This technology provides improved real time inspections of advanced composite structures during fatigue testing.

  16. Damage growth and recollection in aluminum under axisymmetric convergence using a helical flux compression generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaul, A. M.; Ivanovsky, A. V.; Atchison, W. L.; Petrukhin, A. A.; Duday, P. V.; Griego, J. R.; Salazar, M.; Nadezhin, S. S.; Tyupanova, O. A.; Oro, D. M.; Holtkamp, D. B.; Rodriguez, G.; Tabaka, L. J.; Kraev, A. I.; Skobelev, A. N.; Westley, D. T.; Anderson, B. G.; Ivanov, V. A.; Glybin, A. M.; Kuzyaev, A. I.; Stone, J. B.; Payton, J. R.; Goodwin, P. M.; McCulloch, Q.; Montoya, R. R.; Dudin, V. I.; Zimenkov, A. A.; Randolph, R. B.; Fierro, F.; Reinovsky, R. E.; Rousculp, C. L.; Balandina, A. N.; Podurets, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Damage initiation and evolution, failure, and recollection processes under axisymmetric convergence were studied in the Russian-Damage experimental series, a joint effort between the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the All-Russian Institute of Experimental Physics. A helical explosive magnetic generator was used to drive a cylindrical liner shell to produce shock wave loading of a concentric cylindrical target shell. Shock wave amplitude was controlled by the liner-to-target spacing and by the magnetic field amplitude. Variation of the current pulse duration produced either a single impact, to study damage initiation through failure, or a double impact, to study failure with recollection. Both full and partial recollection of the main crack was obtained. By fielding high-precision diagnostics to measure the dynamic drive conditions and material response and by employing post-shot metallographic analysis, this project produced well-characterized experimental data across a range of damage and recollection levels for the chosen material, aluminum. We present selected experimental results to illustrate the methodology and utility of this experimental technique.

  17. Evolutionary Consequence of a Trade-Off between Growth and Maintenance along with Ribosomal Damages.

    PubMed

    Ying, Bei-Wen; Honda, Tomoya; Tsuru, Saburo; Seno, Shigeto; Matsuda, Hideo; Kazuta, Yasuaki; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms in nature are constantly subjected to a limited availability of resources and experience repeated starvation and nutrition. Therefore, microbial life may evolve for both growth fitness and sustainability. By contrast, experimental evolution, as a powerful approach to investigate microbial evolutionary strategies, often targets the increased growth fitness in controlled, steady-state conditions. Here, we address evolutionary changes balanced between growth and maintenance while taking nutritional fluctuations into account. We performed a 290-day-long evolution experiment with a histidine-requiring Escherichia coli strain that encountered repeated histidine-rich and histidine-starved conditions. The cells that experienced seven rounds of starvation and re-feed grew more sustainably under prolonged starvation but dramatically lost growth fitness under rich conditions. The improved sustainability arose from the evolved capability to use a trace amount of histidine for cell propagation. The reduced growth rate was attributed to mutations genetically disturbing the translation machinery, that is, the ribosome, ultimately slowing protein translation. This study provides the experimental demonstration of slow growth accompanied by an enhanced affinity to resources as an evolutionary adaptation to oscillated environments and verifies that it is possible to evolve for reduced growth fitness. Growth economics favored for population increase under extreme resource limitations is most likely a common survival strategy adopted by natural microbes. PMID:26292224

  18. Evolutionary Consequence of a Trade-Off between Growth and Maintenance along with Ribosomal Damages

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Bei-Wen; Honda, Tomoya; Tsuru, Saburo; Seno, Shigeto; Matsuda, Hideo; Kazuta, Yasuaki; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms in nature are constantly subjected to a limited availability of resources and experience repeated starvation and nutrition. Therefore, microbial life may evolve for both growth fitness and sustainability. By contrast, experimental evolution, as a powerful approach to investigate microbial evolutionary strategies, often targets the increased growth fitness in controlled, steady-state conditions. Here, we address evolutionary changes balanced between growth and maintenance while taking nutritional fluctuations into account. We performed a 290-day-long evolution experiment with a histidine-requiring Escherichia coli strain that encountered repeated histidine-rich and histidine-starved conditions. The cells that experienced seven rounds of starvation and re-feed grew more sustainably under prolonged starvation but dramatically lost growth fitness under rich conditions. The improved sustainability arose from the evolved capability to use a trace amount of histidine for cell propagation. The reduced growth rate was attributed to mutations genetically disturbing the translation machinery, that is, the ribosome, ultimately slowing protein translation. This study provides the experimental demonstration of slow growth accompanied by an enhanced affinity to resources as an evolutionary adaptation to oscillated environments and verifies that it is possible to evolve for reduced growth fitness. Growth economics favored for population increase under extreme resource limitations is most likely a common survival strategy adopted by natural microbes. PMID:26292224

  19. Epidermal growth factor attenuates tubular necrosis following mercuric chloride damage by regeneration of indigenous, not bone marrow-derived cells

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Tzung-Hai; Alison, Malcolm R; Goodlad, Robert A; Otto, William R; Jeffery, Rosemary; Cook, H Terence; Wright, Nicholas A; Poulsom, Richard

    2015-01-01

    To assess effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and pegylated granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (P-GCSF; pegfilgrastim) administration on the cellular origin of renal tubular epithelium regenerating after acute kidney injury initiated by mercuric chloride (HgCl2). Female mice were irradiated and male whole bone marrow (BM) was transplanted into them. Six weeks later recipient mice were assigned to one of eight groups: control, P-GCSF+, EGF+, P-GCSF+EGF+, HgCl2, HgCl2+P-GCSF+, HgCl2+EGF+ and HgCl2+P-GCSF+EGF+. Following HgCl2, injection tubular injury scores increased and serum urea nitrogen levels reached uraemia after 3 days, but EGF-treated groups were resistant to this acute kidney injury. A four-in-one analytical technique for identification of cellular origin, tubular phenotype, basement membrane and S-phase status revealed that BM contributed 1% of proximal tubular epithelium in undamaged kidneys and 3% after HgCl2 damage, with no effects of exogenous EGF or P-GCSF. Only 0.5% proximal tubular cells were seen in S-phase in the undamaged group kidneys; this increased to 7–8% after HgCl2 damage and to 15% after addition of EGF. Most of the regenerating tubular epithelium originated from the indigenous pool. BM contributed up to 6.6% of the proximal tubular cells in S-phase after HgCl2 damage, but only to 3.3% after additional EGF. EGF administration attenuated tubular necrosis following HgCl2 damage, and the major cause of this protective effect was division of indigenous cells, whereas BM-derived cells were less responsive. P-GCSF did not influence damage or regeneration. PMID:25389045

  20. Damage effects from medium-energy ion bombardment during the growth of cubic-boron nitride films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gago, R.; Vinnichenko, M.; Abendroth, B.; Kolitsch, A.; Möller, W.

    2003-09-01

    Cubic-boron nitride (c-BN) films with low stress have been produced by simultaneous 35 keV N+ ion implantation during growth by ion assisted sputtering. The stress release is achieved at the lost of a decrease in the c-BN content. Despite this fact, films with a high c-BN content and relatively large thickness (~0.4 μm) have been produced. The decrease on the c-BN content is discussed in terms of the damage induced by the medium-energy ion implantation.

  1. The effect of pulse duration on the growth rate of laser-induced damage sites at 351 nm on fused silica surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Negres, R A; Norton, M A; Liao, Z M; Cross, D A; Bude, J D; Carr, C W

    2009-10-29

    Past work in the area of laser-induced damage growth has shown growth rates to be primarily dependent on the laser fluence and wavelength. More recent studies suggest that growth rate, similar to the damage initiation process, is affected by a number of additional parameters including pulse duration, pulse shape, site size, and internal structure. In this study, we focus on the effect of pulse duration on the growth rate of laser damage sites located on the exit surface of fused silica optics. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, a significant dependence of growth rate at 351 nm on pulse duration from 1 ns to 15 ns as {tau}{sup 0.3} for sites in the 50-100 {micro}m size range.

  2. An Improved Method of Mitigating Laser Induced Surface Damage Growth in Fused Silica Using a Rastered, Pulsed CO2 Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, I L; Guss, G M; Nostrand, M J; Wegner, P L

    2010-10-21

    A new method of mitigating (arresting) the growth of large (>200 m diameter and depth) laser induced surface damage on fused silica has been developed that successfully addresses several issues encountered with our previously-reported large site mitigation technique. As in the previous work, a tightly-focused 10.6 {micro}m CO{sub 2} laser spot is scanned over the damage site by galvanometer steering mirrors. In contrast to the previous work, the laser is pulsed instead of CW, with the pulse length and repetition frequency chosen to allow substantial cooling between pulses. This cooling has the important effect of reducing the heat-affected zone capable of supporting thermo-capillary flow from scale lengths on the order of the overall scan pattern to scale lengths on the order of the focused laser spot, thus preventing the formation of a raised rim around the final mitigation site and its consequent down-stream intensification. Other advantages of the new method include lower residual stresses, and improved damage threshold associated with reduced amounts of redeposited material. The raster patterns can be designed to produce specific shapes of the mitigation pit including cones and pyramids. Details of the new technique and its comparison with the previous technique will be presented.

  3. Pharmacological Inhibition of Transforming Growth Factor β Signaling Decreases Infection and Prevents Heart Damage in Acute Chagas' Disease▿

    PubMed Central

    Waghabi, Mariana C.; de Souza, Elen M.; de Oliveira, Gabriel M.; Keramidas, Michelle; Feige, Jean-Jacques; Araújo-Jorge, Tania C.; Bailly, Sabine

    2009-01-01

    Chagas' disease induced by Trypanosoma cruzi infection is an important cause of mortality and morbidity affecting the cardiovascular system for which presently available therapies are largely inadequate. We previously reported that transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is implicated in several regulatory aspects of T. cruzi invasion and growth and in host tissue fibrosis. This prompted us to evaluate the therapeutic action of an inhibitor of TGF-β signaling (SB-431542) administered during the acute phase of experimental Chagas' disease. Male Swiss mice were infected intraperitoneally with 104 trypomastigotes of T. cruzi (Y strain) and evaluated clinically for the following 30 days. SB-431542 treatment significantly reduced mortality and decreased parasitemia. Electrocardiography showed that SB-431542 treatment was effective in protecting the cardiac conduction system. By 14 day postinfection, enzymatic biomarkers of tissue damage indicated that muscle injury was decreased by SB-431542 treatment, with significantly lower blood levels of aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase. In conclusion, inhibition of TGF-β signaling in vivo appears to potently decrease T. cruzi infection and to prevent heart damage in a preclinical mouse model. This suggests that this class of molecules may represent a new therapeutic agent for acute and chronic Chagas' disease that warrants further clinical exploration. PMID:19738024

  4. Pretreatment with transforming growth factor beta-3 protects small intestinal stem cells against radiation damage in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Potten, C. S.; Booth, D.; Haley, J. D.

    1997-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract, with its rapid cell replacement, is sensitive to cytotoxic damage and can be a site of dose-limiting toxicity in cancer therapy. Here, we have investigated the use of one growth modulator to manipulate the cell cycle status of gastrointestinal stem cells before cytotoxic exposure to minimize damage to this normal tissue. Transforming growth factor beta-3 (TGF-beta3), a known inhibitor of cell cycle progression through G1, was used to alter intestinal crypt stem cell sensitivity before 12-16 Gy of gamma irradiation, which was used as a model cytotoxic agent. Using a crypt microcolony assay as a measure of functional competence of gastrointestinal stem cells, it was shown that the administration of TGF-beta3 over a 24-h period before irradiation increased the number of surviving crypts by four- to six-fold. To test whether changes in crypt survival are reflected in the well-being of the animal, survival time analyses were performed. After 14.5 Gy of radiation, only 35% of the animals survived within a period of about 12 days, while prior treatment with TGF-beta3 provided significant protection against this early gastrointestinal animal death, with 95% of the treated animals surviving for greater than 30 days. PMID:9166937

  5. Dermatomycoses and inflammation: The adaptive balance between growth, damage, and survival.

    PubMed

    Hube, B; Hay, R; Brasch, J; Veraldi, S; Schaller, M

    2015-03-01

    Dermatomycosis is characterized by both superficial and subcutaneous infections of keratinous tissues and mucous membranes caused by a variety of fungal agents, the two most common classes being dermatophytes and yeasts. Overall, the stepwise process of host infection is similar among the main dermatomycotic species; however, the species-specific ability to elicit a host reaction upon infection is distinct. Yeasts such as Candida albicans elicit a relatively low level of host tissue damage and inflammation during pathogenic infection, while dermatophytes may induce a higher level of tissue damage and inflammatory reaction. Both pathogens can, however, manipulate the host's immune response, ensuring survival and prolonging chronic infection. One common element of most dermatomycotic infections is the disease burden caused by inflammation and associated signs and symptoms, such as erythema, burning and pruritus. There is a strong clinical rationale for the addition of a topical corticosteroid agent to an effective antimycotic therapy, especially in patients who present with inflammatory dermatomycoses (e.g., tinea inguinalis). In this review, we aim to compare the pathogenesis of common dermatomycotic species, including Candida yeasts (Candida albicans), dermatophytes (Trichophyton, Epidermophyton or Microsporum species), and other pathogenic yeasts (Malassezia), with a special focus on unique species-specific aspects of the respective infection processes, the interaction between essential aspects of pathogenic infection, the different roles of the host inflammatory response, and the clinical consequences of the infection-related tissue damage and inflammation. We hope that a broader understanding of the various mechanisms of dermatomycoses may contribute to more effective management of affected patients. PMID:25662199

  6. Fatigue damage growth mechanisms in continuous fiber reinforced titanium matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.; Naik, R. A.; Pollock, W. D.

    1990-01-01

    The role of fiber/matrix interface strength, residual thermal stresses, and fiber and matrix properties on fatigue damage accumulation in continuous fiber metal matrix composites (MMC) will be discussed. Results from titanium matrix/silicon-carbide fiber composites will be the primary topic of discussion. Results have been obtained from both notched and unnotched specimens at room and elevated temperatures. The stress in the 0 deg fibers has been indentified as the controlling factor in fatigue life. Fatigue of the notched specimens indicated that cracks can grow many fiber spacings in the matrix materials without breaking fibers.

  7. Fatigue damage growth mechanisms in continuous fiber reinforced titanium matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.; Naik, R. A.; Pollock, W. D.

    1990-01-01

    The role of fiber/matrix interface strength, residual thermal stresses, and fiber and matrix properties on fatigue damage accumulation in continuous fiber metal matrix composites (MMC) is discussed. Results from titanium matrix silicon carbide fiber composites is the primary topic of discussion. Results were obtained from both notched and unnotched specimens at room and elevated temperatures. The stress in the 0 deg fibers was identified as the controlling factor in fatigue life. Fatigue of the notched specimens indicated that cracks can grow in the matrix materials without breaking fibers.

  8. A growth analysis of waterlogging damage in mung bean (Phaseolus aureus)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musgrave, M. E.; Vanhoy, M. A.

    1989-01-01

    Mung beans (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) were grown for 2 weeks in gravel-vermiculite soilless mix in a growth chamber and subjected to a 1-week waterlogging period followed by a 1-week recovery period. Sequential harvests were made to determine the time course of effects of waterlogging and subsequent recovery on growth parameters by techniques of growth analysis. Root dry matter was the first to be affected, along with an increase in leaf dry matter and specific leaf weight. After a 1-week waterlogging period, specific leaf weight had more than doubled in the stressed plants. Leaf area declined in relation to the control plants as did the ratio of root dry matter to shoot dry matter. During the recovery period there was an increase in the dry matter allocation to the roots relative to the shoot. Specific leaf weight fell to control levels although the rate of leaf area elaboration did not increase during this time, suggesting a redistribution of stored assimilates from the leaves. Net assimilation rate increased during the waterlogging period, probably due to a restriction in root metabolism and reduced translocation out of the leaf rather than to an increase in photosynthesis. Net assimilation rate of waterlogged plants was severely reduced compared with control plants during the recovery period. Both relative growth rate and leaf area duration declined during the waterlogging period and declined further subsequent to the waterlogging treatment. The results illustrate the interrelationships between root and shoot carbon budgets in mung bean during response to the stress of waterlogging.

  9. Pulse length dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in KD2PO4

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J J; Weiland, T L; Stanley, J R; Sell, W D; Luthi, R L; Vickers, J L; Carr, C W; Feit, M D; Rubenchik, A M; Spaeth, M L; Hackel, R P

    2004-11-10

    An experimental technique has been developed to measure the damage density {rho}({phi}) variation with fluence from scatter maps of bulk damage sites in plates of KD{sub 2}PO{sub 4} (DKDP) crystals combined with calibrated images of the damaging beam's spatial profile. Unconditioned bulk damage in tripler-cut DKDP crystals has been studied using 351 nm (3 {omega}) light at pulse lengths of 0.055, 0.091, 0.30, 0.86, 2.6, and 10 ns. It is found that there is less scatter due to damage at fixed fluence for longer pulse lengths. The results also show that for all the pulse lengths the scatter due to damage is a strong function of the damaging fluence. It is determined that the pulse length scaling for bulk damage scatter in unconditioned DKDP material varies as {tau}{sup 0.24 {+-} 0.05} over two orders of magnitude of pulse lengths. The effectiveness of 3 {omega} laser conditioning at pulse lengths of 0.055, 0.096, 0.30, 0.86, 3.5, and 23 ns is analyzed in term of damage density {rho}({phi}) at 3 {omega}, 2.6 ns. The 860 ps conditioning to a peak irradiance of 7 GW/cm{sup 2} had the best performance under 3 {omega}, 2.6 ns testing. It is shown that the optimal conditioning pulse length appears to lies in the range from 0.3 to 1 ns with a low sensitivity of 0.5 J/cm{sup 2}/ns to the exact pulse length.

  10. Investigating Damage Evolution at the Nanoscale: Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Nanovoid Growth in Single-Crystal Aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, M. A.; Solanki, K. N.; Moitra, A.; Tschopp, M. A.

    2013-02-01

    Nanovoid growth was investigated using molecular dynamics to reveal its dependence on void size, strain rate, crystallographic loading orientation, initial nanovoid volume fraction, and simulation cell size. A spherical nanovoid was embedded into a periodic face-centered cubic (fcc) Al lattice, and a remote uniaxial load was applied to elucidate dislocation nucleation and shear loop formation from the void surface as well as the subsequent void growth mechanisms. The nucleation stresses and void growth mechanisms were compared for four different strain rates (107 to 1010 seconds-1), five different simulation cell sizes (4-nm to 28-nm lengths), four different initial nanovoid volume fractions, and seven different tensile loading orientations representative of the variability within the stereographic triangle. The simulation results show an effect of the size scale, crystallographic loading orientation, initial void volume fraction, and strain rate on the incipient yield stress for simulations without a void (single-crystal bulk material). For instance, the crystallographic orientation dependence on yield stress was less pronounced for simulations containing a void. As expected, dislocations and shear loops nucleated on various slip systems for the different loading orientations, which included orientations favored for both single slip and multiple slip. The evolution of the nanovoid volume fraction with increasing strain is relatively insensitive to loading orientations, which suggests that the nanoscale plastic anisotropy caused by the initial lattice orientation has only a minor role in influencing the nanovoid growth rate. In contrast, a significant influence of the initial nanovoid volume fractions was observed on the yield stress, i.e., a ~35 pct decrease in yield stress was caused by introducing a 0.4 pct nanovoid volume fraction. Furthermore, a continuum-scale bridging parameter m—which is a material rate sensitivity parameter in continuum damage mechanics

  11. Transforming growth factor alpha treatment alters intracellular calcium levels in hair cells and protects them from ototoxic damage in vitro.

    PubMed

    Staecker, H; Dazert, S; Malgrange, B; Lefebvre, P P; Ryan, A F; Van de Water, T R

    1997-07-01

    To determine if transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha) pretreatment protects hair cells from aminoglycoside induced injury by modifying their intracellular calcium concentration, we assayed hair cell calcium levels in organ of Corti explants both before and after aminoglycoside (i.e. neomycin, 10(-3) M) exposure either with or without growth factor pretreatment. After TGF alpha (500 ng/ml) treatment, the intracellular calcium level of hair cells showed a five-fold increase as compared to the levels observed in the hair cells of control cultures. After ototoxin exposure, calcium levels in hair cells of control explants showed an increase relative to their baseline levels, while in the presence of growth factors pretreatment, hair cells showed a relative reduction in calcium levels. Pretreatment of organ of Corti explants afforded significant protection of hair cell stereocilia bundle morphology from ototoxic damage when compared to explants exposed to ototoxin alone. This study correlates a rise in hair cell calcium levels with the otoprotection of hair cells by TGF alpha in organ of Corti explants. PMID:9263032

  12. Damage progression in tailored laminated panels with a cutout and delamination growth in sandwich panels with tailored face sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, De

    This dissertation reports on studies of damage progression in laminated composites and sandwich structures. Both in-plane damage and delamination damage are addressed. In the first part of this dissertation, a simple stiffness-tailoring concept has been applied to laminated flat plates and one quarter cylindrical shells with a cutout. Results show that the tailoring approach can increase ultimate loads up to 111% for the tensile loading and 165% for the compressive loading, increase initial buckling loads up to 175% and ultimate loads up to 240% for the flat plates. For the cylindrical shells, there is no distinct buckling until the ultimate load is reached. Relative improvements in ultimate loads up to 155% are shown to exist for these curved panels. In the second part of this dissertation, an algorithm has been developed to trace moving delamination fronts of an arbitrary shape. Based on the algorithm, a delamination front can be defined by two vectors that pass through any point on the front. An important feature of this approach is that it does not require the use of meshes that are orthogonal to the delaminations front. Therefore, the approach avoids the adaptive re-meshing technique that may create a large computational burden in delamination growth analysis. An interfacial element that can trace the instantaneous delamination front, determine the local coordinate system, approximate strain energy release rate components and apply the fracture mechanics criteria has been developed and implemented into ABAQUS with UEL. Excellent agreements between the results from this new approach and those from analytical and experimental analyses by others validate the approach and the implementation. Finally, to study the delamination growth in a sandwich panel with its face sheets tailored, the interfacial element was applied to tie the undelaminated region between the top face sheet and the core material of the sandwich panel. Results show that the tailoring approach on

  13. Keratinocyte growth factor-2 and autologous serum potentiate the regenerative effect of mesenchymal stem cells in cornea damage in rats

    PubMed Central

    Pınarlı, Ferda Alpaslan; Ökten, Gülsen; Beden, Ümit; Fışgın, Tunç; Kefeli, Mehmet; Kara, Nurten; Duru, Feride; Tomak, Leman

    2014-01-01

    AIM To investigate the healing process after severe corneal epithelial damage in rats treated with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) cultured with or without keratinocyte growth factor (KGF-2) and autologous serum (AS) on amniotic membrane (AM). Many patients are blind and devastated by severe ocular surface diseases due to limbal stem cell deficiency. Bone marrow-derived MSCs are potential sources for cell-based tissue engineering to repair or replace the corneal tissue, having the potential to differentiate to epithelial cells. METHODS The study included 5 groups each including 10 female “Sprague Dawley” rats in addition to 20 male rats used as bone marrow donors. Group I rats received AM+MSCs, Group II rats AM+MSCs cultured with KGF-2, Group III rats AM+MSCs cultured with KGF-2+AS, Group IV rats only AM and Group V rats, none. AS was derived from blood drawn from male rats and bone marrow was obtained from the femur and tibia bones of the same animals. Therapeutic effect was evaluated with clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical assessment. MSC engraftment was demonstrated via detection of donor genotype (Y+) in the recipient tissue (X) with polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS Corneal healing was significantly better in Groups I-III rats treated with MSC transplantation compared to Group IV and Group V rats with supportive treatment only. The best results were obtained in Group III rats with 90% transparency, 70% lack of neovascularization, and 100% epithelium damage limited to less than 1/4 of cornea. CONCLUSION We suggest that culture of MSCs with KGF-2 and AS on AM is effective in corneal repair in case of irreversible damage to limbal stem cells. PMID:24790860

  14. Growth, structural, optical, thermal and laser damage threshold studies of an organic single crystal: 1,3,5 - triphenylbenzene (TPB)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja, R. Subramaniyan; Babu, G. Anandha; Ramasamy, P.

    2016-05-01

    Good quality single crystals of pure hydrocarbon 1,3,5-Triphenylbenzene (TPB) have been successfully grown using toluene as a solvent using controlled slow cooling solution growth technique. TPB crystallizes in orthorhombic structure with the space group Pna21. The structural perfection of the grown crystal has been analysed by high resolution X-ray diffraction measurements. The range and percentage of the optical transmission are ascertained by recording the UV-vis spectrum. Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) were used to study its thermal properties. Powder second harmonic generation studies were carried out to explore its NLO properties. Laser damage threshold value has been determined using Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm.

  15. Unveiling laser diode "fossil" and the dynamic analysis for heliotropic growth of catastrophic optical damage in high power laser diodes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Xiong, Yihan; An, Haiyan; Boucke, Konstantin; Treusch, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Taking advantage of robust facet passivation, we unveil a laser "fossil" buried within a broad area laser diode (LD) cavity when the LD was damaged by applying a high current. For the first time, novel physical phenomena have been observed at these dramatically elevated energy densities within the nanoscale LD waveguide. The observation of the laser "fossil" is interpreted with different mechanisms, including: the origination of bulk catastrophic optical damage (COD) due to locally high energy densities, heliotropic COD growth, solid-liquid-gas phase transformations, strong longitudinal phonon cooling effect on the molten COD wave front, and the formation of patterns due to laser lateral modes. For the first time the COD propagation is analyzed temporally by an acoustic phonon bouncing model and the COD velocity is extrapolated to be exponentially decreasing from more than 800 μm/μs to a few μm/μs within a 20 μs time period as the energy density dissipates. PMID:26740303

  16. Growth and Potential Damage of Human Bone-Derived Cells Cultured on Fresh and Aged C60/Ti Films

    PubMed Central

    Kopova, Ivana; Lavrentiev, Vasily; Vacik, Jiri; Bacakova, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    Thin films of binary C60/Ti composites, with various concentrations of Ti ranging from ~ 25% to ~ 70%, were deposited on microscopic glass coverslips and were tested for their potential use in bone tissue engineering as substrates for the adhesion and growth of bone cells. The novelty of this approach lies in the combination of Ti atoms (i.e., widely used biocompatible material for the construction of stomatological and orthopedic implants) with atoms of fullerene C60, which can act as very efficient radical scavengers. However, fullerenes and their derivatives are able to generate harmful reactive oxygen species and to have cytotoxic effects. In order to stabilize C60 molecules and to prevent their possible cytotoxic effects, deposition in the compact form of Ti/C60 composites (with various Ti concentrations) was chosen. The reactivity of C60/Ti composites may change in time due to the physicochemical changes of molecules in an air atmosphere. In this study, we therefore tested the dependence between the age of C60/Ti films (from one week to one year) and the adhesion, morphology, proliferation, viability, metabolic activity and potential DNA damage to human osteosarcoma cells (lines MG-63 and U-2 OS). After 7 days of cultivation, we did not observe any negative influence of fresh or aged C60/Ti layers on cell behavior, including the DNA damage response. The presence of Ti atoms resulted in improved properties of the C60 layers, which became more suitable for cell cultivation. PMID:25875338

  17. Identification of BC005512 as a DNA Damage Responsive Murine Endogenous Retrovirus of GLN Family Involved in Cell Growth Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuanfeng; Qi, Xinming; Gong, Likun; Xing, Guozhen; Chen, Min; Miao, Lingling; Yao, Jun; Suzuki, Takayoshi; Furihata, Chie; Luan, Yang; Ren, Jin

    2012-01-01

    Genotoxicity assessment is of great significance in drug safety evaluation, and microarray is a useful tool widely used to identify genotoxic stress responsive genes. In the present work, by using oligonucleotide microarray in an in vivo model, we identified an unknown gene BC005512 (abbreviated as BC, official full name: cDNA sequence BC005512), whose expression in mouse liver was specifically induced by seven well-known genotoxins (GTXs), but not by non-genotoxins (NGTXs). Bioinformatics revealed that BC was a member of the GLN family of murine endogenous retrovirus (ERV). However, the relationship to genotoxicity and the cellular function of GLN are largely unknown. Using NIH/3T3 cells as an in vitro model system and quantitative real-time PCR, BC expression was specifically induced by another seven GTXs, covering diverse genotoxicity mechanisms. Additionally, dose-response and linear regression analysis showed that expression level of BC in NIH/3T3 cells strongly correlated with DNA damage, measured using the alkaline comet assay,. While in p53 deficient L5178Y cells, GTXs could not induce BC expression. Further functional studies using RNA interference revealed that down-regulation of BC expression induced G1/S phase arrest, inhibited cell proliferation and thus suppressed cell growth in NIH/3T3 cells. Together, our results provide the first evidence that BC005512, a member from GLN family of murine ERV, was responsive to DNA damage and involved in cell growth regulation. These findings could be of great value in genotoxicity predictions and contribute to a deeper understanding of GLN biological functions. PMID:22514700

  18. Nucleation and growth of damage in polycrystalline aluminum under dynamic tensile loading

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, M. L.; Yao, Y.; Ran, X. X.; Ye, W.; Bie, B. X.; Fan, D.; Li, P.

    2015-03-15

    Plate-impact experiments were conducted to study the features and mechanisms of void nucleation and growth in the polycrystalline of pure aluminum under dynamic loading. Soft-recovered samples have been analyzed by metallographic microscopy, electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD), and synchrotron radiation x-ray tomography technology. It was found that most of the void nucleation in grains neared the boundaries of “weak-orientation” grains and grew toward the grain boundaries with fractured small grains around the boundaries. This was mainly caused by the accumulation and interaction of slip systems in the “weak-orientation” grains. In addition, the micro voids were nearly octahedron because the octahedral slip systems were formed by 8 slip planes in the polycrystalline of pure aluminum. The EBSD results are consistent with the three-dimensional structure observed by synchrotron radiation x-ray.

  19. Directional growth of organic NLO crystal by different growth methods: A comparative study by means of XRD, HRXRD and laser damage threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arivanandhan, M.; Huang, Xinming; Uda, Satoshi; Bhagavannarayana, G.; Vijayan, N.; Sankaranarayanan, K.; Ramasamy, P.

    2008-10-01

    Unidirectional benzophenone single crystals grown by vertical Bridgman (VB), microtube-Czochralski (μT-CZ), uniaxially solution crystallization method of Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy (SR) were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution XRD (HRXRD), laser damage threshold (LDT) studies and the results were compared. The XRD study exhibits the growth direction of the benzophenone crystal ingots. The HRXRD curves recorded by multicrystal X-ray diffractometer (MCD) revealed that the crystals grown by all the three methods contain internal structural grain boundaries. The SR grown sample shows relatively good crystalline nature with the full-width half-maximum (FWHM) of the main peak of 39 arcsec. While, the VB grown crystal contain multiple low-angle ( α⩾1 arcmin) grain boundaries, probably due to thermal stress during post-growth annealing caused by the difference in the lattice expansion coefficients of the crystal and the ampoule, whereas such thermal stress are absent in μT-CZ grown sample due to the free standing nature of the grown crystal. Hence, the μT-CZ grown crystals contain only one very low-angle ( α<1 arcmin) grain boundary. LDT study shows that the SR grown benzophenone crystal has higher LDT than the samples grown by other methods, probably due to relatively high-crystalline perfection of the SR grown crystals.

  20. Relationship of chromosomal damage induced by caffeine to growth temperature and ATP level in proliferating cells.

    PubMed

    Hernández, P; Mingo, R; González-Fernández, A; López-Sáez, J F

    1986-10-01

    Caffeine is known to induce chromosomal aberrations in proliferating cells when they are incubated during G2 and mitotic prophase. In the present paper, this caffeine effect has been analyzed in Allium cepa root meristems growing at different culture temperatures under steady-state kinetics. Caffeine (1-10 mM) induces chromosomal aberrations in a dose-dependent manner, and the treatment efficiency correlates linearly with the square of caffeine concentration. The efficiency of caffeine incubations, within the range 5-25 degrees C during equivalent cycle time periods has also been studied. It has been found that the lower the culture temperature, the higher the level of chromosomal aberrations. Moreover, at different temperatures, the level of chromosomal aberrations is a simple function of caffeine concentration and the ATP level. Therefore, the efficiency of caffeine treatment appears to be determined by some interaction between caffeine concentration and cellular ATP level. Our present results demonstrate that the influence of growth temperature on the chromosome-breaking effect of caffeine can be, at least partially, explained by the ATP levels during the incubation periods. In short, under different kinetics of plant cell proliferation, the ATP level, and/or something correlating with it, could explain the efficiency of caffeine in inducing chromosomal aberrations: the lower the ATP level, the higher the caffeine efficiency. PMID:3773927

  1. Cell Growth of Wall-Free L-Form Bacteria Is Limited by Oxidative Damage

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Yoshikazu; Mercier, Romain; Wu, Ling Juan; Domínguez-Cuevas, Patricia; Oshima, Taku; Errington, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Summary The peptidoglycan (PG) cell wall is a defining feature of the bacterial lineage and an important target for antibiotics, such as β-lactams and glycopeptides. Nevertheless, many bacteria are capable of switching into a cell-wall-deficient state, called the “L-form” [1–3]. These variants have been classically identified as antibiotic-resistant forms in association with a wide range of infectious diseases [4]. L-forms become completely independent of the normally essential FtsZ cell division machinery [3, 5]. Instead, L-form proliferation is driven by a simple biophysical process based on an increased ratio of surface area to cell volume synthesis [6, 7]. We recently showed that only two genetic changes are needed for the L-form transition in Bacillus subtilis [7]. Class 1 mutations work to generate excess membrane synthesis [7]. Until now, the function of the class 2 mutations was unclear. We now show that these mutations work by counteracting an increase in the cellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) originating from the electron transport pathway, which occurs in wall-deficient cells. Consistent with this, addition of a ROS scavenger or anaerobic culture conditions also worked to promote L-form growth without the class 2 mutations in both Gram-positive B. subtilis and Gram-negative Escherichia coli. Our results suggest that physiological compensation for the metabolic imbalance that occurs when cell wall synthesis is blocked is crucial for L-form proliferation in a wide range of bacteria and also provide new insights into the mode of action of antibiotics that target the bacterial cell wall. PMID:26051891

  2. Structural Stability of Human Fibroblast Growth Factor-1 Is Essential for Protective Effects Against Radiation-Induced Intestinal Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, Fumiaki; Umeda, Sachiko; Yasuda, Takeshi; Asada, Masahiro; Motomura, Kaori; Suzuki, Masashi; Zakrzewska, Malgorzata; Imamura, Toru; Imai, Takashi

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: Human fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF1) has radioprotective effects on the intestine, although its structural instability limits its potential for practical use. Several stable FGF1 mutants were created increasing stability in the order, wild-type FGF1, single mutants (Q40P, S47I, and H93G), Q40P/S47I, and Q40P/S47I/H93G. This study evaluated the contribution of the structural stability of FGF1 to its radioprotective effect. Methods and Materials: Each FGF1 mutant was administered intraperitoneally to BALB/c mice in the absence of heparin 24 h before or after total body irradiation (TBI) with {gamma}-rays at 8-12 Gy. Several radioprotective effects were examined in the jejunum. Results: Q40P/S47I/H93G could activate all subtypes of FGF receptors in vitro much more strongly than the wild-type without endogenous or exogenous heparin. Preirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G significantly increased crypt survival more than wild-type FGF1 after TBI at 10 or 12 Gy, and postirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G was effective in promoting crypt survival after TBI at 10, 11, or 12 Gy. In addition, crypt cell proliferation, crypt depth, and epithelial differentiation were significantly promoted by postirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G. The level of stability of FGF1 mutants correlated with their mitogenic activities in vitro in the absence of heparin; however, preirradiation treatment with the mutants increased the crypt number to almost the same level as Q40P/S47I/H93G. When given 24 h after TBI at 10 Gy, all FGF1 mutants increased crypt survival more than wild-type FGF1, and Q40P/S47I/H93G had the strongest mitogenic effects in intestinal epithelial cells after radiation damage. Moreover, Q40P/S47I/H93G prolonged mouse survival after TBI because of the repair of intestinal damage. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the structural stability of FGF1 can contribute to the enhancement of protective effects against radiation-induced intestinal

  3. Effect of Thermal Annealing and Second Harmonic Generation on Bulk Damage Performance of Rapid-Growth KDP Type I Doublers at 1064 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Runkel, M; Maricle, S; Torres, R; Auerbach, J; Floyd, R; Hawley-Fedder, R; Burnham, A K

    2000-12-11

    This paper discusses the results of thermal annealing and in-situ second harmonic generation (SHG) damage tests performed on six rapid growth KDP type 1 doubler crystals at 1064 nm (1 {omega}) on the Zeus automated damage test facility. Unconditioned (S/1) and conditioned (R/1) damage probability tests were performed before and after thermal annealing, then with and without SHG on six doubler crystals from the NIF-size, rapid growth KDP boule F6. The tests revealed that unannealed, last-grown material from the boule in either prismatic or pyramidal sectors exhibited the highest damage curves. After thermal annealing at 160 C for seven days, the prismatic sector samples increased in performance ranging from 1.6 to 2.4X, while material from the pyramidal sector increased only modestly, ranging from 1.0 to 1.4X. Second harmonic generation decreased the damage fluence by an average of 20 percent for the S/1 tests and 40 percent for R/1 tests. Conversion efficiencies under test conditions were measured to be 20 to 30 percent and compared quite well to predicted behavior, as modeled by LLNL frequency conversion computer codes. The damage probabilities at the 1 {omega} NIF redline fluence (scaled to 10 ns via t{sup 0.5}) for S/1 tests for the unannealed samples ranged from 20 percent in one sample to 90-100 percent for the other 5 samples. Thermal annealing reduced the damage probabilities to less than 35 percent for 3 of the poor-performing crystals, while two pyramidal samples remained in the 80 to 90 percent range. Second harmonic generation in the annealed crystal increased the S/1 damage probabilities on all the crystals and ranged from 40 to 100 percent. In contrast, R/1 testing of an unannealed crystal resulted in a damage probability at the NIF redline fluence of 16%. Annealing increased the damage performance to the extent that all test sites survived NIF redline fluences without damage. Second harmonic generation in the R/1 test yielded a damage probability of

  4. Oxidation levels of North American over-the-counter n-3 (omega-3) supplements and the influence of supplement formulation and delivery form on evaluating oxidative safety.

    PubMed

    Jackowski, Stefan A; Alvi, Azhar Z; Mirajkar, Abdur; Imani, Zahabia; Gamalevych, Yuliya; Shaikh, Nisar A; Jackowski, George

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the oxidation status of North American n-3 (omega-3) PUFA nutritional supplements commercially available in Canada and evaluate the influence of product formulation and delivery form on oxidative safety. A total of 171 North American over-the-counter n-3 PUFA nutritional supplements were analysed for oxidation safety. Primary and secondary oxidation and total oxidation (TOTOX) were determined using the American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS) procedures. Comparisons between supplements' final forms, oil source and n-3 PUFA concentration quartiles, as measures of product formulations and delivery forms, were compared using ANOVA. Of the products successfully tested, 50 % exceeded the voluntary recommended levels for markers of oxidation. Another 18 % of products were approaching the limits with 1-3 years before expiration. Encapsulated products without flavour additives had significantly lower secondary and TOTOX levels than bulk oils and flavoured products (P < 0·05). Children's products had significantly higher primary, secondary and TOTOX levels compared with all other products (P < 0·05). Markers of oxidation did not differ between oil sources (P > 0·05), with the exception of krill oil products having higher secondary oxidation levels than plant-based products (P > 0·05). Markers of oxidation did not differ between n-3 PUFA supplement concentration quartiles. Consumers may be at risk of exposure to higher levels of oxidative products. New regulatory mandates need to be introduced to ensure that all n-3 PUFA products, used as nutritional supplements, regardless of their formulation or delivery form, can be tested for oxidative safety and compliance. PMID:26688721

  5. Copper-induced root growth inhibition of Allium cepa var. agrogarum L. involves disturbances in cell division and DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Qin, Rong; Wang, Congyue; Chen, Da; Björn, Lars O; Li, Shaoshan

    2015-05-01

    Copper (Cu) is considered to be an indispensable microelement for plants. Excessive Cu, however, is toxic and disturbs several processes in the plant. The present study addressed the effects of ionic Cu (2.0 µM and 8.0 µM) on mitosis, the microtubule cytoskeleton, and DNA in root tip cells of Allium cepa var. agrogarum L. to better understand Cu toxicity on plant root systems. The results indicated that Cu accumulated in roots and that root growth was inhibited dramatically in Cu treatment groups. Chromosomal aberrations (for example, C-mitosis, chromosome bridges, chromosome stickiness, and micronucleus) were observed, and the mitotic index decreased during Cu treatments at different concentrations. Microtubules were one of the target sites of Cu toxicity in root tip meristematic cells, and Cu exposure substantially impaired microtubule arrangements. The content of α-tubulin decreased following 36 h of exposure to 2.0 µM or 8.0 µM of Cu in comparison with the control group. Copper increased DNA damage and suppressed cell cycle progression. The above toxic effects became more serious with increasing Cu concentration and prolonged exposure time. PMID:25639377

  6. Growth Arrest and DNA-Damage-Inducible, Beta (GADD45b)-Mediated DNA Demethylation in Major Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Gavin, David P; Sharma, Rajiv P; Chase, Kayla A; Matrisciano, Francesco; Dong, Erbo; Guidotti, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant neocortical DNA methylation has been suggested to be a pathophysiological contributor to psychotic disorders. Recently, a growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible, beta (GADD45b) protein-coordinated DNA demethylation pathway, utilizing cytidine deaminases and thymidine glycosylases, has been identified in the brain. We measured expression of several members of this pathway in parietal cortical samples from the Stanley Foundation Neuropathology Consortium (SFNC) cohort. We find an increase in GADD45b mRNA and protein in patients with psychosis. In immunohistochemistry experiments using samples from the Harvard Brain Tissue Resource Center, we report an increased number of GADD45b-stained cells in prefrontal cortical layers II, III, and V in psychotic patients. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor IX (BDNF IXabcd) was selected as a readout gene to determine the effects of GADD45b expression and promoter binding. We find that there is less GADD45b binding to the BDNF IXabcd promoter in psychotic subjects. Further, there is reduced BDNF IXabcd mRNA expression, and an increase in 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine at its promoter. On the basis of these results, we conclude that GADD45b may be increased in psychosis compensatory to its inability to access gene promoter regions. PMID:22048458

  7. Combined Advanced Finishing and UV-Laser Conditioning for Producing UV-Damage-Resistant Fused Silica Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Menapace, J A; Penetrante, B; Golini, D; Slomba, A; Miller, P E; Parham, T; Nichols, M; Peterson, J

    2001-11-01

    Laser induced damage initiation on fused silica optics can limit the lifetime of the components when used in high power UV laser environments. Foe example in inertial confinement fusion research applications, the optics can be exposed to temporal laser pulses of about 3-nsec with average fluences of 8 J/cm{sup 2} and peak fluences between 12 and 15 J/cm{sup 2}. During the past year, we have focused on optimizing the damage performance at a wavelength of 355-nm (3{omega}), 3-nsec pulse length, for optics in this category by examining a variety of finishing technologies with a challenge to improve the laser damage initiation density by at least two orders of magnitude. In this paper, we describe recent advances in improving the 3{omega} damage initiation performance of laboratory-scale zirconium oxide and cerium oxide conventionally finished fused silica optics via application of processes incorporating magnetorheological finishing (MRF), wet chemical etching, and UV laser conditioning. Details of the advanced finishing procedures are described and comparisons are made between the procedures based upon large area 3{omega} damage performance, polishing layer contamination, and optical subsurface damage.

  8. Growth arrest DNA damage-inducible gene 45 gamma expression as a prognostic and predictive biomarker in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Da-Liang; Shyue, Song-Kun; Lin, Liang-In; Feng, Zi-Rui; Liou, Jun-Yang; Fan, Hsiang-Hsuan; Lee, Bin-Shyun; Hsu, Chiun; Cheng, Ann-Lii

    2015-01-01

    Growth arrest DNA damage-inducible gene 45 (GADD45) family proteins play a crucial role in regulating cellular stress responses and apoptosis. The present study explored the prognostic and predictive role of GADD45γ in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment. GADD45γ expression in HCC cells was examined using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting. The control of GADD45γ transcription was examined using a luciferase reporter assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation. The in vivo induction of GADD45γ was performed using adenoviral transfer. The expression of GADD45γ in HCC tumor tissues from patients who had undergone curative resection was measured using qRT-PCR. Sorafenib induced expression of GADD45γ mRNA and protein, independent of its RAF kinase inhibitor activity. GADD45γ induction was more prominent in sorafenib-sensitive HCC cells (Huh-7 and HepG2, IC50 6–7 μM) than in sorafenib-resistant HCC cells (Hep3B, Huh-7R, and HepG2R, IC50 12–15 μM). Overexpression of GADD45γ reversed sorafenib resistance in vitro and in vivo, whereas GADD45γ expression knockdown by using siRNA partially abrogated the proapoptotic effects of sorafenib on sorafenib-sensitive cells. Overexpression of survivin in HCC cells abolished the antitumor enhancement between GADD45γ overexpression and sorafenib treatment, suggesting that survivin is a crucial mediator of antitumor effects of GADD45γ. GADD45γ expression decreased in tumors from patients with HCC who had undergone curative surgery, and low GADD45γ expression was an independent prognostic factor for poor survival, in addition to old age and vascular invasion. The preceding data indicate that GADD45γ suppression is a poor prognostic factor in patients with HCC and may help predict sorafenib efficacy in HCC. PMID:26172295

  9. DNA Damage Response Proteins and Oxygen Modulate Prostaglandin E2 Growth Factor Release in Response to Low and High LET Ionizing Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Christopher P.; Tinganelli, Walter; Sharma, Neelam; Nie, Jingyi; Sicard, Cory; Natale, Francesco; King, Maurice; Keysar, Steven B.; Jimeno, Antonio; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Okayasu, Ryuichi; Fujimori, Akira; Durante, Marco; Nickoloff, Jac A.

