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Sample records for 3prime untranslated region

  1. The myotonic dystrophy kinase 3{prime}-untranslated region and its effect on gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Ang, C.W.Y.; Sabourin, L.A.; Narang, M.A.

    1994-09-01

    Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is an autosomal dominant neuromuscular disease involving the expansion of an unstable CTG repeat in the 3{prime}-untranslated (3{prime}-UTR) region of the DM kinase (DMK) gene. Increased levels of mRNA in congenital compared to normal tissue have been shown, suggesting elevated DMK levels may be responsible for the disease phenotype. To study the effect of the DMK 3{prime}UTR on gene expression, a reporter gene system was constructed using the constitutive CMV promoter with the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) open reading frame and the DMK 3{prime}UTR containing from 5 repeats up to 90 repeats. Transient transfection into a rhabdomyosarcoma cell line shows a three-fold increase in CAT activity from constructs containing a wildtype 3{prime}UTR (5 and 20 repeats) compared to a control construct containing only a poly(A) signal. Reporter constructs with repeats in the protomutation (50 repeats) and mutation (90 repeats) range show a greater than 10-fold increase over control CAT activity. These results suggest the presence of elements in the DMK 3{prime}UTR capable of conferring increased gene expression. We are currently investigating cell-specific activity of the constructs and conducting deletion mapping to identify regulatory elements in the 3{prime}-UTR.

  2. An AU-rich element in the 3{prime} untranslated region of the spinach chloroplast petD gene participates in sequence-specific RNA-protein complex formation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Qiuyun; Adams, C.C.; Usack, L.

    1995-04-01

    In chloroplasts, the 3{prime} untranslated regions of most mRNAs contain a stem-loop-forming inverted repeat (IR) sequence that is required for mRNA stability and correct 3{prime}-end formation. The IR regions of several mRNAs are also known to bind chloroplast proteins, as judged from in vitro gel mobility shift and UV cross-linking assays, and these RNA-protein interactions may be involved in the regulation of chloroplast mRNA processing and/or stability. Here we describe in detail the RNA and protein components that are involved in 3{prime} IR-containing RNA (3{prime} IR-RNA)-protein complex formation for the spinach chloroplast petD gene, which encodes subunit IV of the cytochrome b{sub 6}/f complex. We show that the complex contains 55-, 41-, and 29-kDa RNA-binding proteins (ribonucleoproteins [RNPs]). These proteins together protect a 90-nucleotide segment of RNA from RNase T{sub 1} digestion; this RNA contains the IR and downstream flanking sequences. Competition experiments using 3{prime} IR-RNAs from the psbA or rbcL gene demonstrate that the RNPs have a strong specificity for the petD sequence. Site-directed mutagenesis was carried out to define the RNA sequence elements required for complex formation. These studies identified an 8-nucleotide AU-rich sequence downstream of the IR; mutations within this sequence had moderate to severe effects on RNA-protein complex formation. Although other similar sequences are present in the petD 3{prime} untranslated region, only a single copy, which we have termed box II, appears to be essential for in vivo protein binding. In addition, the IR itself is necessary for optimal complex formation. These two sequence elements together with an RNP complex may direct correct 3{prime}-end processing and/or influence the stability of petD mRNA in chloroplasts. 48 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Untranslated regions of mRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Mignone, Flavio; Gissi, Carmela; Liuni, Sabino; Pesole, Graziano

    2002-01-01

    Gene expression is finely regulated at the post-transcriptional level. Features of the untranslated regions of mRNAs that control their translation, degradation and localization include stem-loop structures, upstream initiation codons and open reading frames, internal ribosome entry sites and various cis-acting elements that are bound by RNA-binding proteins. PMID:11897027

  4. Translation efficiency of adenovirus early region 1A mRNAs deleted in the 5' untranslated region.

    PubMed Central

    Spindler, K R; Berk, A J

    1984-01-01

    Adenovirus deletion mutants were studied to examine the influence of the 5' untranslated sequence on the translation of early region 1A mRNAs. Alterations of the 5' untranslated sequence, including complete deletion of the wild-type 5' untranslated sequence, did not significantly affect the rate of translation. Images PMID:6471170

  5. Expression of distinct RNAs from 3′ untranslated regions

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Tim R.; Wilhelm, Dagmar; Dinger, Marcel E.; Soldà, Giulia; Korbie, Darren J.; Glazov, Evgeny A.; Truong, Vy; Schwenke, Maren; Simons, Cas; Matthaei, Klaus I.; Saint, Robert; Koopman, Peter; Mattick, John S.

    2011-01-01

    The 3′ untranslated regions (3′UTRs) of eukaryotic genes regulate mRNA stability, localization and translation. Here, we present evidence that large numbers of 3′UTRs in human, mouse and fly are also expressed separately from the associated protein-coding sequences to which they are normally linked, likely by post-transcriptional cleavage. Analysis of CAGE (capped analysis of gene expression), SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression) and cDNA libraries, as well as microarray expression profiles, demonstrate that the independent expression of 3′UTRs is a regulated and conserved genome-wide phenomenon. We characterize the expression of several 3′UTR-derived RNAs (uaRNAs) in detail in mouse embryos, showing by in situ hybridization that these transcripts are expressed in a cell- and subcellular-specific manner. Our results suggest that 3′UTR sequences can function not only in cis to regulate protein expression, but also intrinsically and independently in trans, likely as noncoding RNAs, a conclusion supported by a number of previous genetic studies. Our findings suggest novel functions for 3′UTRs, as well as caution in the use of 3′UTR sequence probes to analyze gene expression. PMID:21075793

  6. Insertion of part of an intron into the 5[prime] untranslated region of a Caenorhabditis elegans gene converts it into a trans-spliced gene

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, R.; Thomas, J.; Spieth, J.; Blumenthal, T. )