    2015-01-01

    Common cancer therapies employ chemicals or radiation that damage DNA. Cancer and normal cells respond to DNA damage by activating complex networks of DNA damage sensor, signal transducer, and effector proteins that arrest cell cycle progression, and repair damaged DNA. If damage is severe enough, the DNA damage response (DDR) triggers programed cell death by apoptosis or other pathways. Caspase 3 is a protease that is activated upon damage and triggers apoptosis, and production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a potent growth factor that can enhance growth of surviving cancer cells leading to accelerated tumor repopulation. Thus, dying tumor cells can promote growth of surviving tumor cells, a pathway aptly named Phoenix Rising. In the present study, we surveyed Phoenix Rising responses in a variety of normal and established cancer cell lines, and in cancer cell lines freshly derived from patients. We demonstrate that IR induces a Phoenix Rising response in many, but not all cell lines, and that PGE2 production generally correlates with enhanced growth of cells that survive irradiation, and of unirradiated cells co-cultured with irradiated cells. We show that PGE2 production is stimulated by low and high LET ionizing radiation, and can be enhanced or suppressed by inhibitors of key DDR proteins. PGE2 is produced downstream of caspase 3 and the cyclooxygenases COX1 and COX2, and we show that the pan COX1–2 inhibitor indomethacin blocks IR-induced PGE2 production in the presence or absence of DDR inhibitors. COX1–2 require oxygen for catalytic activity, and we further show that PGE2 production is markedly suppressed in cells cultured under low (1%) oxygen concentration. Thus, Phoenix Rising is most likely to cause repopulation of tumors with relatively high oxygen, but not in hypoxic tumors. This survey lays a foundation for future studies to further define tumor responses to radiation and inhibitors of the DDR and Phoenix Rising to enhance the efficacy of

  10. Comparing the use of 4.6 um lasers versus 10.6 um lasers for mitigating damage site growth on fused silica surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, S T; Matthews, M J; Elhadj, S; Cooke, D; Guss, G M; Draggoo, V G; Wegner, P J

    2010-10-21

    The advantage of using mid-infrared (IR) 4.6 {micro}m lasers, versus far-infrared 10.6 {micro}m lasers, for mitigating damage growth on fused silica is investigated. In contrast to fused silica's high absorption at 10.6 {micro}m, silica absorption at 4.6 {micro}m is two orders of magnitude less. The much reduced absorption at 4.6 {micro}m enables deep heat penetration into fused silica when it is heated using the mid-IR laser, which in turn leads to more effective mitigation of damage sites with deep cracks. The advantage of using mid-IR versus far-IR laser for damage growth mitigation under non-evaporative condition is quantified by defining a figure of merit (FOM) that relates the crack healing depth to laser power required. Based on our FOM, we show that for damage cracks up to at least 500 {micro}m in depth, mitigation using a 4.6 {micro}m mid-IR laser is more efficient than mitigation using a 10.6 {micro}m far-IR laser.

  11. Cellular Internalization of Fibroblast Growth Factor-12 Exerts Radioprotective Effects on Intestinal Radiation Damage Independently of FGFR Signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, Fumiaki; Umeda, Sachiko; Yasuda, Takeshi; Fujita, Mayumi; Asada, Masahiro; Meineke, Viktor; Imamura, Toru; Imai, Takashi

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: Several fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) were shown to inhibit radiation-induced tissue damage through FGF receptor (FGFR) signaling; however, this signaling was also found to be involved in the pathogenesis of several malignant tumors. In contrast, FGF12 cannot activate any FGFRs. Instead, FGF12 can be internalized readily into cells using 2 cell-penetrating peptide domains (CPP-M, CPP-C). Therefore, this study focused on clarifying the role of FGF12 internalization in protection against radiation-induced intestinal injury. Methods and Materials: Each FGF or peptide was administered intraperitoneally to BALB/c mice in the absence of heparin 24 hours before or after total body irradiation with γ rays at 9 to 12 Gy. Several radioprotective effects were examined in the jejunum. Results: Administration of FGF12 after radiation exposure was as effective as pretreatment in significantly promoting intestinal regeneration, proliferation of crypt cells, and epithelial differentiation. Two domains, comprising amino acid residues 80 to 109 and 140 to 169 of FGF12B, were identified as being responsible for the radioprotective activity, so that deletion of both domains from FGF12B resulted in a reduction in activity. Interestingly, these regions included the CPP-M and CPP-C domains, respectively; however, CPP-C by itself did not show an antiapoptotic effect. In addition, FGF1, prototypic FGF, possesses a domain corresponding to CPP-M, whereas it lacks CPP-C, so the fusion of FGF1 with CPP-C (FGF1/CPP-C) enhanced cellular internalization and increased radioprotective activity. However, FGF1/CPP-C reduced in vitro mitogenic activity through FGFRs compared with FGF1, implying that FGFR signaling might not be essential for promoting the radioprotective effect of FGF1/CPP-C. In addition, internalized FGF12 suppressed the activation of p38α after irradiation, resulting in reduced radiation-induced apoptosis. Conclusions: These findings indicate that FGF12 can protect the

  12. EGFR-targeted plasmonic magnetic nanoparticles suppress lung tumor growth by abrogating G2/M cell-cycle arrest and inducing DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Shinji; Tam, Justina; Roth, Jack A; Sokolov, Konstantin; Ramesh, Rajagopal

    2014-01-01

    Background We have previously demonstrated the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted hybrid plasmonic magnetic nanoparticles (225-NP) produce a therapeutic effect in human lung cancer cell lines in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of 225-NP-mediated antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo using the EGFR-mutant HCC827 cell line. Methods The growth inhibitory effect of 225-NP on lung tumor cells was determined by cell viability and cell-cycle analysis. Protein expression related to autophagy, apoptosis, and DNA-damage were determined by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. An in vivo efficacy study was conducted using a human lung tumor xenograft mouse model. Results The 225-NP treatment markedly reduced tumor cell viability at 72 hours compared with the cell viability in control treatment groups. Cell-cycle analysis showed the percentage of cells in the G2/M phase was reduced when treated with 225-NP, with a concomitant increase in the number of cells in Sub-G1 phase, indicative of cell death. Western blotting showed LC3B and PARP cleavage, indicating 225-NP-treatment activated both autophagy- and apoptosis-mediated cell death. The 225-NP strongly induced γH2AX and phosphorylated histone H3, markers indicative of DNA damage and mitosis, respectively. Additionally, significant γH2AX foci formation was observed in 225-NP-treated cells compared with control treatment groups, suggesting 225-NP induced cell death by triggering DNA damage. The 225-NP-mediated DNA damage involved abrogation of the G2/M checkpoint by inhibiting BRCA1, Chk1, and phospho-Cdc2/CDK1 protein expression. In vivo therapy studies showed 225-NP treatment reduced EGFR phosphorylation, increased γH2AX foci, and induced tumor cell apoptosis, resulting in suppression of tumor growth. Conclusion The 225-NP treatment induces DNA damage and abrogates G2/M phase of the cell cycle, leading to cellular apoptosis and suppression of lung tumor growth

  13. Systems Biology Model of Interactions Between Tissue Growth Factors and DNA Damage Pathways: Low Dose Response and Cross-Talk in TGFbeta and ATM Signaling

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neill, Peter; Anderson, Jennifer

    2014-10-02

    The etiology of radiation carcinogenesis has been described in terms of aberrant changes that span several levels of biological organization. Growth factors regulate many important cellular and tissue functions including apoptosis, differentiation and proliferation. A variety of genetic and epigenetic changes of growth factors have been shown to contribute to cancer initiation and progression. It is known that cellular and tissue damage to ionizing radiation is in part initiated by the production of reactive oxygen species, which can activate cytokine signaling, and the DNA damage response pathways, most notably the ATM signaling pathway. Recently the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) pathway has been shown to regulate or directly interact with the ATM pathway in the response to radiation. The relevance of this interaction with the ATM pathway is not known although p53 becomes phosphorylated and DNA damage responses are involved. However, growth factor interactions with DNA damage responses have not been elucidated particularly at low doses and further characterization of their relationship to cancer processes is warranted. Our goal will be to use a systems biology approach to mathematically and experimentally describe the low dose responses and cross-talk between the ATM and TGFβ pathways initiated by low and high LET radiation. We will characterize ATM and TGFβ signaling in epithelial and fibroblast cells using 2D models and ultimately extending to 3D organotypic cell culture models to begin to elucidate possible differences that may occur for different cell types and/or inter-cellular communication. We will investigate the roles of the Smad and Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) proteins as the potential major contributors to cross- talk between the TGFβ and ATM pathways, and links to cell cycle control and/or the DNA damage response, and potential differences in their responses at low and high doses. We have developed various experimental

  14. Fault core and damage zone fracture attributes vary along strike owing to interaction of fracture growth, quartz accumulation, and differing sandstone composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laubach, S. E.; Eichhubl, P.; Hargrove, P.; Ellis, M. A.; Hooker, J. N.

    2014-11-01

    Small, meter-to decimeter-displacement oblique-slip faults cut latest Precambrian lithic arkose to feldspathic litharenite and Cambrian quartz arenite sandstones in NW Scotland. Despite common slip and thermal histories during faulting, the two sandstone units have different fault-core and damage-zone attributes, including fracture length and aperture distributions, and location of quartz deposits. Fault cores are narrow (less than 1 m), low-porosity cataclasite in lithic arkose/feldspathic litharenites. Damage zone-parallel opening-mode fractures are long (meters or more) with narrow ranges of lengths and apertures, are mostly isolated, have sparse quartz cement, and are open. In contrast, quartz arenites, despite abundant quartz cement, have fault cores that contain porous breccia and dense, striated slip zones. Damage-zone fractures have lengths ranging from meters to centimeters or less, but with distributions skewed to short fractures, and have power-law aperture distributions. Owing to extensive quartz cement, they tend to be sealed. These attributes reflect inhibited authigenic quartz accumulation on feldspar and lithic grains, which are unfavorable precipitation substrates, and favored accumulation on detrital quartz. In quartz breccia, macropores >0.04 mm wide persist where surrounded by slow-growing euhedral quartz. Differences in quartz occurrence and size distributions are compatible with the hypothesis that cement deposits modify the probability of fracture reactivation. Existing fractures readily reactivate in focused growth where quartz accumulation is low and porosity high. Only some existing, partly cemented fractures reactivate and some deformation is manifest in new fracture formation in partitioned growth where quartz accumulation is high. Consequences include along-strike differences in permeability and locus of fluid flow between cores and damage zones and fault strength.

  15. The Arabidopsis Class III Peroxidase AtPRX71 Negatively Regulates Growth under Physiological Conditions and in Response to Cell Wall Damage1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Raggi, Sara; Ranocha, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The structure of the cell wall has a major impact on plant growth and development, and alteration of cell wall structural components is often detrimental to biomass production. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for these negative effects are largely unknown. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants with altered pectin composition because of either the expression of the Aspergillus niger polygalacturonase II (AnPGII; 35S:AnPGII plants) or a mutation in the QUASIMODO2 (QUA2) gene that encodes a putative pectin methyltransferase (qua2-1 plants), display severe growth defects. Here, we show that expression of Arabidopsis PEROXIDASE71 (AtPRX71), encoding a class III peroxidase, strongly increases in 35S:AnPGII and qua2-1 plants as well as in response to treatments with the cellulose synthase inhibitor isoxaben, which also impairs cell wall integrity. Analysis of atprx71 loss-of-function mutants and plants overexpressing AtPRX71 indicates that this gene negatively influences Arabidopsis growth at different stages of development, likely limiting cell expansion. The atprx71-1 mutation partially suppresses the dwarf phenotype of qua2-1, suggesting that AtPRX71 contributes to the growth defects observed in plants undergoing cell wall damage. Furthermore, AtPRX71 seems to promote the production of reactive oxygen species in qua2-1 plants as well as plants treated with isoxaben. We propose that AtPRX71 contributes to strengthen cell walls, therefore restricting cell expansion, during normal growth and in response to cell wall damage. PMID:26468518

  16. The Arabidopsis Class III Peroxidase AtPRX71 Negatively Regulates Growth under Physiological Conditions and in Response to Cell Wall Damage.

    PubMed

    Raggi, Sara; Ferrarini, Alberto; Delledonne, Massimo; Dunand, Christophe; Ranocha, Philippe; De Lorenzo, Giulia; Cervone, Felice; Ferrari, Simone

    2015-12-01

    The structure of the cell wall has a major impact on plant growth and development, and alteration of cell wall structural components is often detrimental to biomass production. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for these negative effects are largely unknown. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants with altered pectin composition because of either the expression of the Aspergillus niger polygalacturonase II (AnPGII; 35S:AnPGII plants) or a mutation in the QUASIMODO2 (QUA2) gene that encodes a putative pectin methyltransferase (qua2-1 plants), display severe growth defects. Here, we show that expression of Arabidopsis PEROXIDASE71 (AtPRX71), encoding a class III peroxidase, strongly increases in 35S:AnPGII and qua2-1 plants as well as in response to treatments with the cellulose synthase inhibitor isoxaben, which also impairs cell wall integrity. Analysis of atprx71 loss-of-function mutants and plants overexpressing AtPRX71 indicates that this gene negatively influences Arabidopsis growth at different stages of development, likely limiting cell expansion. The atprx71-1 mutation partially suppresses the dwarf phenotype of qua2-1, suggesting that AtPRX71 contributes to the growth defects observed in plants undergoing cell wall damage. Furthermore, AtPRX71 seems to promote the production of reactive oxygen species in qua2-1 plants as well as plants treated with isoxaben. We propose that AtPRX71 contributes to strengthen cell walls, therefore restricting cell expansion, during normal growth and in response to cell wall damage. PMID:26468518

  17. Overexpression of insulin-like growth factor-1 attenuates skeletal muscle damage and accelerates muscle regeneration and functional recovery after disuse.

    PubMed

    Ye, Fan; Mathur, Sunita; Liu, Min; Borst, Stephen E; Walter, Glenn A; Sweeney, H Lee; Vandenborne, Krista

    2013-05-01

    Skeletal muscle is a highly dynamic tissue that responds to endogenous and external stimuli, including alterations in mechanical loading and growth factors. In particular, the antigravity soleus muscle experiences significant muscle atrophy during disuse and extensive muscle damage upon reloading. Given that insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) has been implicated as a central regulator of muscle repair and modulation of muscle size, we examined the effect of virally mediated overexpression of IGF-1 on the soleus muscle following hindlimb cast immobilization and upon reloading. Recombinant IGF-1 cDNA virus was injected into one of the posterior hindlimbs of the mice, while the contralateral limb was injected with saline (control). At 20 weeks of age, both hindlimbs were immobilized for 2 weeks to induce muscle atrophy in the soleus and ankle plantarflexor muscle group. Subsequently, the mice were allowed to reambulate, and muscle damage and recovery were monitored over a period of 2-21 days. The primary finding of this study was that IGF-1 overexpression attenuated reloading-induced muscle damage in the soleus muscle, and accelerated muscle regeneration and force recovery. Muscle T2 assessed by magnetic resonance imaging, a non-specific marker of muscle damage, was significantly lower in IGF-1-injected compared with contralateral soleus muscles at 2 and 5 days reambulation (P<0.05). The reduced prevalence of muscle damage in IGF-1-injected soleus muscles was confirmed on histology, with a lower fractional area of abnormal muscle tissue in IGF-1-injected muscles at 2 days reambulation (33.2±3.3 versus 54.1±3.6%, P<0.05). Evidence of the effect of IGF-1 on muscle regeneration included timely increases in the number of central nuclei (21% at 5 days reambulation), paired-box transcription factor 7 (36% at 5 days), embryonic myosin (37% at 10 days) and elevated MyoD mRNA (7-fold at 2 days) in IGF-1-injected limbs (P<0.05). These findings demonstrate a potential role

  18. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonucleases of Mycobacterium tuberculosis protect against DNA damage but are dispensable for the growth of the pathogen in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Puri, Rupangi Verma; Reddy, P Vineel; Tyagi, Anil K

    2014-01-01

    In host cells, Mycobacterium tuberculosis encounters an array of reactive molecules capable of damaging its genome. Non-bulky DNA lesions are the most common damages produced on the exposure of the pathogen to reactive species and base excision repair (BER) pathway is involved in the repair of such damage. During BER, apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease enzymes repair the abasic sites that are generated after spontaneous DNA base loss or by the action of DNA glycosylases, which if left unrepaired lead to inhibition of replication and transcription. However, the role of AP endonucleases in imparting protection against DNA damage and in the growth and pathogenesis of M.tuberculosis has not yet been elucidated. To demonstrate the biological significance of these enzymes in M.tuberculosis, it would be desirable to disrupt the relevant genes and evaluate the resulting mutants for their ability to grow in the host and cause disease. In this study, we have generated M.tuberculosis mutants of the base excision repair (BER) system, disrupted in either one (MtbΔend or MtbΔxthA) or both the AP endonucleases (MtbΔendΔxthA). We demonstrate that these genes are crucial for bacteria to withstand alkylation and oxidative stress in vitro. In addition, the mutant disrupted in both the AP endonucleases (MtbΔendΔxthA) exhibited a significant reduction in its ability to survive inside human macrophages. However, infection of guinea pigs with either MtbΔend or MtbΔxthA or MtbΔendΔxthA resulted in the similar bacillary load and pathological damage in the organs as observed in the case of infection with wild-type M.tuberculosis. The implications of these observations are discussed. PMID:24800740

  19. Therapeutic inhibition of TRF1 impairs the growth of p53-deficient K-RasG12V-induced lung cancer by induction of telomeric DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    García-Beccaria, María; Martínez, Paula; Méndez-Pertuz, Marinela; Martínez, Sonia; Blanco-Aparicio, Carmen; Cañamero, Marta; Mulero, Francisca; Ambrogio, Chiara; Flores, Juana M; Megias, Diego; Barbacid, Mariano; Pastor, Joaquín; Blasco, Maria A

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres are considered anti-cancer targets, as telomere maintenance above a minimum length is necessary for cancer growth. Telomerase abrogation in cancer-prone mouse models, however, only decreased tumor growth after several mouse generations when telomeres reach a critically short length, and this effect was lost upon p53 mutation. Here, we address whether induction of telomere uncapping by inhibition of the TRF1 shelterin protein can effectively block cancer growth independently of telomere length. We show that genetic Trf1 ablation impairs the growth of p53-null K-RasG12V-induced lung carcinomas and increases mouse survival independently of telomere length. This is accompanied by induction of telomeric DNA damage, apoptosis, decreased proliferation, and G2 arrest. Long-term whole-body Trf1 deletion in adult mice did not impact on mouse survival and viability, although some mice showed a moderately decreased cellularity in bone marrow and blood. Importantly, inhibition of TRF1 binding to telomeres by small molecules blocks the growth of already established lung carcinomas without affecting mouse survival or tissue function. Thus, induction of acute telomere uncapping emerges as a potential new therapeutic target for lung cancer. PMID:25971796

  20. Wavelength and pulselength dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in doubler-cut KH2PO4

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J J; Bruere, J R; Bolourchi, M; Carr, C W; Feit, M D; Hackel, R P; Hahn, D E; Jarboe, J A; Lane, L A; Luthi, R L; McElroy, J N; Rubenchik, A M; Stanley, J R; Sell, W D; Vickers, J L; Weiland, T L; Willard, D A

    2005-10-28

    An experimental technique has been utilized to measure the variation of bulk damage scatter with damaging fluence in plates of KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} (KDP) crystals. Bulk damage in unconditioned and laser-conditioned doubler-cut KDP crystals has been studied using 527 nm (2{omega}) light at pulselengths of 0.3-10 ns. It is found that there is less scatter due to damage at fixed fluence for longer pulselengths. In particular, there is {approx}4X increase in fluence for equivalent scatter for damage at 2{omega}, 10 ns as compared to 0.30 ns in unconditioned KDP. The results for the unconditioned and conditioned KDP show that for all the pulselengths the scatter due to the bulk damage is a strong function of the damaging fluence ({phi}{sup -5}). It is determined that the 2{omega} fluence pulselength-scaling for equivalent bulk damage scatter in unconditioned KDP varies as {tau}{sup 0.30{+-}0.11} and in 3{omega}, 3ns ramp-conditioned KDP varies as {tau}{sup 0.27{+-}0.14}. The effectiveness of 2{omega} and 3{omega} laser conditioning at pulselengths in the range of 0.30-23 ns for damage induced 2{omega}, 3 ns is analyzed in terms of scatter. For the protocols tested (i.e. peak conditioning irradiance, etc.), the 3{omega}, 300 ps conditioning to a peak fluence of 3 J/cm{sup 2} had the best performance under 2{omega}, 3 ns testing. The general trend in the performance of the conditioning protocols was shorter wavelength and shorter pulselength appear to produce better conditioning for testing at 2{omega}, 3 ns.

  1. A void nucleation and growth based damage framework to model failure initiation ahead of a sharp notch in irradiated bcc materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, Anirban; McDowell, David L.

    2015-01-01

    A continuum damage framework is developed and coupled with an existing crystal plasticity framework, to model failure initiation in irradiated bcc polycrystalline materials at intermediate temperatures. Constitutive equations for vacancy generation due to inelastic deformation, void nucleation due to vacancy condensation, and diffusion-assisted void growth are developed. The framework is used to simulate failure initiation at dislocation channel interfaces and grain boundaries ahead of a sharp notch. Evolution of the microstructure is considered in terms of the evolution of inelastic deformation, vacancy concentration, and void number density and radius. Evolution of the damage, i.e., volume fraction of the voids, is studied as a function of applied deformation. Effects of strain rate and temperature on failure initiation are also studied. The framework is used to compute the fracture toughness of irradiated specimens for various loading histories and notch geometries. Crack growth resistance of the irradiated specimens are computed and compared to that of virgin specimens. Results are compared to available experimental data.

  2. Initiation and growth of multiple-site damage in the riveted lap joint of a curved stiffened fuselage panel: An experimental and analytical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Abubaker Ali

    As part of the structural integrity research of the National Aging Aircraft Research Program, a comprehensive study on multiple-site damage (MSD) initiation and growth in a pristine lap-joint fuselage panel has been conducted. The curved stiffened fuselage panel was tested at the Full-Scale Aircraft Structural Test Evaluation and Research (FASTER) facility located at the Federal Aviation Administration William J. Hughes Technical Center. A strain survey test was conducted to verify proper load application. The panel was then subjected to a fatigue test with constant-amplitude cyclic loading. The applied loading spectrum included underload marker cycles so that crack growth history could be reconstructed from post-test fractographic examinations. Crack formation and growth were monitored via nondestructive and high-magnification visual inspections. Strain gage measurements recorded during the strain survey tests indicated that the inner surface of the skin along the upper rivet row of the lap joint experienced high tensile stresses due to local bending. During the fatigue loading, cracks were detected by eddy-current inspections at multiple rivet holes along the upper rivet row. Through-thickness cracks were detected visually after about 80% of the fatigue life. Once MSD cracks from two adjacent rivet holes linked up, there was a quick deterioration in the structural integrity of the lap joint. The linkup resulted in a 2.87" (72.9-mm) lead fatigue crack that rapidly propagated across 12 rivet holes and crossed over into the next skin bay, at which stage the fatigue test was terminated. A post-fatigue residual strength test was then conducted by loading the panel quasi-statically up to final failure. The panel failed catastrophically when the crack extended instantaneously across three additional bays. Post-test fractographic examinations of the fracture surfaces in the lap joint of the fuselage panel were conducted to characterize subsurface crack initiation and

  3. Investigations on the SR method growth, etching, birefringence, laser damage threshold and dielectric characterization of sodium acid phthalate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil, A.; Ramasamy, P.; Verma, Sunil

    2011-03-01

    Optically good quality semi-organic single crystal of sodium acid phthalate (NaAP) was successfully grown by Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy (SR) method. Transparent, colourless <0 0 1> oriented unidirectional bulk single crystals of diameters 10 and 20 mm and length maximum up to 75 mm were grown by the SR method. The grown crystals were subjected to various characterization studies such as etching, birefringence, laser damage threshold, UV-vis spectrum and dielectric measurement. The value of birefringence and quality were ascertained by birefringence studies.

  4. Melatonin Protects Human Cells from Clustered DNA Damages, Killing and Acquisition of Soft Agar Growth Induced by X-rays or 970 MeV/n Fe ions

    SciTech Connect

    Das, B.; Sutherland, B.; Bennett, P. V.; Cutter, N. C.; Sutherland, J. C.

    2011-06-01

    We tested the ability of melatonin (N-acetyl-5 methoxytryptamine), a highly effective radical scavenger and human hormone, to protect DNA in solution and in human cells against induction of complex DNA clusters and biological damage induced by low or high linear energy transfer radiation (100 kVp X-rays, 970 MeV/nucleon Fe ions). Plasmid DNA in solution was treated with increasing concentrations of melatonin (0.0-3.5 mM) and were irradiated with X-rays. Human cells (28SC monocytes) were also irradiated with X-rays and Fe ions with and without 2 mM melatonin. Agarose plugs containing genomic DNA were subjected to Contour Clamped Homogeneous Electrophoretic Field (CHEF) followed by imaging and clustered DNA damages were measured by using Number Average length analysis. Transformation experiments on human primary fibroblast cells using soft agar colony assay were carried out which were irradiated with Fe ions with or without 2 mM melatonin. In plasmid DNA in solution, melatonin reduced the induction of single- and double-strand breaks. Pretreatment of human 28SC cells for 24 h before irradiation with 2 mM melatonin reduced the level of X-ray induced double-strand breaks by {approx}50%, of abasic clustered damages about 40%, and of Fe ion-induced double-strand breaks (41% reduction) and abasic clusters (34% reduction). It decreased transformation to soft agar growth of human primary cells by a factor of 10, but reduced killing by Fe ions only by 20-40%. Melatonin's effective reduction of radiation-induced critical DNA damages, cell killing, and striking decrease of transformation suggest that it is an excellent candidate as a countermeasure against radiation exposure, including radiation exposure to astronaut crews in space travel.

  5. Growth of ADP-KDP mixed crystal and its optical, mechanical, dielectric, piezoelectric and laser damage threshold studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh, P.; Ramasamy, P.; Bhagavannarayana, G.

    2013-01-01

    Good quality ADP-KDP mixed crystal (90:10) is grown by slow cooling method. The size of the grown crystal is 80×10×10 mm3. The mounted seed size was 5×10×10 mm3 and the crystal was grown along the 'c' axis. HRXRD studies have been done in the near and far regions of the seed crystal. The FWHM of these diffraction curves are 28 and 29 arcsec, which are almost the same. The close values of FWHM of both the specimens indicate that the quality of the crystal remains nearly the same throughout the crystal. 80% of transparency is observed from the UV-vis studies in the entire visible region. Vickers hardness studies indicate that the mixed crystal is mechanically more stable compared to the ADP. Higher piezoelectric coefficient is observed in mixed crystals. Dielectric measurements are carried out. From the laser damage threshold studies, it is observed that higher energy is required to damage the mixed crystal and it indicates that the laser stability of the mixed crystal is high.

  6. Bt-Cry3Aa expression reduces insect damage and improves growth in field-grown hybrid poplar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated growth and insect resistance in hybrid poplar expressing the cry3Aa gene in two field trials. An initial screening of 502 trees comprising 51 transgenic gene insertion events in four clonal backgrounds (Populus trichocarpa x P. deltoides, clones 24-305, 50-197, and 198-434; and P. d...

  7. Unidirectional growth of potassium hydrogen malate single crystals and its characterizations on optical, mechanical, dielectric, laser damage threshold studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boopathi, K.; Rajesh, P.; Ramasamy, P.

    2013-02-01

    Single crystals of potassium hydrogen malate (PHM) were successfully grown by Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy (SR) method and conventional slow evaporation solution technique which have the sizes of 35 mm in length, 20 mm in diameter and 15 × 10 × 3 mm3 respectively. The grown PHM crystals have been subjected to single crystal X-ray diffractometer, UV-Vis NIR studies, dielectric measurements, Vickers microhardness analysis and Laser damage threshold. The range and percentage of optical transmission is represented by recording UV-Vis-NIR analysis. The dielectric constant and loss measurement was made as function of temperature in the range of 40-150°C. Mechanical strength and laser stability of the SR method grown crystals was higher than the conventional method grown crystal.

  8. Phytotoxicity assessment on corn stover biochar, derived from fast pyrolysis, based on seed germination, early growth, and potential plant cell damage.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Shen, Fei; Guo, Haiyan; Wang, Zhanghong; Yang, Gang; Wang, Lilin; Zhang, Yanzong; Zeng, Yongmei; Deng, Shihuai

    2015-06-01

    The potential phytotoxicity of water extractable toxicants in a typical corn stover biochar, the product of fast pyrolysis, was investigated using an aqueous biochar extract on a soil-less bioassay with tomato plants. The biochar dosage of 0.0-16.0 g beaker(-1) resulted in an inverted U-shaped dose-response relationship between biochar doasage and seed germination/seedling growth. This indicated that tomato growth was slightly stimulated by low dosages of biochar and inhibited with higher dosages of biochar. Additionally, antioxidant enzyme activities in the roots and leaves were enhanced at lower dosages, but rapidly decreased with higher dosages of biochar. With the increased dosages of biochar, the malondialdehyde content in the roots and leaves increased, in addition with the observed morphology of necrotic root cells, suggesting that serious damage to tomato seedlings occurred. EC50 of root length inhibition occurred with biochar dosages of 9.2 g beaker(-1) (3.5th day) and 16.7 g beaker(-1) (11th day) (equivalent to 82.8 and 150.3 t ha(-1), respectively), which implied that toxicity to the early growth of tomato can potentially be alleviated as the plant grows. PMID:25628114

  9. Venlafaxine treatment after endothelin-1-induced cortical stroke modulates growth factor expression and reduces tissue damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Zepeda, Rodrigo; Contreras, Valentina; Pissani, Claudia; Stack, Katherine; Vargas, Macarena; Owen, Gareth I; Lazo, Oscar M; Bronfman, Francisca C

    2016-08-01

    Neuromodulators, such as antidepressants, may contribute to neuroprotection by modulating growth factor expression to exert anti-inflammatory effects and to support neuronal plasticity after stroke. Our objective was to study whether early treatment with venlafaxine, a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, modulates growth factor expression and positively contributes to reducing the volume of infarcted brain tissue resulting in increased functional recovery. We studied the expression of BDNF, FGF2 and TGF-β1 by examining their mRNA and protein levels and cellular distribution using quantitative confocal microscopy at 5 days after venlafaxine treatment in control and infarcted brains. Venlafaxine treatment did not change the expression of these growth factors in sham rats. In infarcted rats, BDNF mRNA and protein levels were reduced, while the mRNA and protein levels of FGF2 and TGF-β1 were increased. Venlafaxine treatment potentiated all of the changes that were induced by cortical stroke alone. In particular, increased levels of FGF2 and TGF-β1 were observed in astrocytes at 5 days after stroke induction, and these increases were correlated with decreased astrogliosis (measured by GFAP) and increased synaptophysin immunostaining at twenty-one days after stroke in venlafaxine-treated rats. Finally, we show that venlafaxine reduced infarct volume after stroke resulting in increased functional recovery, which was measured using ladder rung motor tests, at 21 days after stroke. Our results indicate that the early oral administration of venlafaxine positively contributes to neuroprotection during the acute and late events that follow stroke. PMID:26965219

  10. Unveiling laser diode “fossil” and the dynamic analysis for heliotropic growth of catastrophic optical damage in high power laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiang; Xiong, Yihan; An, Haiyan; Boucke, Konstantin; Treusch, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Taking advantage of robust facet passivation, we unveil a laser “fossil” buried within a broad area laser diode (LD) cavity when the LD was damaged by applying a high current. For the first time, novel physical phenomena have been observed at these dramatically elevated energy densities within the nanoscale LD waveguide. The observation of the laser “fossil” is interpreted with different mechanisms, including: the origination of bulk catastrophic optical damage (COD) due to locally high energy densities, heliotropic COD growth, solid-liquid-gas phase transformations, strong longitudinal phonon cooling effect on the molten COD wave front, and the formation of patterns due to laser lateral modes. For the first time the COD propagation is analyzed temporally by an acoustic phonon bouncing model and the COD velocity is extrapolated to be exponentially decreasing from more than 800 μm/μs to a few μm/μs within a 20 μs time period as the energy density dissipates.

  11. Unveiling laser diode “fossil” and the dynamic analysis for heliotropic growth of catastrophic optical damage in high power laser diodes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiang; Xiong, Yihan; An, Haiyan; Boucke, Konstantin; Treusch, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Taking advantage of robust facet passivation, we unveil a laser “fossil” buried within a broad area laser diode (LD) cavity when the LD was damaged by applying a high current. For the first time, novel physical phenomena have been observed at these dramatically elevated energy densities within the nanoscale LD waveguide. The observation of the laser “fossil” is interpreted with different mechanisms, including: the origination of bulk catastrophic optical damage (COD) due to locally high energy densities, heliotropic COD growth, solid-liquid-gas phase transformations, strong longitudinal phonon cooling effect on the molten COD wave front, and the formation of patterns due to laser lateral modes. For the first time the COD propagation is analyzed temporally by an acoustic phonon bouncing model and the COD velocity is extrapolated to be exponentially decreasing from more than 800 μm/μs to a few μm/μs within a 20 μs time period as the energy density dissipates. PMID:26740303

  12. Hypersensitivity of Ku80-deficient cell lines and mice to DNA damage: The effects of ionizing radiation on growth, survival, and development

    PubMed Central

    Nussenzweig, André; Sokol, Karen; Burgman, Paul; Li, Ligeng; Li, Gloria C.

    1997-01-01

    We recently have shown that mice deficient for the 86-kDa component (Ku80) of the DNA-dependent protein kinase exhibit growth retardation and a profound deficiency in V(D)J (variable, diversity, and joining) recombination. These defects may be related to abnormalities in DNA metabolism that arise from the inability of Ku80 mutant cells to process DNA double-strand breaks. To further characterize the role of Ku80 in DNA double-strand break repair, we have generated embryonic stem cells and pre-B cells and examined their response to ionizing radiation. Ku80−/− embryonic stem cells are more sensitive than controls to γ-irradiation, and pre-B cells derived from Ku80 mutant mice display enhanced spontaneous and γ-ray-induced apoptosis. We then determined the effects of ionizing radiation on the survival, growth, and lymphocyte development in Ku80-deficient mice. Ku80−/− mice display a hypersensitivity to γ-irradiation, characterized by loss of hair pigmentation, severe injury to the gastrointestinal tract, and enhanced mortality. Exposure of newborn Ku80−/− mice to sublethal doses of ionizing radiation enhances their growth retardation and results in the induction of T cell-specific differentiation. However, unlike severe combined immunodeficient mice, radiation-induced T cell development in Ku80−/− mice is not accompanied by extensive thymocyte proliferation. The response of Ku80-deficient cell lines and mice to DNA-damaging agents provides important insights into the role of Ku80 in growth regulation, lymphocyte development, and DNA repair. PMID:9391070

  13. Hypersensitivity of Ku80-deficient cell lines and mice to DNA damage: the effects of ionizing radiation on growth, survival, and development.

    PubMed

    Nussenzweig, A; Sokol, K; Burgman, P; Li, L; Li, G C

    1997-12-01

    We recently have shown that mice deficient for the 86-kDa component (Ku80) of the DNA-dependent protein kinase exhibit growth retardation and a profound deficiency in V(D)J (variable, diversity, and joining) recombination. These defects may be related to abnormalities in DNA metabolism that arise from the inability of Ku80 mutant cells to process DNA double-strand breaks. To further characterize the role of Ku80 in DNA double-strand break repair, we have generated embryonic stem cells and pre-B cells and examined their response to ionizing radiation. Ku80(-/-) embryonic stem cells are more sensitive than controls to gamma-irradiation, and pre-B cells derived from Ku80 mutant mice display enhanced spontaneous and gamma-ray-induced apoptosis. We then determined the effects of ionizing radiation on the survival, growth, and lymphocyte development in Ku80-deficient mice. Ku80(-/-) mice display a hypersensitivity to gamma-irradiation, characterized by loss of hair pigmentation, severe injury to the gastrointestinal tract, and enhanced mortality. Exposure of newborn Ku80(-/-) mice to sublethal doses of ionizing radiation enhances their growth retardation and results in the induction of T cell-specific differentiation. However, unlike severe combined immunodeficient mice, radiation-induced T cell development in Ku80(-/-) mice is not accompanied by extensive thymocyte proliferation. The response of Ku80-deficient cell lines and mice to DNA-damaging agents provides important insights into the role of Ku80 in growth regulation, lymphocyte development, and DNA repair. PMID:9391070

  14. Reduction of RIE induced damage of GaInAsP/InP DQW lasers fabricated by 2-step growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumwongrot, D.; Kurokawa, M.; Okumura, T.; Nishimoto, Y.; Maruyama, T.; Nishiyama, N.; Arai, S.

    2008-02-01

    In order to realize low damage fine structuring processes for the low-dimensional quantum structures, we investigated a process for reducing the degradations of optical properties, which was induced during a reactive-ion-etching (RIE) process with CH 4/H II gas mixture in the quantum-well (QW) structures. Quantitative studies of optical degradation were carried out by photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL) measurements. We introduced a thicker upper optical confinement layer (OCL) to protect the QWs from the RIE-plasma. In practical, for the PL measurement, twotypes of strain-compensated single-quantum-well (SC-SQW) structures were prepared for 40-nm-thick- and 80-nmthick- upper OCL wafers and covered by 20-nm-thick SiO II. After the samples were exposed to CH 4/H II-RIE for 5- minutes, a relatively stronger suppression of integral PL intensity as well as a spectral broadening was observed in the sample with 40-nm-thick OCL, while those did not change in the sample with 80-nm-thick OCL. For the EL measurements, using two types of SC-DQW structures, samples were exposed to CH 4/H II-RIE plasma for 5-minute and then re-grown for other layers to form high-mesa stripe laser structures (W s=1.5μm). As a result, the spontaneous emission efficiency of the lasers with 80-nm-thick OCL was almost 2 times higher than that of the lasers with 40-nmthick OCL. In addition, a lower threshold current as well as a higher differential quantum efficiency was obtained for the lasers with 80-nm-thick OCL , while that in lasers with 40-nm-thick OCL indicated poor efficiency and a slightly higher threshold.

  15. Early post-larval development of the endoparasitic platyhelminth Mesocestoides corti: trypsin provokes reversible tegumental damage leading to serum-induced cell proliferation and growth.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, I; Galindo, M; Bizarro, C V; Ferreira, H B; Zaha, A; Galanti, N

    2005-11-01

    Mesocestoides corti is a suitable in vitro model for studying the development of human endoparasitic platyhelminthes. Treatment with trypsin, supplemented with fetal bovine serum (FBS), induces M. corti development from larvae (tetrathyridia) to segmented adult worm; however, the role of this protease and of FBS in post-larval development induction remains unknown. To characterize the participation of trypsin enzymatic activity and of FBS in the induction of tetrathyridia growth and development, both stimuli were added to the larvae either together or sequentially. Additionally, specific inhibition of trypsin activity was also monitored. Finally, the effect of the enzyme on the parasite tegument as well as the proliferative activity and location of proliferating cells after induction of tetrathyridia development were also studied. We conclude that trypsin-induced tetrathyridia development to adult worm is FBS-dependent and that the effect of serum factors is dependent upon a previous trypsin-induced reversible damage to the larva tegument. In dividing and non-dividing tetrathyridia, proliferative activity of cells is mainly located within the apical massif in the anterior region and nerve cords of larvae, respectively. In tetrathyridia stimulated to develop to adult worms, an intense proliferative activity is evident along the nerve cords. Our results suggest that in natural infections the tetrathyridia tegument is temporally made permeable to growth factors by proteolytic enzyme activity in the intestine juice of the definitive host, thus leading to development to adult worms. PMID:15887242

  16. Antitransforming growth factor-{beta} antibody 1D11 ameliorates normal tissue damage caused by high-dose radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Anscher, Mitchell S. . E-mail: ansch001@notes.duke.edu; Thrasher, Bradley; Rabbani, Zahid; Teicher, Beverly; Vujaskovic, Zeljko

    2006-07-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to determine whether a neutralizing transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF{beta}) antibody can prevent radiation (RT) induced lung injury. Methods and Materials Fractionated and sham right lung irradiation in Fischer 344 rats was delivered to assess the radioprotective effect of the antibodies. Animals were divided into the following groups: (1) control (sham RT, control antibody 13C4); (2) RT (800cGy x 5)+13C4); (3) RT + 0.1 mg/kg 1D11 anti-TGF{beta} antibody; and (4) RT + 1 mg/kg 1D11 antibody. Antibodies were intraperitoneally administered immediately after the last fraction of RT. Animals were sacrificed at 6 and 26 weeks after irradiation. Lungs were assessed for histologic changes, activation of macrophages, expression/activation of TGF{beta} and its signal transduction pathway. Results At 6 weeks post-RT, there was a significant reduction in macrophage accumulation (p = 0.041), alveolar wall thickness (p = 0.0003), and TGF-{beta} activation (p = 0.032) in animals receiving 1.0 mg/kg 1D11 vs. in the control group. However, at 6 weeks, the low dose of 1D11 antibody (0.1 mg/kg) failed to produce any significant changes. At 6 months post-RT, radioprotection is apparent for the group receiving 1.0 mg/kg 1D11, with activated macrophages (p = 0.037), alveolar wall thickness (p = 0.0002), TGF{beta} activation (p = 0.002) and its signal transduction proteins (p < 0.05) compared with the control group. Conclusions Administration of a single dose of 1.0 mg/kg of the anti-TGF{beta} antibody 1D11 resulted in decreased morphologic changes, inflammatory response, and reduced expression and activation of TGF{beta} 6 weeks and 6 months after 40 Gy to the right hemithorax. Targeting the TGF{beta} pathway may be a useful strategy to prevent radiation-induced lung injury.

  17. The Prevention of Diabetic Cardiomyopathy by Non-Mitogenic Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor Is Probably Mediated by the Suppression of Oxidative Stress and Damage

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Linbo; Chen, Shali; Feng, Biao; Lu, Xuemian; Bai, Yang; Liang, Guang; Tan, Yi; Shao, Minglong; Skibba, Melissa; Jin, Litai; Li, Xiaokun; Chakrabarti, Subrata; Cai, Lu

    2013-01-01

    Background Emerging evidence showed the beneficial effect of acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) on heart diseases. The present study investigated whether non-mitogenic aFGF (nm-aFGF) can prevent diabetic cardiomyopathy and the underlying mechanisms, if any. Methodology/Principal Findings Type 1 diabetes was induced in mice by multiple intraperitoneal injections of low-dose streptozotocin. Hyperglycemic and age-matched control mice were treated with or without nm-aFGF at 10 µg/kg daily for 1 and 6 months. Blood pressure and cardiac function were assessed. Cardiac H9c2 cell, human microvascular endothelial cells, and rat cardiomyocytes were exposed to high glucose (25 mM) for mimicking an in vitro diabetic condition for mechanistic studies. Oxidative stress, DNA damage, cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis were assessed by real-time qPCR, immunofluorescent staining, Western blotting, and pathological examination. Nm-aFGF significantly prevented diabetes-induced hypertension and cardiac dysfunction at 6 months. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that nm-aFGF showed the similar preventive effect as the native aFGF on high glucose-induced oxidative stress (increase generation of reactive oxygen species) and damage (cellular DNA oxidation), cell hypertrophy, and fibrotic response (increased mRNA expression of fibronectin) in three kinds of cells. These in vitro findings were recaptured by examining the heart of the diabetic mice with and without nm-aFGF. Conclusions These results suggest that nm-aFGF can prevent diabetic cardiomyopathy, probably through attenuation of cardiac oxidative stress, hypertrophy, and fibrosis. PMID:24349248

  18. Direct hippocampal injection of pseudo lentivirus-delivered nerve growth factor gene rescues the damaged cognitive function after traumatic brain injury in the rat.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yong; Wan, Jie-qing; Gao, Guo-yi; Pan, Yao-hua; Ding, Sheng-hao; Fan, Yi-ling; Wang, Yong; Jiang, Ji-yao

    2015-11-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) treatment is a long-term process and requires repeated medicine administration, which, however, can cause high expense, infection, and hemorrhage to patients. To investigate how a long-term expression of nerve growth factor (Ngf) gene affects the injured hippocampus function post-TBI, in this study, a pseudo lentivirus carrying the β-Ngf fusion gene, with green fluorescence protein (GFP) gene, was constructed to show the gene expression and its ability of protecting cells from oxidative damage in vitro. Then, the pseudo lentivirus-carried β-Ngf fusion gene was directly injected into the injured brain to evaluate its influence on the injured hippocampus function post-TBI in vivo. We found that the expression of the pseudo lentivirus-delivered β-Ngf fusion gene lasted more than four-week after the cell transduction and the encoded β-NGF fusion protein could induce the neuron-like PC12 cell differentiation. Moreover, the hippocampal injection of the pseudo lentivirus-carried β-Ngf fusion gene sped the injured cognitive function recovery of the rat subjected to TBI. Together, our findings indicate that the long-term expression of the β-Ngf fusion gene, delivered by the pseudo lentivirus, can promote the neurite outgrowth of the neuron-like cells and protect the cells from the oxidative damage in vitro, and that the direct and single dose hippocampal injection of the pseudo lentivirus-carried β-Ngf fusion gene is able to rescue the hippocampus function after the TBI in the rat. PMID:26285082

  19. Long-Term Effects of Liming on Health and Growth of a Masson Pine Stand Damaged by Soil Acidification in Chongqing, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiyong; Wang, Yanhui; Liu, Yuan; Guo, Hao; Li, Tao; Li, Zhen-Hua; Shi, Guoan

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, the Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) forests in Chongqing, southwest China, have increasingly declined. Soil acidification was believed to be an important cause. Liming is widely used as a measure to alleviate soil acidification and its damage to trees, but little is known about long-term effects of liming on the health and growth of declining Masson pine forests. Soil chemical properties, health condition (defoliation and discoloration), and growth were evaluated following application of limestone powder (0 (unlimed control), 1, 2, 3, and 4 t ha−1) in an acidified and declining Masson pine stand at Tieshanping (TSP) of Chongqing. Eight years after liming, in the 0–20 cm and 20–40 cm mineral soil layers, soil pH values, exchangeable calcium (Ca) contents, and Ca/Al molar ratios increased, but exchangeable aluminum (Al) levels decreased, and as a result, length densities of living fine roots of Masson pine increased, with increasing dose. Mean crown defoliation of Masson pines (dominant, codominant and subdominant pines, according to Kraft classes 1–3) decreased with increasing dose, and it linearly decreased with length densities of living fine roots. However, Masson pines (Kraft classes 1–3) in all treatments showed no symptoms of discoloration. Mean current-year twig length, twig dry weight, needle number per twig, needle length per twig, and needle dry weight per twig increased with increasing dose. Over 8 years, mean height increment of Masson pines (Kraft classes 1–3) increased from 5.5 m in the control to 5.8, 6.9, 8.3, and 9.5 m in the 1, 2, 3, and 4 t ha−1 lime treatments, and their mean DBH (diameter at breast height) increment increased from 3.1 to 3.2, 3.8, 4.9, and 6.2 cm, respectively. The values of all aboveground growth parameters linearly increased with length densities of living fine roots. Our results show that liming improved tree health and growth, and these effects increased with increasing dose. PMID:24728089

  20. Long-term effects of liming on health and growth of a Masson pine stand damaged by soil acidification in Chongqing, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiyong; Wang, Yanhui; Liu, Yuan; Guo, Hao; Li, Tao; Li, Zhen-Hua; Shi, Guoan

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, the Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) forests in Chongqing, southwest China, have increasingly declined. Soil acidification was believed to be an important cause. Liming is widely used as a measure to alleviate soil acidification and its damage to trees, but little is known about long-term effects of liming on the health and growth of declining Masson pine forests. Soil chemical properties, health condition (defoliation and discoloration), and growth were evaluated following application of limestone powder (0 (unlimed control), 1, 2, 3, and 4 t ha(-1)) in an acidified and declining Masson pine stand at Tieshanping (TSP) of Chongqing. Eight years after liming, in the 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm mineral soil layers, soil pH values, exchangeable calcium (Ca) contents, and Ca/Al molar ratios increased, but exchangeable aluminum (Al) levels decreased, and as a result, length densities of living fine roots of Masson pine increased, with increasing dose. Mean crown defoliation of Masson pines (dominant, codominant and subdominant pines, according to Kraft classes 1-3) decreased with increasing dose, and it linearly decreased with length densities of living fine roots. However, Masson pines (Kraft classes 1-3) in all treatments showed no symptoms of discoloration. Mean current-year twig length, twig dry weight, needle number per twig, needle length per twig, and needle dry weight per twig increased with increasing dose. Over 8 years, mean height increment of Masson pines (Kraft classes 1-3) increased from 5.5 m in the control to 5.8, 6.9, 8.3, and 9.5 m in the 1, 2, 3, and 4 t ha(-1) lime treatments, and their mean DBH (diameter at breast height) increment increased from 3.1 to 3.2, 3.8, 4.9, and 6.2 cm, respectively. The values of all aboveground growth parameters linearly increased with length densities of living fine roots. Our results show that liming improved tree health and growth, and these effects increased with increasing dose. PMID:24728089

  1. Interactive effects of herbicide and enhanced UV-B on growth, oxidative damage and the ascorbate-glutathione cycle in two Azolla species.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Sheo Mohan; Kumar, Sushil; Parihar, Parul; Singh, Rachana

    2016-11-01

    A field experiment was conducted to investigate the impact of alone and combined exposures of herbicide pretilachlor (5, 10 and 20μgml(-1)) and enhanced UV-B radiation (UV-B1; ambient +2.2kJm(-2) day(-1) and UV-B2; ambient +4.4kJm(-2) day(-1)) on growth, oxidative stress and the ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle in two agronomically important Azolla spp. viz., Azolla microphylla and Azolla pinnata. Decreased relative growth rate (RGR) in both the species under tested stress could be linked to enhanced oxidative stress, thus higher H2O2 accumulation was observed, that in turn might have caused severe damage to lipids and proteins, thereby decreasing membrane stability. The effects were exacerbated when spp. were exposed to combined treatments of enhanced UV-B and pretilachlor. Detoxification of H2O2 is regulated by enzymes/metabolites of AsA-GSH cycle such as ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) activity that were found to be stimulated. While, dehydroascorabte reductase (DHAR) activity, and the amount of metabolites: ascorbate (AsA), glutathione (GSH) and ratios of reduced/oxidized AsA (AsA/DHA) and GSH (GSH/GSSG), showed significant reduction with increasing doses of both the stressors, either applied alone or in combination. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST), an enzyme involved in scavenging of xenobiotics, was found to be stimulated under the tested stress. This study suggests that decline in DHAR activity and in AsA/DHA ratio might have led to enhanced H2O2 accumulation, thus decreased RGR was noticed under tested stress in both the species and the effect was more pronounced in A. pinnata. Owing to better performance of AsA-GSH cycle in A. microphylla, this study substantiates the view that A. microphylla is more tolerant than A. pinnata. PMID:27497078

  2. The ascidian natural product eusynstyelamide B is a novel topoisomerase II poison that induces DNA damage and growth arrest in prostate and breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Liberio, Michelle S.; Sadowski, Martin C.; Davis, Rohan A.; Rockstroh, Anja; Vasireddy, Raj; Lehman, Melanie L.; Nelson, Colleen C.

    2015-01-01

    As part of an anti-cancer natural product drug discovery program, we recently identified eusynstyelamide B (EB), which displayed cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells (IC50 = 5 μM) and induced apoptosis. Here, we investigated the mechanism of action of EB in cancer cell lines of the prostate (LNCaP) and breast (MDA-MB-231). EB inhibited cell growth (IC50 = 5 μM) and induced a G2 cell cycle arrest, as shown by a significant increase in the G2/M cell population in the absence of elevated levels of the mitotic marker phospho-histone H3. In contrast to MDA-MB-231 cells, EB did not induce cell death in LNCaP cells when treated for up to 10 days. Transcript profiling and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis suggested that EB activated DNA damage pathways in LNCaP cells. Consistent with this, CHK2 phosphorylation was increased, p21CIP1/WAF1 was up-regulated and CDC2 expression strongly reduced by EB. Importantly, EB caused DNA double-strand breaks, yet did not directly interact with DNA. Analysis of topoisomerase II-mediated decatenation discovered that EB is a novel topoisomerase II poison. PMID:26733491

  3. Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waag, Andreas

    This chapter is devoted to the growth of ZnO. It starts with various techniques to grow bulk samples and presents in some detail the growth of epitaxial layers by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), and pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The last section is devoted to the growth of nanorods. Some properties of the resulting samples are also presented. If a comparison between GaN and ZnO is made, very often the huge variety of different growth techniques available to fabricate ZnO is said to be an advantage of this material system. Indeed, growth techniques range from low cost wet chemical growth at almost room temperature to high quality MOCVD growth at temperatures above 1, 000∘C. In most cases, there is a very strong tendency of c-axis oriented growth, with a much higher growth rate in c-direction as compared to other crystal directions. This often leads to columnar structures, even at relatively low temperatures. However, it is, in general, not straight forward to fabricate smooth ZnO thin films with flat surfaces. Another advantage of a potential ZnO technology is said to be the possibility to grow thin films homoepitaxially on ZnO substrates. ZnO substrates are mostly fabricated by vapor phase transport (VPT) or hydrothermal growth. These techniques are enabling high volume manufacturing at reasonable cost, at least in principle. The availability of homoepitaxial substrates should be beneficial to the development of ZnO technology and devices and is in contrast to the situation of GaN. However, even though a number of companies are developing ZnO substrates, only recently good quality substrates have been demonstrated. However, these substrates are not yet widely available. Still, the situation concerning ZnO substrates seems to be far from low-cost, high-volume production. The fabrication of dense, single crystal thin films is, in general, surprisingly difficult, even when ZnO is grown on a ZnO substrate. However

  4. Growth, haematology, blood constituents and immunological status of lambs fed graded levels of animal feed grade damaged wheat as substitute of maize.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, M K; Mondal, D; Karim, S A

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore possibilities of utilization of animal feed grade damaged wheat (ADW) in lamb feeding, and assess the effect of ADW and its aflatoxin on intake, growth, haematology, blood biochemical constituents and immunological status. The ADW is a slightly mouldy feed resource, which is not suitable for human consumption. The experimental ADW contained dry matter (DM) 964, organic matter 974, crude protein 153, cellulose 205 and lignin 24, and starch 732 g/kg DM. ADW also contained aflatoxin B1 50 microg/kg due to mould infestation. Thirty-five weaner lambs (90 +/- 15 days of age and 16.1 +/- 0.82 kg body weight) in a randomized design were fed for 91 days on one of four composite feed mixtures (roughage to concentrate ratio of 25:75) containing 0, 118, 235, 353 or 470 g/kg ADW, which replaced equal amounts of maize and at these inclusion levels ADW replaced 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% maize in lamb diets respectively. Dry matter intake (DMI) was similar in different level of ADW fed lambs but ADW inclusion linearly (p = 0.016) reduced DMI. Average daily gain (g/day) was higher (p = 0.038) in lambs fed 353 g ADW diet. Haematological attributes viz. WBC, haemoglobin (Hb) and mean corpuscular volume did not affect by ADW feeding whereas it increased haematocrit, mean cell Hb and decreased neutrophil, RBC counts and mean cell Hb concentration. Blood glucose and urea-N increased whereas albumin and protein level reduced by ADW feeding. ADW feeding of lambs did not affect serum IgG level. The activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphates and acid phosphates were not affected, whereas alanine aminotransferase increased linearly (p = 0.001) with increasing levels of ADW. It is concluded that ADW containing aflatoxin B1 50 microg/kg DM can safely be incorporated in growing lamb feeding up to 353 g/kg diet without affecting growth and cellular immunity, however ADW may induce a transient alteration of hepatic enzymatic

  5. Method for producing damage resistant optics

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Burnham, Alan K.; Penetrante, Bernardino M.; Brusasco, Raymond M.; Wegner, Paul J.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Kozlowski, Mark R.; Feit, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention provides a system that mitigates the growth of surface damage in an optic. Damage to the optic is minimally initiated. In an embodiment of the invention, damage sites in the optic are initiated, located, and then treated to stop the growth of the damage sites. The step of initiating damage sites in the optic includes a scan of the optic using a laser to initiate defects. The exact positions of the initiated sites are identified. A mitigation process is performed that locally or globally removes the cause of subsequent growth of the damaged sites.

  6. Improved optical and electrical properties of rf sputtered Al doped ZnO films on polymer substrates by low-damage processes

    SciTech Connect

    Min, Hyung Seob; Yang, Min Kyu; Lee, Jeon-Kook

    2009-03-15

    Three types of low-damage radio-frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering processes--an interruptive process, a rotating cylindrical holder method, and an off-axis sputtering method--were designed and studied to reduce the film surface temperature during deposition. Low-damage sputtering processes were investigated to improve the resistivity and optical transmittance in the visible range of Al doped ZnO (AZO) thin films deposited on polymer substrates. In the case of the polyethersulfone substrate, AZO films with a resistivity of 1.0x10{sup -3} {omega} cm and an optical transmittance of 75% were obtained by the rotating repeat holder method during rf sputtering.

  7. Attenuation of the DNA Damage Response by Transforming Growth Factor-Beta Inhibitors Enhances Radiation Sensitivity of Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer Cells In Vitro and In Vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Shisuo; Bouquet, Sophie; Lo, Chen-Hao; Pellicciotta, Ilenia; Bolourchi, Shiva; Parry, Renate; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether transforming growth factor (TGF)-β inhibition increases the response to radiation therapy in human and mouse non–small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells in vitro and in vivo. Methods and Materials: TGF-β–mediated growth response and pathway activation were examined in human NSCLC NCI-H1299, NCI-H292, and A549 cell lines and murine Lewis lung cancer (LLC) cells. Cells were treated in vitro with LY364947, a small-molecule inhibitor of the TGF-β type 1 receptor kinase, or with the pan-isoform TGF-β neutralizing monoclonal antibody 1D11 before radiation exposure. The DNA damage response was assessed by ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) or Trp53 protein phosphorylation, γH2AX foci formation, or comet assay in irradiated cells. Radiation sensitivity was determined by clonogenic assay. Mice bearing syngeneic subcutaneous LLC tumors were treated with 5 fractions of 6 Gy and/or neutralizing or control antibody. Results: The NCI-H1299, A549, and LLC NSCLC cell lines pretreated with LY364947 before radiation exposure exhibited compromised DNA damage response, indicated by decreased ATM and p53 phosphorylation, reduced γH2AX foci, and increased radiosensitivity. The NCI-H292 cells were unresponsive. Transforming growth factor-β signaling inhibition in irradiated LLC cells resulted in unresolved DNA damage. Subcutaneous LLC tumors in mice treated with TGF-β neutralizing antibody exhibited fewer γH2AX foci after irradiation and significantly greater tumor growth delay in combination with fractionated radiation. Conclusions: Inhibition of TGF-β before radiation attenuated DNA damage recognition and increased radiosensitivity in most NSCLC cells in vitro and promoted radiation-induced tumor control in vivo. These data support the rationale for concurrent TGF-β inhibition and RT to provide therapeutic benefit in NSCLC.

  8. Regulated in Development and DNA Damage 1 Is Necessary for Hyperglycemia-induced Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression in the Retina of Diabetic Rodents*

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Michael D.; Kimball, Scot R.; Fort, Patrice E.; Jefferson, Leonard S.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is considered a major role player in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy, yet the mechanisms regulating its expression are not fully understood. Our laboratory previously demonstrated that diabetes-induced VEGF expression in the retina was dependent on the repressor of mRNA translation 4E-BP1. Interaction of 4E-BP1 with the cap-binding protein eIF4E regulates protein expression by controlling the selection of mRNAs for translation. The process is regulated by the master kinase mTOR in complex 1 (mTORC1), which phosphorylates 4E-BP1, thus promoting its disassociation from eIF4E. In the present study, we investigated the role of the Akt/mTORC1 repressor REDD1 (regulated in development and DNA damage) in diabetes-induced VEGF expression. REDD1 expression was induced by hyperglycemia in the retina of diabetic rodents and by hyperglycemic conditions in Müller cells concomitant with increased VEGF expression. In Müller cells, hyperglycemic conditions attenuated global rates of protein synthesis and cap-dependent mRNA translation concomitant with up-regulated cap-independent VEGF mRNA translation, as assessed by a bicistronic luciferase reporter assay. Hyperglycemic conditions also attenuated mTORC1 signaling and enhanced 4E-BP1 binding to eIF4E. Furthermore, ectopic expression of REDD1 in Müller cells was sufficient to promote both increased 4E-BP1 binding to eIF4E and VEGF expression. Whereas the retina of wild-type mice exhibited increased expression of VEGF and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) 4 weeks after streptozotocin administration, the retina of REDD1 knock-out mice failed to do so. Overall, the results demonstrate that REDD1 contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetes in the retina by mediating the pathogenic effects of hyperglycemia. PMID:25548280

  9. Investigation of Combined Action of Food Supplement's and Ionizing Radiation on the Cytogenetic Damage Induction and Ehrlich Ascite Carcinoma Growth on Mice in Vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokina, Svetlana; Zaichkina, Svetlana; Dyukina, Alsu; Rozanova, Olga; Balakin, Vladimir; Peleshko, Vladimir; Romanchenko, Sergey; Smirnova, Helena; Aptikaeva, Gella; Shemyakov, Alexander

    . The relation of the amount of the food supplement to the quantity of standard food was selected experimentally. In order to determine the level of radiosensitivity all groups of mice were subjected to X-radiation with the dose of 1,5 Gy and for induction of RAR the animals were irradiated according to the standard scheme (10 cGy+1,5 Gy). The influence of food supplement on the growth of solid tumor was estimated by measuring the size of the tumor at different times after the inoculation of ascitic cells s.c. into the femur. The percent of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) with micronucleus (MN) in marrow served as definition criteria of cytogenetic level of damage. The results of the study indicate that: 1) Due to influence of high-LET radiation with the dose of 11,6 Gy, mice who had dietary supplement demonstrated reduction of PCE with MN to the level of natural background radiation comparing with mice who had only standard food; 2) Diet containing soybeam, buckwheat or greens unlike cod-liver oil reduces the sensitivity of mice to X-radiation with the dose of 1,5 Gy and causes significant slowdown in growth of Ehrlich carcinoma; 3) The combined effect of high-LET radiation and the food supplements (except for cod-liver oil) reduces the sensitivity of mice to irradiation with the dose of 1,5 Gy, which demonstrate ability of RAR induction unlike the mice only irradiated with high-LET radiation and causes the slowdown in growth speed of Ehrlich carcinoma in contrast to the mice only irradiated with high-LET with the dose of 11,6 Gy; 4) The combined effect of high-LET radiation and the food supplements (except for cod-liver oil) does not influence the quantity of RAR according to the standard scheme (10 cGy+1,5 Gy).

  10. Mechanism of metformin action in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells involves oxidative stress generation, DNA damage, and transforming growth factor β1 induction.

    PubMed

    Marinello, Poliana Camila; da Silva, Thamara Nishida Xavier; Panis, Carolina; Neves, Amanda Fouto; Machado, Kaliana Larissa; Borges, Fernando Henrique; Guarnier, Flávia Alessandra; Bernardes, Sara Santos; de-Freitas-Junior, Júlio Cesar Madureira; Morgado-Díaz, José Andrés; Luiz, Rodrigo Cabral; Cecchini, Rubens; Cecchini, Alessandra Lourenço

    2016-04-01

    The participation of oxidative stress in the mechanism of metformin action in breast cancer remains unclear. We investigated the effects of clinical (6 and 30 μM) and experimental concentrations of metformin (1000 and 5000 μM) in MCF-7 and in MDA-MB-231 cells, verifying cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, DNA damage, and intracellular pathways related to cell growth and survival after 24 h of drug exposure. Clinical concentrations of metformin decreased metabolic activity of MCF-7 cells in the MTT assay, which showed increased oxidative stress and DNA damage, although cell death and impairment in the proliferative capacity were observed only at higher concentrations. The reduction in metabolic activity and proliferation in MDA-MB-231 cells was present only at experimental concentrations after 24 h of drug exposition. Oxidative stress and DNA damage were induced in this cell line at experimental concentrations. The drug decreased cytoplasmic extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and AKT and increased nuclear p53 and cytoplasmic transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) in both cell lines. These findings suggest that metformin reduces cell survival by increasing reactive oxygen species, which induce DNA damage and apoptosis. A relationship between the increase in TGF-β1 and p53 levels and the decrease in ERK1/2 and AKT was also observed. These findings suggest the mechanism of action of metformin in both breast cancer cell lineages, whereas cell line specific undergoes redox changes in the cells in which proliferation and survival signaling are modified. Taken together, these results highlight the potential clinical utility of metformin as an adjuvant during the treatment of luminal and triple-negative breast cancer. PMID:26561471

  11. Ductile damage model with void coalescence

    SciTech Connect

    Tonks, D.L.

    1995-03-01

    A general model for ductile damage in metals is presented. It includes damage induced by shear stress as well as damage caused by volumetric tension. Spallation is included as a special case. Strain induced damage is also treated. Void nucleation and growth are included and give rise to strain rate effects. Strain rate effects also arise in the model through elastic release wave propagation between damage centers. Underlying physics of the model is the nucleation, growth, and coalescence of voids in a plastically flowing solid. Implementation of the model in hydrocodes is discussed.

  12. 4β-Hydroxywithanolide E from Physalis peruviana (golden berry) inhibits growth of human lung cancer cells through DNA damage, apoptosis and G2/M arrest

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The crude extract of the fruit bearing plant, Physalis peruviana (golden berry), demonstrated anti-hepatoma and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the cellular mechanism involved in this process is still unknown. Methods Herein, we isolated the main pure compound, 4β-Hydroxywithanolide (4βHWE) derived from golden berries, and investigated its antiproliferative effect on a human lung cancer cell line (H1299) using survival, cell cycle, and apoptosis analyses. An alkaline comet-nuclear extract (NE) assay was used to evaluate the DNA damage due to the drug. Results It was shown that DNA damage was significantly induced by 1, 5, and 10 μg/mL 4βHWE for 2 h in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.005). A trypan blue exclusion assay showed that the proliferation of cells was inhibited by 4βHWE in both dose- and time-dependent manners (p < 0.05 and 0.001 for 24 and 48 h, respectively). The half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 4βHWE in H1299 cells for 24 and 48 h were 0.6 and 0.71 μg/mL, respectively, suggesting it could be a potential therapeutic agent against lung cancer. In a flow cytometric analysis, 4βHWE produced cell cycle perturbation in the form of sub-G1 accumulation and slight arrest at the G2/M phase with 1 μg/mL for 12 and 24 h, respectively. Using flow cytometric and annexin V/propidium iodide immunofluorescence double-staining techniques, these phenomena were proven to be apoptosis and complete G2/M arrest for H1299 cells treated with 5 μg/mL for 24 h. Conclusions In this study, we demonstrated that golden berry-derived 4βHWE is a potential DNA-damaging and chemotherapeutic agent against lung cancer. PMID:20167063

  13. Effect of storage temperature on survival and growth of foodborne pathogens on whole, damaged, and internally inoculated jalapeños (Capsicum annuum var. annuum).

    PubMed

    Huff, Karleigh; Boyer, Renee; Denbow, Cynthia; O'Keefe, Sean; Williams, Robert

    2012-02-01

    There is a lack of general knowledge regarding the behavior of foodborne pathogenic bacteria associated with jalapeño peppers. The survival and growth behaviors of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella enterica on the interior and exterior of jalapeño peppers were determined under different storage conditions. Jalapeños were inoculated with a five-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7, or S. enterica on the intact external surface, injured external surface, or intact internal cavity of jalapeño peppers and held at 7 or 12°C for a period of 14 days. Populations of each pathogen were determined at 0, 1, 2, 5, 7 10, and 14 days throughout storage. The uninjured, intact external surface of jalapeño peppers did not support growth of the pathogens tested under both storage conditions, with the exception of L. monocytogenes at 12°C. Populations of E. coli and S. enterica declined on the external injured surface of peppers at 7°C, but populations of L. monocytogenes remained consistent throughout the length of storage. At 12°C, L. monocytogenes and S. enterica populations increased throughout storage, and E. coli populations remained unchanged on injured surfaces. The uninjured internal cavity of the jalapeño supported growth of all pathogens at 12°C. Overall, L. monocytogenes was the microorganism most capable of growth and survival in association with jalapeño peppers for the scenarios tested. Results emphasize the importance of jalapeño pepper quality and proper storage conditions in preventing or reducing pathogen survival and growth. PMID:22289602

  14. Shock Initiation of Damaged Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Chidester, S K; Vandersall, K S; Tarver, C M

    2009-10-22

    Explosive and propellant charges are subjected to various mechanical and thermal insults that can increase their sensitivity over the course of their lifetimes. To quantify this effect, shock initiation experiments were performed on mechanically and thermally damaged LX-04 (85% HMX, 15% Viton by weight) and PBX 9502 (95% TATB, 5% Kel-F by weight) to obtain in-situ manganin pressure gauge data and run distances to detonation at various shock pressures. We report the behavior of the HMX-based explosive LX-04 that was damaged mechanically by applying a compressive load of 600 psi for 20,000 cycles, thus creating many small narrow cracks, or by cutting wedge shaped parts that were then loosely reassembled, thus creating a few large cracks. The thermally damaged LX-04 charges were heated to 190 C for long enough for the beta to delta solid - solid phase transition to occur, and then cooled to ambient temperature. Mechanically damaged LX-04 exhibited only slightly increased shock sensitivity, while thermally damaged LX-04 was much more shock sensitive. Similarly, the insensitive explosive PBX 9502 was mechanically damaged using the same two techniques. Since PBX 9502 does not undergo a solid - solid phase transition but does undergo irreversible or 'rachet' growth when thermally cycled, thermal damage to PBX 9502 was induced by this procedure. As for LX-04, the thermally damaged PBX 9502 demonstrated a greater shock sensitivity than mechanically damaged PBX 9502. The Ignition and Growth reactive flow model calculated the increased sensitivities by igniting more damaged LX-04 and PBX 9502 near the shock front based on the measured densities (porosities) of the damaged charges.

  15. Right Hemisphere Brain Damage

    MedlinePlus

    ... Language and Swallowing / Disorders and Diseases Right Hemisphere Brain Damage [ en Español ] What is right hemisphere brain ... right hemisphere brain damage ? What is right hemisphere brain damage? Right hemisphere brain damage (RHD) is damage ...

  16. Comparing the effects of excess copper in the leaves of Brassica juncea (L. Czern) and Brassica napus (L.) seedlings: Growth inhibition, oxidative stress and photosynthetic damage.

    PubMed

    Feigl, Gábor; Kumar, Devanand; Lehotai, Nóra; Pető, Andrea; Molnár, Árpád; Rácz, Éva; Ördög, Attila; Erdei, László; Kolbert, Zsuzsanna; Laskay, Gábor

    2015-06-01

    Hydroponic experiments were conducted to compare the effects of excess copper (Cu) on growth and photosynthesis in young Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and oilseed rape (Brassica napus). We compared the effects of excess Cu on the two Brassica species at different physiological levels from antioxidant levels to photosynthetic activity. Nine-day-old plants were treated with Cu (10, 25 and 50 μM CuSO4) for 7 and 14 days. Both species took up Cu from the external solution to a similar degree but showed slight root-to-shoot translocation. Furthermore, after seven days of treatment, excess Cu significantly decreased other microelement content, such as iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn), especially in the shoots of B. napus. As a consequence, the leaves of young Brassica napus plants showed decreased concentrations of photosynthetic pigments and more intense growth inhibition; however, accumulation of highly reactive oxygen species (hROS) were not detected. After 14 days of Cu exposure the reduction of Fe and Mn contents and shoot growth proved to be comparable in the two species. Moreover, a significant Cu-induced hROS accumulation was observed in both Brassica species. The diminution in pigment contents and photosynthetic efficiency were more pronounced in B. napus during prolonged Cu exposure. Based on all the parameters, B. juncea appears to be more resistant to excess Cu than B. napus, rendering it a species with higher potential for phytoremediation. PMID:26081276

  17. Damage Progression in Bolted Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnetyan, Levon; Chamis, Christos C.; Gotsis, Pascal K.

    1998-01-01

    Structural durability, damage tolerance, and progressive fracture characteristics of bolted graphite/epoxy composite laminates are evaluated via computational simulation. Constituent material properties and stress and strain limits are scaled up to the structure level to evaluate the overall damage and fracture propagation for bolted composites. Single and double bolted composite specimens with various widths and bolt spacings are evaluated. The effect of bolt spacing is investigated with regard to the structural durability of a bolted joint. Damage initiation, growth, accumulation, and propagation to fracture are included in the simulations. Results show the damage progression sequence and structural fracture resistance during different degradation stages. A procedure is outlined for the use of computational simulation data in the assessment of damage tolerance, determination of sensitive parameters affecting fracture, and interpretation of experimental results with insight for design decisions.

  18. Damage Progression in Bolted Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnetyan, Levon; Chamis, Christos; Gotsis, Pascal K.

    1998-01-01

    Structural durability,damage tolerance,and progressive fracture characteristics of bolted graphite/epoxy composite laminates are evaluated via computational simulation. Constituent material properties and stress and strain limits are scaled up to the structure level to evaluate the overall damage and fracture propagation for bolted composites. Single and double bolted composite specimens with various widths and bolt spacings are evaluated. The effect of bolt spacing is investigated with regard to the structural durability of a bolted joint. Damage initiation, growth, accumulation, and propagation to fracture are included in the simulations. Results show the damage progression sequence and structural fracture resistance during different degradation stages. A procedure is outlined for the use of computational simulation data in the assessment of damage tolerance, determination of sensitive parameters affecting fracture, and interpretation of experimental results with insight for design decisions.

  19. Effect of Low Temperature on Fatigue Crack Formation and Microstructure-Scale Growth from Corrosion Damage in Al-Zn-Mg-Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, James T.; Gangloff, Richard P.

    2013-05-01

    The strong effect of cold temperature on the fatigue resistance of 7075-T651 is established. As temperature decreases from 296 K to 183 K (23 °C to -90 °C), the formation life for cracking about pit and EXCO corrosion perimeters increases, microstructure scale crack growth rates decrease in the range from 20 to 500 μm beyond the corrosion topography, and long crack growth rates similarly decline. Fatigue crack surface features correlate with reduced hydrogen embrittlement with decreasing temperature fed by localized H produced during precorrosion for pit and EXCO-proximate cracks, as well as by crack tip H produced by water vapor reaction during stressing for all crack sizes. The importance of the former H source increases with decreasing temperature for cracks sized below 200 μm. Decreasing temperature to 223 K (-50 °C) eliminates the contribution of environmental H through interaction of reduced water vapor pressure in equilibrium with ice and reduced H diffusion. The Knudsen flow model and exposure parameter, P_{{{{H}}2 {{O}}}}/f , enables improved modeling of temperature dependent crack propagation, but does not fully describe low temperature fatigue behavior due to possible rate limitation by H diffusion. Further decreases in MSC da/dN to 183 K (-90 °C) are related to reduced mobility of the corrosion-precharged H which may associate with vacancies from dissolution. Crack formation, and growth rates correlate with either elastic stress intensity range or cyclic crack tip opening displacement, and are available to predict corrosion effects on airframe fatigue for the important low temperature regime.

  20. Studies on growth, structural, dielectric, laser damage threshold, linear and nonlinear optical properties of methylene blue admixtured L-arginine phosphate single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peramaiyan, G.; Pandi, P.; Bhagavannarayana, G.; Mohan Kumar, R.

    2012-12-01

    L-Arginine phosphate (LAP) and methylene blue dye admixtured L-arginine phosphate single crystals were grown by slow cooling technique and their cell parameters, crystalline perfection, dopant inclusion were confirmed by single crystal, powder X-ray diffraction and high resolution X-ray diffraction analyses respectively. The modes of vibrations of different functional groups present in pure and dye admixtured LAP crystals have been identified by FTIR spectral analysis. The UV-Vis-NIR spectral study was performed on the grown crystals and found that the crystals are transparent in the entire visible-NIR region. The dielectric measurement was carried out on the grown crystals as a function of frequency at room temperature. The microhardness hardness study on (1 0 0) plane of grown crystals reveals the mechanical behavior of the crystals. The laser damage threshold value significantly enhanced for dye admixtured crystal in comparison with pure LAP crystal. The relative SHG efficiency of methylane blue admixtured LAP crystal was found to be 1.3 times higher than that of pure LAP crystal.

  1. Investigations on the growth, optical, thermal, dielectric, and laser damage threshold properties of crystal violet dye-doped potassium acid phthalate single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, G. Babu; Rajesh, P.; Ramasamy, P.

    2016-03-01

    Influence of crystal violet dye with different concentration on potassium acid phthalate single crystal grown by conventional method has been studied. No change has been observed in the structure, whereas changes have been observed in the external morphology of the crystal when the dyes are incorporated in the crystal lattice. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses show the onset decomposition temperatures to be at 302, 285, 284, and 285 °C for pure, 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 mol% crystal violet-doped potassium acid phthalate crystals, respectively. The dielectric measurement was carried out on the grown crystals as a function of frequency at various temperatures. In addition, strong luminescent emission bands at 638, 648, and 640 nm were observed in which the relative intensity was found to be reversed as a result of doping concentration. The laser damage threshold value significantly increased for dye-doped crystal in comparison with pure crystal which may make it suitable for the solid-state dye laser applications.

  2. Suppression of Reactive Oxygen Species Accumulation in Chloroplasts Prevents Leaf Damage but Not Growth Arrest in Salt-Stressed Tobacco Plants

    PubMed Central

    Lodeyro, Anabella F.; Giró, Mariana; Poli, Hugo O.; Bettucci, Gabriel; Cortadi, Adriana; Ferri, Alejandro M.; Carrillo, Néstor

    2016-01-01

    Crop yield reduction due to salinity is a growing agronomical concern in many regions. Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant cells accompanies many abiotic stresses including salinity, acting as toxic and signaling molecules during plant stress responses. While ROS are generated in various cellular compartments, chloroplasts represent a main source in the light, and plastid ROS synthesis and/or elimination have been manipulated to improve stress tolerance. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing a plastid-targeted cyanobacterial flavodoxin, a flavoprotein that prevents ROS accumulation specifically in chloroplasts, displayed increased tolerance to many environmental stresses, including drought, excess irradiation, extreme temperatures and iron starvation. Surprisingly, flavodoxin expression failed to protect transgenic plants against NaCl toxicity. However, when high salt was directly applied to leaf discs, flavodoxin did increase tolerance, as reflected by preservation of chlorophylls, carotenoids and photosynthetic activities. Flavodoxin decreased salt-dependent ROS accumulation in leaf tissue from discs and whole plants, but this decline did not improve tolerance at the whole plant level. NaCl accumulation in roots, as well as increased osmotic pressure and salt-induced root damage, were not prevented by flavodoxin expression. The results indicate that ROS formed in chloroplasts have a marginal effect on plant responses during salt stress, and that sensitive targets are present in roots which are not protected by flavodoxin. PMID:27441560

  3. Suppression of Reactive Oxygen Species Accumulation in Chloroplasts Prevents Leaf Damage but Not Growth Arrest in Salt-Stressed Tobacco Plants.

    PubMed

    Lodeyro, Anabella F; Giró, Mariana; Poli, Hugo O; Bettucci, Gabriel; Cortadi, Adriana; Ferri, Alejandro M; Carrillo, Néstor

    2016-01-01

    Crop yield reduction due to salinity is a growing agronomical concern in many regions. Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant cells accompanies many abiotic stresses including salinity, acting as toxic and signaling molecules during plant stress responses. While ROS are generated in various cellular compartments, chloroplasts represent a main source in the light, and plastid ROS synthesis and/or elimination have been manipulated to improve stress tolerance. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing a plastid-targeted cyanobacterial flavodoxin, a flavoprotein that prevents ROS accumulation specifically in chloroplasts, displayed increased tolerance to many environmental stresses, including drought, excess irradiation, extreme temperatures and iron starvation. Surprisingly, flavodoxin expression failed to protect transgenic plants against NaCl toxicity. However, when high salt was directly applied to leaf discs, flavodoxin did increase tolerance, as reflected by preservation of chlorophylls, carotenoids and photosynthetic activities. Flavodoxin decreased salt-dependent ROS accumulation in leaf tissue from discs and whole plants, but this decline did not improve tolerance at the whole plant level. NaCl accumulation in roots, as well as increased osmotic pressure and salt-induced root damage, were not prevented by flavodoxin expression. The results indicate that ROS formed in chloroplasts have a marginal effect on plant responses during salt stress, and that sensitive targets are present in roots which are not protected by flavodoxin. PMID:27441560

  4. Effects of N2-O2 and CO2-O2 Tensions on Growth of Fungi Isolated from Damaged Flue-Cured Tobacco 1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, H.; Lucas, G. B.

    1970-01-01

    Ten fungi, Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, A. ochraceus, A. ruber, A. repens, A. amstelodami, Alternaria tenuis, Penicillium brevi-compactum, Cladosporium herbarum, and Chaetomium dolicotrichum, were isolated from moldy flue-cured tobacco and grown in various mixtures of N2-O2 or CO2-O2. A 1 to 5% concentration of O2 in an N2 atmosphere caused the greatest change in growth of the nine species, and a 10 to 20% concentration of O2 for A. flavus. All species, except A. amstelodami and A. ruber, grew faster in air than in mixtures containing 10% O2. High O2 concentrations generally inhibited furrow production in the mycelial mats. In an atmosphere of 5 to 40% O2 in the N2 atmosphere, furrows formed in mycelial mats between 5 and 40% O2 in the species except for A. ruber, A. repens, and A. amstelodami, which produced none in any concentration. As O2 decreased below 20%, spore production was progressively decreased, colony color faded to white, and cleistothecia formation was suppressed. In CO2-O2 mixtures radial growth of all species increased with each quantitative decrease of CO2. All species except A. niger grew faster in air than in 10% CO2. In contrast to N2-O2 mixtures, the fungi formed furrows, sporulation and cleistothecial formation were suppressed, and colony color changed to white in higher O2 concentrations. PMID:5461786

  5. Alleviation of Lead Toxicity by 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Is Related to Elevated Growth, Photosynthesis, and Suppressed Ultrastructural Damages in Oilseed Rape

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Tian; Qin, Yebo; Gill, Rafaqat A.; Ali, Shafaqat

    2014-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a widely spread pollutant and leads to diverse morphological and structural changes in the plants. In this study, alleviating role of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) was investigated with or without foliar application of ALA (25 mg L−1) in hydroponic environment under different Pb levels (0, 100, and 400 µM). Outcomes stated that plant morphology and photosynthetic attributes were reduced under the application of Pb alone. However, ALA application significantly increased the plant growth and photosynthetic parameters under Pb toxicity. Moreover, ALA also lowered the Pb concentration in shoots and roots under Pb toxicity. The microscopic studies depicted that exogenously applied ALA ameliorated the Pb stress and significantly improved the cell ultrastructures. After application of ALA under Pb stress, mesophyll cell had well-developed nucleus and chloroplast having a number of starch granules. Moreover, micrographs illustrated that root tip cell contained well-developed nucleus, a number of mitochondria, and golgi bodies. These results proposed that under 15-day Pb-induced stress, ALA improved the plant growth, chlorophyll content, photosynthetic parameters, and ultrastructural modifications in leaf mesophyll and root tip cells of the B. napus plants. PMID:24683549

  6. Protective effect of gelatin polypeptides from Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) against UV irradiation-induced damages by inhibiting inflammation and improving transforming growth factor-β/Smad signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tiejun; Hou, Hu

    2016-09-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation results in skin damage, collagen reduction in the dermis, and consequently, premature skin aging (photoaging). The goal of this study was to examine the effect of gelatin hydrolysate (CH) from pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) skin on UV irradiation-induced inflammation and collagen reduction of photoaging mouse skin. The effect of CH on the activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes was investigated. The expressions of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), proinflammatory cytokines, type I and type III procollagen, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), type II receptor of TGF-β1 (TGF-βRII), and Smad7 were determined using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and ELISA. The results showed that oral administration of CH suppressed UV irradiation-induced damages to skin by inhibiting the depletion of endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity, and by suppressing the expression of NF-κB as well as NF-κB-mediated proinflammatory cytokines expression. Furthermore, CH inhibited type I procollagen synthesis reduction by up-regulating TβRII level and down-regulating Smad7 level, which demonstrates that CH is involved in matrix collagen synthesis by activating the TGF-β/Smad pathway in the photoaging skin. Based on these results, we conclude that CH protected skin from UV irradiation-induced photodamages, and CH may be a potentially effective agent for the prevention of photoaging. PMID:27491029

  7. Damage Tolerance of Large Shell Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnetyan, L.; Chamis, C. C.

    1999-01-01

    Progressive damage and fracture of large shell structures is investigated. A computer model is used for the assessment of structural response, progressive fracture resistance, and defect/damage tolerance characteristics. Critical locations of a stiffened conical shell segment are identified. Defective and defect-free computer models are simulated to evaluate structural damage/defect tolerance. Safe pressurization levels are assessed for the retention of structural integrity at the presence of damage/ defects. Damage initiation, growth, accumulation, and propagation to fracture are included in the simulations. Damage propagation and burst pressures for defective and defect-free shells are compared to evaluate damage tolerance. Design implications with regard to defect and damage tolerance of a large steel pressure vessel are examined.

  8. In vivo protection against interleukin-1-induced articular cartilage damage by transforming growth factor-beta 1: age-related differences.

    PubMed Central

    van Beuningen, H M; van der Kraan, P M; Arntz, O J; van den Berg, W B

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) has been shown to antagonise interleukin-1 (IL-1) effects in different systems. Investigations were carried out to study whether TGF-beta 1 modulates IL-1 induced inflammation and IL-1 effects on articular cartilage in the murine knee joint. METHODS--IL-1, TGF-beta 1 or both factors together were injected into the knee joint. Inflammation was studied in whole knee histological sections. Patellar cartilage proteoglycan synthesis was measured using 35S-sulphate incorporation while patellar cartilage glycosaminoglycan content was determined with automated image analysis on joint sections. RESULTS--Co-injection of TGF-beta 1 and IL-1 resulted in synergistic attraction of inflammatory cells. In contrast, TGF-beta 1 counteracted IL-1 induced suppression of articular cartilage proteoglycan synthesis. Proteoglycan depletion was similar shortly after the last injection of IL-1 or IL-1/TGF-beta 1, but accelerated recovery was found with the combination at later days. This protective effect of TGF-beta 1 could not be demonstrated in older mice. CONCLUSIONS--TGF-beta 1 aggravates IL-1 induced knee joint inflammation, but counteracts the deleterious effects of IL-1 on articular cartilage proteoglycan synthesis and content. The data indicate that TGF-beta 1 could play an important part in articular cartilage restoration after IL-1 induced proteoglycan depletion. Images PMID:7979598

  9. Hydrogen Sulfide Prolongs Postharvest Storage of Fresh-Cut Pears (Pyrus pyrifolia) by Alleviation of Oxidative Damage and Inhibition of Fungal Growth

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shuai-Ping; Wu, Jun; Li, Yan-Hong; Zheng, Ji-Lian; Han, Yi; Liu, Yong-Sheng; Zhang, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has proved to be a multifunctional signaling molecule in plants and animals. Here, we investigated the role of H2S in the decay of fresh-cut pears (Pyrus pyrifolia). H2S gas released by sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) prolonged the shelf life of fresh-cut pear slices in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, H2S maintained higher levels of reducing sugar and soluble protein in pear slices. H2S significantly reduced the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide radicals (•O2−) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Further investigation showed that H2S fumigation up-regulated the activities of antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), and guaiacol peroxidase (POD), while it down-regulated those of lipoxygenase (LOX), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). Furthermore, H2S fumigation effectively inhibited the growth of two fungal pathogens of pear, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium expansum, suggesting that H2S can be developed as an effective fungicide for postharvest storage. The present study implies that H2S is involved in prolonging postharvest storage of pears by acting as an antioxidant and fungicide. PMID:24454881

  10. Post Treatment With an FGF Chimeric Growth Factor Enhances Epithelial Cell Proliferation to Improve Recovery From Radiation-Induced Intestinal Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, Fumiaki; Hagiwara, Akiko; Umeda, Sachiko; Asada, Masahiro; Goto, Megumi; Oki, Junko; Suzuki, Masashi; Imamura, Toru; Akashi, Makoto

    2010-11-01

    Purpose: A fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 1-FGF2 chimera (FGFC) was created previously and showed greater structural stability than FGF1. This chimera was capable of stimulating epithelial cell proliferation much more strongly than FGF1 or FGF2 even without heparin. Therefore FGFC was expected to have greater biologic activity in vivo. This study evaluated and compared the protective activity of FGFC and FGF1 against radiation-induced intestinal injuries. Methods and Materials: We administered FGFC and FGF1 intraperitoneally to BALB/c mice 24 h before or after total-body irradiation (TBI). The numbers of surviving crypts were determined 3.5 days after TBI with gamma rays at doses ranging from 8 to 12 Gy. Results: The effect of FGFC was equal to or slightly superior to FGF1 with heparin. However, FGFC was significantly more effective in promoting crypt survival than FGF1 (p < 0.01) when 10 {mu}g of each FGF was administered without heparin before irradiation. In addition, FGFC was significantly more effective at promoting crypt survival (p < 0.05) than FGF1 even when administered without heparin at 24 h after TBI at 10, 11, or 12 Gy. We found that FGFC post treatment significantly promoted 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation into crypts and increased crypt depth, resulting in more epithelial differentiation. However, the number of apoptotic cells in FGFC-treated mice decreased to almost the same level as that in FGF1-treated mice. Conclusions: These findings suggest that FGFC strongly enhanced radioprotection with the induction of epithelial proliferation without exogenous heparin after irradiation and is useful in clinical applications for both the prevention and post treatment of radiation injuries.

  11. Expression of transforming growth factor-beta and determination of apoptotic index in histopathological sections for assessment of the effects of Apigenin (4', 5', 7'- Trihydroxyflavone) on Cyclosporine A induced renal damage.

    PubMed

    Chong, F W; Chakravarthi, Srikumar; Nagaraja, H S; Thanikachalam, P M; Lee, Nagarajah

    2009-06-01

    Cyclosporine A (CsA), a calcineurin inhibitor produced by the fungi Trichoderma polysporum and Cylindrocarpon lucidum, is an immunosuppressant prescribed in organ transplants to prevent rejection. Its adverse effect on renal dysfunction has limited its use in a clinical setting. Apigenin (4',5',7'-Trihydroxyflavone), a herbal extract, with anti-inflammatory and anti-tumour properties, has been investigated for properties to reverse this adverse effect. This research was conducted to establish a standard protocol for immunohistochemical estimation of Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF-beta) expression, as an indicator of Cyclosporine A induced damage, and to observe whether apoptotic index and TGF-beta expression can be used to assess effects of Apigenin on CsA induced renal dysfunction. Six groups of 5 male Sprague-Dawley albino rats each were dosed once daily for 21 days, as follows: (1) negative control--oral corn oil, (2) positive control--Cyclosporine A (25 mg/kg), (3) Group 3--Apigenin (20 mg/kg), (4) Group 4--Cyclosporine A (25 mg/kg) +Apigenin (10 mg/kg), (5) Group 5--Cyclosporine A (25 mg/kg) +Apigenin (15 mg/kg) and (6) Group 6--Cyclosporine A (25 mg/kg) +Apigenin (20 mg/kg). Cyclosporine A was administered intra-peritoneally while Apigenin was given orally. The rat kidneys were harvested and examined microscopically to assess the apoptotic index, and stained by immunohistochemistry for multifunctioning polypeptide TGF-beta expression. A high apoptotic index and TGF-beta intensity was observed in the Cyclosporine A group. Apigenin significantly reduced the both apoptotic index and TGF-beta intensity. The apoptotic index correlated with TGF-beta intensity, especially in glomeruli. This study indicates that Cyclosporine A can enhance the TGF-beta expression in rat kidney, signifying accelerated apoptosis. TGF-beta and apoptotic index may be used to assess Apigenin and its effect on Cyclosporine A induced renal damage. PMID:19694312

  12. 7 CFR 51.3157 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... marketing quality of the fruit. The following specific defects shall be considered as damage: (a) Growth... exceeds three-sixteenths inch in diameter; (c) Scab or bacterial spot when cracked, or when the...

  13. 7 CFR 51.3157 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... be considered as damage: (a) Growth cracks: (1) When not healed; (2) When more than one in number; (3... indentation; or, (4) When an indentation exceeds three-sixteenths inch in diameter; (c) Scab or bacterial...

  14. 7 CFR 51.3157 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... marketing quality of the fruit. The following specific defects shall be considered as damage: (a) Growth... exceeds three-sixteenths inch in diameter; (c) Scab or bacterial spot when cracked, or when the...

  15. 7 CFR 51.1222 - Serious damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... allowed for any one defect, shall be considered as serious damage: (a) Bacterial spot, when any cracks are... inch in diameter; (d) Growth cracks, when unhealed, or more than 1/2 inch in length; (e) Hail...

  16. 7 CFR 51.1222 - Serious damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... allowed for any one defect, shall be considered as serious damage: (a) Bacterial spot, when any cracks are... inch in diameter; (d) Growth cracks, when unhealed, or more than 1/2 inch in length; (e) Hail...

  17. 7 CFR 51.3157 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... marketing quality of the fruit. The following specific defects shall be considered as damage: (a) Growth... exceeds three-sixteenths inch in diameter; (c) Scab or bacterial spot when cracked, or when the...

  18. 7 CFR 51.1222 - Serious damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... allowed for any one defect, shall be considered as serious damage: (a) Bacterial spot, when any cracks are... inch in diameter; (d) Growth cracks, when unhealed, or more than 1/2 inch in length; (e) Hail...

  19. 7 CFR 51.3157 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... be considered as damage: (a) Growth cracks: (1) When not healed; (2) When more than one in number; (3... indentation; or, (4) When an indentation exceeds three-sixteenths inch in diameter; (c) Scab or bacterial...

  20. Projecting global tropical cyclone economic damages with validation of tropical cyclone economic damage model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iseri, Y.; Iwasaki, A.; Miyazaki, C.; Kanae, S.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) sometimes cause serious damages to human society and thus possible changes of TC properties in the future have been concerned. In fact, the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) by IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) mentions likely increasing in intensity and rain rate of TCs. In addition, future change of socioeconomic condition (e.g. population growth) might worsen TC impacts in the future. Thereby, in this study, we developed regression models to estimate economic damages by TCs (hereafter TC damage model), and employed those models to project TC economic damages under several future climate and socioeconomic scenarios. We developed the TC damage models for each of 4 regions; western North Pacific, North American, North Indian, and Southern Hemisphere. The inputs for TC damage model are tropical cyclone central pressure, populations in the area exposed by tropical cyclone wind, and GDP (Gross Domestic Product) per capita. The TC damage models we firstly developed tended to overestimate very low damages and also underestimate very high damages. Thereby we modified structure of TC damage models to improve model performance, and then executed extensive validation of the model. The modified model presented better performance in estimating very low and high TC damages. After the modification and validation of the model, we determined the structure of TC damage models and projected TC economic damages. The result indicated increase in TC economic damage in global scale, while TC economic damage against world GDP would decrease in the future, which result is consistent with previous study.

  1. The relationship between observed fatigue damage and life estimation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurath, Peter; Socie, Darrell F.

    1988-01-01

    Observations of the surface of laboratory specimens subjected to axial and torsional fatigue loadings has resulted in the identification of three damage fatigue phenomena: crack nucleation, shear crack growth, and tensile crack growth. Material, microstructure, state of stress/strain, and loading amplitude all influence which of the three types of fatigue damage occurs during a dominant fatigue life fraction. Fatigue damage maps are employed to summarize the experimental observations. Appropriate bulk stress/strain damage parameters are suggested to model fatigue damage for the dominant fatigue life fraction. Extension of the damage map concept to more complex loadings is presented.