    1991-04-01

    In nematodes, the RNA products of some genes are trans-spliced to a 22-nucleotide spliced leader (SL), while the RNA products of other genes are not. In Caenorhabditis elegans, there are two SLs, Sl1 and SL2, donated by two distinct small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles in a process functionally quite similar to nuclear intron removal. The authors demonstrate here that it is possible to convert a non-trans-spliced gene into a trans-spliced gene by placement of an intron missing only the 5[prime] splice site into the 5[prime] untranslated region. Stable transgenic strains were isolated expressing a gene in which 69 nucleotides of a vit-5 intron, including the 3[prime] splice site, were inserted into the 5[prime] untranslated region of a vit-2/vit-6 fusion gene. The RNA product of this gene was examined by primer extension and PCR amplification. Although the vit-2/vit-6 transgene product is not normally trans-spliced, the majority of transcripts from this altered gene were trans-spliced to SL1. They termed the region of a trans-spliced mRNA precursor between the 5[prime] end and the first 3[prime] splice site an 'outrun'. The results suggest that if a transcript begins with intronlike sequence followed by a 3[prime] splice site, this alone may constitute an outrun and be sufficient to demarcate a transcript as a trans-splice acceptor. These findings leave open the possibility that specific sequences are required to increase the efficiency of trans-splicing.

  7. UTRdb: a specialized database of 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions of eukaryotic mRNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Pesole, G; Liuni, S; Grillo, G; Saccone, C

    1998-01-01

    The important role the untranslated regions of eukaryotic mRNAs may play in gene regulation and expression is now widely acknowledged. For this reason we developed UTRdb, a specialized database of 5'- and 3'-untranslated sequences of eukaryotic mRNAs cleaned from redundancy. UTRdb entries are enriched with specialized information not present in the primary databases, including the presence of functional patterns already demonstrated by experimental analysis to have some functional role. A collection of such patterns is being collected in UTRsite database (http://bio-www.ba.cnr.it:8000/srs5/) which can also be used with appropriate computational tools to detect known functional patterns contained in mRNA untranslated regions. PMID:9399833

  8. Alternative 5’ Untranslated Regions Are Involved in Expression Regulation of Human Heme Oxygenase-1

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Marcel; Sponholz, Christoph; Slaba, Monique; Wissuwa, Bianka; Claus, Ralf A.; Menzel, Uwe; Huse, Klaus; Platzer, Matthias; Bauer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The single nucleotide polymorphism rs2071746 and a (GT)n microsatellite within the human gene encoding heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1) are associated with incidence or outcome in a variety of diseases. Most of these associations involve either release of heme or oxidative stress. Both polymorphisms are localized in the promoter region, but previously reported correlations with heme oxygenase-1 expression remain not coherent. This ambiguity suggests a more complex organization of the 5’ gene region which we sought to investigate more fully. We evaluated the 5‘ end of HMOX1 and found a novel first exon 1a placing the two previously reported polymorphisms in intronic or exonic positions within the 5’ untranslated region respectively. Expression of exon 1a can be induced in HepG2 hepatoma cells by hemin and is a repressor of heme oxygenase-1 translation as shown by luciferase reporter assays. Moreover, minigene approaches revealed that the quantitative outcome of alternative splicing within the 5’ untranslated region is affected by the (GT)n microsatellite. This data supporting an extended HMOX1 gene model and provide further insights into expression regulation of heme oxygenase-1. Alternative splicing within the HMOX1 5' untranslated region contributes to translational regulation and is a mechanistic feature involved in the interplay between genetic variations, heme oxygenase-1 expression and disease outcome. PMID:24098580

  9. UTRdb: a specialized database of 5' and 3' untranslated regions of eukaryotic mRNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Pesole, G; Liuni, S; Grillo, G; Ippedico, M; Larizza, A; Makalowski, W; Saccone, C

    1999-01-01

    The 5' and 3' untranslated regions of eukaryotic mRNAs may play a crucial role in the regulation of gene expression controlling mRNA localization, stability and translational efficiency. For this reason we developed UTRdb (http://bigarea.area.ba.cnr.it:8000/BioWWW/#U TRdb), a specialized database of 5' and 3' untranslated sequences of eukaryotic mRNAs cleaned from redundancy. UTRdb entries are enriched with specialized information not present in the primary databases including the presence of nucleotide sequence patterns already demonstrated by experimental analysis to have some functional role. All these patterns have been collected in the UTRsite database so that it is possible to search any input sequence for the presence of annotated functional motifs. Furthermore, UTRdb entries have been annotated for the presence of repetitive elements. PMID:9847176

  10. HLA-G coding region and 3'untranslated region (3'UTR) in two Chinese Han populations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen Yi; Tian, Wei; Liu, Xue Xiang; Li, Li Xin

    2016-08-01

    In this study, exons 2-4 and 3'untranslated region (3'UTR) of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G gene were investigated for 201 and 104 healthy unrelated Han samples recruited from Hunan Province, southern China and central Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, northern China, respectively, using sequence-based typing and cloning methods. Totally 12 HLA-G alleles in the coding region, 9 variable sites in 3'UTR, 8 3'UTR haplotypes and 15 HLA-G extended haplotypes (EHs) incorporating the coding region and 3'UTR were observed. Very strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) was observed between HLA-A and HLA-G, and between HLA-G coding region and 3'UTR in each population (all global P=0.0000). Seven HLA-A-G haplotypes showed significant LD in both populations. Three HLA-G alleles in the coding region, 4 polymorphic sites in the 3'UTR, 3 3'UTR haplotypes and 4 HLA-G EHs differed significantly in their distributions between the 2 Chinese Han populations (all P≤0.0001). There was evidence for balancing selection acting on HLA-G 3'UTR positions +3010, +3142 and +3187 in the two populations. The NJ dendrograms demonstrated the existence of two basic HLA-G lineages and indicated that, HLA-G*01:01:01, the most common HLA-G allele, formed a separate lineage from other alleles. Our results shed new lights into HLA-G genetics among Chinese Han populations. The findings reported here are of importance for future studies related to post-transcriptional regulation of HLA-G allelic expression and the potential role of HLA-G in disease association in populations of Chinese ancestry. PMID:27262928

  11. Sdt97: A Point Mutation in the 5′ Untranslated Region Confers Semidwarfism in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Jiping; Han, Zhengshu; Han, Aonan; Liu, Xuejun; Zhang, Shiyong; Fu, Binying; Hu, Jun; Su, Jingping; Li, Shaoqing; Wang, Shengjun; Zhu, Yingguo

    2016-01-01

    Semidwarfism is an important agronomic trait in rice breeding programs. The semidwarf mutant gene Sdt97 was previously described. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the mutant is yet to be elucidated. In this study, we identified the mutant gene by a map-based cloning method. Using a residual heterozygous line (RHL) population, Sdt97 was mapped to the long arm of chromosome 6 in the interval of nearly 60 kb between STS marker N6 and SNP marker N16 within the PAC clone P0453H04. Sequencing of the candidate genes in the target region revealed that a base transversion from G to C occurred in the 5′ untranslated region of Sdt97. qRT-PCR results confirmed that the transversion induced an obvious change in the expression pattern of Sdt97 at different growth and developmental stages. Plants transgenic for Sdt97 resulted in the restoration of semidwarfism of the mutant phenotype, or displayed a greater dwarf phenotype than the mutant. Our results indicate that a point mutation in the 5′ untranslated region of Sdt97 confers semidwarfism in rice. Functional analysis of Sdt97 will open a new field of study for rice semidwarfism, and also expand our knowledge of the molecular mechanism of semidwarfism in rice. PMID:27172200

  12. Sdt97: A Point Mutation in the 5' Untranslated Region Confers Semidwarfism in Rice.

    PubMed

    Tong, Jiping; Han, Zhengshu; Han, Aonan; Liu, Xuejun; Zhang, Shiyong; Fu, Binying; Hu, Jun; Su, Jingping; Li, Shaoqing; Wang, Shengjun; Zhu, Yingguo

    2016-01-01

    Semidwarfism is an important agronomic trait in rice breeding programs. The semidwarf mutant gene Sdt97 was previously described. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the mutant is yet to be elucidated. In this study, we identified the mutant gene by a map-based cloning method. Using a residual heterozygous line (RHL) population, Sdt97 was mapped to the long arm of chromosome 6 in the interval of nearly 60 kb between STS marker N6 and SNP marker N16 within the PAC clone P0453H04. Sequencing of the candidate genes in the target region revealed that a base transversion from G to C occurred in the 5' untranslated region of Sdt97 qRT-PCR results confirmed that the transversion induced an obvious change in the expression pattern of Sdt97 at different growth and developmental stages. Plants transgenic for Sdt97 resulted in the restoration of semidwarfism of the mutant phenotype, or displayed a greater dwarf phenotype than the mutant. Our results indicate that a point mutation in the 5' untranslated region of Sdt97 confers semidwarfism in rice. Functional analysis of Sdt97 will open a new field of study for rice semidwarfism, and also expand our knowledge of the molecular mechanism of semidwarfism in rice. PMID:27172200

  13. Sequence analysis and compositional properties of untranslated regions of human mRNAs.

    PubMed

    Pesole, G; Fiormarino, G; Saccone, C

    1994-03-25

    A detailed computer analysis of the untranslated regions, 5'-UTR and 3'-UTR, of human mRNA sequences is reported. The compositional properties of these regions, compared with those of the corresponding coding regions, indicate that 5'-UTR and 3'-UTR are less affected by the isochore compartmentalization than the corresponding third codon positions of mRNAs. The presence of higher functional constraints in 5'-UTR is also reported. Dinucleotide analysis shows a depletion of CpG and TpA in both sequences. A search for significant sequence motifs using the WORDUP algorithm reveals the patterns already known to have a functional role in the mRNA UTR, and several other motifs whose functional roles remain to be demonstrated. This type of analysis may be particularly useful for guiding site-directed mutagenesis experiments. In addition, it can be used for assessing the nature of anonymous sequences now produced in large amounts in megabase sequencing projects. PMID:8144029

  14. Challenging the Roles of NSP3 and Untranslated Regions in Rotavirus mRNA Translation.

    PubMed

    Gratia, Matthieu; Vende, Patrice; Charpilienne, Annie; Baron, Hilma Carolina; Laroche, Cécile; Sarot, Emeline; Pyronnet, Stéphane; Duarte, Mariela; Poncet, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Rotavirus NSP3 is a translational surrogate of the PABP-poly(A) complex for rotavirus mRNAs. To further explore the effects of NSP3 and untranslated regions (UTRs) on rotavirus mRNAs translation, we used a quantitative in vivo assay with simultaneous cytoplasmic NSP3 expression (wild-type or deletion mutant) and electroporated rotavirus-like and standard synthetic mRNAs. This assay shows that the last four GACC nucleotides of viral mRNA are essential for efficient translation and that both the NSP3 eIF4G- and RNA-binding domains are required. We also show efficient translation of rotavirus-like mRNAs even with a 5'UTR as short as 5 nucleotides, while more than eleven nucleotides are required for the 3'UTR. Despite the weak requirement for a long 5'UTR, a good AUG environment remains a requirement for rotavirus mRNAs translation. PMID:26727111

  15. Translational control by 5'-untranslated regions of eukaryotic mRNAs.

    PubMed

    Hinnebusch, Alan G; Ivanov, Ivaylo P; Sonenberg, Nahum

    2016-06-17

    The eukaryotic 5' untranslated region (UTR) is critical for ribosome recruitment to the messenger RNA (mRNA) and start codon choice and plays a major role in the control of translation efficiency and shaping the cellular proteome. The ribosomal initiation complex is assembled on the mRNA via a cap-dependent or cap-independent mechanism. We describe various mechanisms controlling ribosome scanning and initiation codon selection by 5' upstream open reading frames, translation initiation factors, and primary and secondary structures of the 5'UTR, including particular sequence motifs. We also discuss translational control via phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2, which is implicated in learning and memory, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. PMID:27313038

  16. Tissue-specific expression of insulin-like growth factor II mRNAs with distinct 5' untranslated regions

    SciTech Connect

    Irminger, J.C.; Rosen, K.M.; Humble, R.E.; Villa-Komaroff, L.