  2. Wiring Damage Analyses for STS OV-103

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Walter, III

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the Shuttle Program s belief that Space Transportation System (STS) wiring damage occurrences are random, that is, a constant occurrence rate. Using Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA)-derived data for STS Space Shuttle OV-103, wiring damage was observed to increase over the vehicle s life. Causal factors could include wiring physical deterioration, maintenance and inspection induced damage, and inspection process changes resulting in more damage events being reported. Induced damage effects cannot be resolved with existent data. Growth analysis (using Crow-AMSAA, or CA) resolved maintenance/inspection effects (e.g., heightened awareness) on all wire damages and indicated an overall increase since Challenger Return-to-Flight (RTF). An increasing failure or occurrence rate per flight cycle was seen for each wire damage mode; these (individual) rates were not affected by inspection process effects, within statistical error.

  3. A continuum damage model of fatigue-induced damage in laminated composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Charles E.; Allen, David H.

    1988-01-01

    A model is presented which predicts the stress-strain behavior of continuous fiber reinforced laminated composites in the presence of microstructural damage. The model is based on the concept of continuum damage mechanics and uses internal state variables to characterize the various damage modes. The associated internal state variable growth laws are mathematical models of the loading history induced development of microstructural damage. The model is demonstrated by using it to predict the response of damaged AS-4/3502 graphite/epoxy laminate panels.

  4. 7 CFR 51.3159 - Serious damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... damage: (a) Growth cracks: (1) When not healed and more than one-eighth inch in length or depth; (2) When... discoloration over more than one-fourth of the fruit surface; (c) Scab or bacterial spot when the aggregate area...) Nectarines affected by decay; (k) Unhealed broken skins except those associated with growth cracks; and,...

  5. 7 CFR 51.3159 - Serious damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... defects shall be considered as serious damage: (a) Growth cracks: (1) When not healed and more than one... bacterial spot when the aggregate area exceeds that of a circle one-half inch in diameter on a fruit 2... except those associated with growth cracks; and, (l) Wormy fruit or worm holes. Metric Conversion Table...

  6. 7 CFR 51.3159 - Serious damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... damage: (a) Growth cracks: (1) When not healed and more than one-eighth inch in length or depth; (2) When... discoloration over more than one-fourth of the fruit surface; (c) Scab or bacterial spot when the aggregate area...) Nectarines affected by decay; (k) Unhealed broken skins except those associated with growth cracks; and,...

  7. 7 CFR 51.3159 - Serious damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... defects shall be considered as serious damage: (a) Growth cracks: (1) When not healed and more than one... bacterial spot when the aggregate area exceeds that of a circle one-half inch in diameter on a fruit 2... except those associated with growth cracks; and, (l) Wormy fruit or worm holes. Metric Conversion Table...

  8. 7 CFR 51.3159 - Serious damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... damage: (a) Growth cracks: (1) When not healed and more than one-eighth inch in length or depth; (2) When... discoloration over more than one-fourth of the fruit surface; (c) Scab or bacterial spot when the aggregate area...) Nectarines affected by decay; (k) Unhealed broken skins except those associated with growth cracks; and,...

  9. Ductile damage modeling based on void coalescence and percolation theories

    SciTech Connect

    Tonks, D.L.; Zurek, A.K.; Thissell, W.R.

    1995-09-01

    A general model for ductile damage in metals is presented. It includes damage induced by shear stress as well as damage caused by volumetric tension. Spallation is included as a special case. Strain induced damage is also treated. Void nucleation and growth are included, and give rise to strain rate effects. Strain rate effects also arise in the model through elastic release wave propagation between damage centers. The underlying physics of the model is the nucleation, growth, and coalescence of voids in a plastically flowing solid. The model is intended for hydrocode based computer simulation. An experimental program is underway to validate the model.

  10. Mycobacteria and Fungi in Moisture-Damaged Building Materials

    PubMed Central

    Torvinen, Eila; Meklin, Teija; Torkko, Pirjo; Suomalainen, Sini; Reiman, Marjut; Katila, Marja-Leena; Paulin, Lars; Nevalainen, Aino

    2006-01-01

    In contrast to the growth of fungi, the growth of mycobacteria in moisture-damaged building materials has rarely been studied. Environmental mycobacteria were isolated from 23% of samples of moisture-damaged materials (n = 88). The occurrence of mycobacteria increased with increasing concentrations of fungi. Mycobacteria may contribute to indoor exposure and associated adverse health effects. PMID:17021236

  11. Femoral nerve damage (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The femoral nerve is located in the leg and supplies the muscles that assist help straighten the leg. It supplies sensation ... leg. One risk of damage to the femoral nerve is pelvic fracture. Symptoms of femoral nerve damage ...

  12. Ozone damage detection in cantaloupe plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gausman, H. W.; Escobar, D. E.; Rodriguez, R. R.; Thomas, C. E.; Bowen, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    Ozone causes up to 90 percent of air pollution injury to vegetation in the United States; excess ozone affects plant growth and development and can cause undetected decrease in yields. Laboratory and field reflectance measurements showed that ozone-damaged cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.) leaves had lower water contents and higher reflectance than did nondamaged leaves. Cantaloupe plants which were lightly, severely, and very severely ozone-damaged were distinguishable from nondamaged plants by reflectance measurements in the 1.35- to 2.5 micron near-infrared water absorption waveband. Ozone-damaged leaf areas were detected photographically 16 h before the damage was visible. Sensors are available for use with aircraft and spacecraft that possibly could be used routinely to detect ozone-damaged crops.

  13. Rotorcraft Damage Tolerance Evaluated by Computational Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Minnetyan, Levon; Abdi, Frank

    2000-01-01

    An integrally stiffened graphite/epoxy composite rotorcraft structure is evaluated via computational simulation. A computer code that scales up constituent micromechanics level material properties to the structure level and accounts for all possible failure modes is used for the simulation of composite degradation under loading. Damage initiation, growth, accumulation, and propagation to fracture are included in the simulation. Design implications with regard to defect and damage tolerance of integrally stiffened composite structures are examined. A procedure is outlined regarding the use of this type of information for setting quality acceptance criteria, design allowables, damage tolerance, and retirement-for-cause criteria.

  14. Damage Tolerant Microstructures for Shock Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerreta, Ellen; Dennis-Koller, Darcie; Escobedo, Juan Pablo; Fensin, Saryu; Valone, Steve; Trujillo, Carl; Bronkhorst, Curt; Lebensohn, Ricardo

    While dynamic failure, due to shock loading, has been studied for many years, our current ability to predict and simulate evolving damage during dynamic loading remains limited. One reason for this is due to the lack of understanding for the linkages between process-induced as well as evolved microstructure and damage. To this end, the role of microstructure on the early stages of dynamic damage has been studied in high purity Ta and Cu. This work, which utilizes plate-impact experiments to interrogate these effects, has recently been extended to a subset to Cu-alloys (Cu-Pb, Cu-Nb, and Cu-Ag). These multi-length scale studies, have identified a number of linkages between damage nucleation and growth and microstructural features such as: grain boundary types, grain boundary orientation with respect to loading direction, grain orientation, and bi-metal interfaces. A combination of modeling and simulation techniques along with experimental observation has been utilized to examine the mechanisms for the ductile damage processes such as nucleation, growth and coalescence. This work has identified differing features of importance for damage nucleation in high purity and alloyed materials, lending insight into features of concern for mitigating shock induced damage in more complicated alloy systems.

  15. Fault damage zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young-Seog; Peacock, David C. P.; Sanderson, David J.

    2004-03-01

    Damage zones show very similar geometries across a wide range of scales and fault types, including strike-slip, normal and thrust faults. We use a geometric classification of damage zones into tip-, wall-, and linking-damage zones, based on their location around faults. These classes can be sub-divided in terms of fault and fracture patterns within the damage zone. A variety of damage zone structures can occur at mode II tips of strike-slip faults, including wing cracks, horsetail fractures, antithetic faults, and synthetic branch faults. Wall damage zones result from the propagation of mode II and mode III fault tips through a rock, or from damage associated with the increase in slip on a fault. Wall damage zone structures include extension fractures, antithetic faults, synthetic faults, and rotated blocks with associated triangular openings. The damage formed at the mode III tips of strike-slip faults (e.g. observed in cliff sections) are classified as wall damage zones, because the damage zone structures are distributed along a fault trace in map view. Mixed-mode tips are likely to show characteristics of both mode II and mode III tips. Linking damage zones are developed at steps between two sub-parallel faults, and the structures developed depend on whether the step is extensional or contractional. Extension fractures and pull-aparts typically develop in extensional steps, whilst solution seams, antithetic faults and synthetic faults commonly develop in contractional steps. Rotated blocks, isolated lenses or strike-slip duplexes may occur in both extensional and contractional steps. Damage zone geometries and structures are strongly controlled by the location around a fault, the slip mode at a fault tip, and by the evolutionary stage of the fault. Although other factors control the nature of damage zones (e.g. lithology, rheology and stress system), the three-dimensional fault geometry and slip mode at each tip must be considered to gain an understanding of

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF DAMAGED MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, P C; Dehaven, M; McClelland, M; Chidester, S; Maienschein, J L

    2006-06-23

    Thermal damage experiments were conducted on LX-04, LX-10, and LX-17 at high temperatures. Both pristine and damaged samples were characterized for their material properties. A pycnometer was used to determine sample true density and porosity. Gas permeability was measured in a newly procured system (diffusion permeameter). Burn rate was measured in the LLNL strand burner. Weight losses upon thermal exposure were insignificant. Damaged pressed parts expanded, resulting in a reduction of bulk density by up to 10%. Both gas permeabilities and burn rates of the damaged samples increased by several orders of magnitude due to higher porosity and lower density. Moduli of the damaged materials decreased significantly, an indication that the materials became weaker mechanically. Damaged materials were more sensitive to shock initiation at high temperatures. No significant sensitization was observed when the damaged samples were tested at room temperature.

  17. Crack patterning effects in evolution of damage

    SciTech Connect

    Lacy, T.E.; McDowell, D.L.; Taireja, R.

    1995-12-31

    Recent micromechanically inspired phenomenological theories using internal state variable representations of damage have been used to predict the thermomechanical behavior of microcracking solids. These models do not, in an explicit manner, account for distributions of microcracks in a Representative Volume Element (RVE) and have been successfully used only to determine the effective moduli of damaged solids. It has been demonstrated that while the distribution. and interaction of damage entities within a RVE have a minor effect on the effective moduli, they have a significant effect on the evolution of damage and failure at the macroscale. Damage evolution rates cannot, in general, be adequately described by such theories because of their inability to account for interactions between damage entities in an arbitrary distribution. In the present work, finite element solutions to two-dimensional problems with growing microcracks are obtained for both uniform and non-uniform crack arrays. Effective moduli and RVE-averaged driving forces for non-uniformly distributed interacting crack systems are calculated across a range of microcrack distribution parameters. Results are compared to existing solutions. Damage evolution is studied by allowing incremental advance under specified growth criteria of different crack systems within a RVE. Concepts for the inclusion of discrete sub-RVE length scales in the specific Helmholtz free energy and dissipation potentials are outlined. Use of multivariate distribution functions to characterize damage is discussed.

  18. Damage Tolerance of Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, Andy

    2007-01-01

    Fracture control requirements have been developed to address damage tolerance of composites for manned space flight hardware. The requirements provide the framework for critical and noncritical hardware assessment and testing. The need for damage threat assessments, impact damage protection plans, and nondestructive evaluation are also addressed. Hardware intended to be damage tolerant have extensive coupon, sub-element, and full-scale testing requirements in-line with the Building Block Approach concept from the MIL-HDBK-17, Department of Defense Composite Materials Handbook.

  19. Mitigation of Crack Damage in Metallic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leser, Patrick E.; Newman, John A.; Smith, Stephen W.; Leser, William P.; Wincheski, Russell A.; Wallace, Terryl A.; Glaessgen, Edward H.; Piascik, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    A system designed to mitigate or heal crack damage in metallic materials has been developed where the protected material or component is coated with a low-melting temperature film. After a crack is formed, the material is heated, melting the film which then infiltrates the crack opening through capillary action. Upon solidification, the healing material inhibits further crack damage in two ways. While the crack healing material is intact, it acts like an adhesive that bonds or bridges the crack faces together. After fatigue loading damages, the healing material in the crack mouth inhibits further crack growth by creating artificially-high crack closure levels. Mechanical test data show that this method sucessfully arrests or retards crack growth in laboratory specimens.

  20. Laser Damage Precursors in Fused Silica

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, P; Suratwala, T; Bude, J; Laurence, T A; Shen, N; Steele, W A; Feit, M; Menapace, J; Wong, L

    2009-11-11

    There is a longstanding, and largely unexplained, correlation between the laser damage susceptibility of optical components and both the surface quality of the optics, and the presence of near surface fractures in an optic. In the present work, a combination of acid leaching, acid etching, and confocal time resolved photoluminescence (CTP) microscopy has been used to study laser damage initiation at indentation sites. The combination of localized polishing and variations in indentation loads allows one to isolate and characterize the laser damage susceptibility of densified, plastically flowed and fractured fused silica. The present results suggest that: (1) laser damage initiation and growth are strongly correlated with fracture surfaces, while densified and plastically flowed material is relatively benign, and (2) fracture events result in the formation of an electronically defective rich surface layer which promotes energy transfer from the optical beam to the glass matrix.

  1. Age to survive: DNA damage and aging.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Björn; Garinis, George A; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J

    2008-02-01

    Aging represents the progressive functional decline and increased mortality risk common to nearly all metazoans. Recent findings experimentally link DNA damage and organismal aging: longevity-regulating genetic pathways respond to the accumulation of DNA damage and other stress conditions and conversely influence the rate of damage accumulation and its impact for cancer and aging. This novel insight has emerged from studies on human progeroid diseases and mouse models that have deficient DNA repair pathways. Here we discuss a unified concept of an evolutionarily conserved 'survival' response that shifts the organism's resources from growth to maintenance as an adaptation to stresses, such as starvation and DNA damage. This shift protects the organism from cancer and promotes healthy aging. PMID:18192065

  2. Brittle dynamic damage due to earthquake rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, Harsha; Thomas, Marion

    2016-04-01

    The micromechanical damage mechanics formulated by Ashby and Sammis, 1990, and generalized by Deshpande and Evans 2008 has been extended to allow for a more generalized stress state and to incorporate an experimentally motivated new crack growth (damage evolution) law that is valid over a wide range of loading rates. This law is sensitive to both the crack tip stress field and its time derivative. Incorporating this feature produces additional strain-rate sensitivity in the constitutive response. The model is also experimentally verified by predicting the failure strength of Dionysus-Pentelicon marble over wide range of strain rates. We then implement this constitutive response to understand the role of dynamic brittle off-fault damage on earthquake ruptures. We show that off-fault damage plays an important role in asymmetry of rupture propagation and is a source of high-frequency ground motion in the near source region.

  3. Impact damage characterization of composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korkmaz, Yesim

    2002-04-01

    Impact damage in structural composites depends on their material properties, component geometry and a variety of impact parameters and experimental determination of their detailed characteristics requires prohibitively large test matrices. The effects of some of these parameters can be understood through simulation models that complement experimental results. In this dissertation a series of finite element models are developed using MSC/NASTRAN for calculating contact laws and progressive damage (e.g., matrix cracking, delamination and fiber break) in graphite/epoxy laminates subject to low and intermediate velocity impact. The validity of the computational models is supported by theoretical calculations involving idealized cases. The effects of laminate geometry as well as the impact parameters on the nature and degree of damage are studied. The global force-time and displacement-time responses of the laminate during impact are also studied. The results of this research can be used for damage growth prediction in composite structural components subject to impact loads.

  4. Intelligent-based Structural Damage Detection Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eric Wai Ming; Yu, K.F.

    2010-05-21

    This paper presents the application of a novel Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model for the diagnosis of structural damage. The ANN model, denoted as the GRNNFA, is a hybrid model combining the General Regression Neural Network Model (GRNN) and the Fuzzy ART (FA) model. It not only retains the important features of the GRNN and FA models (i.e. fast and stable network training and incremental growth of network structure) but also facilitates the removal of the noise embedded in the training samples. Structural damage alters the stiffness distribution of the structure and so as to change the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the system. The measured modal parameter changes due to a particular damage are treated as patterns for that damage. The proposed GRNNFA model was trained to learn those patterns in order to detect the possible damage location of the structure. Simulated data is employed to verify and illustrate the procedures of the proposed ANN-based damage diagnosis methodology. The results of this study have demonstrated the feasibility of applying the GRNNFA model to structural damage diagnosis even when the training samples were noise contaminated.

  5. Numerical simulation of damage progression in unidirectional composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Michael

    1997-11-01

    The damage growth in unidirectional composite materials is a complex evolutionary process. The initiation, growth and interaction of these damage mechanisms are strongly influenced by the properties of the constituent materials. In addition, thermal residual stresses are usually induced in composite material during the curing process. Therefore it is essential to consider the effect of the properties of the constituent materials and thermal residual stresses on the fracture behavior of composite materials. In this study, a computational methodology that employs a hybrid micromechanical-anisotropic continuum model developed previously to simulate the damage growth on the constituent level of composite materials has been modified and extended to include the effect of temperature change. The unique features of this methodology is that multiple modes of damage can be simulated simultaneously, and the direction of damage growth, in the form of a crack path, needs not be pre-selected. More specifically, the methodology uses a special purpose finite element program, PSEUDO, with a node splitting and nodal force relaxation algorithm that is capable of generating new crack surfaces to simulate damage initiation and growth in unidirectional fiber reinforced composites. An incremental elastic-plastic algorithm with Jsb2 flow theory and isotropic hardening is incorporated to account for matrix plastic deformation when analyzing damage growth in metal matrix composites. Damage progression in two types of metal matrix composites, namely, the as-received boron/aluminum-5.6/6061-AR and the solution aged and treated boron/aluminum-5.6/6061-T6 metal matrix composites, with thermal residual stresses, have been analyzed. The results show that the thermal residual stresses do have significant effects on the damage initiation, damage progression and the notch strengths of the composite materials.

  6. Guest Editorial: Laser Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Vitaly Gruzdev, Michelle D. Shinn

    2012-12-01

    Laser damage of optical materials, first reported in 1964, continues to limit the output energy and power of pulsed and continuous-wave laser systems. In spite of some 48 years of research in this area, interest from the international laser community to laser damage issues remains at a very high level and does not show any sign of decreasing. Moreover, it grows with the development of novel laser systems, for example, ultrafast and short-wavelength lasers that involve new damage effects and specific mechanisms not studied before. This interest is evident from the high level of attendance and presentations at the annual SPIE Laser Damage Symposium (aka, Boulder Damage Symposium) that has been held in Boulder, Colorado, since 1969. This special section of Optical Engineering is the first one devoted to the entire field of laser damage rather than to a specific part. It is prepared in response to growing interest from the international laser-damage community. Some papers in this special section were presented at the Laser Damage Symposium; others were submitted in response to the general call for papers for this special section. The 18 papers compiled into this special section represent many sides of the broad field of laser-damage research. They consider theoretical studies of the fundamental mechanisms of laser damage including laser-driven electron dynamics in solids (O. Brenk and B. Rethfeld; A. Nikiforov, A. Epifanov, and S. Garnov; T. Apostolova et al.), modeling of propagation effects for ultrashort high-intensity laser pulses (J. Gulley), an overview of mechanisms of inclusion-induced damage (M. Koldunov and A. Manenkov), the formation of specific periodic ripples on a metal surface by femtosecond laser pulses (M. Ahsan and M. Lee), and the laser-plasma effects on damage in glass (Y. Li et al). Material characterization is represented by the papers devoted to accurate and reliable measurements of absorption with special emphasis on thin films (C. Mühlig and S

  7. Endobronchial Ultrasound Bronchoscope Damage.

    PubMed

    Patil, Monali; Harris, Kassem; Krishnan, Amita; Alraiyes, Abdul H; Dhillon, Samjot S

    2016-07-01

    Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS)-guided transbronchial needle aspiration is an effective, safe, and cost-effective diagnostic bronchoscopy technique for the work-up of mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Concern has been raised, however, about the high cost of convex-probe EBUS bronchoscope repairs. The damage is usually due to breakage of the insertion tube (the flexible part that is advanced into the airways), moisture invasion and damages to the working channel, image guide bundle, or umbilical cord. Understanding the root cause of EBUS scope damage is important for its prevention. We describe 2 unusual cases of EBUS scope damage. In the first case, the distal black rubber covering of the EBUS scope insertion tube was damaged due to friction with the edge of an endotracheal tube and in the second case, the EBUS scope insertion tube was angulating laterally instead of vertically during the flexion maneuver, probably due to scope manipulation while wedged tightly in a segmental bronchus. PMID:27077640

  8. Simultaneous Tomography and Diffraction Analysis of Creep Damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyzalla, A.; Camin, B.; Buslaps, T.; Di Michiel, M.; Kaminski, H.; Kottar, A.; Pernack, A.; Reimers, W.

    2005-04-01

    Creep damage by void nucleation and growth limits the lifetime of components subjected to loading at high temperatures. We report a combined tomography and diffraction experiment using high-energy synchrotron radiation that permitted us to follow in situ void growth and microstructure development in bulk samples. The results reveal that void growth versus time follows an exponential growth law. The formation of large void volumes coincides with texture evolution and dislocation density, reaching a steady state. Creep damage during a large proportion of sample creep life is homogeneous before damage localization occurs, which leads to rapid failure. The in situ determination of void evolution in bulk samples should allow for the assessment of creep damage in metallic materials and subsequently for lifetime predictions about samples and components that are subject to high-temperature loading.

  9. Metabolite Damage and Metabolite Damage Control in Plants.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Andrew D; Henry, Christopher S; Fiehn, Oliver; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie

    2016-04-29

    It is increasingly clear that (a) many metabolites undergo spontaneous or enzyme-catalyzed side reactions in vivo, (b) the damaged metabolites formed by these reactions can be harmful, and (c) organisms have biochemical systems that limit the buildup of damaged metabolites. These damage-control systems either return a damaged molecule to its pristine state (metabolite repair) or convert harmful molecules to harmless ones (damage preemption). Because all organisms share a core set of metabolites that suffer the same chemical and enzymatic damage reactions, certain damage-control systems are widely conserved across the kingdoms of life. Relatively few damage reactions and damage-control systems are well known. Uncovering new damage reactions and identifying the corresponding damaged metabolites, damage-control genes, and enzymes demands a coordinated mix of chemistry, metabolomics, cheminformatics, biochemistry, and comparative genomics. This review illustrates the above points using examples from plants, which are at least as prone to metabolite damage as other organisms. PMID:26667673

  10. The Growth Illusion: How Economic Growth Has Enriched the Few, Impoverished the Many, and Endangered the Planet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douthwaite, Richard

    The premise of this book is that economic growth has made life considerably worse for people in Britain since 1955 and that, even if growth were beneficial at one stage in human history, it is now damaging. The book presents evidence of social and environmental damage caused by growth and several reasons for a persistence of growth in the face of…

  11. Cumulative fatigue damage models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgaw, Michael A.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of calculating expected component life under fatigue loading conditions is complicated by the fact that component loading histories contain, in many cases, cyclic loads of widely varying amplitudes. In such a case a cumulative damage model is required, in addition to a fatigue damage criterion, or life relationship, in order to compute the expected fatigue life. The traditional cumulative damage model used in design is the linear damage rule. This model, while being simple to use, can yield grossly unconservative results under certain loading conditions. Research at the NASA Lewis Research Center has led to the development of a nonlinear cumulative damage model, named the double damage curve approach (DDCA), that has greatly improved predictive capability. This model, which considers the life (or loading) level dependence of damage evolution, was applied successfully to two polycrystalline materials, 316 stainless steel and Haynes 188. The cumulative fatigue behavior of the PWA 1480 single-crystal material is currently being measured to determine the applicability of the DDCA for this material.

  12. Laser Damage Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Optical Damage Threshold Testing Instrumentation at NASA Langley Research Center. This work was sanctioned and funded by Code Q, R, & AE to develop a new standard for damage testing various types of optical materials and coatings. Laser Induced Damage Threshold (LIDT) testing is a destructive test procedure to determine the minimum applied laser energy level that will result in damage and is referred to as the damage threshold. The damage threshold is often the critical limitation in the section of optical materials for use in high-energy laser systems.The test station consists of diagnostic equipment, beam conditioning optical elements, an inspection microscope and three lasers: a high energy pulsed ND: Yag, which develops 650mJ at 10 hz and outputs three wavelengths which include 1.06m, 532nm and 355 nm; a Ti:sapphire laser which produces a continuum of laser output from 790nm to 900nm; and a alignment HeNe, which looks yellow when mixed with the 2nd harmonic ND:Yag laser. Laser sources are used to perform damage threshold testing at the specific wavelength of interest.

  13. Damage Prediction in Sheet Metal Forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saanouni, Khémais; Badreddine, Houssem

    2007-05-01

    Ductile (or plastic) damage often occurs during sheet metal forming processes due to the large plastic flow localization. Accordingly, it is crucial for numerical tools, used in the simulation of that processes, to use fully coupled constitutive equations accounting for both hardening and damage. This can be used in both cases, namely to overcome the damage initiation during some sheet metal forming processes as deep drawing, … or to enhance the damage initiation and growth as in sheet metal cutting. In this paper, a fully coupled constitutive equations accounting for combined isotropic and kinematic hardening as well as the ductile damage is implemented into the general purpose Finite Element code for metal forming simulation. First, the fully coupled anisotropic constitutive equations in the framework of Continuum Damage Mechanics are presented. Attention is paid to the strong coupling between the main mechanical fields as elasto-viscoplasticity, mixed hardening, ductile isotropic damage and contact with friction. The anisotropy of the plastic flow is taken into account using various kinds of quadratic or non quadratic yield criteria in the framework of non associative finite plasticity theory with two types of normality rules. The associated numerical aspects concerning both the local integration of the coupled constitutive equations as well as the (global) equilibrium integration schemes are presented. The local integration is outlined thanks to the Newton iterative scheme applied to a reduced system of 2 equations. For the global resolution of the initial and boundary value problem, the classical dynamic explicit (DE) scheme with an adaptive time step control is used. The numerical implementation of the damage is made in such a manner that calculations can be executed with or without damage effect, i.e. fully coupled or uncoupled calculations. For the 2D processes an advanced adaptive meshing procedure is used in order to enhance the numerical solution and

  14. War Damage Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    During and after the Persian Gulf war, hundreds of "oil lakes" were created in Kuwait by oil released from damaged wells. The lakes are a hazard to the Kuwait atmosphere, soil and ground water and must be carefully monitored. Boston University Center for Remote Sensing, assisted by other organizations, has accurately mapped the lakes using Landsat and Spot imagery. The war damage included the formation of over 300 oil lakes, oil pollution and sand dune movement. Total damage area is over 5,400 square kilometers - 30 percent of Kuwait's total surface area.

  15. DNA Damage Response

    PubMed Central

    Giglia-Mari, Giuseppina; Zotter, Angelika; Vermeulen, Wim

    2011-01-01

    Structural changes to DNA severely affect its functions, such as replication and transcription, and play a major role in age-related diseases and cancer. A complicated and entangled network of DNA damage response (DDR) mechanisms, including multiple DNA repair pathways, damage tolerance processes, and cell-cycle checkpoints safeguard genomic integrity. Like transcription and replication, DDR is a chromatin-associated process that is generally tightly controlled in time and space. As DNA damage can occur at any time on any genomic location, a specialized spatio-temporal orchestration of this defense apparatus is required. PMID:20980439

  16. A damage mechanics based approach to structural deterioration and reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattcharya, B.; Ellingwood, B.

    1998-02-01

    Structural deterioration often occurs without perceptible manifestation. Continuum damage mechanics defines structural damage in terms of the material microstructure, and relates the damage variable to the macroscopic strength or stiffness of the structure. This enables one to predict the state of damage prior to the initiation of a macroscopic flaw, and allows one to estimate residual strength/service life of an existing structure. The accumulation of damage is a dissipative process that is governed by the laws of thermodynamics. Partial differential equations for damage growth in terms of the Helmholtz free energy are derived from fundamental thermodynamical conditions. Closed-form solutions to the equations are obtained under uniaxial loading for ductile deformation damage as a function of plastic strain, for creep damage as a function of time, and for fatigue damage as function of number of cycles. The proposed damage growth model is extended into the stochastic domain by considering fluctuations in the free energy, and closed-form solutions of the resulting stochastic differential equation are obtained in each of the three cases mentioned above. A reliability analysis of a ring-stiffened cylindrical steel shell subjected to corrosion, accidental pressure, and temperature is performed.

  17. Prevention of UV-induced skin damages by 11,14,17-eicosatrienoic acid in hairless mice in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xing-Ji; Kim, Eun Ju; Oh, In Kyung; Kim, Yeon Kyung; Park, Chi-Hyun; Chung, Jin Ho

    2010-06-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are known to play important roles in various physiological and pathological processes. Recent studies have shown that some omega-3 (omega-3) PUFAs, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and dodecahexaenoic acid (DHA), have protective effects on acute and chronic UV-induced changes. However, the effects of other omega-3 PUFAs including 11,14,17-eicosatrienoic acid (20:3) (ETA) on UV-induced skin damages are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the cutaneous photoprotective effects of ETA in hairless mice in vivo. Female HR-1 hairless mice were topically treated with vehicle (ethanol:polyethylene glycol=30:70) only, 0.1% ETA, or 1% ETA once a day for 3 successive days after one time UV irradiation (200 mJ/cm(2)) on dorsal skins. Skin biopsy was carried out on the fourth day (72 hr after UV irradiation). We found that topical treatment with ETA attenuated UV-induced epidermal and dermal thickness and infiltration of inflammatory cells, and impairment of skin barrier function. In addition, ETA suppressed the expression of IL-1beta, COX-2, and MMP-13 induced by UV irradiation. Our results show that the topical application of ETA protects against UV-induced skin damage in hairless mice and suggest that ETA can be a potential agent for preventing and/or treating UV-induced inflammation and photoaging. PMID:20514317

  18. Composites Damage Tolerance Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    The Composite Damage Tolerance Workshop included participants from NASA, academia, and private industry. The objectives of the workshop were to begin dialogue in order to establish a working group within the Agency, create awareness of damage tolerance requirements for Constellation, and discuss potential composite hardware for the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) Upper Stage (US) and Crew Module. It was proposed that a composites damage tolerance working group be created that acts within the framework of the existing NASA Fracture Control Methodology Panel. The working group charter would be to identify damage tolerance gaps and obstacles for implementation of composite structures into manned space flight systems and to develop strategies and recommendations to overcome these obstacles.

  19. LSD and Genetic Damage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishotsky, Norman I.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Reviews studies of the effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) on man and other organisms. Concludes that pure LSD injected in moderate doses does not cause chromosome or detectable genetic damage and is not a teratogen or carcinogen. (JM)

  20. Composite heat damage assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Janke, C.J.; Wachter, E.A.; Philpot, H.E.; Powell, G.L.

    1993-12-31

    The effects of heat damage were determined on the residual mechanical, physical, and chemical properties of IM6/3501-6 laminates, and potential nondestructive techniques to detect and assess material heat damage were evaluated. About one thousand preconditioned specimens were exposed to elevated temperatures, then cooled to room temperature and tested in compression, flexure, interlaminar shear, shore-D hardness, weight loss, and change in thickness. Specimens experienced significant and irreversible reduction in their residual properties when exposed to temperatures exceeding the material upper service temperature of this material (350{degrees}F). The Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform and Laser-Pumped Fluorescence techniques were found to be capable of rapid, in-service, nondestructive detection and quantitation of heat damage in IM6/3501- 6. These techniques also have the potential applicability to detect and assess heat damage effects in other polymer matrix composites.

  1. Diabetes and nerve damage

    MedlinePlus

    ... hot or cold When the nerves that control digestion are affected, you may have trouble digesting food. ... harder to control. Damage to nerves that control digestion almost always occurs in people with severe nerve ...

  2. DNA damage responses in mammalian oocytes.

    PubMed

    Collins, Josie K; Jones, Keith T

    2016-07-01

    DNA damage acquired during meiosis can lead to infertility and miscarriage. Hence, it should be important for an oocyte to be able to detect and respond to such events in order to make a healthy egg. Here, the strategies taken by oocytes during their stages of growth to respond to DNA damaging events are reviewed. In particular, recent evidence of a novel pathway in fully grown oocytes helps prevent the formation of mature eggs with DNA damage. It has been found that fully grown germinal vesicle stage oocytes that have been DNA damaged do not arrest at this point in meiosis, but instead undergo meiotic resumption and stall during the first meiotic division. The Spindle Assembly Checkpoint, which is a well-known mitotic pathway employed by somatic cells to monitor chromosome attachment to spindle microtubules, appears to be utilised by oocytes also to respond to DNA damage. As such maturing oocytes are arrested at metaphase I due to an active Spindle Assembly Checkpoint. This is surprising given this checkpoint has been previously studied in oocytes and considered to be weak and ineffectual because of its poor ability to be activated in response to microtubule attachment errors. Therefore, the involvement of the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint in DNA damage responses of mature oocytes during meiosis I uncovers a novel second function for this ubiquitous cellular checkpoint. PMID:27069010

  3. Numerical Simulation for Predicting Fatigue Damage Progress in Notched CFRP Laminates by Using Cohesive Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okabe, Tomonaga; Yashiro, Shigeki

    This study proposes the cohesive zone model (CZM) for predicting fatigue damage growth in notched carbon-fiber-reinforced composite plastic (CFRP) cross-ply laminates. In this model, damage growth in the fracture process of cohesive elements due to cyclic loading is represented by the conventional damage mechanics model. We preliminarily investigated whether this model can appropriately express fatigue damage growth for a circular crack embedded in isotropic solid material. This investigation demonstrated that this model could reproduce the results with the well-established fracture mechanics model plus the Paris' law by tuning adjustable parameters. We then numerically investigated the damage process in notched CFRP cross-ply laminates under tensile cyclic loading and compared the predicted damage patterns with those in experiments reported by Spearing et al. (Compos. Sci. Technol. 1992). The predicted damage patterns agreed with the experiment results, which exhibited the extension of multiple types of damage (e.g., splits, transverse cracks and delaminations) near the notches.

  4. Characterization and damage evaluation of advanced materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrovic, Milan

    . Finally, the influence of loading parameters on impact damage growth is investigated experimentally though constant amplitude and spectrum loading fatigue tests. Based on observed impact damage growth during these tests it is suggested that the low load levels can be deleted from the standardized test sequence without significant influence on impact damage propagation.

  5. Progressive Fracture and Damage Tolerance of Composite Pressure Vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Gotsis, Pascal K.; Minnetyan, Levon

    1997-01-01

    Structural performance (integrity, durability and damage tolerance) of fiber reinforced composite pressure vessels, designed for pressured shelters for planetary exploration, is investigated via computational simulation. An integrated computer code is utilized for the simulation of damage initiation, growth, and propagation under pressure. Aramid fibers are considered in a rubbery polymer matrix for the composite system. Effects of fiber orientation and fabrication defect/accidental damages are investigated with regard to the safety and durability of the shelter. Results show the viability of fiber reinforced pressure vessels as damage tolerant shelters for planetary colonization.

  6. Damage progression in mechanically fastened composite structural joints

    SciTech Connect

    Minnetyan, L.; Chamis, C.C.; Murthy, P.L.N.

    1994-12-31

    Progressive damage and fracture of a bolted graphite/epoxy composite laminate is evaluated via computational simulation. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate a new methodology that scales up constituent material properties, stress and strain limits to the structure level to evaluate the overall damage and fracture propagation for mechanically fastened composite structures. An integrated computer code is used for the simulation of structural degradation under loading. Damage initiation, growth, accumulation, and propagation to fracture are included in the simulation. Results show the damage progression sequence and structural fracture resistance during different degradation stages. The effect of fastener spacing is investigated with regard to the structural durability of a bolted joint.

  7. Damage signals in the insect immune response

    PubMed Central

    Krautz, Robert; Arefin, Badrul; Theopold, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Insects and mammals share an ancient innate immune system comprising both humoral and cellular responses. The insect immune system consists of the fat body, which secretes effector molecules into the hemolymph and several classes of hemocytes, which reside in the hemolymph and of protective border epithelia. Key features of wound- and immune responses are shared between insect and mammalian immune systems including the mode of activation by commonly shared microbial (non-self) patterns and the recognition of these patterns by dedicated receptors. It is unclear how metazoan parasites in insects, which lack these shared motifs, are recognized. Research in recent years has demonstrated that during entry into the insect host, many eukaryotic pathogens leave traces that alert potential hosts of the damage they have afflicted. In accordance with terminology used in the mammalian immune systems, these signals have been dubbed danger- or damage-associated signals. Damage signals are necessary byproducts generated during entering hosts either by mechanical or proteolytic damage. Here, we briefly review the current stage of knowledge on how wound closure and wound healing during mechanical damage is regulated and how damage-related signals contribute to these processes. We also discuss how sensors of proteolytic activity induce insect innate immune responses. Strikingly damage-associated signals are also released from cells that have aberrant growth, including tumor cells. These signals may induce apoptosis in the damaged cells, the recruitment of immune cells to the aberrant tissue and even activate humoral responses. Thus, this ensures the removal of aberrant cells and compensatory proliferation to replace lost tissue. Several of these pathways may have been co-opted from wound healing and developmental processes. PMID:25071815

  8. Assessing Tropical Cyclone Damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Done, J.; Czajkowski, J.

    2012-12-01

    Landfalling tropical cyclones impact large coastal and inland areas causing direct damage due to winds, storm-surge flooding, tornadoes, and precipitation; as well as causing substantial indirect damage such as electrical outages and business interruption. The likely climate change impact of increased tropical cyclone intensity, combined with increases in exposure, bring the possibility of increased damage in the future. A considerable amount of research has focused on modeling economic damage due to tropical cyclones, and a series of indices have been developed to assess damages under climate change. We highlight a number of ways this research can be improved through a series of case study analyses. First, historical loss estimates are revisited to properly account for; time, impacted regions, the source of damage by type, and whether the damage was direct/indirect and insured/uninsured. Second, the drivers of loss from both the socio-economic and physical side are examined. A case is made to move beyond the use of maximum wind speed to more stable metrics and the use of other characteristics of the wind field such as direction, degree of gustiness, and duration is explored. A novel approach presented here is the potential to model losses directly as a function of climate variables such as sea surface temperature, greenhouse gases, and aerosols. This work is the first stage in the development of a tropical cyclone loss model to enable projections of losses under scenarios of both socio-economic change (such as population migration or altered policy) and physical change (such as shifts in tropical cyclone activity one from basin to another or within the same basin).

  9. Damage analysis of a crack layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botsis, J.

    1989-01-01

    Damage analysis of a crack layer in polystyrene is carried out by employing optical microscopy and principles of quantitative stereology. The results show that, within the quasistatic phase of crack layer propagation, the average crazing density, along the trailing edge of the active zone, is constant. This is consistent with a self-similarity hypothesis of damage evolution employed by the crack layer theory. The average crazing densities within the active zone and along its trailing edge are found to be practically equal. A layer of constant crazing density, adjacent to the crack planes, accompanies the crack during its quasi-static growth. This suggests that: (1) a certain level of crazing density should be reached, around the crack tip, prior to crack advance; (2) the specific energy, associated with this 'core' of damage, could be considered as a Griffith's type energy. The results are in favor of certain hypothesis adopted by the crack layer theory.

  10. Crumpling Damaged Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordanelli, I.; Mendoza, M.; Andrade, J. S., Jr.; Gomes, M. A. F.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2016-05-01

    Through molecular mechanics we find that non-covalent interactions modify the fractality of crumpled damaged graphene. Pristine graphene membranes are damaged by adding random vacancies and carbon-hydrogen bonds. Crumpled membranes exhibit a fractal dimension of 2.71 ± 0.02 when all interactions between carbon atoms are considered, and 2.30 ± 0.05 when non-covalent interactions are suppressed. The transition between these two values, obtained by switching on/off the non-covalent interactions of equilibrium configurations, is shown to be reversible and independent on thermalisation. In order to explain this transition, we propose a theoretical model that is compatible with our numerical findings. Finally, we also compare damaged graphene membranes with other crumpled structures, as for instance polymerised membranes and paper sheets, that share similar scaling properties.

  11. Crumpling Damaged Graphene.

    PubMed

    Giordanelli, I; Mendoza, M; Andrade, J S; Gomes, M A F; Herrmann, H J

    2016-01-01

    Through molecular mechanics we find that non-covalent interactions modify the fractality of crumpled damaged graphene. Pristine graphene membranes are damaged by adding random vacancies and carbon-hydrogen bonds. Crumpled membranes exhibit a fractal dimension of 2.71 ± 0.02 when all interactions between carbon atoms are considered, and 2.30 ± 0.05 when non-covalent interactions are suppressed. The transition between these two values, obtained by switching on/off the non-covalent interactions of equilibrium configurations, is shown to be reversible and independent on thermalisation. In order to explain this transition, we propose a theoretical model that is compatible with our numerical findings. Finally, we also compare damaged graphene membranes with other crumpled structures, as for instance polymerised membranes and paper sheets, that share similar scaling properties. PMID:27173442

  12. Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James L.

    2013-01-01

    The Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch evaluates the ability of a structure to perform reliably throughout its service life in the presence of a defect, crack, or other form of damage. Such assessment is fundamental to the use of structural materials and requires an integral blend of materials engineering, fracture testing and analysis, and nondestructive evaluation. The vision of the Branch is to increase the safety of manned space flight by improving the fracture control and the associated nondestructive evaluation processes through development and application of standards, guidelines, advanced test and analytical methods. The Branch also strives to assist and solve non-aerospace related NDE and damage tolerance problems, providing consultation, prototyping and inspection services.

  13. Crumpling Damaged Graphene

    PubMed Central

    Giordanelli, I.; Mendoza, M.; Andrade Jr., J. S.; Gomes, M. A. F.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Through molecular mechanics we find that non-covalent interactions modify the fractality of crumpled damaged graphene. Pristine graphene membranes are damaged by adding random vacancies and carbon-hydrogen bonds. Crumpled membranes exhibit a fractal dimension of 2.71 ± 0.02 when all interactions between carbon atoms are considered, and 2.30 ± 0.05 when non-covalent interactions are suppressed. The transition between these two values, obtained by switching on/off the non-covalent interactions of equilibrium configurations, is shown to be reversible and independent on thermalisation. In order to explain this transition, we propose a theoretical model that is compatible with our numerical findings. Finally, we also compare damaged graphene membranes with other crumpled structures, as for instance polymerised membranes and paper sheets, that share similar scaling properties. PMID:27173442

  14. Subrupture Tendon Fatigue Damage

    PubMed Central

    Laudier, Damien M.; Shine, Jean H.; Basta-Pljakic, Jelena; Jepsen, Karl J.; Schaffler, Mitchell B.; Flatow, Evan L.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical and microstructural bases of tendon fatigue, by which damage accumulates and contributes to degradation, are poorly understood. To investigate the tendon fatigue process, rat flexor digitorum longus tendons were cyclically loaded (1–16 N) until reaching one of three levels of fatigue damage, defined as peak clamp-to-clamp strain magnitudes representing key intervals in the fatigue life: i) Low (6.0%–7.0%); ii) Moderate (8.5%–9.5%); and iii) High (11.0%–12.0%). Stiffness, hysteresis, and clamp-to-clamp strain were assessed diagnostically (by cyclic loading at 1–8 N) before and after fatigue loading and following an unloaded recovery period to identify mechanical parameters as measures of damage. Results showed that tendon clamp-to-clamp strain increased from pre- to post-fatigue loading significantly and progressively with the fatigue damage level (p≤0.010). In contrast, changes in both stiffness and hysteresis were significant only at the High fatigue level (p≤0.043). Correlative microstructural analyses showed that Low level of fatigue was characterized by isolated, transverse patterns of kinked fiber deformations. At higher fatigue levels, tendons exhibited fiber dissociation and localized ruptures of the fibers. Histomorphometric analysis showed that damage area fraction increased significantly with fatigue level (p≤0.048). The current findings characterized the sequential, microstructural events that underlie the tendon fatigue process and indicate that tendon deformation can be used to accurately assess the progression of damage accumulation in tendons. PMID:18683881

  15. Monitoring Bearing Vibrations For Signs Of Damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Carol L.

    1991-01-01

    Real-time spectral analysis of vibrations being developed for use in monitoring conditions of critical bearings in rotating machinery. Underlying concept simple and fairly well established: appearance and growth of vibrations at frequencies associated with rotations of various parts of bearing system indicate wear, damage, and imperfections of manufacture. Frequencies include fundamental and harmonics of frequency of rotation of ball cage, frequency of passage of balls, and frequency of rotation of shaft.

  16. Mechanical Data for Use in Damage Tolerance Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forth, Scott C.; James, Mark A.; Newman, John A.; Everett, Richard A., Jr.; Johnston, William M., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the results of a research program to determine the damage tolerance properties of metallic propeller materials. Three alloys were selected for investigation: 2025-T6 Aluminum, D6AC Steel and 4340 Steel. Mechanical response, fatigue (S-N) and fatigue crack growth rate data are presented for all of the alloys. The main conclusions that can be drawn from this study are as follows. The damage tolerant design of a propeller system will require a complete understanding of the fatigue crack growth threshold. There exists no experimental procedure to reliably develop the fatigue crack growth threshold data that is needed for damage tolerant design methods. Significant research will be required to fully understand the fatigue crack growth threshold. The development of alternative precracking methods, evaluating the effect of specimen configuration and attempting to identify micromechanical issues are simply the first steps to understanding the mechanics of the threshold.

  17. Modeling of Laser Induced Damage in NIF UV Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Feit, M D; Rubenchik, A M

    2001-02-21

    Controlling damage to nominally transparent optical elements such as lenses, windows and frequency conversion crystals on high power lasers is a continuing technical problem. Scientific understanding of the underlying mechanisms of laser energy absorption, material heating and vaporization and resultant mechanical damage is especially important for UV lasers with large apertures such as NIF. This LDRD project was a single year effort, in coordination with associated experimental projects, to initiate theoretical descriptions of several of the relevant processes. In understanding laser damage, we distinguish between damage initiation and the growth of existent damage upon subsequent laser irradiation. In general, the effect of damage could be ameliorated by either preventing its initiation or by mitigating its growth. The distinction comes about because initiation is generally due to extrinsic factors such as contaminants, which provide a means of local laser energy absorption. Thus, initiation tends to be local and stochastic in nature. On the other hand, the initial damaging event appears to modify the surrounding material in such a way that multiple pulse damage grows more or less regularly. More exactly, three ingredients are necessary for visible laser induced damage. These are adequate laser energy, a mechanism of laser energy absorption and mechanical weakness. For damage growth, the material surrounding a damage site is already mechanically weakened by cracks and probably chemically modified as well. The mechanical damage can also lead to electric field intensification due to interference effects, thus increasing the available laser energy density. In this project, we successfully accounted for the pulselength dependence of damage threshold in bulk DKDP crystals with the hypothesis of small absorbers with a distribution of sizes. We theoretically investigated expected scaling of damage initiation craters both to baseline detailed numerical simulations

  18. Continuum theory of fibrous tissue damage mechanics using bond kinetics: application to cartilage tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Nims, Robert J; Durney, Krista M; Cigan, Alexander D; Dusséaux, Antoine; Hung, Clark T; Ateshian, Gerard A

    2016-02-01

    This study presents a damage mechanics framework that employs observable state variables to describe damage in isotropic or anisotropic fibrous tissues. In this mixture theory framework, damage is tracked by the mass fraction of bonds that have broken. Anisotropic damage is subsumed in the assumption that multiple bond species may coexist in a material, each having its own damage behaviour. This approach recovers the classical damage mechanics formulation for isotropic materials, but does not appeal to a tensorial damage measure for anisotropic materials. In contrast with the classical approach, the use of observable state variables for damage allows direct comparison of model predictions to experimental damage measures, such as biochemical assays or Raman spectroscopy. Investigations of damage in discrete fibre distributions demonstrate that the resilience to damage increases with the number of fibre bundles; idealizing fibrous tissues using continuous fibre distribution models precludes the modelling of damage. This damage framework was used to test and validate the hypothesis that growth of cartilage constructs can lead to damage of the synthesized collagen matrix due to excessive swelling caused by synthesized glycosaminoglycans. Therefore, alternative strategies must be implemented in tissue engineering studies to prevent collagen damage during the growth process. PMID:26855751

  19. The combined effect of glass buffer strips and stitching on the damage tolerance of composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kullerd, Susan M.