    1987-09-01

    The authors have used RNA from human hypothalamus as template for the production of cDNAs encoding insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II). The prohormone coding sequence of brain IGF-II RNA is identical to that found in liver; however, the 5' untranslated sequence of the brain cDNA has no homology to the 5' untranslated sequence of the previously reported liver cDNAs. By using hybridization to specific probes as well as a method based on the properties of RNase H, they found that the human IGF-II gene has at least three exons that encode alternative 5' untranslated regions and that are expressed in a tissue-specific manner. A probe specific to the brain cDNA 5' untranslated region hybridizes to a 6.0-kilobase transcript present in placenta, hypothalamus, adrenal gland, kidney, Wilms tumor, and a pheochromocytoma. The 5' untranslated sequence of the brain cDNA does not hybridize to a 5.3-kilobase transcript found in liver or to a 5.0-kb transcript found in pheochromocytoma. By using RNase H to specifically fragment the IGF-II transcripts into 3' and 5' fragments, they found that the RNAs vary in size due to differences in the 5' end but not the 3' end.

  17. Gene Expression in Archaea: Studies of Transcriptional Promoters, Messenger RNA Processing, and Five Prime Untranslated Regions in "Methanocaldococcus Jannashchii"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jian

    2009-01-01

    Gene expression in Archaea is less understood than those in Bacteria and Eucarya. In general, three steps are involved in gene expression--transcription, RNA processing, and translation. To expand our knowledge of these processes in Archaea, I have studied transcriptional promoters, messenger RNA processing, and 5'-untranslated regions in…

  18. Involvement of the 3' Untranslated Region in Encapsidation of the Hepatitis C Virus.

    PubMed

    Shi, Guoli; Ando, Tomomi; Suzuki, Ryosuke; Matsuda, Mami; Nakashima, Kenji; Ito, Masahiko; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Oba, Mami; Ochiai, Hideharu; Kato, Takanobu; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Sawasaki, Tatsuya; Wakita, Takaji; Suzuki, Tetsuro

    2016-02-01

    Although information regarding morphogenesis of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is accumulating, the mechanism(s) by which the HCV genome encapsidated remains unknown. In the present study, in cell cultures producing HCV, the molecular ratios of 3' end- to 5' end-regions of the viral RNA population in the culture medium were markedly higher than those in the cells, and the ratio was highest in the virion-rich fraction. The interaction of the 3' untranslated region (UTR) with Core in vitro was stronger than that of the interaction of other stable RNA structure elements across the HCV genome. A foreign gene flanked by the 3' UTR was encapsidated by supplying both viral NS3-NS5B proteins and Core-NS2 in trans. Mutations within the conserved stem-loops of the 3' UTR were observed to dramatically diminish packaging efficiency, suggesting that the conserved apical motifs of the 3´ X region are important for HCV genome packaging. This study provides evidence of selective packaging of the HCV genome into viral particles and identified that the 3' UTR acts as a cis-acting element for encapsidation. PMID:26867128

  19. Involvement of the 3’ Untranslated Region in Encapsidation of the Hepatitis C Virus

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Guoli; Ando, Tomomi; Suzuki, Ryosuke; Matsuda, Mami; Nakashima, Kenji; Ito, Masahiko; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Oba, Mami; Ochiai, Hideharu; Kato, Takanobu; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Sawasaki, Tatsuya; Wakita, Takaji; Suzuki, Tetsuro

    2016-01-01

    Although information regarding morphogenesis of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is accumulating, the mechanism(s) by which the HCV genome encapsidated remains unknown. In the present study, in cell cultures producing HCV, the molecular ratios of 3’ end- to 5’ end-regions of the viral RNA population in the culture medium were markedly higher than those in the cells, and the ratio was highest in the virion-rich fraction. The interaction of the 3’ untranslated region (UTR) with Core in vitro was stronger than that of the interaction of other stable RNA structure elements across the HCV genome. A foreign gene flanked by the 3’ UTR was encapsidated by supplying both viral NS3-NS5B proteins and Core-NS2 in trans. Mutations within the conserved stem-loops of the 3’ UTR were observed to dramatically diminish packaging efficiency, suggesting that the conserved apical motifs of the 3´ X region are important for HCV genome packaging. This study provides evidence of selective packaging of the HCV genome into viral particles and identified that the 3’ UTR acts as a cis-acting element for encapsidation. PMID:26867128

  20. Translation from the 5′ untranslated region shapes the integrated stress response

    PubMed Central

    Starck, Shelley R.; Tsai, Jordan C.; Chen, Keling; Shodiya, Michael; Wang, Lei; Yahiro, Kinnosuke; Martins-Green, Manuela; Shastri, Nilabh; Walter, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Translated regions distinct from annotated coding sequences have emerged as essential elements of the proteome. This includes upstream open reading frames (uORFs) present in mRNAs controlled by the integrated stress response (ISR) that show “privileged” translation despite inhibited eukaryotic initiation factor 2–guanosine triphosphate–initiator methionyl transfer RNA (eIF2·GTP·Met-tRNAiMet). We developed tracing translation by T cells to directly measure the translation products of uORFs during the ISR. We identified signature translation events from uORFs in the 5′ untranslated region of binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP) mRNA (also called heat shock 70-kilodalton protein 5mRNA) that were not initiated at the start codon AUG. BiP expression during the ISR required both the alternative initiation factor eIF2A and non–AUG-initiated uORFs. We propose that persistent uORF translation, for a variety of chaperones, shelters select mRNAs from the ISR, while simultaneously generating peptides that could serve as major histocompatibility complex class I ligands, marking cells for recognition by the adaptive immune system. PMID:26823435