    1993-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that through-the-thickness stitching provides major improvements in the damage tolerance of composite laminates loaded in compression. However, the brittle nature of polymer matrix composites makes them susceptible to damage propagation, requiring special material applications and designs to limit damage growth. Glass buffer strips, embedded within laminates, have shown the potential for improving the damage tolerance of unstitched composite laminates loaded in tension. The glass buffer strips, less stiff than the surrounding carbon fibers, arrest crack growth in composites under tensile loads. The present study investigates the damage tolerance characteristics of laminates that contain both stitching and glass buffer strips.

  20. Repairing damaged platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, R.E.; Kwok, P.H.; Wang, S.S.

    1995-10-01

    This paper introduces a unique method for strengthening of platforms and replacing damaged members. Extending the life of existing infrastructure is approved means of decreasing cash expenditures for new platforms and facilities. Platforms can be affected by corrosion, overloading and fatigue. The renovation and repair of existing offshore installations is an important part of offshore engineering. The basis behind this paper is an April, 1993 incident in the Arabian Gulf. A vessel broke loose from its moorings in a severe storm and collided with a wellhead platform. The collision severely damaged the platform buckling seven major support members and cracking joints throughout the structure. In view of the significant damage, there was an urgent need to repair the structure to avoid any further damage from potentially sever winter storm conditions. Various means of repair and their associated costs were evaluated: traditional dry hyperbaric welding, adjacent platforms, grouted clamped connections, and mechanical pipe connectors. The repair was completed using an innovative combination of clamps and wet welding to attach external braces to the structure.

  1. Courtside: A Damaging Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2004-01-01

    This case presents a costly lesson for teachers and for districts that include a liquidated, or stipulated, damages clause in their teacher employment contracts. Although the court enforced the clause in this case, in this well-reasoned recent decision and in most of the much older, canvassed case law from other jurisdictions, the answer to the…

  2. Modifying Radiation Damage

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwanghee; McBride, William H.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation leaves a fairly characteristic footprint in biological materials, but this is rapidly all but obliterated by the canonical biological responses to the radiation damage. The innate immune recognition systems that sense “danger” through direct radiation damage and through associated collateral damage set in motion a chain of events that, in a tissue compromised by radiation, often unwittingly result in oscillating waves of molecular and cellular responses as tissues attempt to heal. Understanding “nature’s whispers” that inform on these processes will lead to novel forms of intervention targeted more precisely towards modifying them in an appropriate and timely fashion so as to improve the healing process and prevent or mitigate the development of acute and late effects of normal tissue radiation damage, whether it be accidental, as a result of a terrorist incident, or of therapeutic treatment of cancer. Here we attempt to discuss some of the non-free radical scavenging mechanisms that modify radiation responses and comment on where we see them within a conceptual framework of an evolving radiation-induced lesion. PMID:20583981

  3. Loss and damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huq, Saleemul; Roberts, Erin; Fenton, Adrian

    2013-11-01

    Loss and damage is a relative newcomer to the climate change agenda. It has the potential to reinvigorate existing mitigation and adaptation efforts, but this will ultimately require leadership from developed countries and enhanced understanding of several key issues, such as limits to adaptation.

  4. Laryngeal nerve damage

    MedlinePlus

    Laryngeal nerve damage is injury to one or both of the nerves that are attached to the voice box. ... Injury to the laryngeal nerves is uncommon. When it does occur, it can be from: A complication of neck or chest surgery (especially thyroid, lung, ...

  5. Coping with brain damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waring, W.

    1974-01-01

    Two neurological disorders, cerebral palsy, and traumatic brain damage as from an accident, are considered. The discussion covers the incidence of disabilities, their characteristics, and what is now being done to deal with them, particularly in reference to areas in which the capabilities of the engineer can be effectively applied.

  6. Factors derived from Escherichia coli Nissle 1917, grown in different growth media, enhance cell death in a model of 5-fluorouracil-induced Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cell damage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hanru; Bastian, Susan E P; Lawrence, Andrew; Howarth, Gordon S

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated supernatants (SNs) from Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) grown in commonly used growth media for their capacity to affect the viability of Caco-2 colon cancer cells in the presence and absence of 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy. EcN was grown in Luria-Bertani (LB), tryptone soya (TSB), Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS), and M17 broth supplemented with 10% (v/v) lactose solution (M17). Human Caco-2 colon cancer cells were treated with DMEM (control), growth media alone (LB, TSB, MRS, and M17) or EcN SNs derived from these 4 media, in the presence and absence of 5-FU. Cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cell monolayer permeability were determined. EcN SN in LB medium reduced Caco-2 cell viability significantly, to 51% at 48 h. The combination of this EcN SN and 5-FU further reduced cell viability to 37% at 48 h, compared to 5-FU control. MRS broth and EcN SN in MRS, together with 5-FU, generated significantly lower levels of ROS compared to 5-FU control. However, all 5-FU treatments significantly disrupted the Caco-2 cell barrier compared to control; with no significant differences observed among any of the 5-FU treatments. EcN SNs (LB+) was most effective at decreasing the viability of Caco-2 cells. This could indicate a potential role for this EcN SN in chemoprevention for colon cancer. PMID:25625670

  7. Damage Detection and Analysis in CFRPs Using Acoustic Emission Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitlow, Travis Laron

    Real time monitoring of damage is an important aspect of life management of critical structures. Acoustic emission (AE) techniques allow for measurement and assessment of damage in real time. Acoustic emission parameters such as signal amplitude and duration were monitored during the loading sequences. Criteria that can indicate the onset of critical damage to the structure were developed. Tracking the damage as it happens gives a better analysis of the failure evolution that will allow for a more accurate determination of structural life. The main challenge is distinguishing between legitimate damage signals and "false positives" which are unrelated to damage growth. Such false positives can be related to electrical noise, friction, or mechanical vibrations. This research focuses on monitoring signals of damage growth in carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs) and separating the relevant signals from the false ones. In this Dissertation, acoustic emission signals from CFRP specimens were experimentally recorded and analyzed. The objectives of this work are: (1) perform static and fatigue loading of CFRP composite specimens and measure the associated AE signals, (2) accurately determine the AE parameters (energy, frequency, duration, etc.) of signals generated during failure of such specimens, (3) use fiber optic sensors to monitor the strain distribution of the damage zone and relate these changes in strain measurements to AE data.

  8. Damage mechanics in engineering materials

    SciTech Connect

    Voyiadjis, G.Z.; Woody Ju, J.W.; Chaboche, J.L.

    1998-12-31

    This book contains thirty peer-reviewed papers that are based on the presentations made at the symposium on Damage Mechanics in Engineering Materials on the occasion of the Joint ASME/ASCE/SES Mechanics Conference (McNU97), held in Evanston, Illinois, June 28--July 2, 1997. The key area of discussion was on the constitutive modeling of damage mechanics in engineering materials encompassing the following topics: macromechanics/micromechanical constitutive modeling, experimental procedures, numerical modeling, inelastic behavior, interfaces, damage, fracture, failure, computational methods. The book is divided into six parts: study of damage mechanics; localization and damage; damage in brittle materials; damage in metals and metal matrix composites; computational aspects of damage models; damage in polymers and elastomers.

  9. Predicting bulk damage in NIF triple harmonic generators

    SciTech Connect

    De Yoreo, J; Runkel, M; Williams, W

    1998-09-18

    Recently reported experiments have investigated the statistics of laser damage in KDP and KD*P. Automated damage tests have allowed cumulative failure and damage probability distributions to be constructed. Large area tests have investigated the feasibility of on-line laser conditioning and damage evolution for tripler harmonic generation (THG) crystals on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). These tests have shown that there is a nonzero probability of damage at NIF redline fluence (14.3 J/cm2, 351 nm, 3 ns) and that the damage pinpoint density evolves exponentially with fluence. In this paper, the results of these tests are used in conjunction with model spatial profiles of the NIP beam to predict the level of damage created in the THG crystal. A probabilistic calculation based on the overlap of the beam fluence and damage probabiity distribution shows that the overall damage probability is less than 3% for well-conditioned, high quality KDP/KD*P crystals of conventional or rapid growth. The number density of generated pinpoints has been calculated by mapping the damage evolution curves onto the NlF model profile. This shows that the number of damage pinpoints generated in high fluence portions of the NIF beam will be low for well-conditioned THG crystals. In contrast, unconditioned triplers of the same material will exhibit an increase in pinpoint density of greater than 20x. To test the validity of these calculations a 37 cm, conventionally grown KD*P tripler from the Beamlet laser was scatter mapped for bulk damage. The tripler had been exposed to NE-like fluences during its operational lifetime on Beamlet and exhibited very low levels of bulk pinpoint damage, essentially supporting the predictions based on tests and modeling.

  10. DNA damage tolerance.

    PubMed

    Branzei, Dana; Psakhye, Ivan

    2016-06-01

    Accurate chromosomal DNA replication is fundamental for optimal cellular function and genome integrity. Replication perturbations activate DNA damage tolerance pathways, which are crucial to complete genome duplication as well as to prevent formation of deleterious double strand breaks. Cells use two general strategies to tolerate lesions: recombination to a homologous template, and trans-lesion synthesis with specialized polymerases. While key players of these processes have been outlined, much less is known on their choreography and regulation. Recent advances have uncovered principles by which DNA damage tolerance is regulated locally and temporally - in relation to replication timing and cell cycle stage -, and are beginning to elucidate the DNA dynamics that mediate lesion tolerance and influence chromosome structure during replication. PMID:27060551

  11. Hypertension and cerebrovascular damage.

    PubMed

    Veglio, Franco; Paglieri, Cristina; Rabbia, Franco; Bisbocci, Daniela; Bergui, Mauro; Cerrato, Paolo

    2009-08-01

    Hypertension is the most important modifiable factor for cerebrovascular disease. Stroke and dementia are growing health problems that have considerable social and economical consequences. Hypertension causes brain lesions by several mechanisms predisposing to lacunar infarctions, leucoaraiosis, and white matter changes as well as to intracerebral haemorrhages. These parenchymal damages determine evident or silent neurological alterations that often precede the onset of cognitive decline. It is important to recognize cerebrovascular disease and, above all, to correlate typical lesions to hypertension. Antihypertensive therapy has shown clinical benefits in primary and secondary prevention of stroke. These drugs represent important instruments against cerebrovascular disease but their effects on cognition are still matter of debate. Cerebral parenchymal and functional damages have to be considered together to make medical intervention more incisive. PMID:19100549

  12. Synthesis, growth, structural and HOMO and LUMO, MEP analysis of a new stilbazolium derivative crystal: A enhanced third-order NLO properties with a high laser-induced damage threshold for NLO applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil, K.; Kalainathan, S.; Hamada, F.; Yamada, M.; Aravindan, P. G.

    2015-08-01

    A new organic third-order nonlinear optical crystal from stilbazolium family 2-[2-(4-methoxy-phenyl) vinyl]-1-methyl-pyridinium tetrafluoroborate (4MSTB) has been synthesized and grown by slow evaporation method for the first time. The grown crystal structure was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, and it is revealed that the grown crystal crystallized in a triclinic crystal system with centrosymmetric space group P 1 bar . The HOMO and LUMO energies were calculated for the grown crystal explains charge transfer takes place within the molecule and confirms the suitability of the title crystal for NLO applications. The presence of various vibration modes of expected functional groups was identified by FT-IR analysis. The transmittance ability of the grown crystal was also analyzed by using UV-Vis-NIR spectral studies and shows that the crystal has no absorption of light in the entire Vis-NIR region. The thermal stability of the title crystal has been investigated by TGA/DTA studies and revealed that the material was thermally stable up to the melting point, 193 °C. The hardness number, Meyer index, yield strength, and elastic stiffness constant has been estimated for the grown 4MSTB crystal using Vickers microhardness tester. Photoluminescence excitation studies showed green emission radiation occurred at 517 nm. The dielectric properties of the grown crystal have been analyzed as a function of temperature over a wide range of frequency (50 Hz-5 MHz) by using LCR meter. The result of ac electrical conductivity of 4MSTB was found to be 5.25 × 10-5 (Ω m)-1. The laser damage threshold (LDT) energy for the grown crystal has been measured by using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser as a source in single-shot mode (1064 nm, 10 Hz, 420 mJ). The result of LDT indicates that grown title crystal has excellent resistance to laser radiation than those of known some inorganic NLO materials. The chemical etching studies were carried out to assess the perfection of

  13. Tornado damage risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhold, T.A.; Ellingwood, B.

    1982-09-01

    Several proposed models were evaluated for predicting tornado wind speed probabilities at nuclear plant sites as part of a program to develop statistical data on tornadoes needed for probability-based load combination analysis. A unified model was developed which synthesized the desired aspects of tornado occurrence and damage potential. The sensitivity of wind speed probability estimates to various tornado modeling assumptions are examined, and the probability distributions of tornado wind speed that are needed for load combination studies are presented.

  14. Keratinocyte growth factor and androgen blockade work in concert to protect against conditioning regimen-induced thymic epithelial damage and enhance T-cell reconstitution after murine bone marrow transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Ryan M.; Highfill, Steven L.; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Taylor, Patricia A.; Boyd, Richard L.; Holländer, Georg A.

    2008-01-01

    Myeloablative conditioning results in thymic epithelial cell (TEC) injury, slow T-cell reconstitution, and a high risk of opportunistic infections. Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) stimulates TEC proliferation and, when given preconditioning, reduces TEC injury. Thymocytes and TECs express androgen receptors, and exposure to androgen inhibits thymopoiesis. In this study, we have investigated whether TEC stimulation via preconditioning treatment with KGF and leuprolide acetate (Lupron), 2 clinically approved agents, given only before conditioning would circumvent the profound TEC and associated T-cell deficiency seen in allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients. Only combined treatment with KGF plus leuprolide acetate normalized TEC subset numbers and thymic architecture. Thymopoiesis and thymic output were supranormal, leading to the accelerated peripheral reconstitution of naive CD4 and CD8 T cells with a broad Vβ repertoire and decreased homeostatic T-cell proliferation. Combined therapy facilitated T:B cooperativity and enabled a B-cell humoral response to a CD4 T cell–dependent neoantigen challenge soon after BMT. In vivo antigen-specific CD8 T-cell responses and clearance of a live pathogen was superior with combined versus individual agent therapy. Thus, KGF combined with androgen blockade represents a novel approach to restore thymic function and facilitates the rapid recovery of peripheral T-cell function after allogeneic BMT. PMID:18334670

  15. Growth Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... gland problem or disease. The pituitary gland makes growth hormone, which stimulates the growth of bone and other ... of it may be very short. Treatment with growth hormone can stimulate growth. People can also have too ...

  16. Fatigue damage prognosis using affine arithmetic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gbaguidi, Audrey; Kim, Daewon

    2014-02-01

    Among the essential steps to be taken in structural health monitoring systems, damage prognosis would be the field that is least investigated due to the complexity of the uncertainties. This paper presents the possibility of using Affine Arithmetic for uncertainty propagation of crack damage in damage prognosis. The structures examined are thin rectangular plates made of titanium alloys with central mode I cracks and a composite plate with an internal delamination caused by mixed mode I and II fracture modes, under a harmonic uniaxial loading condition. The model-based method for crack growth rates are considered using the Paris Erdogan law model for the isotropic plates and the delamination growth law model proposed by Kardomateas for the composite plate. The parameters for both models are randomly taken and their uncertainties are considered as defined by an interval instead of a probability distribution. A Monte Carlo method is also applied to check whether Affine Arithmetic (AA) leads to tight bounds on the lifetime of the structure.

  17. Damage and strength of composite materials: Trends, predictions, and challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, T. Kevin

    1994-01-01

    Research on damage mechanisms and ultimate strength of composite materials relevant to scaling issues will be addressed in this viewgraph presentation. The use of fracture mechanics and Weibull statistics to predict scaling effects for the onset of isolated damage mechanisms will be highlighted. The ability of simple fracture mechanics models to predict trends that are useful in parametric or preliminary designs studies will be reviewed. The limitations of these simple models for complex loading conditions will also be noted. The difficulty in developing generic criteria for the growth of these mechanisms needed in progressive damage models to predict strength will be addressed. A specific example for a problem where failure is a direct consequence of progressive delamination will be explored. A damage threshold/fail-safety concept for addressing composite damage tolerance will be discussed.

  18. Delamination, durability, and damage tolerance of laminated composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, T. Kevin

    1993-01-01

    Durability and damage tolerance may have different connotations to people from different industries and with different backgrounds. Damage tolerance always refers to a safety of flight issue where the structure must be able to sustain design limit loads in the presence of damage and return to base safely. Durability, on the other hand, is an economic issue where the structure must be able to survive a certain life under load before the initiation of observable damage. Delamination is typically the observable damage mechanism that is of concern for durability, and the growth and accumulation of delaminations through the laminate thickness is often the sequence of events that leads to failure and the loss of structural integrity.

  19. Development of a viscoelastic continuum damage model for cyclic loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, R. W.

    2008-12-01

    A previously developed spectrum model for linear viscoelastic behavior of solids is used to describe the rate-dependent damage growth of a time dependent material under cyclic loading. Through the use of the iterative solution of a special Volterra integral equation, the cyclic strain history is described. The spectrum-based model is generalized for any strain rate and any uniaxial load history to formulate the damage function. Damage evolution in the body is described through the use of a rate-type evolution law which uses a pseudo strain to express the viscoelastic constitutive equation with damage. The resulting damage function is used to formulate a residual strength model. The methodology presented is demonstrated by comparing the peak values of the computed cyclic strain history as well as the residual strength model predictions to the experimental data of a polymer matrix composite.

  20. A Novel Approach to Rotorcraft Damage Tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forth, Scott C.; Everett, Richard A.; Newman, John A.

    2002-01-01

    Damage-tolerance methodology is positioned to replace safe-life methodologies for designing rotorcraft structures. The argument for implementing a damage-tolerance method comes from the fundamental fact that rotorcraft structures typically fail by fatigue cracking. Therefore, if technology permits prediction of fatigue-crack growth in structures, a damage-tolerance method should deliver the most accurate prediction of component life. Implementing damage-tolerance (DT) into high-cycle-fatigue (HCF) components will require a shift from traditional DT methods that rely on detecting an initial flaw with nondestructive inspection (NDI) methods. The rapid accumulation of cycles in a HCF component will result in a design based on a traditional DT method that is either impractical because of frequent inspections, or because the design will be too heavy to operate efficiently. Furthermore, once a HCF component develops a detectable propagating crack, the remaining fatigue life is short, sometimes less than one flight hour, which does not leave sufficient time for inspection. Therefore, designing a HCF component will require basing the life analysis on an initial flaw that is undetectable with current NDI technology.

  1. The constitutive representation of high-temperature creep damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, K. S.

    1988-01-01

    The elastic-viscoplastic constitutive equations of Bodner-Partom were applied to modeling creep damage in a high temperature Ni-alloy, B1900 + Hf. Both tertiary creep in bulk materials and creep crack growth in flawed materials were considered. In the latter case, the energy rate line integral was used for characterizing the crack driving force, and the rate of crack extension was computed using a local damage formulation that assumed fracture was controlled by cavitation occurring within the crack-tip process zone. The results of this investigation were used to assess the evolution equation for isotropic damage utilized in the Bodner-Partom constitutive equations.

  2. Identification and Elimination of Mechanisms Leading to UV Damage of DKDP

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, A; Runkel, M; Chase, L; Demos, S; Staggs, M; Siekhaus, W

    2001-03-06

    This LDRD project addressed both bulk and surface damage induced by UV-laser exposure. The primary objectives were (1) to complete our understanding of the factors leading to bulk damage, including growth conditions and orientational direction, and (2) to identify mechanisms of surface damage initiation and growth leading to mitigation methods. Due to the more advanced state of knowledge in bulk damage, a greater portion of that work was completed during the one-year term of this project. Three papers were presented at the 32nd Boulder Damage Symposium on Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, and the three resulting manuscripts submitted to the Proceeding are attached: An important result from this work is that it established a dependence of obscuration from bulk damage on fluence and pulse length, which is shown.

  3. Damage tolerance for commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lincoln, John W.

    1992-01-01

    The damage tolerance experience in the United States Air Force with military aircraft and in the commercial world with large transport category aircraft indicates that a similar success could be achieved in commuter aircraft. The damage tolerance process is described for the purpose of defining the approach that could be used for these aircraft to ensure structural integrity. Results of some of the damage tolerance assessments for this class of aircraft are examined to illustrate the benefits derived from this approach. Recommendations are given for future damage tolerance assessment of existing commuter aircraft and on the incorporation of damage tolerance capability in new designs.

  4. DNA damage checkpoint, damage repair, and genome stability.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-Feng; Yu, Shan-Shan; Chen, Guan-Jun; Li, Yue-Zhong

    2006-05-01

    Genomic DNA is under constant attack from both endogenous and exogenous sources of DNA damaging agents. Without proper care, the ensuing DNA damages would lead to alteration of genomic structure thus affecting the faithful transmission of genetic information. During the process of evolution, organisms have acquired a series of mechanisms responding to and repairing DNA damage, thus assuring the maintenance of genome stability and faithful transmission of genetic information. DNA damage checkpoint is one such important mechanism by which, in the face of DNA damage, a cell can respond to amplified damage signals, either by actively halting the cell cycle until it ensures that critical processes such as DNA replication or mitosis are complete or by initiating apoptosis as a last resort. Over the last decade, complex hierarchical interactions between the key components like ATM/ATR in the checkpoint pathway and various other mediators, effectors including DNA damage repair proteins have begun to emerge. In the meantime, an intimate relationship between mechanisms of damage checkpoint pathway, DNA damage repair, and genome stability was also uncovered. Reviewed herein are the recent findings on both the mechanisms of activation of checkpoint pathways and their coordination with DNA damage repair machinery as well as their effect on genomic integrity. PMID:16722332

  5. Progressive damage state evolution and quantification in composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, Subir; Banerjee, Sourav

    2016-04-01

    Precursor damage state quantification can be helpful for safety and operation of aircraft and defense equipment's. Damage develops in the composite material in the form of matrix cracking, fiber breakages and deboning, etc. However, detection and quantification of the damage modes at their very early stage is not possible unless modifications of the existing indispensable techniques are conceived, particularly for the quantification of multiscale damages at their early stage. Here, we present a novel nonlocal mechanics based damage detection technique for precursor damage state quantification. Micro-continuum physics is used by modifying the Christoffel equation. American society of testing and materials (ASTM) standard woven carbon fiber (CFRP) specimens were tested under Tension-Tension fatigue loading at the interval of 25,000 cycles until 500,000 cycles. Scanning Acoustic Microcopy (SAM) and Optical Microscopy (OM) were used to examine the damage development at the same interval. Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) velocity profile on a representative volume element (RVE) of the specimen were calculated at the regular interval of 50,000 cycles. Nonlocal parameters were calculated form the micromorphic wave dispersion curve at a particular frequency of 50 MHz. We used a previously formulated parameter called "Damage entropy" which is a measure of the damage growth in the material calculated with the loading cycle. Damage entropy (DE) was calculated at every pixel on the RVE and the mean of DE was plotted at the loading interval of 25,000 cycle. Growth of DE with fatigue loading cycles was observed. Optical Imaging also performed at the interval of 25,000 cycles to investigate the development of damage inside the materials. We also calculated the mean value of the Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) velocity and plotted with fatigue cycle which is correlated further with Damage Entropy (DE). Statistical analysis of the Surface Acoustic Wave profile (SAW) obtained at different

  6. Damage scenarios and an onboard support system for damaged ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jin; Lee, Dongkon; Kang, Hee Jin; Kim, Soo-Young; Shin, Sung-Chul

    2014-06-01

    Although a safety assessment of damaged ships, which considers environmental conditions such as waves and wind, is important in both the design and operation phases of ships, in Korea, rules or guidelines to conduct such assessments are not yet developed. However, NATO and European maritime societies have developed guidelines for a safety assessment. Therefore, it is required to develop rules or guidelines for safety assessments such as the Naval Ship Code (NSC) of NATO. Before the safety assessment of a damaged ship can be performed, the available damage scenarios must be developed and the safety assessment criteria must be established. In this paper, the parameters related to damage by accidents are identified and categorized when developing damage scenarios. The need for damage safety assessment criteria is discussed, and an example is presented. In addition, a concept and specifications for the DB-based supporting system, which is used in the operation phases, are proposed.

  7. Mechanism of frost damage to concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhenhua

    We studied several topics that are important to explain the mechanisms of frost damage to concrete, including the volume change of concrete during freezing, the role of air voids in protecting concrete from frost damage, the pore structure of concrete, and the nucleation and propagation of ice in concrete. By combining calorimetric measurements with dilatometry, we were able to calculate the contributions of thermal expansion, pore pressure, and crystallization pressure of ice to the strain observed in a mortar during freezing/thawing cycles. Air-entrained mortars contract upon freezing due to the cryo-suction effect, while non-air-entrained mortars expand primarily due to hydraulic pressure. Based on the theory originally proposed by Powers and Helmuth, we show that the poromechanical calculations account quantitatively for the contraction of samples with air entrainment, which is shown to quantitatively account for a reduction of salt scaling damage based on the glue-spall theory. The method of thermoporometry (TPM) that we used to study the pore structure of concrete is also discussed. In a study of ice propagation inside concrete, we re-examined experiments by Helmuth [Proc. 4th Int. Cong. Chem. Cement, NBS Monog. 43, Vol. II (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1962) pp. 855--869] from which he concluded that ice grows in the pores of cement paste under heat-flow control, and that the internal temperature rises to the melting point given by the Gibbs-Thomson equation. Using experimental and computational methods, we find that his conclusions are correct, but the growth rates he reports are misleading. Our experiment reveals the true growth rate, which is about three times smaller than found by Helmuth. The dendritic morphology explains how fast constant growth rates can occur when the interior temperature of the sample is very near the melting point: the temperature at the tip of the dendrite is a few degrees below the melting point, but the liquid

  8. Radiation Damage Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stella, P. M.

    1984-01-01

    The availability of data regarding the radiation behavior of GaAs and silicon solar cells is discussed as well as efforts to provide sufficient information. Other materials are considered too immature for reasonable radiation evaluation. The lack of concern over the possible catastrophic radiation degradation in cascade cells is a potentially serious problem. Lithium counterdoping shows potential for removing damage in irradiated P-type material, although initial efficiencies are not comparable to current state of the art. The possibility of refining the lithium doping method to maintain high initial efficiencies and combining it with radiation tolerant structures such as thin BSF cells or vertical junction cells could provide a substantial improvement in EOL efficiencies. Laser annealing of junctions, either those formed ion implantation or diffusion, may not only improve initial cell performance but might also reduce the radiation degradation rate.

  9. Damage control resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Pohlman, Timothy H; Walsh, Mark; Aversa, John; Hutchison, Emily M; Olsen, Kristen P; Lawrence Reed, R

    2015-07-01

    The early recognition and management of hemorrhage shock are among the most difficult tasks challenging the clinician during primary assessment of the acutely bleeding patient. Often with little time, within a chaotic setting, and without sufficient clinical data, a decision must be reached to begin transfusion of blood components in massive amounts. The practice of massive transfusion has advanced considerably and is now a more complete and, arguably, more effective process. This new therapeutic paradigm, referred to as damage control resuscitation (DCR), differs considerably in many important respects from previous management strategies for catastrophic blood loss. We review several important elements of DCR including immediate correction of specific coagulopathies induced by hemorrhage and management of several extreme homeostatic imbalances that may appear in the aftermath of resuscitation. We also emphasize that the foremost objective in managing exsanguinating hemorrhage is always expedient and definitive control of the source of bleeding. PMID:25631636

  10. Multivariate pluvial flood damage models

    SciTech Connect

    Van Ootegem, Luc; Verhofstadt, Elsy; Van Herck, Kristine; Creten, Tom

    2015-09-15

    Depth–damage-functions, relating the monetary flood damage to the depth of the inundation, are commonly used in the case of fluvial floods (floods caused by a river overflowing). We construct four multivariate damage models for pluvial floods (caused by extreme rainfall) by differentiating on the one hand between ground floor floods and basement floods and on the other hand between damage to residential buildings and damage to housing contents. We do not only take into account the effect of flood-depth on damage, but also incorporate the effects of non-hazard indicators (building characteristics, behavioural indicators and socio-economic variables). By using a Tobit-estimation technique on identified victims of pluvial floods in Flanders (Belgium), we take into account the effect of cases of reported zero damage. Our results show that the flood depth is an important predictor of damage, but with a diverging impact between ground floor floods and basement floods. Also non-hazard indicators are important. For example being aware of the risk just before the water enters the building reduces content damage considerably, underlining the importance of warning systems and policy in this case of pluvial floods. - Highlights: • Prediction of damage of pluvial floods using also non-hazard information • We include ‘no damage cases’ using a Tobit model. • The damage of flood depth is stronger for ground floor than for basement floods. • Non-hazard indicators are especially important for content damage. • Potential gain of policies that increase awareness of flood risks.

  11. Mouth Growths

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dry Mouth Mouth Growths Mouth Sores and Inflammation Toothache Malocclusion Teeth Grinding Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis Growths can ... Dry Mouth Mouth Growths Mouth Sores and Inflammation Toothache Malocclusion Teeth Grinding Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis NOTE: This ...

  12. Experimental verification of a progressive damage model for composite laminates based on continuum damage mechanics. M.S. Thesis Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coats, Timothy William

    1994-01-01

    Progressive failure is a crucial concern when using laminated composites in structural design. Therefore the ability to model damage and predict the life of laminated composites is vital. The purpose of this research was to experimentally verify the application of the continuum damage model, a progressive failure theory utilizing continuum damage mechanics, to a toughened material system. Damage due to tension-tension fatigue was documented for the IM7/5260 composite laminates. Crack density and delamination surface area were used to calculate matrix cracking and delamination internal state variables, respectively, to predict stiffness loss. A damage dependent finite element code qualitatively predicted trends in transverse matrix cracking, axial splits and local stress-strain distributions for notched quasi-isotropic laminates. The predictions were similar to the experimental data and it was concluded that the continuum damage model provided a good prediction of stiffness loss while qualitatively predicting damage growth in notched laminates.

  13. Identification and Elimination of Fluorescent Surface-Damage Precursors on DKDP Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Nostrand, M; Thompson, S; Siekhaus, W; Fluss, M; Hahn, D; Whitman, P; Burnham, A

    2002-11-15

    Fluorescing surface defects that led to damage upon 351-nm laser exposure below 7 J/cm{sup 2} (3-11s) in DKDP optics were reported in these proceedings by this group a year ago. Subsequent laser damage experiments have correlated the density of these damage precursors to single-point diamond finishing conditions. Every diamond-finishing schedule contains brittle-mode cutting and ductile-mode cutting in a taper-down sequence. Finishing experiments have traced the occurrence of these defects to insufficient ductile-mode removal of subsurface damage incurred during prior brittle-mode cutting. Additionally, a correlation between defect fluorescence, laser-induced damage, and defect morphology has been established. Laser-induced damage tests also suggest a correlation between growth method and damage probability. Current experiments indicate that damage-prone defects can be minimized with the proper choice of diamond finishing conditions.

  14. Mechanisms controlling fatigue damage development in continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.

    1989-01-01

    Damage in continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composite materials can be quite complex since there are a number of different constituents (fiber, matrix, and the fiber/matrix interface) that can fail. Multidirectional lay-ups have an even greater number of possible damage orientations and mechanisms. Based on the simplifying assumption of equivalent constituent strain states in the absence of damage, a strain based failure criteria may be applied to determine when and where initial damage will occur. Based on the relative strain to fatigue failure of the fiber and matrix, the possible damage mechanisms of an MMC can be grouped into three categories: (1) matrix dominated, (2) fiber dominated, and (3) self-similar damage growth. A fourth type of damage development, fiber/matrix interface failure, is dependent on the relative strength of the fiber/matrix interface and the matrix yield strength. These four types of damage are discussed and illustrated by examples.

  15. Creep damage in a localized load sharing fibre bundle model with additional ageing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lennartz-Sassinek, Sabine; Danku, Zsuzsa; Main, Ian; Kun, Ferenc

    2013-04-01

    Many fields of science are interested in the damage growth in earth materials. Often the damage propagates not in big avalanches like the crack growth measured by acoustic emissions. Also "silent" damage may occur whose emissions are either to small to be detected or mix with back ground noise. These silent emissions may carry the majority of the over all damage in a system until failure. One famous model for damage growth is the fibre bundle model. Here we consider an extended version of a localized load sharing fibre bundle model which incorporates additional time dependent ageing of each fibre motivated by a chemically active environment. We present the non-trivial time dependent damage growth in this model in the low load limit representing creep damage far away from failure. We show both numerical simulations and analytical equations describing the damage rate of silent events and the corresponding amount of triggered "acoustic" damage. The analytical description is in agreement with the numerical results.

  16. Fracture and damage; Winter Annual Meeting of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Anaheim, CA, Nov. 8-13, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagar, Arvind (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The latest developments in the area of fracture and damage at high temperatures are discussed, in particular: modeling; analysis and experimental techniques for interface damage in composites including the effects of residual stresses and temperatures; and crack growth, inelastic deformation and fracture parameters for isotropic materials. Also included are damage modeling and experiments at elevated temperatures.

  17. Prediction of tissue thermal damage.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Zhong, Yongmin; Subic, Aleksandar; Jazar, Reza; Smith, Julian; Gu, Chengfan

    2016-04-29

    This paper presents a method to characterize tissue thermal damage by taking into account the thermal-mechanical effect of soft tissues for thermal ablation. This method integrates the bio-heating conduction and non-rigid motion dynamics to describe thermal-mechanical behaviors of soft tissues and further extends the traditional tissue damage model to characterize thermal-mechanical damage of soft tissues. Simulations and comparison analysis demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively predict tissue thermal damage and it also provides reliable guidelines for control of the thermal ablation procedure. PMID:27163325

  18. The characterization of widespread fatigue damage in fuselage structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Willard, Scott A.; Miller, Matthew

    1994-01-01

    The characteristics of widespread fatigue damage (WSFD) in fuselage riveted structure were established by detailed nondestructive and destructive examinations of fatigue damage contained in a full size fuselage test article. The objectives of this were to establish an experimental data base for validating emerging WSFD analytical prediction methodology and to identify first order effects that contribute to fatigue crack initiation and growth. Detailed examinations were performed on a test panel containing four bays of a riveted lap splice joint. The panel was removed from a full scale fuselage test article after receiving 60,000 full pressurization cycles. The results of in situ examinations document the progression of fuselage skin fatigue crack growth through crack linkup. Detailed tear down examinations and fractography of the lap splice joint region revealed fatigue crack initiation sites, crack morphology, and crack linkup geometry. From this large data base, distributions of crack size and locations are presented and discussions of operative damage mechanisms are offered.

  19. UV Radiation Damage and Bacterial DNA Repair Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zion, Michal; Guy, Daniel; Yarom, Ruth; Slesak, Michaela

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a simple hands-on laboratory procedure for high school students in studying both radiation damage and DNA repair systems in bacteria. The sensitivity to ultra-violet (UV) radiation of both "Escherichia coli" and "Serratia marcescens" is tested by radiating them for varying time periods. Two growth temperatures are used in…

  20. Damage mechanics - failure modes

    SciTech Connect

    Krajcinovic, D.; Vujosevic, M.

    1996-12-31

    The present study summarizes the results of the DOE sponsored research program focused on the brittle failure of solids with disordered microstructure. The failure is related to the stochastic processes on the microstructural scale; namely, the nucleation and growth of microcracks. The intrinsic failure modes, such as the percolation, localization and creep rupture, are studied by emphasizing the effect of the micro-structural disorder. A rich spectrum of physical phenomena and new concepts that emerges from this research demonstrates the reasons behind the limitations of traditional, deterministic, and local continuum models.

  1. Crop Damage: The Hail Size Factor.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, J. L.; Fraile, R.; de La Madrid, J. L.; de La Fuente, M. T.; Rodríguez, P.; Castro, A.

    1996-09-01

    Between 1986 and 1992 a research project was developed and carried out on hail climatology and the economic repercussions of hail on agriculture in León (northwestern Spain). A target area with an extent of 6825 km2 was defined, within which a network of meteorological observers was established at an average density of 1 per 17 km2. A network of 250 hailpads installed in a grid formation was also laid out over an area of 1000 km2 inside the target area. The frequent occurrence of hailfalls—122 hail days over seven consecutive summers—provided a detailed database and allowed several climatological studies to be made. Crop damage was also closely monitored and quantified. Barley and wheat were selected as crops on which to base an analysis of the relationship between hailfall characteristics and crop damage. As the resistance of plants to hailstones is held to vary according to their physiological state, four different stages of plant growth were defined, beginning with the formation of grain heads.An important conclusion was drawn: the dispersion of percentages of damage always covers the possible variations in resistance caused by the physiological state of the plants. As a result, using only minimal information about hailfall characteristics—namely, the initial reports of observers regarding hailstone size—a working statistical model has successfully been constructed to predict losses to barley and wheat, using data provided by the León hail project.

  2. On the monitoring and implications of growing damages caused by manufacturing defects in composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schagerl, M.; Viechtbauer, C.; Hörrmann, S.

    2015-07-01

    Damage tolerance is a classical safety concept for the design of aircraft structures. Basically, this approach considers possible damages in the structure, predicts the damage growth under applied loading conditions and predicts the following decrease of the structural strength. As a fundamental result the damage tolerance approach yields the maximum inspection interval, which is the time a damage grows from a detectable to a critical level. The above formulation of the damage tolerance safety concept targets on metallic structures where the damage is typically a simple fatigue crack. Fiber-reinforced polymers show a much more complex damage behavior, such as delaminationsin laminated composites. Moreover, progressive damage in composites is often initiated by manufacturing defects. The complex manufacturing processes for composite structures almost certainly yield parts with defects, e.g. pores in the matrix or undulations of fibers. From such defects growing damages may start after a certain time of operation. The demand to simplify or even avoid the inspection of composite structures has therefore led to a comeback of the traditional safe-life safety concept. The aim of the so-called safe-life flaw tolerance concept is a structure that is capable of carrying the static loads during operation, despite significant damages and after a representative fatigue load spectrum. A structure with this property does not need to be inspected, respectively monitored at all during its service life. However, its load carrying capability is thereby not fully utilized. This article presents the possible refinement of the state-of-the-art safe-life flaw tolerance concept for composite structures towards a damage tolerance approach considering also the influence of manufacturing defects on damage initiation and growth. Based on fundamental physical relations and experimental observations the challenges when developing damage growth and residual strength curves are discussed.

  3. Fatigue damage accumulation in various metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review some of the latest understanding of the fatigue behavior of continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites. The emphasis is on the development of an understanding of different fatigue damage mechanisms and why and how they occur. The fatigue failure modes in continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites are controlled by the three constituents of the system: fiber, matrix, and fiber/matrix interface. The relative strains to fatigue failure of the fiber and matrix will determine the failure mode. Several examples of matrix, fiber, and self-similar damage growth dominated fatigue damage are given for several metal matrix composite systems. Composite analysis, failure modes, and damage modeling are discussed. Boron/aluminum, silicon-carbide/aluminum, FP/aluminum, and borsic/titanium metal matrix composites are discussed.

  4. Dynamic brittle material response based on a continuum damage model

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, E.P.

    1994-12-31

    The response of brittle materials to dynamic loads was studied in this investigation based on a continuum damage model. Damage mechanism was selected to be interaction and growth of subscale cracks. Briefly, the cracks are activated by bulk tension and the density of activated cracks are described by a Weibull statistical distribution. The moduli of a cracked solid derived by Budiansky and O`Connell are then used to represent the global material degradation due to subscale cracking. This continuum damage model was originally developed to study rock fragmentation and was modified in the present study to improve on the post-limit structural response. The model was implemented into a transient dynamic explicit finite element code PRONTO 2D and then used for a numerical study involving the sudden stretching of a plate with a centrally located hole. Numerical results characterizing the dynamic responses of the material were presented. The effect of damage on dynamic material behavior was discussed.

  5. Ribonucleotide triggered DNA damage and RNA-DNA damage responses

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Bret D; Williams, R Scott

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that the transient contamination of DNA with ribonucleotides exceeds all other known types of DNA damage combined. The consequences of ribose incorporation into DNA, and the identity of protein factors operating in this RNA-DNA realm to protect genomic integrity from RNA-triggered events are emerging. Left unrepaired, the presence of ribonucleotides in genomic DNA impacts cellular proliferation and is associated with chromosome instability, gross chromosomal rearrangements, mutagenesis, and production of previously unrecognized forms of ribonucleotide-triggered DNA damage. Here, we highlight recent findings on the nature and structure of DNA damage arising from ribonucleotides in DNA, and the identification of cellular factors acting in an RNA-DNA damage response (RDDR) to counter RNA-triggered DNA damage. PMID:25692233

  6. Treatment of anisotropic damage development within a scalar damage formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, K. S.; Bodner, S. R.; Munson, D. E.

    This paper is concerned with describing a damage mechanics formulation which provides for non-isotropic effects using a scalar damage variable. An investigation has been in progress for establishing the constitutive behavior of rock salt at long times and low to moderate confining pressures in relation to the possible use of excavated rooms in rock salt formations as repositories for nuclear waste. An important consideration is the effect of damage manifested principally by the formation of shear induced wing cracks which have a stress dependent orientation. The analytical formulation utilizes a scalar damage parameter, but is capable of indicating the non-isotropic dependence of inelastic straining on the stress state and the confining pressure. Also, the equations indicate the possibility of volumetric expansions leading to the onset of tertiary creep and eventually rupture if the damage variable reaches a critical value.

  7. Road Damage Following Earthquake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Ground shaking triggered liquefaction in a subsurface layer of water-saturated sand, producing differential lateral and vertical movement in a overlying carapace of unliquified sand and slit, which moved from right to left towards the Pajaro River. This mode of ground failure, termed lateral spreading, is a principal cause of liquefaction-related earthquake damage caused by the Oct. 17, 1989, Loma Prieta earthquake. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Credit: S.D. Ellen, U.S. Geological Survey

  8. Influence of incidence angle and polarization state on the damage site characteristics of fused silica.

    PubMed

    Ma, Bin; Zhang, Yanyun; Ma, Hongping; Jiao, Hongfei; Cheng, Xinbin; Wang, Zhanshan

    2014-02-01

    The influence of the incidence angle and polarization state on the damage site characteristics of fused silica under 355 nm laser irradiation was investigated. The initial damage morphologies and growth behaviors of the damage sites on the exit surface at incidence angles of 0° and 45° as well as in P and S states were compared to investigate the effects of various angles and polarization states. The relationships between the size of the initial damage sites and the laser fluence, as well as the growth threshold, were discussed. The damage morphologies of the craters and cracks at different incidence angles and polarization states were then investigated. Finally, the growth characteristics of the lateral size, crater depth, and crack depth were compared and analyzed. PMID:24514256

  9. Impact damage and fatigue behavior of gamma TiAl

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, T.S.; Jones, J.W.; Pollock, T.M.; Steif, P.S.; Rubal, M.P.

    1997-12-31

    The relationship between impact damage and the fatigue behavior of gamma titanium aluminide has been examined. Axial fatigue specimens fabricated from cast Ti-47.9Al-2Cr-2Nb alloy and Ti-47.3Al-2.2Nb-0.5Mn-0.4W-0.4Mo-0.23Si alloy were impacted under controlled conditions with various indentor shapes to simulate manufacturing related damage in low pressure turbine blades. Damage was quantified and related to impact parameters. A measure of the ambient temperature fatigue strength in the damaged specimens was obtained by standard fatigue testing employing a step-loading approach. Fractographic studies were performed to differentiate impact damage from subsequent fatigue crack growth and to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the dependence of fatigue strength on the severity of impact damage. A threshold-based fracture mechanics analysis of crack advance from damage zones, and its use in fatigue failure strength prediction, has been developed.

  10. Prediction Of Formability In Sheet Metal Forming Processes Using A Local Damage Model

    SciTech Connect

    Teixeira, P.; Santos, Abel; Cesar Sa, J.; Andrade Pires, F.; Barata da Rocha, A.

    2007-05-17

    The formability in sheet metal forming processes is mainly conditioned by ductile fracture resulting from geometric instabilities due to necking and strain localization. The macroscopic collapse associated with ductile failure is a result of internal degradation described throughout metallographic observations by the nucleation, growth and coalescence of voids and micro-cracks. Damage influences and is influenced by plastic deformation and therefore these two dissipative phenomena should be coupled at the constitutive level. In this contribution, Lemaitre's ductile damage model is coupled with Hill's orthotropic plasticity criterion. The coupling between damaging and material behavior is accounted for within the framework of Continuum Damage Mechanics (CDM). The resulting constitutive equations are implemented in the Abaqus/Explicit code, for the prediction of fracture onset in sheet metal forming processes. The damage evolution law takes into account the important effect of micro-crack closure, which dramatically decreases the rate of damage growth under compressive paths.

  11. ERK3 regulates TDP2-mediated DNA damage response and chemoresistance in lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Ka; Muppani, Naveen Reddy; Elkhadragy, Lobna; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Cheng; Chen, Tenghui; Jung, Sungyun; Seternes, Ole Morten; Long, Weiwen

    2016-01-01

    Posttranslational modifications (PTMs), such as phosphorylation and ubiquitination, play critical regulatory roles in the assembly of DNA damage response proteins on the DNA damage site and their activities in DNA damage repair. Tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase 2 (TDP2) repairs Topoisomerase 2 (Top2)-linked DNA damage, thereby protecting cancer cells against Top2 inhibitors-induced growth inhibition and cell death. The regulation of TDP2 activity by post-translational modifications in DNA repair, however, remains unclear. In the current study, we have found that ERK3, an atypical MAPK, phosphorylates TDP2 at S60 and regulates TDP2's phosphodiesterase activity, thereby cooperatively protecting lung cancer cells against Top2 inhibitors-induced DNA damage and growth inhibition. As such, our study revealed a post-translational regulation of TDP2 activity and discovered a new role of ERK3 in increasing cancer cells’ DNA damage response and chemoresistance to Top2 inhibitors. PMID:26701725

  12. DNA damage checkpoint recovery and cancer development

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Haiyong; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Teng, Lisong; Legerski, Randy J.