  1. Translation from the 5' untranslated region shapes the integrated stress response.

    PubMed

    Starck, Shelley R; Tsai, Jordan C; Chen, Keling; Shodiya, Michael; Wang, Lei; Yahiro, Kinnosuke; Martins-Green, Manuela; Shastri, Nilabh; Walter, Peter

    2016-01-29

    Translated regions distinct from annotated coding sequences have emerged as essential elements of the proteome. This includes upstream open reading frames (uORFs) present in mRNAs controlled by the integrated stress response (ISR) that show "privileged" translation despite inhibited eukaryotic initiation factor 2-guanosine triphosphate-initiator methionyl transfer RNA (eIF2·GTP·Met-tRNA(i )(Met)). We developed tracing translation by T cells to directly measure the translation products of uORFs during the ISR. We identified signature translation events from uORFs in the 5' untranslated region of binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP) mRNA (also called heat shock 70-kilodalton protein 5 mRNA) that were not initiated at the start codon AUG. BiP expression during the ISR required both the alternative initiation factor eIF2A and non-AUG-initiated uORFs. We propose that persistent uORF translation, for a variety of chaperones, shelters select mRNAs from the ISR, while simultaneously generating peptides that could serve as major histocompatibility complex class I ligands, marking cells for recognition by the adaptive immune system. PMID:26823435

  2. Challenging the Roles of NSP3 and Untranslated Regions in Rotavirus mRNA Translation

    PubMed Central

    Gratia, Matthieu; Vende, Patrice; Charpilienne, Annie; Baron, Hilma Carolina; Laroche, Cécile; Sarot, Emeline; Pyronnet, Stéphane; Duarte, Mariela; Poncet, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Rotavirus NSP3 is a translational surrogate of the PABP-poly(A) complex for rotavirus mRNAs. To further explore the effects of NSP3 and untranslated regions (UTRs) on rotavirus mRNAs translation, we used a quantitative in vivo assay with simultaneous cytoplasmic NSP3 expression (wild-type or deletion mutant) and electroporated rotavirus-like and standard synthetic mRNAs. This assay shows that the last four GACC nucleotides of viral mRNA are essential for efficient translation and that both the NSP3 eIF4G- and RNA-binding domains are required. We also show efficient translation of rotavirus-like mRNAs even with a 5’UTR as short as 5 nucleotides, while more than eleven nucleotides are required for the 3’UTR. Despite the weak requirement for a long 5’UTR, a good AUG environment remains a requirement for rotavirus mRNAs translation. PMID:26727111

  3. Constitutive translation of human α-synuclein is mediated by the 5′-untranslated region

    PubMed Central

    Koukouraki, Pelagia; Doxakis, Epaminondas

    2016-01-01

    Genetic and biochemical studies have established a central role for α-synuclein (SNCA) accumulation in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Uncovering and subsequently interfering with physiological mechanisms that control SNCA expression is one approach to limit disease progression. To this end, the long and GC-rich 5′-untranslated region (UTR) of SNCA, which is predicted to fold into stable hairpin and G-quadruplex RNA motifs, was investigated for its role in mRNA translation. Inclusion of SNCA 5′-UTR significantly induced expression of both SNCA and luciferase ORF constructs. This effect was not associated with a change in mRNA levels or differential nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. Further, the presence of the 5′-UTR enhanced SNCA synthesis when cap-dependent translation was attenuated with rapamycin treatment. Analysis using multiple methodologies revealed that the 5′-UTR harbours an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) element that spans most of its nucleotide sequence. Signals such as plasma-membrane depolarization, serum starvation and oxidative stress stimulated SNCA protein translation via its 5′-UTR as well as enhanced its IRES activity. Taken together, these data support the idea that the 5′-UTR is an important positive regulator of SNCA synthesis under diverse physiological and pathological conditions, explaining in part the abundance of SNCA in healthy neurons and its accumulation in degenerative cells. PMID:27248657

  4. Reexamining a proposal: thymidylate synthase 5'-untranslated region as a regulator of translation efficiency.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Soma; Winter, Jordan M; Patel, Kalpesh; Kern, Scott E

    2011-10-15

    The DNA replicative gene, thymidylate synthase (TYMS), is inhibited upon treatment with the anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5FU). TYMS has 28-bp tandem repeat sequences or VNTR (variable numbers of tandem repeats) in the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR). The number of these repeats is variable in any given population, but the most prevalent are double (2R) and triple (3R) repeat sequences. A single G/C nucleotide polymorphism in the triple repeat sequence gives rise to a 3Rc or a 3Rg triple repeat structure. A widely cited literature used plasmid constructs of the 5'-UTR and proposed that genotyping the TYMS UTRs would predict the efficiency of Tyms protein translation, justifying altered therapeutic dosage of 5FU. Prior studies had unusual features in experimental design, such as using the firefly Kozak sequence in place of the native human TYMS Kozak sequence to determine the ribosomal translational efficiency of TYMS mRNA. Our results using transient transfection, antibiotic-selected pools of transfected cells, and stably transfected clones, while using plasmids having native human Kozak sequence, refute the earlier results. PMID:21811101

  5. Role of 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions of mRNAs in human diseases.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sangeeta; Pal, Jayanta K