    2015-06-10

    Cell cycle checkpoints were initially presumed to function as a regulator of cell cycle machinery in response to different genotoxic stresses, and later found to play an important role in the process of tumorigenesis by acting as a guard against DNA over-replication. As a counterpart of checkpoint activation, the checkpoint recovery machinery is working in opposition, aiming to reverse the checkpoint activation and resume the normal cell cycle. The DNA damage response (DDR) and oncogene induced senescence (OIS) are frequently found in precancerous lesions, and believed to constitute a barrier to tumorigenesis, however, the DDR and OIS have been observed to be diminished in advanced cancers of most tissue origins. These findings suggest that when progressing from pre-neoplastic lesions to cancer, DNA damage checkpoint barriers are overridden. How the DDR checkpoint is bypassed in this process remains largely unknown. Activated cytokine and growth factor-signaling pathways were very recently shown to suppress the DDR and to promote uncontrolled cell proliferation in the context of oncovirus infection. In recent decades, data from cell line and tumor models showed that a group of checkpoint recovery proteins function in promoting tumor progression; data from patient samples also showed overexpression of checkpoint recovery proteins in human cancer tissues and a correlation with patients' poor prognosis. In this review, the known cell cycle checkpoint recovery proteins and their roles in DNA damage checkpoint recovery are reviewed, as well as their implications in cancer development. This review also provides insight into the mechanism by which the DDR suppresses oncogene-driven tumorigenesis and tumor progression. - Highlights: • DNA damage checkpoint works as a barrier to cancer initiation. • DDR machinary response to genotoxic and oncogenic stress in similar way. • Checkpoint recovery pathways provide active signaling in cell cycle control. • Checkpoint

  13. Computations on frost damage to Scots pine under climatic warming in boreal conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kellomaeki, S.; Haenninen, H.; Kolstroem, M.

    1995-02-01

    To investigate the risk of frost damage to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in northern regions under climatic warming, a submodel for such damage to trees was included in a forest ecosystem model of the gap type. An annual growth multiplier describing the effects of frost was calculated with the help of simulated daily frost hardiness and daily minimum temperature. The annual growth multiplier was used in the main ecosystem model when simulating the development of a tree stand using a time step of one year. Simulations of the growth and development of Scots pine stands in southern Finland (61{degrees} N) under an elevating temperature indicated that climatic warming could increase the risk of frost damage due to premature onset of growth during warm spells in the late winter and early spring. Risk of frost damage implies uncertainty in yield expectations from boreal forest ecosystems in the event of climatic warming. 38 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Effect of material damage on the stress-strain state near a crack tip in creep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astaf'ev, V. I.; Grigorova, T. V.; Pastukhov, V. A.

    1992-02-01

    The asymptotic stress and damage fields near the tip of a growing crack are determined for a creep-damaged material described by Rabotnov-Hayhurst-Leckie constitutive equations. It is found that the singular stress field, characteristic of the crack theory, is absent near the crack tip, which is consistent with the results of finite element solutions for tearing cracks. A crack growth law is obtained which provides a qualitative description of the crack growth process in stainless steels under constant loading.

  15. Equivalent damage: A critical assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laflen, J. R.; Cook, T. S.

    1982-01-01

    Concepts in equivalent damage were evaluated to determine their applicability to the life prediction of hot path components of aircraft gas turbine engines. Equivalent damage was defined as being those effects which influence the crack initiation life-time beyond the damage that is measured in uniaxial, fully-reversed sinusoidal and isothermal experiments at low homologous temperatures. Three areas of equivalent damage were examined: mean stress, cumulative damage, and multiaxiality. For each area, a literature survey was conducted to aid in selecting the most appropriate theories. Where possible, data correlations were also used in the evaluation process. A set of criteria was developed for ranking the theories in each equivalent damage regime. These criteria considered aspects of engine utilization as well as the theoretical basis and correlative ability of each theory. In addition, consideration was given to the complex nature of the loading cycle at fatigue critical locations of hot path components; this loading includes non-proportional multiaxial stressing, combined temperature and strain fluctuations, and general creep-fatigue interactions. Through applications of selected equivalent damage theories to some suitable data sets it was found that there is insufficient data to allow specific recommendations of preferred theories for general applications. A series of experiments and areas of further investigations were identified.

  16. Numerical Prediction of Fatigue Damage Progress in Holed CFRP Laminates Using Cohesive Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yashiro, Shigeki; Okabe, Tomonaga

    This study presents a numerical simulation to predict damage progress in notched composite laminates under cyclic loading by using a cohesive zone model. A damage-mechanics concept was introduced directly into the fracture process in the cohesive elements in order to express crack growth by cyclic loading. This approach then conformed to the established damage mechanics and facilitated understanding the procedure and reducing computation costs. We numerically investigated the damage progress in holed CFRP cross-ply laminates under tensile cyclic loading and compared the predicted damage patterns with experiment results. The predicted damage patterns agreed with the experiment results that exhibited the extension of multiple types of damage (splits, transverse cracks, and delamination) near the hole. A numerical study indicated that the change in the distribution of in-plane shear stress due to delamination induced the extension of splits and transverse cracks near the hole.

  17. Estimating bird damage from damage incidence in wine grape vineyards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeHaven, R.W.; Hothem, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    Bird damage was measured during 1977 and 1978 at 32 wine grape vineyards in the San Joaquin Valley and North Coastal Region of California. Both the percentage bird loss (PBL) and the percentage of bunches damaged (BDI = bird damage incidence) were determined during 55 total-damage assessments, and the resulting data pairs were used to develop a regression of PBL on BDI. The final prediction equation was loge (PBL + 1) = 0.0385 BDI, for which the SE = 9.6297 10-4, and it accounted for 97% of the observed variation. We conclude that by using that equation, reasonably accurate predictions of PBL can be obtained from relatively quick and inexpensive estimates of BDI. Guidelines for the use of the prediction method and the accuracy of some PBL predictions are discussed.

  18. The Importance of Damage Potential for Avalanche Risk Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiler, M.; Fuchs, S.

    2003-04-01

    Risk is normally expressed as a function of recurrence probability of a process and its related damage potential. Various physical and empirical models describing the process aspect of the risk formula exist in the field of avalanche risk management while studies on damage potential are rare. Due to the changes of the socio-economic structures in mountain regions (urban sprawl, population growth, increased mobility and tourism) these studies are mandatory. This study focuses on different possibilities to obtain obligatory input parameters for multitemporal studies in settlement areas. A conceptual method that records the damage potential (probability of presence, evaluation of buildings) was developed and applied in Tyrol, Austria. A second approach, working with real-time insurance values for buildings and population growth, was tested in Grison, Switzerland. The different developments of the damage potential in the two alpine study areas are highlighted; their influences on the risk formula are discussed. The results of both studies show the advantages and disadvantages of each method, such as precision, amount of time needed and possibilities of implementing in a GIS. The results serve to improve risk determination and point out an unnoticed increase of damage potential and risk in apparently safe settlement areas.

  19. MMOD Impact Damage to ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, James L.; Christiansen, Eric; Lear, Dana M.

    2014-01-01

    Paper will describe micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) damage that has been observed on the International Space Station (ISS). Several hundred documented MMOD damage sites on ISS have been identified through imagery from the windows of ISS modules or docked vehicles. Sites that are observable from ISS or shuttle windows exhibiting distinct features of hypervelocity impact damage are usually greater than 5mm in diameter. Many smaller features are revealed in on-orbit imagery are typically less distinct and difficult to characterize but could be MMOD damage. Additional images of on-orbit damage features have been collected by astronauts during extra vehicular activities. Ground inspection of returned ISS hardware has also contributed to the database of ISS MMOD impact damage. A handful of orbital replacement units (ORU) from the ISS active thermal control and electrical power subsystems were swapped out and returned during the Space Shuttle program. In addition, a reusable logistics module was deployed on ISS for a total 59.4 days on 11 shuttle missions between 2001 and 2011 and then brought back in the shuttle payload bay. All of this returned hardware was subjected to detailed post-flight inspections for MMOD damage, and a database with nearly 1000 impact records has been collected. A description of the largest observed damages will be provided in the paper. In addition, a discussion of significant MMOD impact sites with operational or design aspects will be presented. Some of the ISS modules/subsystems damaged by MMOD to be included in the discussion are (1) Solar Arrays, (2) US and Russian windows, (3) EVA handrails, (4) Radiators, and (5) Russian FGB module.

  20. Effects of Accelerated Aging on Fiber Damage Thresholds

    SciTech Connect

    Setchell, R.E.

    1999-02-15

    Laser-induced damage mechanisms that can occur during high-intensity fiber transmission have been under study for a number of years. Our particular interest in laser initiation of explosives has led us to examine damage processes associated with the transmission of Q-switched, Nd:YAG pulses at 1.06 {micro}m through step-index, multimode, fused silica fiber. Laser breakdown at the fiber entrance face is often the first process to limit fiber transmission but catastrophic damage can also occur at either fiber end face, within the initial entry segment of the fiber, and at other internal sites along the fiber path. Past studies have examined how these various damage mechanisms depend upon fiber end-face preparation, fiber fixturing and routing, laser characteristics, and laser-to-fiber injection optics. In some applications of interest, however, a fiber transmission system may spend years in storage before it is used. Consequently, an important additional issue for these applications is whether or not there are aging processes that can result in lower damage thresholds over time. Fiber end-face contamination would certainly lower breakdown and damage thresholds at these surfaces, but careful design of hermetic seals in connectors and other end-face fixtures can minimize this possibility. A more subtle possibility would be a process for the slow growth of internal defects that could lead to lower thresholds for internal damage. In the current study, two approaches to stimulating the growth of internal defects were used in an attempt to produce observable changes in internal damage thresholds. In the first approach test fibers were subjected to a very high tensile stress for a time sufficient for some fraction to fail from static fatigue. In the second approach, test fibers were subjected to a combination of high tensile stress and large, cyclic temperature variations. Both of these approaches were rather arbitrary due to the lack of an established growth mechanism for

  1. Impact damage in composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Joseph E.

    1988-01-01

    Damage tolerance requirements have become an important consideration in the design and fabrication of composite structural components for modern aircraft. The ability of a component to contain a flaw of a given size without serious loss of its structural integrity is of prime concern. Composite laminates are particularly susceptible to damage caused by transverse impact loading. The ongoing program described is aimed at developing experimental and analytical methods that can be used to assess damage tolerance capabilities in composite structures subjected to impulsive loading. Some significant results of this work and the methodology used to obtain them are outlined.

  2. Earthquake damage to transportation systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCullough, Heather

    1994-01-01

    Earthquakes represent one of the most destructive natural hazards known to man. A large magnitude earthquake near a populated area can affect residents over thousands of square kilometers and cause billions of dollars in property damage. Such an event can kill or injure thousands of residents and disrupt the socioeconomic environment for months, sometimes years. A serious result of a large-magnitude earthquake is the disruption of transportation systems, which limits post-disaster emergency response. Movement of emergency vehicles, such as police cars, fire trucks and ambulances, is often severely restricted. Damage to transportation systems is categorized below by cause including: ground failure, faulting, vibration damage, and tsunamis.

  3. Eyelid Growths

    MedlinePlus

    ... a microscope). The growth is usually removed surgically. Did You Know... A growth on the eyelid that ... respond to initial treatments. Resources In This Article Did You Know 1 Did You Know... Figure 1 ...

  4. Growth Hormone

    MedlinePlus

    ... the dose of glucose. Growth hormone stimulates the production of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) . ... regular intervals for years afterward to monitor GH production and to detect tumor recurrence. Other blood tests ...

  5. Types and Consequences of DNA Damage

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review provides a concise overview of the types of DNA damage and the molecular mechanisms by which a cell senses DNA damage, repairs the damage, converts the damage into a mutation, or dies as a consequence of unrepaired DNA damage. Such information is important in consid...

  6. Clinical light damage to the eye

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains four sections: The Nature of Light and of Light Damage to Biological Tissues; Light Damage to the Eye; Protecting the Eye from Light Damage; and Overview of Light Damage to the Eye. Some of the paper titles are: Ultraviolet-Absorbing Intraocular Lens Implants; Phototoxic Changes in the Retina; Light Damage to the Lens; and Radiation, Light, and Sight.

  7. Non-local damage rheology and size effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyakhovsky, V.

    2011-12-01

    We study scaling relations controlling the onset of transiently-accelerating fracturing and transition to dynamic rupture propagation in a non-local damage rheology model. The size effect is caused principally by growth of a fracture process zone, involving stress redistribution and energy release associated with a large fracture. This implies that rupture nucleation and transition to dynamic propagation are inherently scale-dependent processes. Linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) and local damage mechanics are formulated in terms of dimensionless strain components and thus do not allow introducing any space scaling, except linear relations between fracture length and displacements. Generalization of Weibull theory provides scaling relations between stress and crack length at the onset of failure. A powerful extension of the LEFM formulation is the displacement-weakening model which postulates that yielding is complete when the crack wall displacement exceeds some critical value or slip-weakening distance Dc at which a transition to kinetic friction is complete. Scaling relations controlling the transition to dynamic rupture propagation in slip-weakening formulation are widely accepted in earthquake physics. Strong micro-crack interaction in a process zone may be accounted for by adopting either integral or gradient type non-local damage models. We formulate a gradient-type model with free energy depending on the scalar damage parameter and its spatial derivative. The damage-gradient term leads to structural stresses in the constitutive stress-strain relations and a damage diffusion term in the kinetic equation for damage evolution. The damage diffusion eliminates the singular localization predicted by local models. The finite width of the localization zone provides a fundamental length scale that allows numerical simulations with the model to achieve the continuum limit. A diffusive term in the damage evolution gives rise to additional damage diffusive time

  8. Delayed growth

    MedlinePlus

    Growth - slow (child 0 - 5 years); Weight gain - slow (child 0 - 5 years); Slow rate of growth; Retarded growth and development; ... A child should have regular, well-baby check-ups with a health care provider. These checkups are usually scheduled ...

  9. Optical detection of DNA damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Kim R.; Apostol, A.; Cembrano, J.

    1999-02-01

    A rapid and sensitive fluorescence assay for oxidative damage to calf thymus DNA is reported. A decrease in the transition temperature for strand separation resulted from exposure of the DNA to the reactive decomposition products of 3- morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1) (i.e., nitric oxide, superoxide, peroxynitrite, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radicals). A decrease in melting temperature of 12 degrees Celsius was indicative of oxidative damage including single strand chain breaks. Double stranded (ds) and single stranded (ss) forms of DNA were determined using the indicator dyes ethidium bromide and PicoGreen. The change in DNA 'melting' curves was dependant on the concentration of SIN-1 and was most pronounced at 75 degrees Celsius. This chemically induced damage was significantly inhibited by sodium citrate, tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris), and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), but was unaffected by superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, ethylenediamine tetraacietic acid (EDTA), or deferoxamine. Lowest observable effect level for SIN-1-induced damage was 200 (mu) M.

  10. Probabilistic Fatigue Damage Program (FATIG)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michalopoulos, Constantine

    2012-01-01

    FATIG computes fatigue damage/fatigue life using the stress rms (root mean square) value, the total number of cycles, and S-N curve parameters. The damage is computed by the following methods: (a) traditional method using Miner s rule with stress cycles determined from a Rayleigh distribution up to 3*sigma; and (b) classical fatigue damage formula involving the Gamma function, which is derived from the integral version of Miner's rule. The integration is carried out over all stress amplitudes. This software solves the problem of probabilistic fatigue damage using the integral form of the Palmgren-Miner rule. The software computes fatigue life using an approach involving all stress amplitudes, up to N*sigma, as specified by the user. It can be used in the design of structural components subjected to random dynamic loading, or by any stress analyst with minimal training for fatigue life estimates of structural components.

  11. How to accurately bypass damage

    PubMed Central

    Broyde, Suse; Patel, Dinshaw J.

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation can cause cancer through DNA damage — specifically, by linking adjacent thymine bases. Crystal structures show how the enzyme DNA polymerase η accurately bypasses such lesions, offering protection. PMID:20577203

  12. Deciphering the DNA Damage Response.

    PubMed

    Haber, James E

    2015-09-10

    This year's Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award honors Evelyn Witkin and Stephen J. Elledge, two pioneers in elucidating the DNA damage response, whose contributions span more than 40 years. PMID:26359974

  13. Loss and damage post Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petherick, Anna

    2016-08-01

    The Paris Agreement gave the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage a permanent and potentially prominent place in climate negotiations, but beyond that its impact remains wide open for interpretation.

  14. Mitochondrial DNA Damage and Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gyanesh; Pachouri, U C; Khaidem, Devika Chanu; Kundu, Aman; Chopra, Chirag; Singh, Pushplata

    2015-01-01

    Various endogenous and environmental factors can cause mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage.  One of the reasons for enhanced mtDNA damage could be its proximity to the source of oxidants, and lack of histone-like protective proteins. Moreover, mitochondria contain inadequate DNA repair pathways, and, diminished DNA repair capacity may be one of the factors responsible for high mutation frequency of the mtDNA. mtDNA damage might cause impaired mitochondrial function, and, unrepaired mtDNA damage has been frequently linked with several diseases. Exploration of mitochondrial perspective of diseases might lead to a better understanding of several diseases, and will certainly open new avenues for detection, cure, and prevention of ailments.

  15. Damaging effects of visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, T. P.; Baker, B. N.

    1982-02-01

    The right eyes of anesthetized, ten week old albino rats are exposed to constant photon fluxes at 6 wavelengths for 6 hours. The left eye of each animal is patched during the exposure and is used as control. Histologic examination of retinal sections disclosed a region in the superior retina which is more damaged than are other areas. Attempting to ascertain an action spectrum by measuring outer nuclear layer (ONL) lost in this sensitive region fails. However, it is shown that when ONL thickness is integrated over the entire retinal sections, a rhodopsin action-spectrum emerges. It is concluded that retinal light damage in the albina rat under these conditions is rhodopsin mediated; and assessment of the extent of damage is best made by some method which integrates over the entire retinal section. The latter methodology is not routinely incorporated into studies of retinal light-damage but probably should be.

  16. BDS thin film damage competition

    SciTech Connect

    Stolz, C J; Thomas, M D; Griffin, A J

    2008-10-24

    A laser damage competition was held at the 2008 Boulder Damage Symposium in order to determine the current status of thin film laser resistance within the private, academic, and government sectors. This damage competition allows a direct comparison of the current state-of-the-art of high laser resistance coatings since they are all tested using the same damage test setup and the same protocol. A normal incidence high reflector multilayer coating was selected at a wavelength of 1064 nm. The substrates were provided by the submitters. A double blind test assured sample and submitter anonymity so only a summary of the results are presented here. In addition to the laser resistance results, details of deposition processes, coating materials, and layer count will also be shared.

  17. Climate change: Unattributed hurricane damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallegatte, Stéphane

    2015-11-01

    In the United States, hurricanes have been causing more and more economic damage. A reanalysis of the disaster database using a statistical method that accounts for improvements in resilience opens the possibility that climate change has played a role.

  18. Chemical Protection Against Radiation Damage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campaigne, Ernest

    1969-01-01

    Discusses potential war time and medical uses for chemical compounds giving protection against radiation damage. Describes compounds known to protect, research aimed at discovering such compounds, and problems of toxicity. (EB)

  19. Excitation optimization for damage detection

    SciTech Connect

    Bement, Matthew T; Bewley, Thomas R

    2009-01-01

    A technique is developed to answer the important question: 'Given limited system response measurements and ever-present physical limits on the level of excitation, what excitation should be provided to a system to make damage most detectable?' Specifically, a method is presented for optimizing excitations that maximize the sensitivity of output measurements to perturbations in damage-related parameters estimated with an extended Kalman filter. This optimization is carried out in a computationally efficient manner using adjoint-based optimization and causes the innovations term in the extended Kalman filter to be larger in the presence of estimation errors, which leads to a better estimate of the damage-related parameters in question. The technique is demonstrated numerically on a nonlinear 2 DOF system, where a significant improvement in the damage-related parameter estimation is observed.

  20. Fault structure, damage and acoustic emission characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dresen, G. H.; Göbel, T.; Stanchits, S.; Kwiatek, G.; Charalampidou, E. M.

    2011-12-01

    We investigate the evolution of faulting-related damage and acoustic emission activity in experiments performed on granite, quartzite and sandstone samples with 40-50 mm diameter and 100-125 mm length. Experiments were performed in a servo-controlled MTS loading frame in triaxial compression at confining pressures ranging from 20-140 MPa. We performed a series of fracture and stick-slip sliding experiments on prefractured samples. Acoustic emissions (AE) and ultrasonic velocities were monitored using up to 14 P-wave sensors glued to the cylindrical surface of the rock. Full waveforms were stored in a 16 channel transient recording system (Daxbox, PRÖKEL, Germany). Full moment tensor analysis and polarity of AE first motions were used to discriminate source types associated with tensile, shear and pore-collapse cracking. To monitor strain, two pairs of orthogonally oriented strain-gages were glued onto the specimen surface. Fracture nucleation and growth occurred from a nucleation patch mostly located at the specimen surface or at the tip of prefabricated notches inside the specimens. Irrespective of the rock type, fracture propagation is associated with formation of a damage zone surrounding the fracture surface as revealed by distribution of cracks and AE hypocenters displaying a logarithmic decay in microcrack damage with distance normal to the fault trace. The width of the damage zone varies along the fault. After fracturing, faults were locked by increasing confining pressure. Subsequent sliding was mostly induced by driving the piston at a constant displacement rate producing large single events or multiple stick-slips. With increasing sliding distance a corrugated and rough fault surface formed displaying displacement-parallel lineations. Microstructural analysis of fault surfaces and cross-sections revealed formation of multiple secondary shears progressively merging into an anastomosing 3D-network controlling damage evolution and AE activity in the fault

  1. Damage Control Mechanisms in Articular Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Martin, James A; Scherb, MB; Lembke, Lois A; Buckwalter, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    Articular chondrocytes maintain cartilage throughout life by replacing lost or damaged matrix with freshly synthesized material. Synthesis activity is regulated, rapidly increasing to well above basal levels in response to cartilage injury. Such responses suggest that synthesis activity is linked to the rate of matrix loss by endogenous "damage control" mechanisms. As a major stimulator of matrix synthesis in cartilage, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is likely to play a role in such mechanisms. Although IGF-I is nearly ubiquitous, its bioavailability in cartilage is controlled by IGF-I binding proteins (IGFBPs) secreted by chondrocytes. IGFBPs are part of a complex system, termed the IGF-I axis, that tightly regulates IGF-I activities. For the most part, IGFBPs block IGF-I activity by sequestering IGF-I from its cell surface receptor. We recently found that the expression of one binding protein, IGFBP-3, increases with chondrocyte age, paralleling an age-related decline in synthesis activity. In addition, IGFBP-3 is overexpressed in osteoarthritic cartilage, leading to metabolic disturbances that contribute to cartilage degeneration. These observations indicate that IGFBP-3 plays a crucial role in regulating matrix synthesis in cartilage, and suggest that cartilage damage control mechanisms may fail due to age-related changes in IGFBP-3 expression or distribution. Our investigation of this hypothesis began with immunolocalization studies to determine the tissue distribution of IGFBP-3 in human cartilage. We found that IGFBP-3 accumulated around chondrocytes in the pericellular/territorial matrix, where it co-localized with fibronectin, but not with the other matrix proteins tenascin-C and type VI collagen. This result suggested that the IGFBP-3 distribution is determined by binding to fibronectin. Binding studies using purified proteins demonstrated that IGFBP-3 does in fact bind to fibronectin, but not to tenascin-C or type VI collagen. Finally, we

  2. Damage thresholds for terahertz radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalzell, Danielle R.; McQuade, Jill; Vincelette, Rebecca; Ibey, Bennet; Payne, Jason; Thomas, Robert; Roach, W. P.; Roth, Caleb L.; Wilmink, Gerald J.

    2010-02-01

    Several international organizations establish minimum safety standards to ensure that workers and the general population are protected against adverse health effects associated with electromagnetic radiation. Suitable standards are typically defined using published experimental data. To date, few experimental studies have been conducted at Terahertz (THz) frequencies, and as a result, current THz standards have been defined using extrapolated estimates from neighboring spectral regions. In this study, we used computational modeling and experimental approaches to determine tissue-damage thresholds at THz frequencies. For the computational modeling efforts, we used the Arrhenius damage integral to predict damage-thresholds. We determined thresholds experimentally for both long (minutes) and short (seconds) THz exposures. For the long exposure studies, we used an in-house molecular gas THz laser (υ= 1.89 THz, 189.92 mW/cm2, 10 minutes) and excised porcine skin. For the short exposure studies, we used the Free Electron Laser (FEL) at Jefferson Laboratory (υ= 0.1-1.0 THz, 2.0-14.0 mW/cm2, 2 seconds) and wet chamois cloths. Thresholds were determined using conventional damage score determination and probit analysis techniques, and tissue temperatures were measured using infrared thermographic techniques. We found that the FEL was ideal for tissue damage studies, while our in-house THz source was not suitable to determine tissue damage thresholds. Using experimental data, the tissue damage threshold (ED50) was determined to be 7.16 W/cm2. This value was in well agreement with that predicted using our computational models. We hope that knowledge of tissue-damage thresholds at THz frequencies helps to ensure the safe use of THz radiation.

  3. Replicating Damaged DNA in Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Nimrat; Siede, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    DNA damage is one of many possible perturbations that challenge the mechanisms that preserve genetic stability during the copying of the eukaryotic genome in S phase. This short review provides, in the first part, a general introduction to the topic and an overview of checkpoint responses. In the second part, the mechanisms of error-free tolerance in response to fork-arresting DNA damage will be discussed in some detail. PMID:24296172

  4. Nav Channels in Damaged Membranes.

    PubMed

    Morris, C E; Joos, B

    2016-01-01

    Sick excitable cells (ie, Nav channel-expressing cells injured by trauma, ischemia, inflammatory, and other conditions) typically exhibit "acquired sodium channelopathies" which, we argue, reflect bleb-damaged membranes rendering their Nav channels "leaky." The situation is excitotoxic because untreated Nav leak exacerbates bleb damage. Fast Nav inactivation (a voltage-independent process) is so tightly coupled, kinetically speaking, to the inherently voltage-dependent process of fast activation that when bleb damage accelerates and thus left-shifts macroscopic fast activation, fast inactivation accelerates to the same extent. The coupled g(V) and availability(V) processes and their window conductance regions consequently left-shift by the same number of millivolts. These damage-induced hyperpolarizing shifts, whose magnitude increases with damage intensity, are called coupled left shift (CLS). Based on past work and modeling, we discuss how to test for Nav-CLS, emphasizing the virtue of sawtooth ramp clamp. We explain that it is the inherent mechanosensitivity of Nav activation that underlies Nav-CLS. Using modeling of excitability, we show the known process of Nav-CLS is sufficient to predict a wide variety of "sick excitable cell" phenomena, from hyperexcitability through to depolarizing block. When living cells are mimicked by inclusion of pumps, mild Nav-CLS produces a wide array of burst phenomena and subthreshold oscillations. Dynamical analysis of mild damage scenarios shows how these phenomena reflect changes in spike thresholds as the pumps try to counteract the leaky Nav channels. Smart Nav inhibitors designed for sick excitable cells would target bleb-damaged membrane, buying time for cell-mediated removal or repair of Nav-bearing membrane that has become bleb-damaged (ie, detached from the cytoskeleton). PMID:27586295

  5. DNA damage in neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Coppedè, Fabio; Migliore, Lucia

    2015-06-01

    Following the observation of increased oxidative DNA damage in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA extracted from post-mortem brain regions of patients affected by neurodegenerative diseases, the last years of the previous century and the first decade of the present one have been largely dedicated to the search of markers of DNA damage in neuronal samples and peripheral tissues of patients in early, intermediate or late stages of neurodegeneration. Those studies allowed to demonstrate that oxidative DNA damage is one of the earliest detectable events in neurodegeneration, but also revealed cytogenetic damage in neurodegenerative conditions, such as for example a tendency towards chromosome 21 malsegregation in Alzheimer's disease. As it happens for many neurodegenerative risk factors the question of whether DNA damage is cause or consequence of the neurodegenerative process is still open, and probably both is true. The research interest in markers of oxidative stress was shifted, in recent years, towards the search of epigenetic biomarkers of neurodegenerative disorders, following the accumulating evidence of a substantial contribution of epigenetic mechanisms to learning, memory processes, behavioural disorders and neurodegeneration. Increasing evidence is however linking DNA damage and repair with epigenetic phenomena, thereby opening the way to a very attractive and timely research topic in neurodegenerative diseases. We will address those issues in the context of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, which represent three of the most common neurodegenerative pathologies in humans. PMID:26255941

  6. DNA damage checkpoints in mammals.

    PubMed

    Niida, Hiroyuki; Nakanishi, Makoto

    2006-01-01

    DNA damage is a common event and probably leads to mutation or deletion within chromosomal DNA, which may cause cancer or premature aging. DNA damage induces several cellular responses including DNA repair, checkpoint activity and the triggering of apoptotic pathways. DNA damage checkpoints are associated with biochemical pathways that end delay or arrest of cell-cycle progression. These checkpoints engage damage sensor proteins, such as the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (9-1-1) complex, and the Rad17-RFC complex, in the detection of DNA damage and transduction of signals to ATM, ATR, Chk1 and Chk2 kinases. Chk1 and Chk2 kinases regulate Cdc25, Wee1 and p53 that ultimately inactivate cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) which inhibit cell-cycle progression. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms by which DNA damage is recognized by sensor proteins and signals are transmitted to Cdks. We classify the genes involved in checkpoint signaling into four categories, namely sensors, mediators, transducers and effectors, although their proteins have the broad activity, and thus this classification is for convenience and is not definitive. PMID:16314342

  7. A probabilistic fatigue analysis of multiple site damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohrbaugh, S. M.; Ruff, D.; Hillberry, B. M.; Mccabe, G.; Grandt, A. F., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The variability in initial crack size and fatigue crack growth is incorporated in a probabilistic model that is used to predict the fatigue lives for unstiffened aluminum alloy panels containing multiple site damage (MSD). The uncertainty of the damage in the MSD panel is represented by a distribution of fatigue crack lengths that are analytically derived from equivalent initial flaw sizes. The variability in fatigue crack growth rate is characterized by stochastic descriptions of crack growth parameters for a modified Paris crack growth law. A Monte-Carlo simulation explicitly describes the MSD panel by randomly selecting values from the stochastic variables and then grows the MSD cracks with a deterministic fatigue model until the panel fails. Different simulations investigate the influences of the fatigue variability on the distributions of remaining fatigue lives. Six cases that consider fixed and variable conditions of initial crack size and fatigue crack growth rate are examined. The crack size distribution exhibited a dominant effect on the remaining fatigue life distribution, and the variable crack growth rate exhibited a lesser effect on the distribution. In addition, the probabilistic model predicted that only a small percentage of the life remains after a lead crack develops in the MSD panel.

  8. 48 CFR 236.206 - Liquidated damages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Liquidated damages. 236... Aspects of Contracting for Construction 236.206 Liquidated damages. See 211.503 for instructions on use of liquidated damages....

  9. 48 CFR 236.206 - Liquidated damages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquidated damages. 236... Aspects of Contracting for Construction 236.206 Liquidated damages. See 211.503 for instructions on use of liquidated damages....

  10. 48 CFR 236.206 - Liquidated damages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Liquidated damages. 236... Aspects of Contracting for Construction 236.206 Liquidated damages. See 211.503 for instructions on use of liquidated damages....

  11. 48 CFR 236.206 - Liquidated damages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquidated damages. 236... Aspects of Contracting for Construction 236.206 Liquidated damages. See 211.503 for instructions on use of liquidated damages....

  12. 48 CFR 236.206 - Liquidated damages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Liquidated damages. 236... Aspects of Contracting for Construction 236.206 Liquidated damages. See 211.503 for instructions on use of liquidated damages....

  13. Continuum damage model for ferroelectric materials and its application to multilayer actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gellmann, Roman; Ricoeur, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    In this paper a micromechanical continuum damage model for ferroelectric materials is presented. As a constitutive law it is implemented into a finite element (FE) code. The model is based on micromechanical considerations of domain switching and its interaction with microcrack growth and coalescence. A FE analysis of a multilayer actuator is performed, showing the initiation of damage zones at the electrode tips during the poling process. Further, the influence of mechanical pre-stressing on damage evolution and actuating properties is investigated. The results provided in this work give useful information on the damage of advanced piezoelectric devices and their optimization.

  14. Simulation of Self-Repair Process of Steels Damaged by Creep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toi, Yutaka; Hirose, Satoshi

    The continuum damage mechanics is extended to cover the self-repair process as well as the damage process. The repair variable and its evolution equation are newly introduced to consider the repair process. In the constitutive modeling, the equation of creep based on kinematic/isotropic hardening theory is extended to take the effect of damage into account. The evolution equation of a repair variable is proposed, based on Dyson's equation of creep cavity growth. The validity of the proposed modeling is illustrated through the simulations for the self-repair process of two kinds of steels damaged by creep.

  15. Boulder damage symposium annual thin film laser damage competition

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Stolz, Christopher J.

    2012-11-28

    Optical instruments and laser systems are often fluence-limited by multilayer thin films deposited on the optical surfaces. When comparing publications within the laser damage literature, there can be confusing and conflicting laser damage results. This is due to differences in testing protocols between research groups studying very different applications. In this series of competitions, samples from multiple vendors are compared under identical testing parameters and a single testing service. Unlike a typical study where a hypothesis is tested within a well-controlled experiment with isolated variables, this competition isolates the laser damage testing variables so that trends can be observed betweenmore » different deposition processes, coating materials, cleaning techniques, and multiple coating suppliers. The resulting series of damage competitions has also been designed to observe general trends of damage morphologies and mechanisms over a wide range of coating types (high reflector and antireflector), wavelengths (193 to 1064 nm), and pulse lengths (180 fs to 13 ns). A double blind test assured sample and submitter anonymity were used in each of the competitions so only a summary of the deposition process, coating materials, layer count and spectral results are presented. Laser resistance was strongly affected by substrate cleaning, coating deposition method, and coating material selection whereas layer count and spectral properties had minimal impact.« less

  16. Boulder damage symposium annual thin film laser damage competition

    SciTech Connect

    Stolz, Christopher J.

    2012-11-28

    Optical instruments and laser systems are often fluence-limited by multilayer thin films deposited on the optical surfaces. When comparing publications within the laser damage literature, there can be confusing and conflicting laser damage results. This is due to differences in testing protocols between research groups studying very different applications. In this series of competitions, samples from multiple vendors are compared under identical testing parameters and a single testing service. Unlike a typical study where a hypothesis is tested within a well-controlled experiment with isolated variables, this competition isolates the laser damage testing variables so that trends can be observed between different deposition processes, coating materials, cleaning techniques, and multiple coating suppliers. The resulting series of damage competitions has also been designed to observe general trends of damage morphologies and mechanisms over a wide range of coating types (high reflector and antireflector), wavelengths (193 to 1064 nm), and pulse lengths (180 fs to 13 ns). A double blind test assured sample and submitter anonymity were used in each of the competitions so only a summary of the deposition process, coating materials, layer count and spectral results are presented. Laser resistance was strongly affected by substrate cleaning, coating deposition method, and coating material selection whereas layer count and spectral properties had minimal impact.

  17. Evaluating damage potential of cryogenic concrete using acoustic emission sensors and permeability testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogbara, Reginald B.; Parsaei, Boback; Iyengar, Srinath R.; Grasley, Zachary C.; Masad, Eyad A.; Zollinger, Dan G.

    2014-04-01

    This study evaluates the damage potential of concrete of different mix designs subjected to cryogenic temperatures, using acoustic emission (AE) and permeability testing. The aim is to investigate design methodologies that might be employed to produce concrete that resists damage when cooled to cryogenic temperatures. Such concrete would be suitable for primary containment of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and could replace currently used 9% Ni steel, thereby leading to huge cost savings. In the experiments described, concrete cubes, 150 mm x 150 mm x 150 mm, were cast using four different mix designs. The four mixes employed siliceous river sand as fine aggregate. Moreover, limestone, sandstone, trap rock and lightweight aggregate were individually used as coarse aggregates in the mixes. The concrete samples were then cooled from room temperature (20°C) to cryogenic temperature (-165°C) in a temperature chamber. AE sensors were placed on the concrete cubes during the cryogenic freezing process. The damage potential was evaluated in terms of the growth of damage as determined from AE, as a function of temperature and concrete mixture design. The damage potential observed was validated with water permeability testing. Initial results demonstrate the effects of the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the aggregates on damage growth. Concrete damage (cracking) resistance generally decreased with increasing coarse aggregate CTE, and was in the order, limestone ≥ trap rock << lightweight aggregate ≥ sandstone. Work is in progress to fully understand thermal dilation and damage growth in concrete due to differential CTE of its components.

  18. The compensatory responses of an understory herb to experimental damage are habitat-dependent.

    PubMed

    Bruna, Emilio M; Ribeiro, Maria Beatriz Nogueira

    2005-12-01

    Canopy gap formation strongly influences the diversity and dynamics of both tropical and temperate forests. It is often viewed as inherently beneficial for understory plants, primarily because growth and flowering are enhanced when light is no longer a limiting resource. It can also be detrimental, however, because plants can be damaged by falling crowns or branches. To elucidate the responses of the Amazonian understory herb Heliconia acuminata to damage sustained during gap formation, we transplanted both experimentally damaged and control plants to canopy gaps and the forest understory. We then measured their patterns of growth and biomass allocation 10 mo later. Despite losing approximately 50% of their leaf area, all damaged plants survived the duration of our experiment. Furthermore, damaged plants transplanted to gaps had relative growth rates that far exceeded those of undamaged plants in both gaps and the forest understory. There were also significant interactions between damage and destination habitat type on root to shoot ratios and leaf-area ratios. Our results suggest the ability of herbaceous plants to recover from damage, as well as patterns of post-damage biomass allocation, may be habitat-dependent in ways that have previously remained unexplored. PMID:21646126

  19. Neural networks for damage identification

    SciTech Connect

    Paez, T.L.; Klenke, S.E.

    1997-11-01

    Efforts to optimize the design of mechanical systems for preestablished use environments and to extend the durations of use cycles establish a need for in-service health monitoring. Numerous studies have proposed measures of structural response for the identification of structural damage, but few have suggested systematic techniques to guide the decision as to whether or not damage has occurred based on real data. Such techniques are necessary because in field applications the environments in which systems operate and the measurements that characterize system behavior are random. This paper investigates the use of artificial neural networks (ANNs) to identify damage in mechanical systems. Two probabilistic neural networks (PNNs) are developed and used to judge whether or not damage has occurred in a specific mechanical system, based on experimental measurements. The first PNN is a classical type that casts Bayesian decision analysis into an ANN framework; it uses exemplars measured from the undamaged and damaged system to establish whether system response measurements of unknown origin come from the former class (undamaged) or the latter class (damaged). The second PNN establishes the character of the undamaged system in terms of a kernel density estimator of measures of system response; when presented with system response measures of unknown origin, it makes a probabilistic judgment whether or not the data come from the undamaged population. The physical system used to carry out the experiments is an aerospace system component, and the environment used to excite the system is a stationary random vibration. The results of damage identification experiments are presented along with conclusions rating the effectiveness of the approaches.

  20. Glaucomatous damage of the macula

    PubMed Central

    Hood, Donald C.; Raza, Ali S.; de Moraes, Carlos Gustavo V.; Liebmann, Jeffrey M.; Ritch, Robert

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that early glaucomatous damage involves the macula. The anatomical basis of this damage can be studied using frequency domain optical coherence tomography (fdOCT), by which the local thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and local retinal ganglion cell plus inner plexiform (RGC+) layer can be measured. Based upon averaged fdOCT results from healthy controls and patients, we show that: 1. For healthy controls, the average RGC+ layer thickness closely matches human histological data; 2. For glaucoma patients and suspects, the average RGC+ layer shows greater glaucomatous thinning in the inferior retina (superior visual field (VF)); and 3. The central test points of the 6° VF grid (24-2 test pattern) miss the region of greatest RGC+ thinning. Based upon fdOCT results from individual patients, we have learned that: 1. Local RGC+ loss is associated with local VF sensitivity loss as long as the displacement of RGCs from the foveal center is taken into consideration; and 2. Macular damage is typically arcuate in nature and often associated with local RNFL thinning in a narrow region of the disc, which we call the macular vulnerability zone (MVZ). According to our schematic model of macular damage, most of the inferior region of the macula projects to the MVZ, which is located largely in the inferior quadrant of the disc, a region that is particularly susceptible to glaucomatous damage. A small (cecocentral) region of the inferior macula, and all of the superior macula (inferior VF), project to the temporal quadrant, a region that is less susceptible to damage. The overall message is clear; clinicians need to be aware that glaucomatous damage to the macula is common, can occur early in the disease, and can be missed and/or underestimated with standard VF tests that use a 6° grid, such as the 24-2 VF test. PMID:22995953

  1. Ultrasonic Method for Prediction of Residual Life of Creep Damaged Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong-Yeol; Kim, Hak-Joon; Song, Sung-Jin; Kim, Bum-Joon; Lim, Byeong-Soo

    2009-03-01

    In the previous study, residual life time of creep damaged 9Cr-2W steel specimens were evaluated using attenuation of ultrasound and area fraction of precipitates. Since attenuation coefficients and area fraction of precipitates were increased as increasing their aging time. However, cause of increasing attenuation of ultrasound is not only increase in precipitates but also grain growth. So, in this study, we calculated attenuation coefficients for grain growth using the single scattering model in order to find effect grain growth in the creep damaged materials on attenuation. Then, we extract attenuation coefficients for precipitates from the measured ultrasonic attenuation of creep damaged specimens by subtracting attenuation coefficients for grain boundaries using the calculated attenuation. And, we predicted residual life time of the creep damaged specimens by using the attenuation for precipitates.

  2. Unlimited Damage Accumulation in Metallic Materials Under Cascade-Damage Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Barashev, Aleksandr; Golubov, Stanislav I

    2008-09-01

    Most experiments on neutron or heavy-ion cascade-produced irradiation of pure metals and metallic alloys demonstrate unlimited void growth as well as development of the dislocation structure. In contrast, the theory of radiation damage predicts saturation of void swelling at sufficiently high irradiation doses and, accordingly, termination of accumulation of interstitial-type defects. It is shown in the present paper that, under conditions of steady production of one-dimensionally (1-D) mobile clusters of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) in displacement cascades, any one of the following three conditions can result in indefinite damage accumulation. First, if the fraction of SIAs generated in the clustered form is smaller than some finite value of the order of the dislocation bias factor. Second, if solute, impurity or transmuted atoms form atmospheres around voids and repel the SIA clusters. Third, if spatial correlations between voids and other defects, such as second-phase precipitates and dislocations, exist that provide shadowing of voids from the SIA clusters. The driving force for the development of such correlations is the same as for void lattice formation and is argued to be always present under cascade-damage conditions. It is emphasised that the mean-free path of 1-D migrating SIA clusters is typically at least an order of magnitude longer than the average distance between microstructural defects; hence spatial correlations on the same scale should be taken into consideration. A way of developing a predictive theory is discussed. An interpretation

  3. Humangrowth: An Essay on Growth, Values and the Quality of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland, Harlan; Wilson, Thomas W., Jr.

    Five essays analyze human needs and values in relation to population and economic growth. The first, "The Trouble With Growth," discusses current problems: the benefits of growth are unfairly distributed; growth can damage the environment and waste resources; unproductive and dysfunctional growth is not distinguished from productive and socially…

  4. Final optics damage inspection (FODI) for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Conder, A; Alger, T; Azevedo, S; Chang, J; Glenn, S; Kegelmeyer, L; Liebman, J; Spaeth, M; Whitman, P

    2007-10-23

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will routinely fire high energy shots (approaching 10 kJ per beamline) through the final optics, located on the target chamber. After a high fluence shot, exceeding 4J/cm2 at 351 nm wavelength, the final optics will be inspected for laser-induced damage. The FODI (Final Optics Damage Inspection) system has been developed for this purpose, with requirements to detect laser-induced damage initiation and to track and size it's the growth to the point at which the optic is removed and the site mitigated. The FODI system is the 'corner stone' of the NIF optic recycle strategy. We will describe the FODI system and discuss the challenges to make optics inspection a routine part of NIF operations.

  5. Final optics damage inspection (FODI) for the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conder, Alan; Chang, Jim; Kegelmeyer, Laura; Spaeth, Mary; Whitman, Pam

    2010-08-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) routinely fires high energy shots (> 6 kJ per beamline) through the final optics, located on the target chamber. After a high fluence shot, exceeding 4J/cm2 at 351 nm wavelength, the final optics are inspected for laser-induced damage. The FODI (Final Optics Damage Inspection) system has been developed for this purpose, with requirements to detect laser-induced damage initiation and to track and size it's growth to the point at which the optic is removed and the site mitigated. The FODI system is the "corner stone" of the NIF optic recycle strategy. We will describe the FODI system and discuss the challenges to make optics inspection a routine part of NIF operations.

  6. Final optics damage inspection (FODI) for the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conder, Alan; Alger, Terry; Azevedo, Stephen; Chang, Jim; Glenn, Steven; Kegelmeyer, Laura; Liebman, Judith; Spaeth, Mary; Whitman, Pam

    2008-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will routinely fire high energy shots (approaching 10 kJ per beamline) through the final optics, located on the target chamber. After a high fluence shot, exceeding 4J/cm2 at 351 nm wavelength, the final optics will be inspected for laser-induced damage. The FODI (Final Optics Damage Inspection) system has been developed for this purpose, with requirements to detect laser-induced damage initiation and to track and size it's the growth to the point at which the optic is removed and the site mitigated. The FODI system is the "corner stone" of the NIF optic recycle strategy. We will describe the FODI system and discuss the challenges to make optics inspection a routine part of NIF operations.

  7. Mechanical and microstructural changes in tungsten due to irradiation damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uytdenhouwen, I.; Schwarz-Selinger, T.; Coenen, J. W.; Wirtz, M.

    2016-02-01

    Stress-relieved pure tungsten received three damage levels (0.10, 0.25 and 0.50 dpa) by self-tungsten ion beam irradiation at room temperature. Positron annihilation spectroscopy showed the formation of mono-vacancies and vacancy clusters after ion beam exposure. In the first irradiation step (0-0.10 dpa) some splitting up of large vacancy clusters occurred which became more numerous. For increasing dose to 0.25 dpa, growth of the vacancy clusters was seen. At 0.50 dpa a change in the defect formation seems to occur leading to a saturation in the lifetime signal obtained from the positrons. Nano-indentation on the cross-sections showed a flat damage depth distribution profile. The nano-indentation hardness increased for increasing damage dose without any saturation up to 0.50 dpa. This means that other defects such as dislocation loops and large sized voids seem to contribute.

  8. A procedure for utilization of a damage-dependent constitutive model for laminated composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, David C.; Allen, David H.; Harris, Charles E.

    1992-01-01

    Described here is the procedure for utilizing a damage constitutive model to predict progressive damage growth in laminated composites. In this model, the effects of the internal damage are represented by strain-like second order tensorial damage variables and enter the analysis through damage dependent ply level and laminate level constitutive equations. The growth of matrix cracks due to fatigue loading is predicted by an experimentally based damage evolutionary relationship. This model is incorporated into a computer code called FLAMSTR. This code is capable of predicting the constitutive response and matrix crack damage accumulation in fatigue loaded laminated composites. The structure and usage of FLAMSTR are presented along with sample input and output files to assist the code user. As an example problem, an analysis of crossply laminates subjected to two stage fatigue loading was conducted and the resulting damage accumulation and stress redistribution were examined to determine the effect of variations in fatigue load amplitude applied during the first stage of the load history. It was found that the model predicts a significant loading history effect on damage evolution.