    2009-05-01

    Protein synthesis is often regulated at the level of initiation of translation, making it a critical step. This regulation occurs by both the cis-regulatory elements, which are located in the 5'- and 3'-UTRs (untranslated regions), and trans-acting factors. A breakdown in this regulation machinery can perturb cellular metabolism, leading to various physiological abnormalities. The highly structured UTRs, along with features such as GC-richness, upstream open reading frames and internal ribosome entry sites, significantly influence the rate of translation of mRNAs. In this review, we discuss how changes in the cis-regulatory sequences of the UTRs, for example, point mutations and truncations, influence expression of specific genes at the level of translation. Such modifications may tilt the physiological balance from healthy to diseased states, resulting in conditions such as hereditary thrombocythaemia, breast cancer, fragile X syndrome, bipolar affective disorder and Alzheimer's disease. This information tends to establish the crucial role of UTRs, perhaps as much as that of coding sequences, in health and disease. PMID:19275763

  6. Identification and characterization of cellular proteins interacting with Hepatitis E virus untranslated regions.

    PubMed

    Paingankar, Mandar S; Arankalle, Vidya A

    2015-10-01

    Lack of robust cell culture systems for Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has hampered understanding of HEV biology. We attempted to identify the host cellular factors that interact with HEV 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) by RNA affinity chromatography followed by mass spectrometry analysis. Hepatitis E virus genotype-1 (HEV-1) and Hepatitis E virus genotype-4 (HEV-4) and three cell lines (HepG2/C3A, A549 and Caco2) were employed to understand the UTR-host protein interaction. RNA pull-down and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight (MALDI TOF/TOF) analysis revealed that DHX9, PTK-7, DIS3 and TCR E chain (CD3ɛ) of all the three cell lines interacted with HEV 3'UTR while RAD50 and TLE-4 interacted with HEV 5'UTR. RNA immuno-precipitation studies further confirmed the interaction of DHX9, DIS3 and TCR E chain. The expression changes in genes associated with the identified proteins were quantitated in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of Hepatitis E patients during acute and recovery phases. The data revealed that HEV infection influences the exosomes, T cell receptor signalling and Wnt signalling pathways. Interactions of DIS3 with HEV UTRs suggest that exosomes might have important implication in HEV life cycle. PMID:26087402

  7. Functional non-coding RNAs derived from the flavivirus 3' untranslated region.

    PubMed

    Clarke, B D; Roby, J A; Slonchak, A; Khromykh, A A

    2015-08-01

    Flaviviruses are single-stranded positive sense RNA enveloped viruses. The flavivirus genus includes important human pathogens such as dengue virus (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV), yellow fever virus (YFV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), and Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV). In addition to the viral proteins and viral genomic RNA, flaviviruses produce at least two functional non-coding RNAs derived from the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR), the subgenomic flavivirus RNA (sfRNA) and a putative WNV miRNA (KUN-miR-1). In this review we summarize published data from studies with WNV, YFV, DENV, JEV, and MVEV on sfRNA production following incomplete degradation of the viral genomic RNA by the cellular 5'-3' exoribonuclease 1 (XRN1), RNA structural elements involved in stalling XRN1 to generate sfRNA, and functions of sfRNA in modulating cellular mRNA decay and RNAi pathways as well as in modulating anti-viral type I interferon response. In addition, we also summarize data on the mechanisms of biogenesis of 3'UTR-derived KUN-miR-1 and its function in WNV replication in mosquito host, along with recent findings on a discovery of a second potential flaviviral miRNA vsRNA5, derived from the 3'UTR of DENV. This review thus summarizes the known mechanisms of generation and the functions of flaviviral 3'UTR-derived non-coding RNAs. PMID:25660582

  8. Characterization of the Human Ornithine Transcarbamylase 3′ Untranslated Regulatory Region

    PubMed Central

    Lopes-Marques, Monica; Pereira-Castro, Isabel; Amorim, António

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the untranslated regulatory regions of genes may result in abnormal gene expression or transcriptional regulation. In this study, we characterize the ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) mRNA isoforms of the X-linked OTC gene involved in the urea formation in the liver. Our data revealed that two major transcripts (OTC-t1 and OTC-t2) are more highly expressed than any of the other isoforms in all the tissues analyzed, though a longer transcript (OTC-t3) was also isolated and characterized from the brain sample. The OTC-t2 sequence fully matches the OTC mRNA reference sequence (NM_000531.5). All three isoforms use a canonical AAUAAA hexamer that is predicted to fold into a hairpin secondary structure which might be exposed to the cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor. In addition, we observed that the OTC-t1 and OTC-t2 transcripts display heterogeneity at the cleavage sites in a tissue-dependent manner. Taken together, our data demonstrate that several mRNA isoforms are transcribed from the OTC gene, thereby indicating a wide degree of variability in post-transcriptional regulation. PMID:22054066

  9. Mutation in the 3'untranslated region of APP as a genetic determinant of cerebral amyloid angiopathy.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Gaël; Wallon, David; Goupil, Claudia; Richard, Anne-Claire; Pottier, Cyril; Dorval, Véronique; Sarov-Rivière, Mariana; Riant, Florence; Hervé, Dominique; Amouyel, Philippe; Guerchet, Maelenn; Ndamba-Bandzouzi, Bebene; Mbelesso, Pascal; Dartigues, Jean-François; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Frebourg, Thierry; Campion, Dominique; Hannequin, Didier; Tournier-Lasserve, Elisabeth; Hébert, Sébastien S; Rovelet-Lecrux, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Aβ-related cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a major cause of primary non-traumatic brain hemorrhage. In families with an early onset of the disease, CAA can be due to amyloid precursor protein (APP) pathogenic variants or duplications. APP duplications lead to a ~1.5-fold increased APP expression, resulting in Aβ overproduction and deposition in the walls of leptomeningeal vessels. We hypothesized that rare variants in the 3'untranslated region (UTR) of APP might lead to APP overexpression in patients with CAA and no APP pathogenic variant or duplication. We performed direct sequencing of the whole APP 3'UTR in 90 patients with CAA and explored the functional consequences of one previously unreported variant. We identified three sequence variants in four patients, of which a two-base pair deletion (c.*331_*332del) was previously unannotated and absent from 175 controls of same ethnicity. This latter variant was associated with increased APP expression in vivo and in vitro. Bioinformatics and functional assays showed that the APP c.*331_*332del variant affected APP messenger RNA (mRNA) structure and binding of two microRNAs (miR-582-3p and miR-892b), providing a mechanism for the observed effects on APP expression. These results identify APP 3'UTR sequence variants as genetic determinants of Aβ-CAA. PMID:25828868

  10. 5'-Untranslated region of heat shock protein 70 mRNA drives translation under hypertonic conditions.