  9. Cotyledon damage affects seed number through final plant size in the annual grassland species Medicago lupulina

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shiting; Zhao, Chuan; Lamb, Eric G.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims The effects of cotyledon damage on seedling growth and survival are relatively well established, but little is known about the effects on aspects of plant fitness such as seed number and size. Here the direct and indirect mechanisms linking cotyledon damage and plant fitness in the annual species Medicago lupulina are examined. Methods Growth and reproductive traits, including mature plant size, time to first flowering, flower number, seed number and individual seed mass were monitored in M. lupulina plants when zero, one or two cotyledons were removed at 7 d old. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to examine the mechanisms linking cotyledon damage to seed number and seed mass. Key Results Cotyledon damage reduced seed number but not individual seed mass. The primary mechanism was a reduction in plant biomass with cotyledon damage that in turn reduced seed number primarily through a reduction in flower numbers. Although cotyledon damage delayed flower initiation, it had little effect on seed number. Individual seed mass was not affected by cotyledon removal, but there was a trade-off between seed number and seed mass. Conclusions It is shown how a network of indirect mechanisms link damage to cotyledons and fitness in M. lupulina. Cotyledon damage had strong direct effects on both plant size and flowering phenology, but an analysis of the causal relationships among plant traits and fitness components showed that a reduction in plant size associated with cotyledon damage was an important mechanism influencing fitness. PMID:21196450

  10. STS-118 Radiator Impact Damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lear, Dana M.; Hyde, J.; Christiansen, E.; Herrin, J.; Lyons, F.

    2008-01-01

    During the August 2007 STS-118 mission to the International Space Station, a micro-meteoroid or orbital debris (MMOD) particle impacted and completely penetrated one of shuttle Endeavour s radiator panels and the underlying thermal control system (TCS) blanket, leaving deposits on (but no damage to) the payload bay door. While it is not unusual for shuttle orbiters to be impacted by small MMOD particles, the damage from this impact is larger than any previously seen on the shuttle radiator panels. A close-up photograph of the radiator impact entry hole is shown in Figure 1, and the location of the impact on Endeavour s left-side aft-most radiator panel is shown in Figure 2. The aft radiator panel is 0.5-inches thick and consists of 0.011 inch thick aluminum facesheets on the front and back of an aluminum honeycomb core. The front facesheet is additionally covered by a 0.005 inch thick layer of silver-Teflon thermal tape. The entry hole in the silver-Teflon tape measured 8.1 mm by 6.4 mm (0.32 inches by 0.25 inches). The entry hole in the outer facesheet measured 7.4 mm by 5.3 mm (0.29 inches by 0.21 inches) (0.23 inches). The impactor also perforated an existing 0.012 inch doubler that had been bonded over the facesheet to repair previous impact damage (an example that lightning can strike the same place twice, even for MMOD impact). The peeled-back edge around the entry hole, or lip , is a characteristic of many hypervelocity impacts. High velocity impact with the front facesheet fragmented the impacting particle and caused it to spread out into a debris cloud. The debris cloud caused considerable damage to the internal honeycomb core with 23 honeycomb cells over a region of 28 mm by 26 mm (1.1 inches by 1.0 inches) having either been completely destroyed or partially damaged. Figure 3 is a view of the exit hole in the rear facesheet, and partially shows the extent of the honeycomb core damage and clearly shows the jagged petaled exit hole through the backside

  11. Direct observation of morphological evolution of a catalyst during carbon nanotube forest growth: new insights into growth and growth termination.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seojeong; Lee, Jaegeun; Kim, Hwan-Chul; Hwang, Jun Yeon; Ku, Bon-Cheol; Zakharov, Dmitri N; Maruyama, Benji; Stach, Eric A; Kim, Seung Min

    2016-01-28

    In this study, we develop a new methodology for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis that enables us to directly investigate the interface between carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays and the catalyst and support layers for CNT forest growth without any damage induced by a post-growth TEM sample preparation. Using this methodology, we perform in situ and ex situ TEM investigations on the evolution of the morphology of the catalyst particles and observe the catalyst particles to climb up through CNT arrays during CNT forest growth. We speculate that the lifted catalysts significantly affect the growth and growth termination of CNT forests along with Ostwald ripening and sub-surface diffusion. Thus, we propose a modified growth termination model which better explains various phenomena related to the growth and growth termination of CNT forests. PMID:26700058

  12. Elastic properties, strength and damage tolerance of pultruded composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Mrinal Chandra

    Pultruded composites are candidate materials for civil engineering infrastructural applications due their higher corrosion resistance and lower life cycle cost. Efficient use of materials like structural members requires thorough understanding of the mechanism that affects their response. The present investigation addresses the modeling and characterization of E-glass fiber/polyester resin matrix pultruded composites in the form of sheets of various thicknesses. The elastic constants were measured using static, vibration and ultrasonic methods. Two types of piezoelectric crystals were used in ultrasonic measurements. Finally, the feasibility of using a single specimen, in the form of a circular disk, was shown in measuring all the elastic constants using ultrasonic technique. The effects of stress gradient on tensile strength were investigated. A large number of specimens, parallel and transverse to the pultrusion direction, were tested in tension, 3-point flexure, and 4-point flexure. A 2-parameter Weibull model was applied to predict the tensile strength from the flexure tests. The measured and Weibull-predicted ratios did not show consistent agreement. Microstructural observations suggested that the flaw distribution in the material was not uniform, which appears to be a basic requirement for the Weibull distribution. Compressive properties were measured using a short-block compression test specimen of 44.4-mm long and 25.4-mm wide. Specimens were tested at 0°, 30°, 45°, 60° and 90° orientations. The compression test specimen was modeled using 4-noded isoparametric layered plate and shell elements. The predicted elastic properties for the roving layer and the continuous strand mat layer was used for the finite element study. The damage resistance and damage tolerance were investigated experimentally. Using a quasi-static indentation loading, damage was induced at various incrementally increased force levels to investigate the damage growth process. Damage

  13. Direct observation of morphological evolution of a catalyst during carbon nanotube forest growth: new insights into growth and growth termination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Seojeong; Lee, Jaegeun; Kim, Hwan-Chul; Hwang, Jun Yeon; Ku, Bon-Cheol; Zakharov, Dmitri N.; Maruyama, Benji; Stach, Eric A.; Kim, Seung Min

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we develop a new methodology for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis that enables us to directly investigate the interface between carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays and the catalyst and support layers for CNT forest growth without any damage induced by a post-growth TEM sample preparation. Using this methodology, we perform in situ and ex situ TEM investigations on the evolution of the morphology of the catalyst particles and observe the catalyst particles to climb up through CNT arrays during CNT forest growth. We speculate that the lifted catalysts significantly affect the growth and growth termination of CNT forests along with Ostwald ripening and sub-surface diffusion. Thus, we propose a modified growth termination model which better explains various phenomena related to the growth and growth termination of CNT forests.In this study, we develop a new methodology for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis that enables us to directly investigate the interface between carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays and the catalyst and support layers for CNT forest growth without any damage induced by a post-growth TEM sample preparation. Using this methodology, we perform in situ and ex situ TEM investigations on the evolution of the morphology of the catalyst particles and observe the catalyst particles to climb up through CNT arrays during CNT forest growth. We speculate that the lifted catalysts significantly affect the growth and growth termination of CNT forests along with Ostwald ripening and sub-surface diffusion. Thus, we propose a modified growth termination model which better explains various phenomena related to the growth and growth termination of CNT forests. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05547d

  14. Remote detection of forest damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rock, B. N.; Vogelmann, J. E.; Vogelmann, A. F.; Hoshizaki, T.; Williams, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    The use of remote sensing to discriminate, measure, and map forest damage is evaluated. TM spectal coverage, a helicopter-mounted radiometer, and ground-based surveys were utilized to examine the responses of the spruces and firs of Camels Hump Mountain, Vermont to stresses, such as pollution and trace metals. The basic spectral properties of vegetation are described. Forest damage at the site was estimated as 11.8-76.0 percent for the spruces and 19-43.8 percent for the balsam firs. Shifts in the spectra of the conifers in particular in the near IR region are analyzed, and variations in the mesophyll cell anatomy and pigment content of the spruces and firs are investigated. The relations between canopy moisture and damage is studied. The TM data are compared to aircraft data and found to be well correlated.

  15. A fiber optic damage monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jen, C. K.; Cielo, P.; Farnell, G. W.; Parker, M.

    A simplified fiber-optic damage monitoring system for on-line assessments of the condition of composite structural materials in F/A-18 fighters is described. Optical fibers are implanted into the composite mesh in a configuration with horizontal and vertical orientations. When light is pumped into the fibers, and failure of transmittance in either the x- or y-coordinates indicates the location of a defect at that coordinate, as revealed by the fiber damage. Attaching photodiodes to the optic fibers and connecting the entire system to a video camera and computer permits on-line monitoring of the mesh-holding panels. Sample results are provided from a system with multimode step index fibers, a VAX 11/780 computer and a video camera with a 488 x 380 cell photodiode array. Image subtraction is an effective means for fast determination of the identities of broken fibers by comparisons of images of arrays of original and damaged fibers.

  16. Constitutive modeling of solid propellant materials with evolving microstructural damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, F.; Aravas, N.; Sofronis, P.

    Solid propellants are composite materials with complex microstructure. In a generic form, the material consists of polymeric binder, crystal oxidizer (e.g., ammonium perchlorate), and fuel particles (e.g., aluminum). Severe stressing and extreme temperatures induce damage which is manifested in particle cracking, dewetting along particle/polymer interfaces, void nucleation and growth. Damage complicates the overall constitutive response of a solid propellant over and above the complexities associated with the differing constitutive properties of the particle and binder phases. Using rigorous homogenization theory for composite materials, we propose a general 3-D nonlinear macroscopic constitutive law that models microstructural damage evolution upon straining through continuous void formation and growth. The law addresses the viscous deformation rate within the framework of additive decomposition of the deformation rate and the concept of back stress is used to improve the model performance in stress relaxation. No restriction is placed on the magnitude of the strains. Experimental data from the standard relaxation and uniaxial tension tests are used to calibrate the model parameters in the case of a high elongation solid propellant. It is emphasized that the model parameters are descriptors of individual phase constitutive response and criticality conditions for particle decohesion which can systematically be determined through experiment. The model is used to predict the response of the material under more complex loading paths and to investigate the effect of crack tip damage on the mechanical behavior of a compact tension fracture specimen.

  17. Coupling between anisotropic damage and permeability variation in brittle rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, J. F.; Zhou, H.; Chau, K. T.

    2005-10-01

    In this paper, a coupled constitutive model is proposed for anisotropic damage and permeability variation in brittle rocks under deviatoric compressive stresses. The formulation of the model is based on experimental evidences and main physical mechanisms involved in the scale of microcracks are taken into account. The proposed model is expressed in the macroscopic framework and can be easily implemented for engineering application. The macroscopic free enthalpy of cracked solid is first determined by approximating crack distribution by a second-order damage tensor. The effective elastic properties of damaged material are then derived from the free enthalpy function. The damage evolution is related to the crack growth in multiple orientations. A pragmatic approach inspired from fracture mechanics is used for the formulation of the crack propagation criterion. Compressive stress induced crack opening is taken into account and leads to macroscopic volumetric dilatancy and permeability variation. The overall permeability tensor of cracked material is determined using a micro-macro averaging procedure. Darcy's law is used for fluid flow at the macroscopic scale whereas laminar flow is assumed at the microcrack scale. Hydraulic connectivity of cracks increases with crack growth. The proposed model is applied to the Lac du Bonnet granite. Generally, good agreement is observed between numerical simulations and experimental data. Copyright

  18. Bone microdamage, remodeling and bone fragility: how much damage is too much damage?

    PubMed

    Seref-Ferlengez, Zeynep; Kennedy, Oran D; Schaffler, Mitchell B

    2015-01-01

    Microdamage resulting from fatigue or 'wear and tear' loading contributes to bone fragility; however, the full extent of its influence is not completely understood. Linear microcracks (∼50-100 μm) and diffuse damage (clusters of sublamellar-sized cracks) are the two major bone microdamage types, each with different mechanical and biological consequences. Healthy bone, due to its numerous microstructural interfaces and its ability to affect matrix level repair, deals effectively with microdamage. From a material standpoint, healthy bone behaves much like engineering composites like carbon-fiber reinforced plastics. Both materials allow matrix damage to form during fatigue loading and use microstructural interfaces to dissipate energy and limit microcrack propagation to slow fracture. The terms fracture toughness and 'toughening mechanism', respectively, describe mechanical behavior and microstructural features that prevent crack growth and make it harder to fracture a material. Critically, toughness is independent of strength. In bone, primary toughening features include mineral and collagen interfaces, lamellae and tissue heterogeneity among osteons. The damage tolerance of bone and other composites can be overcome with sustained loading and/or matrix changes such that the microstructure no longer limits microcrack propagation. With reduced remodeling due to aging, disease or remodeling suppression, microdamage accumulation can occur along with loss of tissue heterogeneity. Both contribute additively to reduced fracture toughness. Thus, the answer to the key question for bone fragility of how much microdamage is too much is extremely complex. It ultimately depends on the interplay between matrix damage content, internal repair and effectiveness of matrix-toughening mechanisms. PMID:25848533

  19. Bone microdamage, remodeling and bone fragility: how much damage is too much damage?

    PubMed Central

    Seref-Ferlengez, Zeynep; Kennedy, Oran D; Schaffler, Mitchell B

    2015-01-01

    Microdamage resulting from fatigue or ‘wear and tear' loading contributes to bone fragility; however, the full extent of its influence is not completely understood. Linear microcracks (∼50–100 μm) and diffuse damage (clusters of sublamellar-sized cracks) are the two major bone microdamage types, each with different mechanical and biological consequences. Healthy bone, due to its numerous microstructural interfaces and its ability to affect matrix level repair, deals effectively with microdamage. From a material standpoint, healthy bone behaves much like engineering composites like carbon-fiber reinforced plastics. Both materials allow matrix damage to form during fatigue loading and use microstructural interfaces to dissipate energy and limit microcrack propagation to slow fracture. The terms fracture toughness and 'toughening mechanism', respectively, describe mechanical behavior and microstructural features that prevent crack growth and make it harder to fracture a material. Critically, toughness is independent of strength. In bone, primary toughening features include mineral and collagen interfaces, lamellae and tissue heterogeneity among osteons. The damage tolerance of bone and other composites can be overcome with sustained loading and/or matrix changes such that the microstructure no longer limits microcrack propagation. With reduced remodeling due to aging, disease or remodeling suppression, microdamage accumulation can occur along with loss of tissue heterogeneity. Both contribute additively to reduced fracture toughness. Thus, the answer to the key question for bone fragility of how much microdamage is too much is extremely complex. It ultimately depends on the interplay between matrix damage content, internal repair and effectiveness of matrix-toughening mechanisms. PMID:25848533

  20. Experimental investigation of the stimulated Brillouin scattering growth and saturation at 526 and 351 nm for direct drive and shock ignition

    SciTech Connect

    Depierreux, S.; Loiseau, P.; Tassin, V.; Masson-Laborde, P.-E.; Goyon, C.; Michel, D. T.; Yahia, V.; Stenz, C.; Labaune, C.

    2012-01-15

    We have designed experiments to study the effect of the laser wavelength (0.527 versus 0.351 {mu}m) on the coupling efficiency in plasma conditions relevant to compression and shock ignition (SI) schemes in different intensity regimes. A difficult issue was to produce interaction conditions that are equivalent for the two wavelengths. This was obtained by using plasma preformed from a solid target with a plasma-preforming beam at the same wavelength as the interaction beam. This produced an almost exponential density profile from vacuum to the critical density of the interaction beam in which all interaction mechanisms are taken into account. The growth and saturation of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) have been measured at the two wavelengths, in backward as well as in near-backward directions. We have found that the SBS intensity threshold is {approx}1.5 times higher at 3{omega} than at 2{omega} in agreement with the I{lambda} dependence of the SBS gain. The SBS behaviour is very well reproduced by the linear calculations of the postprocessor PIRANAH, giving us confidence that we have a good control of the relevance of the experimental conditions for the study of the laser wavelength effect on laser-plasma coupling. When SBS reaches the saturation regime, same levels of reflectivity are measured at 2 and 3{omega}. Numerical simulations were performed with the paraxial code HERA to study the contribution of the fluid mechanisms in the saturation of SBS, showing that pump depletion and interplay with filamentation are likely to be the most important processes in SBS saturation for these conditions. This scenario also applies to the SBS of shock ignition high-intensity beams.

  1. Experimental Verification of a Progressive Damage Model for IM7/5260 Laminates Subjected to Tension-Tension Fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coats, Timothy W.; Harris, Charles E.

    1995-01-01

    The durability and damage tolerance of laminated composites are critical design considerations for airframe composite structures. Therefore, the ability to model damage initiation and growth and predict the life of laminated composites is necessary to achieve structurally efficient and economical designs. The purpose of this research is to experimentally verify the application of a continuum damage model to predict progressive damage development in a toughened material system. Damage due to monotonic and tension-tension fatigue was documented for IM7/5260 graphite/bismaleimide laminates. Crack density and delamination surface area were used to calculate matrix cracking and delamination internal state variables to predict stiffness loss in unnotched laminates. A damage dependent finite element code predicted the stiffness loss for notched laminates with good agreement to experimental data. It was concluded that the continuum damage model can adequately predict matrix damage progression in notched and unnotched laminates as a function of loading history and laminate stacking sequence.

  2. The CATDAT damaging earthquakes database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniell, J. E.; Khazai, B.; Wenzel, F.; Vervaeck, A.

    2011-08-01

    The global CATDAT damaging earthquakes and secondary effects (tsunami, fire, landslides, liquefaction and fault rupture) database was developed to validate, remove discrepancies, and expand greatly upon existing global databases; and to better understand the trends in vulnerability, exposure, and possible future impacts of such historic earthquakes. Lack of consistency and errors in other earthquake loss databases frequently cited and used in analyses was a major shortcoming in the view of the authors which needed to be improved upon. Over 17 000 sources of information have been utilised, primarily in the last few years, to present data from over 12 200 damaging earthquakes historically, with over 7000 earthquakes since 1900 examined and validated before insertion into the database. Each validated earthquake includes seismological information, building damage, ranges of social losses to account for varying sources (deaths, injuries, homeless, and affected), and economic losses (direct, indirect, aid, and insured). Globally, a slightly increasing trend in economic damage due to earthquakes is not consistent with the greatly increasing exposure. The 1923 Great Kanto (214 billion USD damage; 2011 HNDECI-adjusted dollars) compared to the 2011 Tohoku (>300 billion USD at time of writing), 2008 Sichuan and 1995 Kobe earthquakes show the increasing concern for economic loss in urban areas as the trend should be expected to increase. Many economic and social loss values not reported in existing databases have been collected. Historical GDP (Gross Domestic Product), exchange rate, wage information, population, HDI (Human Development Index), and insurance information have been collected globally to form comparisons. This catalogue is the largest known cross-checked global historic damaging earthquake database and should have far-reaching consequences for earthquake loss estimation, socio-economic analysis, and the global reinsurance field.

  3. Damage mechanisms in shock wave lithotripsy (SWL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokhandwalla, Murtuza

    Shock wave lithotripsy is a 'non-invasive' therapy for treating kidney stones. Focused shock waves fragment stones to a size that can be passed naturally. There is, however, considerable tissue injury, and the mechanisms of stone fragmentation and tissue injury are not well understood. This work investigates potential tissue damage mechanisms, with an aim towards enhancing stone fragmentation and minimizing tissue damage. Lysis of red blood cells (RBC's) due to in vitro exposure to shock waves was investigated. Fluid flow-fields induced by a non-uniform shock wave, as well as radial expansion/implosion of a bubble was hypothesized to cause cell lysis. Both the above flow-fields constitute an unsteady extensional flow, exerting inertial as well as viscous forces on the RBC membrane. The resultant membrane tension and the membrane areal strain due to the above flow-fields were estimated. Both were found to exert a significantly higher inertial force (50--100 mN/m) than the critical membrane tension (10 mN/m). Bubble-induced flow-field was estimated to last for a longer duration (˜1 microsec) compared to the shock-induced flow (˜1 ns) and hence, was predicted to be lytically more effective, in typical in vitro experimental conditions. However, in vivo conditions severely constrain bubble growth, and cell lysis due to shock-induced shear could be dominant. Hemolysis due to shock-induced shear, in absence of cavitation, was experimentally investigated. The lithotripter-generated shock wave was refocused by a parabolic reflector. This refocused wave-field had a tighter focus (smaller beam-width and a higher amplitude) than the lithotripter wave-field. Cavitation was eliminated by applying overpressure to the fluid. Acoustic emissions due to bubble activity were monitored by a novel passive cavitation detector (HP-PCD). Aluminum foils were also used to differentiate cavitational from non-cavitational mode of damage. RBC's were exposed to the reflected wave-field from

  4. Laser damage dependence on the size and concentration of precursor defects in KDP crystals: view through differently sized filter pores.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yueliang; Zhao, Yuanan; Xie, Xiaoyi; Hu, Guohang; Yang, Liujiang; Xu, Ziyuan; Shao, Jianda

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the laser-induced damage performance at 1064 nm of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals grown using filters of different pore sizes. The aim is to explore a novel method for understanding laser-matter interactions with regard to physical parameters affecting the ability of damage precursors to initiate damage. By reducing the pore size of filters in continuous filtration growth, we can improve laser damage resistance. Furthermore, we develop a model based on a Gaussian distribution of precursor thresholds and heat transfer to obtain a size distribution of the precursor defects. Smaller size and/or lower concentration of precursor defects could lead to better damage resistance. PMID:27192280

  5. Damage kinetics in silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickup, I. M.; Barker, A. K.

    1998-07-01

    Three silicon carbides of similar density and grain size but manufactured via different routes (reaction bonded, pressureless sintered and pressure assisted densification) have been investigated. High speed photography in conjunction with Hopkinson pressure bar compression tests has revealed that not only does the manufacturing route confer a significant difference in failure kinetics but also modifies the phenomenology of failure. Plate impact experiments using lateral and longitudinal manganin stress gauges have been used to study shear strength behaviour of damaged material. Failure waves have been observed in all three materials and characteristically different damaged material shear strength relationships with pressure have been observed.

  6. 7 CFR 51.2129 - Serious damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Serious damage. 51.2129 Section 51.2129 Agriculture... Serious damage. Serious damage means any defect which makes a kernel or piece of kernel unsuitable for human consumption, and includes decay, rancidity, insect injury and damage by mold....

  7. 7 CFR 51.2129 - Serious damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Serious damage. 51.2129 Section 51.2129 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2129 Serious damage. Serious damage means any..., rancidity, insect injury and damage by mold....

  8. 7 CFR 51.2129 - Serious damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Serious damage. 51.2129 Section 51.2129 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2129 Serious damage. Serious damage means any..., rancidity, insect injury and damage by mold....

  9. 47 CFR 1.722 - Damages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Damages. 1.722 Section 1.722 Telecommunication... Reports Involving Common Carriers Formal Complaints § 1.722 Damages. (a) If a complainant wishes to recover damages, the complaint must contain a clear and unequivocal request for damages. (b) If...

  10. 7 CFR 51.2293 - Serious damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Serious damage. 51.2293 Section 51.2293 Agriculture... Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Definitions § 51.2293 Serious damage. Serious damage... shall be considered as serious damage: (a) Shriveling when more than one-fourth of the kernel...

  11. 7 CFR 51.2739 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Damage. 51.2739 Section 51.2739 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Definitions § 51.2739 Damage. Damage means any specific... damage: (a) Rancidity or decay; (b) Mold; (c) Insects, worm cuts, web or frass; (d) Freezing...

  12. 32 CFR 750.33 - Damages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Damages. 750.33 Section 750.33 National Defense... Claims Act § 750.33 Damages. (a) Generally. The measure of damages is determined by the law of the place... for interest prior to judgment or for punitive damages. In a death case, if the place where the act...

  13. 7 CFR 51.2292 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Damage. 51.2292 Section 51.2292 Agriculture... Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Definitions § 51.2292 Damage. Damage means any defect... considered as damage: (a) Shriveling when more than one-eighth of the portion of kernel is severely...

  14. 47 CFR 1.722 - Damages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Damages. 1.722 Section 1.722 Telecommunication... Reports Involving Common Carriers Formal Complaints § 1.722 Damages. (a) If a complainant wishes to recover damages, the complaint must contain a clear and unequivocal request for damages. (b) If...

  15. 7 CFR 51.1583 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Damage. 51.1583 Section 51.1583 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Definitions § 51.1583 Damage. Damage... defective area. Loss of outer skin (epidermis) shall not be considered as damage when the potatoes...

  16. 7 CFR 51.1449 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Damage. 51.1449 Section 51.1449 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Shelled Pecans Definitions § 51.1449 Damage. Damage means any specific defect... should be considered as damage: (a) Adhering material from inside the shell when attached to more...

  17. 7 CFR 51.1449 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Damage. 51.1449 Section 51.1449 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Shelled Pecans Definitions § 51.1449 Damage. Damage means any specific defect... should be considered as damage: (a) Adhering material from inside the shell when attached to more...

  18. 7 CFR 51.1583 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Damage. 51.1583 Section 51.1583 Agriculture... Consumer Standards for Potatoes Definitions § 51.1583 Damage. Damage means any injury or defect which... (epidermis) shall not be considered as damage when the potatoes are designated as “Early” unless the...

  19. 7 CFR 51.1241 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Damage. 51.1241 Section 51.1241 Agriculture... § 51.1241 Damage. Damage means any injury or defect which materially affects the appearance edible or... damage: (a) Cracked or broken shells which have been broken to the extent that the kernel within...

  20. 7 CFR 51.2090 - Serious damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Serious damage. 51.2090 Section 51.2090 Agriculture... Serious damage. Serious damage means any defect which makes a kernel or piece of kernel unsuitable for human consumption, and includes decay, rancidity, insect injury and damage by mold. The following...

  1. 7 CFR 51.1241 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Damage. 51.1241 Section 51.1241 Agriculture... § 51.1241 Damage. Damage means any injury or defect which materially affects the appearance edible or... damage: (a) Cracked or broken shells which have been broken to the extent that the kernel within...

  2. 32 CFR 750.33 - Damages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Damages. 750.33 Section 750.33 National Defense... Claims Act § 750.33 Damages. (a) Generally. The measure of damages is determined by the law of the place... for interest prior to judgment or for punitive damages. In a death case, if the place where the act...

  3. 7 CFR 51.2293 - Serious damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Serious damage. 51.2293 Section 51.2293 Agriculture... § 51.2293 Serious damage. Serious damage means any defect, other than color, which seriously affects... exceeds the maximum allowed for any one defect shall be considered as serious damage: (a) Shriveling...

  4. 7 CFR 51.2090 - Serious damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Serious damage. 51.2090 Section 51.2090 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Almonds in the Shell Definitions § 51.2090 Serious damage. Serious damage means any..., rancidity, insect injury and damage by mold. The following defect shall be considered as serious...

  5. 7 CFR 51.2292 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Damage. 51.2292 Section 51.2292 Agriculture... § 51.2292 Damage. Damage means any defect, other than color, which materially affects the appearance... maximum allowed for any one defect shall be considered as damage: (a) Shriveling when more than...

  6. 7 CFR 51.1586 - Serious damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Serious damage. 51.1586 Section 51.1586 Agriculture... Consumer Standards for Potatoes Definitions § 51.1586 Serious damage. Serious damage means any injury or... maximum allowed for any one defect shall be considered as serious damage: (a) Fairly smooth cuts such...

  7. 47 CFR 1.722 - Damages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Damages. 1.722 Section 1.722 Telecommunication... Reports Involving Common Carriers Formal Complaints § 1.722 Damages. (a) If a complainant wishes to recover damages, the complaint must contain a clear and unequivocal request for damages. (b) If...

  8. 32 CFR 750.33 - Damages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Damages. 750.33 Section 750.33 National Defense... Claims Act § 750.33 Damages. (a) Generally. The measure of damages is determined by the law of the place... for interest prior to judgment or for punitive damages. In a death case, if the place where the act...

  9. 47 CFR 1.722 - Damages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Damages. 1.722 Section 1.722 Telecommunication... Reports Involving Common Carriers Formal Complaints § 1.722 Damages. (a) If a complainant wishes to recover damages, the complaint must contain a clear and unequivocal request for damages. (b) If...

  10. 7 CFR 51.1583 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Damage. 51.1583 Section 51.1583 Agriculture... Consumer Standards for Potatoes Definitions § 51.1583 Damage. Damage means any injury or defect which... (epidermis) shall not be considered as damage when the potatoes are designated as “Early” unless the...

  11. 7 CFR 51.2003 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Damage. 51.2003 Section 51.2003 Agriculture....2003 Damage. Damage means any specific defect described in this section; or an equally objectionable... defects shall be considered as damage: (a) Stains which are dark and materially affect the appearance...

  12. 7 CFR 51.2090 - Serious damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Serious damage. 51.2090 Section 51.2090 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Almonds in the Shell Definitions § 51.2090 Serious damage. Serious damage means any..., rancidity, insect injury and damage by mold. The following defect shall be considered as serious...

  13. 47 CFR 1.722 - Damages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Damages. 1.722 Section 1.722 Telecommunication... Reports Involving Common Carriers Formal Complaints § 1.722 Damages. (a) If a complainant wishes to recover damages, the complaint must contain a clear and unequivocal request for damages. (b) If...

  14. 32 CFR 750.33 - Damages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Damages. 750.33 Section 750.33 National Defense... Claims Act § 750.33 Damages. (a) Generally. The measure of damages is determined by the law of the place... for interest prior to judgment or for punitive damages. In a death case, if the place where the act...

  15. 7 CFR 51.2129 - Serious damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Serious damage. 51.2129 Section 51.2129 Agriculture... Serious damage. Serious damage means any defect which makes a kernel or piece of kernel unsuitable for human consumption, and includes decay, rancidity, insect injury and damage by mold....

  16. 7 CFR 51.2292 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Damage. 51.2292 Section 51.2292 Agriculture... Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Definitions § 51.2292 Damage. Damage means any defect... considered as damage: (a) Shriveling when more than one-eighth of the portion of kernel is severely...

  17. 7 CFR 51.1586 - Serious damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Serious damage. 51.1586 Section 51.1586 Agriculture... Consumer Standards for Potatoes Definitions § 51.1586 Serious damage. Serious damage means any injury or... maximum allowed for any one defect shall be considered as serious damage: (a) Fairly smooth cuts such...

  18. 7 CFR 51.2090 - Serious damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Serious damage. 51.2090 Section 51.2090 Agriculture... Serious damage. Serious damage means any defect which makes a kernel or piece of kernel unsuitable for human consumption, and includes decay, rancidity, insect injury and damage by mold. The following...

  19. 32 CFR 750.33 - Damages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Damages. 750.33 Section 750.33 National Defense... Claims Act § 750.33 Damages. (a) Generally. The measure of damages is determined by the law of the place... for interest prior to judgment or for punitive damages. In a death case, if the place where the act...

  20. 7 CFR 51.2293 - Serious damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Serious damage. 51.2293 Section 51.2293 Agriculture... Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Definitions § 51.2293 Serious damage. Serious damage... shall be considered as serious damage: (a) Shriveling when more than one-fourth of the kernel...

  1. 7 CFR 51.2090 - Serious damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Serious damage. 51.2090 Section 51.2090 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Almonds in the Shell Definitions § 51.2090 Serious damage. Serious damage means any..., rancidity, insect injury and damage by mold. The following defect shall be considered as serious...

  2. 7 CFR 51.2960 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Damage. 51.2960 Section 51.2960 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Walnuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.2960 Damage. Damage means any specific defect... considered as damage: (a) Broken shells when the area from which a portion of the shell is missing is...

  3. 7 CFR 51.1583 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Damage. 51.1583 Section 51.1583 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Definitions § 51.1583 Damage. Damage... defective area. Loss of outer skin (epidermis) shall not be considered as damage when the potatoes...

  4. Towards a damage tolerance philosophy for composite materials and structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Brien, T. Kevin

    1990-01-01

    A damage-threshold/fail-safe approach is proposed to ensure that composite structures are both sufficiently durable for economy of operation, as well as adequately fail-safe or damage tolerant for flight safety. Matrix cracks are assumed to exist throughout the off-axis plies. Delamination onset is predicted using a strain energy release rate characterization. Delamination growth is accounted for in one of three ways: either analytically, using delamination growth laws in conjunction with strain energy release rate analyses incorporating delamination resistance curves; experimentally, using measured stiffness loss; or conservatively, assuming delamination onset corresponds to catastrophic delamination growth. Fail-safety is assessed by accounting for the accumulation of delaminations through the thickness. A tension fatigue life prediction for composite laminates is presented as a case study to illustrate how this approach may be implemented. Suggestions are made for applying the damage-threshold/fail-safe approach to compression fatigue, tension/compression fatigue, and compression strength following low velocity impact.

  5. Towards a damage tolerance philosophy for composite materials and structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, T. Kevin

    1988-01-01

    A damage-threshold/fail-safe approach is proposed to ensure that composite structures are both sufficiently durable for economy of operation, as well as adequately fail-safe or damage tolerant for flight safety. Matrix cracks are assumed to exist throughout the off-axis plies. Delamination onset is predicted using a strain energy release rate characterization. Delamination growth is accounted for in one of three ways: either analytically, using delamination growth laws in conjunction with strain energy release rate analyses incorporating delamination resistance curves; experimentally, using measured stiffness loss; or conservatively, assuming delamination onset corresponds to catastrophic delamination growth. Fail-safety is assessed by accounting for the accumulation of delaminations through the thickness. A tension fatigue life prediction for composite laminates is presented as a case study to illustrate how this approach may be implemented. Suggestions are made for applying the damage-threshold/fail-safe approach to compression fatigue, tension/compression fatigue, and compression strength following low velocity impact.

  6. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Genome Damage, and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dicks, Naomi; Gutierrez, Karina; Michalak, Marek; Bordignon, Vilceu; Agellon, Luis B.

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been linked to many diseases, including cancer. A large body of work has focused on the activation of the ER stress response in cancer cells to facilitate their survival and tumor growth; however, there are some studies suggesting that the ER stress response can also mitigate cancer progression. Despite these contradictions, it is clear that the ER stress response is closely associated with cancer biology. The ER stress response classically encompasses activation of three separate pathways, which are collectively categorized the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR has been extensively studied in various cancers and appears to confer a selective advantage to tumor cells to facilitate their enhanced growth and resistance to anti-cancer agents. It has also been shown that ER stress induces chromatin changes, which can also facilitate cell survival. Chromatin remodeling has been linked with many cancers through repression of tumor suppressor and apoptosis genes. Interplay between the classic UPR and genome damage repair mechanisms may have important implications in the transformation process of normal cells into cancer cells. PMID:25692096

  7. Certification of damage tolerant composite structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapoff, Andrew J.; Dill, Harold D.; Sanger, Kenneth B.; Kautz, Edward F.

    1990-01-01

    A reliability based certification testing methodology for impact damage tolerant composite structure was developed. Cocured, adhesively bonded, and impact damaged composite static strength and fatigue life data were statistically analyzed to determine the influence of test parameters on the data scatter. The impact damage resistance and damage tolerance of various structural configurations were characterized through the analysis of an industry wide database of impact test results. Realistic impact damage certification requirements were proposed based on actual fleet aircraft data. The capabilities of available impact damage analysis methods were determined through correlation with experimental data. Probabilistic methods were developed to estimate the reliability of impact damaged composite structures.

  8. Leishmania major and Trypanosoma cruzi present distinct DNA damage responses.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Juliana B F; Rocha, João P Vieira da; Costa-Silva, Héllida M; Alves, Ceres L; Machado, Carlos R; Cruz, Angela K

    2016-05-01

    Leishmania major and Trypanosoma cruzi are medically relevant parasites and interesting model organisms, as they present unique biological processes. Despite increasing data regarding the mechanisms of gene expression regulation, there is little information on how the DNA damage response (DDR) occurs in trypanosomatids. We found that L. major presented a higher radiosensitivity than T. cruzi. L. major showed G1 arrest and displayed high mortality in response to ionizing radiation as a result of the inefficient repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs). Conversely, T. cruzi exhibited arrest in the S/G2 cell cycle phase, was able to efficiently repair DSBs and did not display high rates of cell death after exposure to gamma irradiation. L. major showed higher resistance to alkylating DNA damage, and only L. major was able to promote DNA repair and growth recovery in the presence of MMS. ASF1c overexpression did not interfere with the efficiency of DNA repair in either of the parasites but did accentuate the DNA damage checkpoint response, thereby delaying cell fate after damage. The observed differences in the DNA damage responses of T. cruzi and L. major may originate from the distinct preferred routes of genetic plasticity of the two parasites, i.e., DNA recombination versus amplification. PMID:27188657

  9. Human activity and damaging landslides and floods on Madeira Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baioni, D.

    2011-11-01

    Over the last few decades, the island of Madeira has become an important offshore tourism and business center, with rapid economic and demographic development that has caused changes to the landscape due to human activity. In Madeira's recent history, there has been an increase over time in the frequency of occurrence of damaging landslide and flood events. As a result, the costs of restoration work due to damage caused by landslide and flood events have become a larger and larger component of Madeira's annual budget. Landslides and floods in Madeira deserve particular attention because they represent the most serious hazard to human life, to property, and to the natural environment and its important heritage value. The work reported on in this paper involved the analysis of historical data regarding damaging landslide and flood events on Madeira (in particular from 1941 to 1991) together with data on geological characteristics, topographic features, and climate, and from field observations. This analysis showed that the main factor triggering the occurrence of damaging landslide and flood events is rainfall, but that the increase in the number of damaging events recorded on Madeira Island, especially in recent times, seems to be related mostly to human activity, specifically to economic development and population growth, rather than to natural factors.

  10. Laser-Induced Damage of Calcium Fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Espana, Aubrey L.; Joly, Alan G.; Hess, Wayne P.; Dickinson, J T.

    2004-12-01

    Radiation damage of materials has long been of fundamental interest, especially since the growth of laser technology. One such source of damage comes from UV laser light. Laser systems continue to move into shorter wavelength ranges, but unfortunately are limited by the damage threshold of their optical components. For example, semiconductor lithography is making its way into the 157nm range and requires a material that can not only transmit this light (air cannot), but also withstand the highly energetic photons present at this shorter wavelength. CaF2, an alkaline earth halide, is the chosen material for vacuum UV 157 nm excimer radiation. It can transmit light down to 120 nm and is relatively inexpensive. Although it is readily available through natural and synthetic sources, it is often times difficult to find in high purity. Impurities in the crystal can result in occupied states in the band gap that induce photon absorption [2] and ultimately lead to the degradation of the material. In order to predict how well CaF2 will perform under irradiation of short wavelength laser light, one must understand the mechanisms for laser-induced damage. Laser damage is often a two-step process: initial photons create new defects in the lattice and subsequent photons excite these defects. When laser light is incident on a solid surface there is an initial production of electron-hole (e-h) pairs, a heating of free electrons and a generation of local heating around optically absorbing centers [3]. Once this initial excitation converts to the driving energy for nuclear motion, the result is an ejection of atoms, ions and molecules from the surface, known as desorption or ablation [3]. Secondary processes further driving desorption are photoabsorption, successive excitations of self-trapped excitons (STE's) and defects, and ionization of neutrals by incident laser light [3]. The combination of laser-induced desorption and the alterations to the electronic and geometrical

  11. Damage and fracture mechanics of composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdussalam, Saleh Ramadan

    The design of structural systems in the aerospace industry has been characterized by a continuing search for strong, yet lightweight, materials to achieve maximum payload capability for minimum weight. In recent years, this search has led to a wide use of fiber reinforced composites, such as carbon, glass and kevelar based composites. Comparison of these new materials with the traditional ones (metals) according to the basic properties, such as density, elastic modulus and also long-time and short-time strength, shows their superiority over traditional materials, when weight is a major design factor, like in the aerospace industry. Most composite materials of interest to aerospace applications have been adequately characterized under static loading conditions. Related work to study their fracture behaviour has been limited. Since most failure mechanisms involve crack growth and/or delamination, design of such components requires knowledge and understanding of their fracture properties. This thesis includes an experimental and analytical investigation of fracture characteristics of composite materials. The post-peak response of notched specimens subjected to uniaxial cyclic loading is established to evaluate the fracture energy associated with progressive matrix damage and subsequent crack growth. A total of 75 uniaxial tension specimens were tested. The experimental work consisted of first testing several un-notched specimens with different thickness (number of layers) to determine the initial and secondary elastic modulus as well as the tensile strength. The investigation studied the effect of the various fracture parameters, including thickness, fiber orientation, and crack width ratio (a/w) on the behaviour of crack propagation, peak load, and post-peak response. The specimens used in this research were prepared using the vacuum bagging technique, with a chosen number of fiber glass cloth layers and fiber orientation. The experimental results provided

  12. How Serious Is the Damage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, John M.

    2007-01-01

    When surveys of faculty tell everyone that politically right-of-center voices are now much reduced or even in certain areas largely absent, people can be sure that the academy is damaged in at least one respect: the campus political and social climate will be unrealistic. Programs where this is central, such as political science and sociology,…

  13. Sulfur Dioxide and Material Damage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillette, Donald G.

    1975-01-01

    This study relates sulfur dioxide levels with material damage in heavily populated or polluted areas. Estimates of loss were determined from increased maintenance and replacement costs. The data indicate a decrease in losses during the past five years probably due to decline in pollution levels established by air quality standards. (MR)

  14. Compensation for oil pollution damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matugina, E. G.; Glyzina, T. S.; Kolbysheva, Yu V.; Klyuchnikov, A. S.; Vusovich, O. V.

    2015-11-01

    The commitment of national industries to traditional energy sources, as well as constantly growing energy demand combined with adverse environmental impact of petroleum production and transportation urge to establish and maintain an appropriate legal and administrative framework for oil pollution damage compensation. The article considers management strategies for petroleum companies that embrace not only production benefits but also environmental issues.

  15. Improving 351-nm Damage Performance of Large-Aperture Fused Silica and DKDP Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, A K; Hackel, L; Wegner, P; Parham, T; Hrubesh, L; Penetrante, B; Whitman, P; Demos, S; Menapace, J; Runkel, M; Fluss, M; Feit, M; Key, M; Biesiada, T

    2002-01-07

    A program to identify and eliminate the causes of UV laser-induced damage and growth in fused silica and DKDP has developed methods to extend optics lifetimes for large-aperture, high-peak-power, UV lasers such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Issues included polish-related surface damage initiation and growth on fused silica and DKDP, bulk inclusions in fused silica, pinpoint bulk damage in DKDP, and UV-induced surface degradation in fused silica and DKDP in a vacuum. Approaches included an understanding of the mechanism of the damage, incremental improvements to existing fabrication technology, and feasibility studies of non-traditional fabrication technologies. Status and success of these various approaches are reviewed. Improvements were made in reducing surface damage initiation and eliminating growth for fused silica by improved polishing and post-processing steps, and improved analytical techniques are providing insights into mechanisms of DKDP damage. The NIF final optics hardware has been designed to enable easy retrieval, surface-damage mitigation, and recycling of optics.

  16. Plate tectonics, damage and inheritance.

    PubMed

    Bercovici, David; Ricard, Yanick

    2014-04-24

    The initiation of plate tectonics on Earth is a critical event in our planet's history. The time lag between the first proto-subduction (about 4 billion years ago) and global tectonics (approximately 3 billion years ago) suggests that plates and plate boundaries became widespread over a period of 1 billion years. The reason for this time lag is unknown but fundamental to understanding the origin of plate tectonics. Here we suggest that when sufficient lithospheric damage (which promotes shear localization and long-lived weak zones) combines with transient mantle flow and migrating proto-subduction, it leads to the accumulation of weak plate boundaries and eventually to fully formed tectonic plates driven by subduction alone. We simulate this process using a grain evolution and damage mechanism with a composite rheology (which is compatible with field and laboratory observations of polycrystalline rocks), coupled to an idealized model of pressure-driven lithospheric flow in which a low-pressure zone is equivalent to the suction of convective downwellings. In the simplest case, for Earth-like conditions, a few successive rotations of the driving pressure field yield relic damaged weak zones that are inherited by the lithospheric flow to form a nearly perfect plate, with passive spreading and strike-slip margins that persist and localize further, even though flow is driven only by subduction. But for hotter surface conditions, such as those on Venus, accumulation and inheritance of damage is negligible; hence only subduction zones survive and plate tectonics does not spread, which corresponds to observations. After plates have developed, continued changes in driving forces, combined with inherited damage and weak zones, promote increased tectonic complexity, such as oblique subduction, strike-slip boundaries that are subparallel to plate motion, and spalling of minor plates. PMID:24717430

  17. Investigation of the bulk laser damage of lithium triborate, LiB3O5, single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Yasunori; Markgraf, Steven A.; Sato, Masayoshi; Yoshida, Hidetsugu; Sasaki, Takatomo; Fujita, Hisanori; Yamanaka, Tatsuhiko; Nakai, Sadao

    1994-09-01

    The laser damage resistance properties of LBO single crystals to Q-switched pulse energy were considered. The bulk damage threshold was reported as a function of laser irradiation direction, polarization, wavelength, and pulse duration. It was shown that the damage threshold was independent of either the laser irradiation direction or polarization direction. Careful regulation of the growth conditions yielded large crystals free of inclusions and hopper growth. Consequently, uniform damage thresholds throughout the crystal were noted. The integration of wide transparency, reasonable nonlinear optic coefficients, suitable phase matching parameters, high damage threshold, and a lack of crystallographic dependence on the damage threshold, made LBO one of the most appealing crystals for high-power frequency conversion.

  18. Assessment of ozone damage to crop and forest in Europe caused by Danish emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siggaard-Andersen, M.-L.; Zakey, A.; Nuterman, R.; Brandt, J.

    2012-04-01

    Tropospheric Ozone has a damaging effect on vegetation, where it inhibits growth and reduces yield of crop production, as well as causing visible damage to plant leaves. The reduced crop production and growth of forest trees can be assessed using species specific sensitivity factors and market prices. The damages to agriculture are severe and a treat to food security. However, anthropogenic emissions of air pollution are not causing ozone damage to vegetation locally because of redox titration of ozone in the pollution source area. The ozone damage is taking effect hundreds of kilometers further downwind, where the atmospheric content of ozone has stabilized. This means that ozone damage can have a large effect outside an emitting country's borders, while the effects inside are limited or even have reducing effects of ozone damage from other sources. As part of CEEH (Centre for energy, environment and health), we are assessing ozone damage to forest and vegetation in European countries from Danish emissions using atmospheric chemical transport simulations.

  19. Growth chart

    MedlinePlus

    Height and weight chart ... Growth charts are used to compare your child's height, weight, and head size against children of the ... From these numbers, the national average weight and height for each age and gender were established. The ...

  20. Fracture and damage evolution of fluorinated polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, E. N.; Rae, P.; Orler, E. B.; Thissell, W. R.; Dattelbaum, D. M.

    2004-01-01

    Fluoropolymers are often semi-crystalline in nature, with their linear chains forming complicated phases near room temperature and ambient pressure. The most widely used fluorocarbon polymer for engineering applications is polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), due to its extremely low coefficient of friction, outstanding resistance to corrosion, and excellent electrical properties. The phase structure of PTFE is complex with four well-characterized crystalline phases (three observed at atmospheric pressure) and substantial molecular motion well below the melting point. The first-order transition at 19 C between phases II and IV is an unraveling in the helical conformation. Further rotational disordering and untwisting of the helices occurs above 30 C giving way to phase I. The mechanical behavior, including fracture and damage evolution, of PTFE depends on the chain and segment motions dictated by crystalline phase microstructure. The presence of three unique phases at ambient pressure near room temperature implies that failure during standard operating conditions may be strongly dependent on the phase. This paper presents a preliminary study of fracture and damage evolution in PTFE with the effects of temperature-induced phase on fracture mechanisms. The quasi-static fracture of PTFE in the atmospheric pressure regime, over a range of temperatures, was found to be strongly phase dependent: phase II exhibits brittle-fracture, phase IV displays ductile-fracture with crazing and some stable crack growth, and plastic flow dominates phase 1. The bulk failure properties are correlated to failure mechanisms through fractography of the fracture surfaces (optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)).