    PubMed

    Rocchi, Laura; Alfieri, Roberta R; Petronini, Pier Giorgio; Montanaro, Lorenzo; Brigotti, Maurizio

    2013-02-01

    In mammalian cells, adaptation to hypertonic conditions leads to the activation of an array of early (cell shrinkage, regulatory volume increase) and late (accumulation of compatible osmolytes) responses and increased level of HSPs (heat shock proteins). Protein synthesis is strongly inhibited few minutes after the hypertonic challenge as demonstrated in whole cells and as reproduced under controlled conditions in cell-free systems. Different mechanisms known to mediate the accumulation of HSP70, such as mRNA transcription and stabilization, require fully active protein synthesis. We show that the 5'-untranslated region of HSP70 messenger drives a hypertonicity-resistant translation (up to 0.425 osmol/kg of water), whereas cap-dependent protein synthesis is almost totally blocked under the same conditions. The results, obtained in cell-free systems and in whole cells, might help to explain why HSP70 is accumulated in cells when total protein synthesis is impaired. We also observed that translation initiated by viral IRES (from Cricket paralysis virus) is highly efficient in cells exposed to hyperosmolarity, suggesting that the resistance to hypertonic conditions is a more general feature of cap-independent translation. The described mechanism may also play a role in the control of translation of other messengers encoding for proteins involved in the adaptation to hypertonicity. PMID:23291172

  11. 5' and 3' Untranslated Regions Strongly Enhance Performance of Geminiviral Replicons in Nicotiana benthamiana Leaves.

    PubMed

    Diamos, Andrew G; Rosenthal, Sun H; Mason, Hugh S

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported a recombinant protein production system based on a geminivirus replicon that yields high levels of vaccine antigens and monoclonal antibodies in plants. The bean yellow dwarf virus (BeYDV) replicon generates massive amounts of DNA copies, which engage the plant transcription machinery. However, we noticed a disparity between transcript level and protein production, suggesting that mRNAs could be more efficiently utilized. In this study, we systematically evaluated genetic elements from human, viral, and plant sources for their potential to improve the BeYDV system. The tobacco extensin terminator enhanced transcript accumulation and protein production compared to other commonly used terminators, indicating that efficient transcript processing plays an important role in recombinant protein production. Evaluation of human-derived 5' untranslated regions (UTRs) indicated that many provided high levels of protein production, supporting their cross-kingdom function. Among the viral 5' UTRs tested, we found the greatest enhancement with the tobacco mosaic virus omega leader. An analysis of the 5' UTRs from the Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotinana benthamiana photosystem I K genes found that they were highly active when truncated to include only the near upstream region, providing a dramatic enhancement of transgene production that exceeded that of the tobacco mosaic virus omega leader. The tobacco Rb7 matrix attachment region inserted downstream from the gene of interest provided significant enhancement, which was correlated with a reduction in plant cell death. Evaluation of Agrobacterium strains found that EHA105 enhanced protein production and reduced cell death compared to LBA4301 and GV3101. We used these improvements to produce Norwalk virus capsid protein at >20% total soluble protein, corresponding to 1.8 mg/g leaf fresh weight, more than twice the highest level ever reported in a plant system. We also produced the monoclonal antibody

  12. An element in the bovine papillomavirus late 3' untranslated region reduces polyadenylated cytoplasmic RNA levels.

    PubMed

    Furth, P A; Baker, C C

    1991-11-01

    Expression of the two bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) late genes, L1 and L2, coding for the two capsid proteins, is limited to terminally differentiated keratinocytes in bovine fibropapillomas. This pattern of expression is determined both by the activity of the late promoter and by the inhibition of late region expression in less well differentiated cells. Inhibition of L1 and L2 mRNA production in nonpermissive cells must occur since the late region potentially could be transcribed from early region promoters. Nuclear runoff analysis of the late region has demonstrated that up to 95% of transcripts which are initiated in the early region in nonpermissive cells terminate within the late region upstream of the late polyadenylation site (C. C. Baker and J. Noe, J. Virol. 63:3529-3534, 1989). However, very few of the primary transcripts which include the late polyadenylation site are processed into mRNA. In this study, we have used expression vectors to characterize an inhibitory element active in nonpermissive cells which is located in the late 3' untranslated region (3'UTR). While the late polyadenylation site is functional in these cells, a 53-bp element in the late 3'UTR reduces levels of polyadenylated cytoplasmic RNA. This element inhibited chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) expression 6- to 10-fold when cloned in the sense orientation into the 3'UTR of a CAT expression vector. No block to expression was seen when the fragment was cloned immediately downstream of the poly(A) site, in an intron upstream of the CAT coding sequence, or in an antisense orientation in the 3'UTR. When the same fragment was deleted from a BPV-1 L1 expression vector, a sixfold increase in mRNA levels was seen. Actinomycin D chase experiments using BPV-1 L1 expression vectors indicated that the element does not destabilize cytoplasmic polyadenylated RNA. Therefore, the element must act before the mature mRNA reaches the cytoplasm. The data presented are consistent with effects

  13. Association of HLA-G 3' untranslated region variants with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    de Albuquerque, Rafael S; Mendes-Junior, Celso Teixeira; Lucena-Silva, Norma; da Silva, Camila Leal Lopes; Rassi, Diane Meire; Veiga-Castelli, Luciana C; Foss-Freitas, Maria Cristina; Foss, Milton César; Deghaide, Neifi Hassan Saloum; Moreau, Philippe; Gregori, Silvia; Castelli, Erick C; Donadi, Eduardo Antônio