  1. Population growth and economic growth.

    PubMed

    Narayana, D L

    1984-01-01

    This discussion of the issues relating to the problem posed by population explosion in the developing countries and economic growth in the contemporary world covers the following: predictions of economic and social trends; the Malthusian theory of population; the classical or stationary theory of population; the medical triage model; ecological disaster; the Global 2000 study; the limits to growth; critiques of the Limits to Growth model; nonrenewable resources; food and agriculture; population explosion and stabilization; space and ocean colonization; and the limits perspective. The Limits to Growth model, a general equilibrium anti-growth model, is the gloomiest economic model ever constructed. None of the doomsday models, the Malthusian theory, the classical stationary state, the neo-Malthusian medical triage model, the Global 2000 study, are so far reaching in their consequences. The course of events that followed the publication of the "Limits to Growth" in 1972 in the form of 2 oil shocks, food shock, pollution shock, and price shock seemed to bear out formally the gloomy predictions of the thesis with a remarkable speed. The 12 years of economic experience and the knowledge of resource trends postulate that even if the economic pressures visualized by the model are at work they are neither far reaching nor so drastic. Appropriate action can solve them. There are several limitations to the Limits to Growth model. The central theme of the model, which is overshoot and collapse, is unlikely to be the course of events. The model is too aggregative to be realistic. It exaggerates the ecological disaster arising out of the exponential growth of population and industry. The gross underestimation of renewable resources is a basic flaw of the model. The most critical weakness of the model is its gross underestimation of the historical trend of technological progress and the technological possiblities within industry and agriculture. The model does correctly emphasize

  2. Radiation damage evolution in ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Devanathan, Ramaswami

    2009-09-15

    A review is presented of recent results on radiation damage production, defect accumulation and dynamic annealing in a number of ceramics, such as silicon carbide, zircon and zirconia. Under energetic particle irradiation, ceramics can undergo amorphization by the accumulation of point defects and defect clusters (silicon carbide) or direct impact amorphization (zircon). Ceramics that resist radiation-induced amorphization have mechanisms to dissipate the primary knock-on atom energy, such as replacement collision sequences that leave the lattice undisturbed and low-energy cation site exchange. The presence of engineered mobile defects, such as structural vacancies in stabilized zirconia, can dynamically anneal radiation damage. Thus, defect engineering is a promising strategy to design radiation tolerance for applications such as nuclear waste disposal.

  3. Radiation damage of germanium detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pehl, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    Energetic particles can produce interstitial-vacancy pairs in a crystal by knocking the atoms from their normal positions. Detectors are unique among semiconductor devices in depending on very low concentrations of electrically active impurities, and also on efficient transport of holes and electrons over relatively large distances. Because the dense regions of damage produced by energetic particles may result in donors and/or acceptors, and also provide trapping sites for holes and electrons, detectors are very sensitive to radiation damage. In addition to these effects occurring within the detector, radiation may also change the characteristics of the exposed surfaces causing unpredictable effects on the detector leakage current. Radiation-induced surface degradation has rarely, if ever, been observed for germanium detectors. The possibility of minimizing hole trapping in charge collection by the use of a high-purity germanium coaxial detector configured with the p (+) contact on the coaxial periphery is discussed.

  4. Formation of ion damage tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tombrello, T. A.; Wie, C. R.; Itoh, N.; Nakayama, T.

    1984-01-01

    A new model is proposed to explain both localized damage regions and preferential etching of damage tracks caused by the passage of energetic ions in insulators. The formation of each region of extended defects is initiated by the Auger decay of a vacancy produced in an inner electronic shell of an atom of the insulator by an incident ion. This decay produces an intense source of ionization within a small volume around the decaying atom, which causes decomposition of the material in a manner similar to that observed in pulsed laser irradiation. The resulting chemical or crystalline modification of the material is the latent track, which can be preferentially etched due to its changed structure.

  5. Damage of hybrid composite laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haery, Haleh A.; Kim, Ho Sung

    2013-08-01

    Hybrid laminates consisting of woven glass fabric/epoxy composite plies and woven carbon fabric/epoxy composite plies are studied for fatigue damage and residual strength. A theoretical framework based on the systems approach is proposed as a guide to deal with the complexity involving uncertainties and a large number of variables in the hybrid composite system. A relative damage sensitivity factor expression was developed for quantitative comparisons between non-hybrid and hybrid composites. Hypotheses derived from the theoretical framework were tested and verified. The first hypothesis was that the difference between two different sets of properties produces shear stress in interface between carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CRP) and glass fibre reinforced plastics (GRP), and eventually become a source for CRP/GRP interfacial delamination or longitudinal cracking. The second hypothesis was that inter-fibre bundle delamination occurs more severely to CRP sub-system than GRP sub-system.

  6. Damage Progression in Buckle-Resistant Notched Composite Plates Loaded in Uniaxial Compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGowan, David M.; Davila, Carlos G.; Ambur, Damodar R.

    2001-01-01

    Results of an experimental and analytical evaluation of damage progression in three stitched composite plates containing an angled central notch and subjected to compression loading are presented. Parametric studies were conducted systematically to identify the relative effects of the material strength parameters on damage initiation and growth. Comparisons with experiments were conducted to determine the appropriate in situ values of strengths for progressive failure analysis. These parametric studies indicated that the in situ value of the fiber buckling strength is the most important parameter in the prediction of damage initiation and growth in these notched composite plates. Analyses of the damage progression in the notched, compression-loaded plates were conducted using in situ material strengths. Comparisons of results obtained from these analyses with experimental results for displacements and axial strains show good agreement.

  7. Luminance measurement to evaluate the damage of notched FRP plates in static load

    SciTech Connect

    Hyakutake, H.; Yamamoto, T.

    1995-11-01

    The validity of the damage criterion for notched FRP plates based on the concept of severity near the notch root is subjected to further experimental scrutiny. An experimental program is presented which examines the effect of notch geometry on the damage near the notch root of FRP plates. This is accomplished by obtaining experimental data on the notched specimens of a glass cloth/epoxy laminate for a wide range of notch geometries in tension and bending. The process of initiation and growth of damage near the notch root was measured by means of the luminance measurement technique with a CCD camera. The experiment shows that the growth of damage zone near the notch root was governed predominantly by both the notch-root radius and the maximum elastic stress at the notch root, while it was independent of notch depth and type of loading. On the basis of the concept of severity, the experimental results can be clearly elucidated.

  8. Cumulative life damage in dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Ibler, Kristina; Jemec, Gregor B.E.

    2011-01-01

    Cumulative life damage is an old concept of considerable face validity, which has attracted more scientific interest in the fields of sociology and psychology than in medicine over the years. The research examines the interconnectivity of the many factors which shape the development of individuals or institutions over time. By focussing on time, context and process, life course research highlights the different effects seemingly similar events may have at different points in time and in different contexts. PMID:25386260

  9. Smart accelerometer. [vibration damage detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The invention discloses methods and apparatus for detecting vibrations from machines which indicate an impending malfunction for the purpose of preventing additional damage and allowing for an orderly shutdown or a change in mode of operation. The method and apparatus is especially suited for reliable operation in providing thruster control data concerning unstable vibration in an electrical environment which is typically noisy and in which unrecognized ground loops may exist.

  10. Overview of the UL3 Omega uncooled camera and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrzewa, Joseph; Meyer, William H.; Kraemer, Douglas; Poe, George; Nguyen, Vu; Brown, Mark; Terre, William A.; Newsome, Gwendolyn W.

    2002-07-01

    When it was first introduced two years ago, Indigo Systems Corporation's UL3 Alpha, a miniature uncooled infrared camera, set new standards for ultra-low size, weight and power within the thermal imaging industry. Now Omega, the next generation in Indigo's UL3 product line, takes advantage of novel algorithms and packaging concepts to further reduce size, weight, and power while still improving performance. These qualities make Omega an ideal candidate for many commercial and military applications, including fire-fighting, law enforcement, industrial inspection, remote surveillance, miniature unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), unmanned ground vehicles (UGV), and numerous other possibilities. This paper describes the design, performance and salient features of the Omega camera. Current and future applications of the UL3 product line are also discussed.

  11. Helping women to good health: breast cancer, omega-3/omega-6 lipids, and related lifestyle factors.

    PubMed

    de Lorgeril, Michel; Salen, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    In addition to genetic predisposition and sex hormone exposure, physical activity and a healthy diet play important roles in breast cancer (BC). Increased intake of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) associated with decreased omega-6 (n-6), resulting in a higher n-3/n-6 ratio compared with the western diet, are inversely associated with BC risk, as shown by Yang et al. in their meta-analysis in BMC Cancer. High consumption of polyphenols and organic foods increase the n-3/n-6 ratio, and in turn may decrease BC risk. Intake of high fiber foods and foods with low glycemic index decreases insulin resistance and diabetes risk, and in turn may decrease BC risk. The modernized Mediterranean diet is an effective strategy for combining these recommendations, and this dietary pattern reduces overall cancer risk and specifically BC risk. High-risk women should also eliminate environmental endocrine disruptors, including those from foods. Drugs that decrease the n-3/n-6 ratio or that are suspected of increasing BC or diabetes risk should be used with great caution by high-risk women and women wishing to decrease their BC risk.Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2407/14/105/abstract. PMID:24669767

  12. Polycations Globally Enhance Binding of 14-3-3 omega to Target Proteins in Spinach Leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The binding of 14-3-3' to phosphorylated NR (pNR) is stimulated by cations such as Mg2+ or spermine, and decreased by 5'-AMP. In order to determine whether binding to other cellular proteins is affected similarly, Far-Western overlays of extracts prepared from light- or dark-treated spinach (Spinac...

  13. Thermal conductivity tensor of semiconductor layers using two-wire 3-omega method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chuanle; Koblmüller, G.; Bichler, M.; Abstreiter, G.; Grayson, M.

    2013-01-01

    We used the two-wire 3ω method to measure the in-plane and out-of-plane thermal conductivity of thin films and analyzed the error for all fitting parameters. We find the heater half-width, the insulating layer thickness and the out-of-plane thermal conductivity of the insulating layer the most sensitive parameters in an accurate fitting. The data of a 2.5 μm GaAs thin film suggests that the phonon mean free path in the film is limited to the film thickness, far shorter than that in the bulk material at low temperatures.

  14. Improvements in 3-omega measurement of thermal conductivity for nanostructured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chuanle; Grayson, M.; Koblmueller, G.

    2011-03-01

    Nanostructured materials have reduced thermal conductivity in order to enhance the thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT). The 3 ω method is widely used for vertical thermal conductivity measurements in the nanostructure materials, especially layered materials. The challenge for this method is to measure the small 3 ω voltage at the third harmonic, above the comparably large ω voltage from the sample at the fundamental frequency, complicated by the nonlinear signal from other components in the measurement circuit. We carefully study the 3 ω method [Cahill, Rev. Sci. lnstrum. 61 (2), 802 (1990)] and develop a strategy to increase the signal to noise ratio of the data, for more accurate results. We also investigate an alternate sample preparation geometry for the 3 ω measurement, so that the heat flow is vertical and linear through the thin film instead of cylindrical as is standard for this method. This results in a direct measurement of the vertical thermal conductivity in such an anisotropic material. New geometries for measuring lateral thermal conductivity will also be proposed and explored.

  15. In situ detection and analysis of laser-induced damage on a 1.5-m multilayer-dielectric grating compressor for high-energy, petawatt-class laser systems.

    PubMed

    Qiao, J; Schmid, A W; Waxer, L J; Nguyen, T; Bunkenburg, J; Kingsley, C; Kozlov, A; Weiner, D

    2010-05-10

    A grating-inspection system and a damage-analysis method have been developed to measure in situ laser-induced damage on a 1.5-m tiled-grating assembly of the OMEGA EP pulse compressor during a 15-ps, 2.2-kJ energy ramp. The beam fluence at which significant damage growth occurred was determined. This is the first report on beam fluence versus laser-induced-damage growth of meter-sized multilayer-dielectric-diffraction gratings. This result was correlated to the damage-probability measurement conducted on a small grating sample and is consistent with the fluence, corresponding to 100% damage probability. PMID:20588897

  16. DNA Damage and Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ranchoux, Benoît; Meloche, Jolyane; Paulin, Roxane; Boucherat, Olivier; Provencher, Steeve; Bonnet, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is defined by a mean pulmonary arterial pressure over 25 mmHg at rest and is diagnosed by right heart catheterization. Among the different groups of PH, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by a progressive obstruction of distal pulmonary arteries, related to endothelial cell dysfunction and vascular cell proliferation, which leads to an increased pulmonary vascular resistance, right ventricular hypertrophy, and right heart failure. Although the primary trigger of PAH remains unknown, oxidative stress and inflammation have been shown to play a key role in the development and progression of vascular remodeling. These factors are known to increase DNA damage that might favor the emergence of the proliferative and apoptosis-resistant phenotype observed in PAH vascular cells. High levels of DNA damage were reported to occur in PAH lungs and remodeled arteries as well as in animal models of PH. Moreover, recent studies have demonstrated that impaired DNA-response mechanisms may lead to an increased mutagen sensitivity in PAH patients. Finally, PAH was linked with decreased breast cancer 1 protein (BRCA1) and DNA topoisomerase 2-binding protein 1 (TopBP1) expression, both involved in maintaining genome integrity. This review aims to provide an overview of recent evidence of DNA damage and DNA repair deficiency and their implication in PAH pathogenesis. PMID:27338373

  17. Economic measurement of environment damages

    SciTech Connect

    Krawiec, F.

    1980-05-01

    The densities, energy consumption, and economic development of the increasing population exacerbate environmental degradation. Air and water pollution is a major environmental problem affecting life and health, outdoor recreation, household soiling, vegetation, materials, and production. The literature review indicated that numerous studies have assessed the physical and monetary damage to populations at risk from excessive concentrations of major air and water pollutants-sulfur dioxide, total suspended particulate matter, oxidants, and carbon monoxide in air; and nutrients, oil, pesticides, and toxic metals and others in water. The measurement of the damages was one of the most controversial issues in pollution abatement. The methods that have been used to estimate the societal value of pollution abatement are: (1) chain of effects, (2) market approaches, and (3) surveys. National gross damages of air pollution of $20.2 billion and of water pollution of $11.1 billion for 1973 are substantial. These best estimates, updated for the economic and demographic conditions, could provide acceptable control totals for estimating and predicting benefits and costs of abating air and water pollution emissions. The major issues to be resolved are: (1) lack of available noneconomic data, (2) theoretical and empirical difficulties of placing a value on human life and health and on benefits such as aesthetics, and (3) lack of available demographic and economic data.

  18. DNA Damage and Pulmonary Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ranchoux, Benoît; Meloche, Jolyane; Paulin, Roxane; Boucherat, Olivier; Provencher, Steeve; Bonnet, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is defined by a mean pulmonary arterial pressure over 25 mmHg at rest and is diagnosed by right heart catheterization. Among the different groups of PH, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by a progressive obstruction of distal pulmonary arteries, related to endothelial cell dysfunction and vascular cell proliferation, which leads to an increased pulmonary vascular resistance, right ventricular hypertrophy, and right heart failure. Although the primary trigger of PAH remains unknown, oxidative stress and inflammation have been shown to play a key role in the development and progression of vascular remodeling. These factors are known to increase DNA damage that might favor the emergence of the proliferative and apoptosis-resistant phenotype observed in PAH vascular cells. High levels of DNA damage were reported to occur in PAH lungs and remodeled arteries as well as in animal models of PH. Moreover, recent studies have demonstrated that impaired DNA-response mechanisms may lead to an increased mutagen sensitivity in PAH patients. Finally, PAH was linked with decreased breast cancer 1 protein (BRCA1) and DNA topoisomerase 2-binding protein 1 (TopBP1) expression, both involved in maintaining genome integrity. This review aims to provide an overview of recent evidence of DNA damage and DNA repair deficiency and their implication in PAH pathogenesis. PMID:27338373

  19. Detection of damage in axial (membrane) systems

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, T.A.; Baker, W.E.; Farrar, C.R.; Rhee, W.H.

    1998-12-31

    In a recent paper, two methods of damage identification (Modified Damage Index and Change-in-Flexibility) were applied to detection of damage in an 8-DOF vibrating system. The goal of the work was to detect damage (reduction in stiffness of one or more of the elements) as well as to locate the particular damaged elements (S). However, the investigation was limited to numerical simulations only. In this paper, a physical, spring-mass model of a similar, degenerate 8-DOF system (7 normal modes plus a rigid-body mode) was constructed. Experiments were then performed and the modal properties of the system were determined in undamaged and damaged states. Excitation was provided either by an impact hammer or by an electromechanical shaker. Damage was induced by replacing one of the springs with a spring of lower stiffness. The Modified Damage Index method clearly isolated the location of damage for a variety of damage locations and levels of damage. The Change-in-Flexibility method, however, was found to be less reliable. The ability of the method to locate damage depended strongly on location and the level of damage as well as the number of modes included.

  20. Ion implantation of diamond: Damage, doping, and lift-off

    SciTech Connect

    Parikh, N.R.; McGucken, E.; Swanson, M.L.; Hunn, J.D.; White, C.W.; Zuhr, R.A.

    1993-09-01

    In order to make good quality economical diamond electronic devices, it is essential to grow films and to dope these films to obtain n- and p- type conductivity. This review talk discuss first doping by ion implantation plus annealing of the implantation damage, and second flow to make large area single crystal diamonds. C implantation damage below an estimated Frenkel defect concentration of 7% could be recovered almost completely by annealing at 950C. For a defect concentration between 7 and 10%, a stable damage form of diamond (``green diamond``) was formed by annealing. At still higher damage levels, the diamond graphitized. To introduce p-type doping, we have co-implanted B and C into natural diamond at 77K, followed by annealing up to 1100C. The resulting semiconducting material has electrical properties similar to those of natural B-doped diamond. To create n-type diamond, we have implanted Na{sup +}, P+ and As{sup +} ions and have observed semiconducting behavior. This has been compared with carbon or noble element implantation, in an attempt to isolate the effect of radiation damage. Recently, in order to obtain large area signal crystals, we have developed a novel technique for removing thin layers of diamond from bulk or homoepitaxial films. This method consists of ion implantation, followed by selective etching. High energy (4--5 MeV) implantation of carbon or oxygen ions creates a well-defined layer of damaged diamond buried at a controlled depth. This layer is graphitized and selectivity etched either by heating at 550C in an oxygen ambient or by electrolysis. This process successfully lifts off the diamond plate above the graphite layer. The lift-off method, combined with well-established homoepitaxial growth processes, has potential for fabrication of large area single-crystal diamond sheets.

  1. Tension-Compression Asymmetry of Creep and Unilateral Creep Damage in Aluminum for Isothermal and Nonisothermal Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolochevsky, Alexander; Obataya, Yoichi

    A constitutive model is proposed to describe the damage development in aluminum alloys under creep conditions for both isothermal and nonisothermal processes. Special emphasis is laid on four specific phenomena: tension-compression asymmetry of creep, damage induced anisotropy, unilateral creep damage and damage deactivation. Within the framework of the phenomenological approach in the Continuum Damage Mechanics, the nonlinear tensor constitutive equation for creep deformation and damage evolution equation are proposed to account for different orientation of microcracks in aluminum alloys under tensile and compressive loading types. After a determination of the material parameters in the obtained constitutive equation and damage growth equation, the proposed model is applied to the describing creep behavior of the aluminum alloy under uniaxial nonproportional and multiaxial nonproportional loading for both isothermal and nonisothermal processes.

  2. Radiation damage effects in zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trachenko, Kostya; Dove, Martin; Salje, Ekhard

    2002-03-01

    Zircon, ZrSiO_4, is important for geology and geochronology, and has been proposed as a host material to immobilize highly radioactive materials from dismantled weapons and nuclear waste from power stations [1]. In these applications zircon is exposed to alpha-irradiation. Computer simulations have started to be employed to simulate radiation damage in zircon [2], but the origin and microscopic mechanisms of the most important structural changes in zircon - unit cell expansion and large macroscopic swelling at higher doses, strong shear deformation of the crystalline lattice, and polymerization of SiOn units [3], remain unknown. Here, we perform the molecular dynamics simulation of highly energetic recoils in zircon. Basing on the simulation results, we propose the simple picture of the density change in the damaged region that consists of the depleted and densified matter. We find that the experimentally observed structural changes originate from the interaction of the damaged region with the surrounding crystalline lattice: the shear of the lattice around the damaged region causes shear deformation and expansion of the unit cells. The polymers of connected SiOn polyhedra are most commonly present in the densified shell at the periphery of the damaged region. [1] R C Ewing et al, J. Mater. Res. 10, 243 (1995); W J Weber et al, B E Burakov et al, in Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management XIX, 25-32 and 33-40 (Plenum, New York, 1996); R C Ewing, et al in Crystalline Ceramics: Waste Forms for the Disposal of Weapons Plutonium, NATO Workshop Proceedings 65 (Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1996). [2] B Park et al, Phys. Rev. B, 64, 174108 (1-16) (2001); J P Crocombette and D Ghaleb, J. Nucl. Mater., 295, 167 (2001); K Trachenko et al, J. Appl. Phys., 87, 7702 (2000); K Trachenko et al, J. Phys.: Cond. Matt., 13, 1947 (2001). [3] T Murakami et al, Am. Min., 76, 1510 (1991); H D Holland and D Gottfried, Acta Cryst. 8, 291 (1955).; W J Weber, J. Am

  3. Damage localization of marine risers using time series of vibration signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hao; Yang, Hezhen; Liu, Fushun

    2014-10-01

    Based on dynamic response signals a damage detection algorithm is developed for marine risers. Damage detection methods based on numerous modal properties have encountered issues in the researches in offshore oil community. For example, significant increase in structure mass due to marine plant/animal growth and changes in modal properties by equipment noise are not the result of damage for riser structures. In an attempt to eliminate the need to determine modal parameters, a data-based method is developed. The implementation of the method requires that vibration data are first standardized to remove the influence of different loading conditions and the autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model is used to fit vibration response signals. In addition, a damage feature factor is introduced based on the autoregressive (AR) parameters. After that, the Euclidean distance between ARMA models is subtracted as a damage indicator for damage detection and localization and a top tensioned riser simulation model with different damage scenarios is analyzed using the proposed method with dynamic acceleration responses of a marine riser as sensor data. Finally, the influence of measured noise is analyzed. According to the damage localization results, the proposed method provides accurate damage locations of risers and is robust to overcome noise effect.

  4. EVALUATION OF BALLISTIC DAMAGE IN AN ENCAPSULATED CERAMIC PANEL VIA X-RAY COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY

    SciTech Connect

    Green, W. H.; Carter, R. H.

    2009-03-03

    X-ray computed tomography (XCT) is an important non-destructive evaluation technique for revealing the spatial distribution of ballistically-induced damage in ceramics. The level of detection and resolution of damage depends on the size of the sample and the parameters of the XCT approach (e.g., focal spot size, magnification, etc.). Previous and ongoing work in this area includes assessment of ballistically induced damage in both individual ceramic targets and ceramic armor panels. Ballistic damage in an encapsulated ceramic armor panel with a metal backing has been scanned and extensively evaluated using XCT 2-D and 3-D analysis. The purpose of using XCT evaluation in this study was to better characterize and understand all of the detectable damage. This information can be used to correlate damage features and types with the physical processes of damage initiation and growth. XCT scans and analyses of damage in the panel will be shown and discussed. This will include virtual 3-D solid visualizations and some quantitative analysis of damage features.

  5. Effect of impurities and stress on the damage distributions of rapidly grown KDP crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Runkel, M.; Tan, M.; De Yoreo, J.; Zaitseva, N.

    1997-12-20

    Development of high damage threshold, 50 cm, rapidly grown KF*P frequency triplers for operation of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) in the 14 J/cm2, 351 nm, 3 ns regime requires a thorough understanding of how the crystal growth parameters and technologies affect laser induced damage. Of particular importance is determining the effect of ionic impurities (e.g. Cr3+, Fe3+, Al3+) which may be introduced in widely varying concentrations via starting salts. In addition, organic particulates can contaminate the solution as leachants from growth platforms or via mechanical ablation. Mechanical stresses in the crystals may also play a strong role in the laser-induced damage distribution (LIDD), particularly in the cases of large boules where hydrodynamic forces in the growth tank may be quite high. WE have developed a dedicated, automated damage test system with diagnostic capabilities specifically designed for measured time resolved bulk damage onset and evolution. The data obtained make it possible to construct characteristic damage threshold distributions for each sample. Test results obtained for a variety of KDP samples grown from high purity starting salts and individually doped with Lucite and Teflon, iron, chromium, and aluminium show that the LIDD drops with increasing contamination content. The results also show that solution filtration leads to increased damage performance for undoped crystals but is not solely responsibility for producing the high LIDDs required by the NIF. The highest LIDD measured on a rapidly grown sample indicate that it is possible to produce high damage threshold material using ultrahigh purity, recrystallized starting salts, continuous filtration and a platform designed to minimize internal stress during growth.

  6. Radiation growth of beryllium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakin, V. P.; Posevin, А. О.; Оbukhov, А. V.; Silantyev, P. P.

    2009-04-01

    Beryllium will be used as a neutron multiplier material in the present European HCPB (Helium Cooled Pebble Bed) blanket concept of the DEMO fusion reactor. Therefore, investigation of neutron irradiation influence on dimension stability of beryllium is very important. In this paper, the radiation damage of the TE-56 beryllium grade manufactured by hot extrusion was investigated. The beryllium samples were irradiated in the SM reactor at the temperatures of 70 °С and 200 °С up to neutron fluence of (1.3-14.2) 10 22 cm -2 (Е > 0.1 MeV). The measurements of the sample dimensions and density as well as microstructure examinations by X-rays and TEM were carried out. It was shown that superposition of two processes - radiation growth and anisotropic swelling occurs in beryllium under neutron irradiation.

  7. Characterization of creep and creep damage by in-situ microtomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borbély, András; Dzieciol, Krzysztof; Sket, Federico; Isaac, Augusta; di Michiel, Marco; Buslaps, Thomas; Kaysser-Pyzalla, Anke R.

    2011-07-01

    Application of in-situ microtomography to characterization of power law creep and creep damage in structural materials is presented. It is shown first that the successively reconstructed volumes are adequately monitoring the macroscopic sample shape and that microtomography is an optimal tool to characterize inhomogeneous specimen deformation. Based on a two-step image correlation technique the evolution of single voids is revealed and the basis of a pioneering approach to creep damage studies is presented. The method allows the unequivocal separation of three concurrent damage mechanisms: nucleation, growth, and coalescence of voids. The results indicate that growth rate of voids with equivalent diameters in the range of 2-5 mm is of about one order of magnitude higher than the prediction of continuum solid mechanics. Analysis of void coalescence points out the presence of two stable growth regimes related to coalescence between primary and secondary voids, respectively.

  8. 7 CFR 51.573 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.573 Damage. Damage, unless otherwise specifically defined in this... the celery stalk or the general appearance of the stalks in the container. Any one of the...

  9. 7 CFR 51.573 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.573 Damage. Damage, unless... the edible or shipping quality of the celery stalk or the general appearance of the stalks in...

  10. 7 CFR 51.586 - Serious damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.586 Serious damage. Serious damage, unless otherwise specifically... shipping quality of the celery stalk or the general appearance of the stalks in the container. Any one...

  11. 7 CFR 51.573 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.573 Damage. Damage, unless otherwise specifically defined in this... the celery stalk or the general appearance of the stalks in the container. Any one of the...

  12. 7 CFR 51.586 - Serious damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.586 Serious damage. Serious damage, unless otherwise specifically... shipping quality of the celery stalk or the general appearance of the stalks in the container. Any one...

  13. 7 CFR 29.3017 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Damage. The effect of mold, must, rot, black rot, or other fungous or bacterial diseases which attack tobacco in its cured state. Tobacco having the odor of mold, must, or rot is considered damaged. (See...

  14. 7 CFR 29.3017 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Damage. The effect of mold, must, rot, black rot, or other fungous or bacterial diseases which attack tobacco in its cured state. Tobacco having the odor of mold, must, or rot is considered damaged. (See...

  15. 7 CFR 29.3017 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Damage. The effect of mold, must, rot, black rot, or other fungous or bacterial diseases which attack tobacco in its cured state. Tobacco having the odor of mold, must, or rot is considered damaged. (See...

  16. 7 CFR 29.3017 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Damage. The effect of mold, must, rot, black rot, or other fungous or bacterial diseases which attack tobacco in its cured state. Tobacco having the odor of mold, must, or rot is considered damaged. (See...

  17. 7 CFR 51.1413 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Pecans in the Shell 1 Definitions § 51.1413 Damage. Damage means any specific defect... marketing quality of the individual pecan or the general appearance of the pecans in the lot. The...

  18. 7 CFR 51.1413 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Pecans in the Shell 1 Definitions § 51.1413 Damage. Damage means any specific defect... marketing quality of the individual pecan or the general appearance of the pecans in the lot. The...

  19. DNA Damage and Repair in Vascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Uryga, Anna; Gray, Kelly; Bennett, Martin

    2016-01-01

    DNA damage affecting both genomic and mitochondrial DNA is present in a variety of both inherited and acquired vascular diseases. Multiple cell types show persistent DNA damage and a range of lesions. In turn, DNA damage activates a variety of DNA repair mechanisms, many of which are activated in vascular disease. Such DNA repair mechanisms either stall the cell cycle to allow repair to occur or trigger apoptosis or cell senescence to prevent propagation of damaged DNA. Recent evidence has indicated that DNA damage occurs early, is progressive, and is sufficient to impair function of cells composing the vascular wall. The consequences of persistent genomic and mitochondrial DNA damage, including inflammation, cell senescence, and apoptosis, are present in vascular disease. DNA damage can thus directly cause vascular disease, opening up new possibilities for both prevention and treatment. We review the evidence for and the causes, types, and consequences of DNA damage in vascular disease. PMID:26442438

  20. ATMOSPHERIC ACID DEPOSITION DAMAGE TO PAINTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Available data from laboratory and field studies of damage to paints by erosion have been analyzed to develop an atmospheric acid deposition damage function for exterior house paints containing calcium carbonate or silicate extenders. Regression analysis coefficients associated w...

  1. 7 CFR 51.2739 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 51.2739 Damage. Damage means any specific defect described in this section; or any other defect, or...) Dirt when the surface of the kernel is heavily smeared, thickly flecked or coated with dirt,...

  2. 7 CFR 51.2739 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 51.2739 Damage. Damage means any specific defect described in this section; or any other defect, or...) Dirt when the surface of the kernel is heavily smeared, thickly flecked or coated with dirt,...

  3. Recent Advances in Composite Damage Mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reifsnider, Ken; Case, Scott; Iyengar, Nirmal

    1996-01-01

    The state of the art and recent developments in the field of composite material damage mechanics are reviewed, with emphasis on damage accumulation. The kinetics of damage accumulation are considered with emphasis on the general accumulation of discrete local damage events such as single or multiple fiber fractures or microcrack formation. The issues addressed include: how to define strength in the presence of widely distributed damage, and how to combine mechanical representations in order to predict the damage tolerance and life of engineering components. It is shown that a damage mechanics approach can be related to the thermodynamics of the damage accumulation processes in composite laminates subjected to mechanical loading and environmental conditions over long periods of time.

  4. Protein damage, radiation sensitivity and aging.

    PubMed

    Radman, Miroslav

    2016-08-01

    This paper promotes a concept that protein damage determines radiation resistance and underlies aging and age-related diseases. The first bottleneck in cell recovery from radiation damage is functional (proteome) rather than informational (DNA), since prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell death correlates with incurred protein, but not DNA, damage. Proteome protection against oxidative damage determines survival after ionizing or UV irradiation, since sufficient residual proteome activity is required to turn on the DNA damage response activating DNA repair and protein renewal processes. Extreme radiation and desiccation resistance of rare bacterial and animal species is accounted for by exceptional constitutive proteome protection against oxidative damage. After excessive radiation their well-protected proteome faithfully reconstitutes a transcription-competent genome from hundreds of DNA fragments. The observation that oxidative damage targeted selectively to cellular proteins results in aging-like phenotypes suggests that aging and age-related diseases could be phenotypic consequences of proteome damage patterns progressing with age. PMID:27264559

  5. An evaluation of corn earworm damage and thresholds in soybean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Brian Patrick

    Interactions between corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and soybean, Glycine max L. (Merrill), were investigated in the Mid-South to evaluate thresholds and damage levels. Field studies were conducted in both indeterminate and determinate modern cultivars to evaluate damage, critical injury levels, and soybean response to simulated corn earworm injury. Field studies were also conducted to evaluate the response of indeterminate cultivars to infestations of corn earworm. Field studies were also conducted to investigate the relationship between pyrethroid insecticide application and corn earworm oviposition in soybean. Results of field studies involving simulated corn earworm damage indicated the need for a dynamic threshold that becomes more conservative as soybean phenology progressed through the reproductive growth stages. This suggested that soybean was more tolerant to fruit loss during the earlier reproductive stages and was able to compensate for fruit loss better during this time than at later growth stages. Results of field studies involving infestations of corn earworm indicated that current thresholds are likely too liberal. This resulted in economic injury level tables being constructed based upon a range of crop values and control costs, however, a general action threshold was also recommended for indeterminate soybean in the Mid-South. Field study results investigating the relationship of pyrethroid application and corn earworm oviposition indicated that even in the presence of an insecticide, corn earworm prefers to oviposit in the upper portion of the canopy, as well as on the leaves as opposed to all other plant parts, consistent with all previous literature.

  6. Recent Advances in Durability and Damage Tolerance Methodology at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransom, J. B.; Glaessgen, E. H.; Raju, I. S.; Harris, C. E.

    2007-01-01

    Durability and damage tolerance (D&DT) issues are critical to the development of lighter, safer and more efficient aerospace vehicles. Durability is largely an economic life-cycle design consideration whereas damage tolerance directly addresses the structural airworthiness (safety) of the vehicle. Both D&DT methodologies must address the deleterious effects of changes in material properties and the initiation and growth of damage that may occur during the vehicle s service lifetime. The result of unanticipated D&DT response is often manifested in the form of catastrophic and potentially fatal accidents. As such, durability and damage tolerance requirements must be rigorously addressed for commercial transport aircraft and NASA spacecraft systems. This paper presents an overview of the recent and planned future research in durability and damage tolerance analytical and experimental methods for both metallic and composite aerospace structures at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC).

  7. Cumulative-strain-damage model of ductile fracture: simulation and prediction of engineering fracture tests

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, M.L.; Streit, R.D.; Reaugh, J.E.

    1980-10-03

    A cumulative-strain-damage criterion is used to predict the initiation and propagation of fracture in ductile materials. The model is consistent with a model of ductile rupture that involves void growth and coalescence. Two- and three-dimensional finite difference computer codes, which use incremental-plasticity theory to describe large strains with rotation, are used to trace the history of damage in a material due to external forces. Fracture begins when the damage exceeds a critical value over a critical distance and proceeds as the critical-damage state is reached elsewhere. This unified approach to failure prediction can be applied to an arbitrary geometry if the material behavior has been adequately characterized. The damage function must be calibrated for a particular material using various material property tests. The fracture toughness of 6061-T651 aluminum is predicted.

  8. A Dynamic Damage Mechanics Source Model for Explosions in Crystalline Rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihaly, J. M.; Bhat, H. S.; Sammis, C. G.; Rosakis, A.

    2011-12-01

    The micromechanical damage mechanics formulated by Ashby and Sammis [PAGEOPH, 1990] and generalized by Deshpande and Evans [J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 2008] has been extended to allow for a more generalized stress state and to incorporate an experimentally motivated crack growth (damage evolution) law that is valid over a wide range of loading rates. This law is sensitive to both the crack tip stress field and its time derivative, and thus produces strain-rate sensitivity in the constitutive response. The model is experimentally verified by predicting the failure strength of Dionysus-Pentelicon marble over strain rates ranging from to . This rate-dependent damage mechanics has been implemented in the ABAQUS dynamic finite element code and used to explore the effects of burn rate (loading rate) and lithostatic stress on the spatial extent of fracture damage and S waves generated by explosions in crystalline rock. Slower rise times and longer pressure pulses produce more damage and stronger S waves.

  9. Large area damage testing of optics

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehan, L.; Kozlowski, M.; Stolz, C.

    1996-04-26

    The damage threshold specifications for the National Ignition Facility will include a mixture of standard small-area tests and new large-area tests. During our studies of laser damage and conditioning processes of various materials we have found that some damage morphologies are fairly small and this damage does not grow with further illumination. This type of damage might not be detrimental to the laser performance. We should therefore assume that some damage can be allowed on the optics, but decide on a maximum damage allowance of damage. A new specification of damage threshold termed {open_quotes}functional damage threshold{close_quotes} was derived. Further correlation of damage size and type to system performance must be determined in order to use this measurement, but it is clear that it will be a large factor in the optics performance specifications. Large-area tests have verified that small-area testing is not always sufficient when the optic in question has defect-initiated damage. This was evident for example on sputtered polarizer and mirror coatings where the defect density was low enough that the features could be missed by standard small- area testing. For some materials, the scale-length at which damage non-uniformities occur will effect the comparison of small-area and large-area tests. An example of this was the sub-aperture tests on KD*P crystals on the Beamlet test station. The tests verified the large-area damage threshold to be similar to that found when testing a small-area. Implying that for this KD*P material, the dominate damage mechanism is of sufficiently small scale-length that small-area testing is capable of determining the threshold. The Beamlet test station experiments also demonstrated the use of on-line laser conditioning to increase the crystals damage threshold.

  10. Avionics Box Cold Plate Damage Prevention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stambolian, Damon; Larcher, Steven; Henderson, Gena; Tran, Donald

    2011-01-01

    Over the years there have been several occurrences of damage to Space Shuttle Orbiter cold plates during removal and replacement of avionics boxes. Thus a process improvement team was put together to determine ways to prevent these kinds of damage. From this effort there were many solutions including, protective covers, training, and improved operations instructions. The focus of this paper is to explain the cold plate damage problem and the corrective actions for preventing future damage to aerospace avionics cold plate designs.

  11. Damage experiments in cylindrical geometry update

    SciTech Connect

    Kaul, Anne; Holtkamp, David; Rodriguez, George

    2009-01-01

    Using a cylindrical configuration to study spallation damage allows for a natural recollection of the damaged material under proper driving conditions. Previous experiments provided data about failure initiation in aluminum in a cylindrical geometry and the behavior of material recollected after damage from pressures in the damage initiation regime. The current series of experiments studied the behavior of material recollected after complete failure. Results from the current experiments will be presented.

  12. Copper oxide nanoparticle mediated DNA damage in terrestrial plant models.

    PubMed

    Atha, Donald H; Wang, Huanhua; Petersen, Elijah J; Cleveland, Danielle; Holbrook, R David; Jaruga, Pawel; Dizdaroglu, Miral; Xing, Baoshan; Nelson, Bryant C

    2012-02-01

    Engineered nanoparticles, due to their unique electrical, mechanical, and catalytic properties, are presently found in many commercial products and will be intentionally or inadvertently released at increasing concentrations into the natural environment. Metal- and metal oxide-based nanomaterials have been shown to act as mediators of DNA damage in mammalian cells, organisms, and even in bacteria, but the molecular mechanisms through which this occurs are poorly understood. For the first time, we report that copper oxide nanoparticles induce DNA damage in agricultural and grassland plants. Significant accumulation of oxidatively modified, mutagenic DNA lesions (7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine; 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine; 4,6-diamino-5-formamidopyrimidine) and strong plant growth inhibition were observed for radish (Raphanus sativus), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), and annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) under controlled laboratory conditions. Lesion accumulation levels mediated by copper ions and macroscale copper particles were measured in tandem to clarify the mechanisms of DNA damage. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of multiple DNA lesion formation and accumulation in plants. These findings provide impetus for future investigations on nanoparticle-mediated DNA damage and repair mechanisms in plants. PMID:22201446

  13. Modeling and Characterization of Damage Processes in Metallic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaessgen, E. H.; Saether, E.; Smith, S. W.; Hochhalter, J. D.; Yamakov, V. I.; Gupta, V.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a broad effort that is aimed at understanding the fundamental mechanisms of crack growth and using that understanding as a basis for designing materials and enabling predictions of fracture in materials and structures that have small characteristic dimensions. This area of research, herein referred to as Damage Science, emphasizes the length scale regimes of the nanoscale and the microscale for which analysis and characterization tools are being developed to predict the formation, propagation, and interaction of fundamental damage mechanisms. Examination of nanoscale processes requires atomistic and discrete dislocation plasticity simulations, while microscale processes can be examined using strain gradient plasticity, crystal plasticity and microstructure modeling methods. Concurrent and sequential multiscale modeling methods are being developed to analytically bridge between these length scales. Experimental methods for characterization and quantification of near-crack tip damage are also being developed. This paper focuses on several new methodologies in these areas and their application to understanding damage processes in polycrystalline metals. On-going and potential applications are also discussed.

  14. Dynamic Optical Investigations of Hypervelocity Impact Damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamberson, Leslie Elise

    One of the prominent threats in the endeavor to develop next-generation space assets is the risk of space debris impact in earth's orbit and micrometeoroid impact damage in near-earth orbit and deep space. To date, there is no study available which concentrates on the analysis of dynamic crack growth from hypervelocity impacts on such structures, resulting in their eventual catastrophic degradation. Experiments conducted using a unique two-stage light-gas gun facility have examined the in situ dynamic fracture of brittle polymers subjected to this high-energy-density event. Optical techniques of caustics and photoelasticity, combined with high-speed photography up to 100 million frames per second, analyze crack growth behavior of Mylar and Homalite 100 thin plates after impact by a 1.8 mm diameter nylon 6-6 right cylindrical slug at velocities ranging from 3 to 7 km/s (7000--15500 mph). Crack speeds in both polymers averaged between 0.2 and 0.47 cR, the Rayleigh wave speed (450--1000 mph). Shadow spots and surrounding caustics reveal time histories of the dynamic stress intensity factor, as well as the energy release rate ahead of the mode-I, or opening, crack tips. Results indicate that even under extreme impact conditions of out of-plane loading, highly localized heating, and energetic impact phenomena involving plasma formation and ejecta, the dynamic fracture process occurs during a deformation regime dominated by in-plane loading. These findings imply that the reliability of impacted, thin-walled, plate and shell space structures, idealized by the experimental configuration investigated, can be predicted by the well defined principles of classical dynamic fracture mechanics.

  15. Effects of grain size distribution on the creep damage evolution of polycrystalline materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Tao; Shi, Huiji

    2010-04-01

    It is evident that realistic microstructures of polycrystalline materials demonstrate a certain distribution of grain size, which has not been widely studied in most analyses of mechanical properties of materials at high temperatures. In this work, the effects of grain size distribution on the creep damage evolution induced by void growth of polycrystalline materials were investigated by the Voronoi tessellation approach, taking into account the void evolution on the grain boundaries in a grain aggregate cell. The results indicate that with the decrease in mean grain size, the damage variable increases faster. When the mean grain sizes are the same, the more uniform the grain size is, the faster the damage variable increases.

  16. Fertilization increases the risk of loblolly pine to ice storm damage.

    SciTech Connect

    Aubrey, D.P.; Coleman, M.D.; Coyle D.R.

    2005-08-01

    Winter storms resulting in substantial ice accumulation occur with periodic frequency in the southeastern United States and they have potential to severely damage softwood plantations. Loblolly pine is one of the most important crop tree species in this region and a combined understanding of initial damage and subsequent growth and recovery may allow for more productive utilization of these stands following severe ice storms. In January 2004 a severe ice storm deposited approximately 2 cm of ice on an intensively managed four-year old loblolly pine plantation in South Carolina . The existing treatments within this plantation presented an opportunity to examine the effects of irrigation and fertilization on ice damage and recovery.

  17. Computer simulation of creep damage at crack tip in short fibre composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuangyin, Zhang; Tsai, L. W.

    1994-08-01

    Creep damage at crack tip in short fibre composites has been simulated by using the finite element method (FEM). The well-known Schapery non-linear viscoelastic constitutive relationship was used to characterize time-dependent behaviour of the material. A modified recurrence equation was adopted to accelerate the iteration. Kachanov-Rabotnov's damage evolution law was employed. The growth of the damage zone with time around the crack tip was calculated and the results were shown with the so-called “digit photo”, which was produced by the printer.

  18. A metallography and x-ray tomography study of spall damage in ultrapure Al

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, M. L.; Bie, B. X.; Zhao, F. P.; Fan, D.; Luo, S. N.; Hu, C. M.; Ran, X. X.; Xiao, X. H.; Yang, W. G.; Li, P.

    2014-07-15

    We characterize spall damage in shock-recovered ultrapure Al with metallography and x-ray tomography. The measured damage profiles in ultrapure Al induced by planar impact at different shock strengths, can be described with a Gaussian function, and showed dependence on shock strengths. Optical metallography is reasonably accurate for damage profile measurements, and agrees within 10–25% with x-ray tomography. Full tomography analysis showed that void size distributions followed a power law with an exponent of γ = 1.5 ± 2.0, which is likely due to void nucleation and growth, and the exponent is considerably smaller than the predictions from percolation models.

  19. Damage behavior analysis of smart composites with embedded pre-strained SMA foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogisu, Toshimichi; Shimanuki, Masakazu; Kiyoshima, Satoshi; Takaki, Junji; Taketa, Ichiro; Takeda, Nobuo

    2006-02-01

    This paper presents the results of experimental and analytical studies with respect to the damage onset/growth suppression behavior using quasi-isotropic CFRP laminates with embedded pre-strained SMA foils under quasi-static uniaxial tension load. In our previous studies, we conducted some preliminary quasi-static load-unload tests using CFRP laminates with embedded pre-strained SMA foils (smart composites). The results confirmed that these smart composites had excellent effects on damage onset/growth suppression, in comparison with the conventional CFRP laminates. In this study, systematic load-unload tests are conducted for quasi-isotropic laminates, with and without SMA foils and adhesive layers. Following this, a detailed observation of the damage onset/growth suppression behavior is conducted. This observation verified that the microcracks, which originated at the -45/90 interface, generally grow into transverse cracks in a 90° ply of the quasi-isotropic CFRP laminates ([45/0/-45/90]s). It has also been experimentally confirmed that the damage onset/growth suppression effects of smart composites are obtained by the suppression of crack opening displacement. Furthermore, the stress and strain distributions of all the composite systems with microcracks are calculated by FEM analysis at room temperature (RT) and at 80 °C for conventional composites ([45/0/-45/90]s) and smart composites ([45/0/-45/90/Ad/SMA/Ad/90/-45/0/45]), respectively. From the results of the FEM analysis, the strain energy release rate is calculated using the 'crack closure method' for the evaluation of the damage onset/growth suppression effect. It is confirmed that the damage onset/growth suppression effects of the CFRP laminates with embedded pre-strained SMA foils are obtained by the suppression of crack opening displacement in 90° layers, which is generated by the suppression of the strain energy release rate for smart composites by the recovery stress of SMA.

  20. 7 CFR 51.773 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Damage. 51.773 Section 51.773 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Damage. Damage means any specific defect described in § 51.784, Table I; or an equally...