    2016-04-01

    Besides the well recognized association of HLA-DRB1 and DQB1 alleles with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D), linkage studies have identified a gene region close to the non-classical class I HLA-G gene as an independent susceptibility marker. HLA-G is constitutively expressed in the endocrine compartment of the human pancreas and may play a role in controlling autoimmune responses. We evaluated the genetic diversity of the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of HLA-G, which have been associated with HLA-G mRNA post-transcriptional regulation, in 120 Brazilian T1D patients and in 120 healthy controls. We found the +3001 T allele was observed only in T1D patients. Notably, the +3001 T allele was in linkage disequilibrium with polymorphic sites associated with low production of HLA-G mRNA or soluble HLA-G levels. Moreover, T1D patients showed a low frequency of the HLA-G 3'UTR-17 (14bpINS/+3001T/+3003T/+3010C/+3027C/+3035T/+3142G/+3187A/+3196C). The +3010 CC genotype and the UTR-3 haplotype (14bpDEL/+3001C/+3003T/+3010C/+3027C/+3035C/+3142G/+3187A/+3196C), associated with low and moderate soluble HLA-G expression, respectively, were underrepresented in patients. The decreased expression of HLA-G at the pancreas level should be detrimental in individuals genetically prone to produce less HLA-G. PMID:26883941

  14. Intron splicing in 5' untranslated region of the rolA transcript in transgenic apple.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhong-Tian; Holefors, Anna; Welander, Margareta

    2008-01-01

    The rolA gene encoded on the Ri plasmid of Agrobacterium rhizogenes causes developmental alterations, including dwarfing characteristics in the transgenic plants. In an attempt to introduce dwarfing characteristics into apple rootstocks for breeding purposes, the rolA gene was incorporated into the apple rootstock M26 and obtained four transgenic clones. All the clones exhibited reduced growth compared to untransformed control plants but different degree of dwarfing and wrinkled leaves. In the present study, expression of the rolA gene was further investigated by analysing the structure of the rolA transcript and the levels of the rolA mRNAs from these clones. The nucleotide (nt) sequence of the rolA transcript showed two forms of the transcript: one, the unspliced form, was co-linear with the rolA sequence in the genomic DNA; the other was spliced mRNA in which an 85-base pair (bp) intron sequence in the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) was spliced out. The position of splicing is different from that in Arabidopsis thaliana but similar to the splicing site found in tobacco. The transcription start region of the rolA gene in apple was 206bp upstream of that in Arabidopsis and 277bp upstream to Nicotiana tabacum transcription start. A hairpin-like secondary structure and an upstream open reading frame (uORF) were revealed in the rolA 5'UTR. The levels of the rolA mRNA in the apple transgenic clones were analysed by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results showed slight variation in the shoot tissues of the transgenic clones. PMID:17490782

  15. Regulation of human PTCH1b expression by different 5' untranslated region cis-regulatory elements

    PubMed Central

    Ozretić, Petar; Bisio, Alessandra; Musani, Vesna; Trnski, Diana; Sabol, Maja; Levanat, Sonja; Inga, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    PTCH1 gene codes for a 12-pass transmembrane receptor with a negative regulatory role in the Hedgehog-Gli signaling pathway. PTCH1 germline mutations cause Gorlin syndrome, a disorder characterized by developmental abnormalities and tumor susceptibility. The autosomal dominant inheritance, and the evidence for PTCH1 haploinsufficiency, suggests that fine-tuning systems of protein patched homolog 1 (PTC1) levels exist to properly regulate the pathway. Given the role of 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) in protein expression, our aim was to thoroughly explore cis-regulatory elements in the 5'UTR of PTCH1 transcript 1b. The (CGG)n polymorphism was the main potential regulatory element studied so far but with inconsistent results and no clear association between repeat number and disease risk. Using luciferase reporter constructs in human cell lines here we show that the number of CGG repeats has no strong impact on gene expression, both at mRNA and protein levels. We observed variability in the length of 5'UTR and changes in abundance of the associated transcripts after pathway activation. We show that upstream AUG codons (uAUGs) present only in longer 5'UTRs could negatively regulate the amount of PTC1 isoform L (PTC1-L). The existence of an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) observed using different approaches and mapped in the region comprising the CGG repeats, would counteract the effect of the uAUGs and enable synthesis of PTC1-L under stressful conditions, such as during hypoxia. Higher relative translation efficiency of PTCH1b mRNA in HEK 293T cultured hypoxia was observed by polysomal profiling and Western blot analyses. All our results point to an exceptionally complex and so far unexplored role of 5'UTR PTCH1b cis-element features in the regulation of the Hedgehog-Gli signaling pathway. PMID:25826662

  16. Screening the 3{prime} region of the polycystic kidney disease 1 (PKD1) gene reveals six novel mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Peral, B.; San Millan, J.L.; Ong, A.C.M.

    1996-01-01

    Recently, the gene for the most common form of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), PKD1 (polycystic kidney disease 1), has been fully characterized and shown to encode an integral membrane protein, polycystin, involved in cell-cell and/or cell-matrix interactions. Study of the PKD1 gene has been complicated because most of the gene lies in a genomic region reiterated several times elsewhere on the same chromosome, and consequently only seven mutations have been described so far. Here we report a systematic screen covering {approximately}80% of the {approximately}-2.75 kb of translated transcript that is encoded by single-copy DNA. We have identified and characterized six novel mutations that, together with the previously described changes, amount to a detection rate of 10%-15% in the population studied. The newly described mutations are two deletions, an insertion of a T-nucleotide causing a frameshift, two single-base-pair substitutions resulting in premature stop codons, and a G{yields}C transversion that may be a missense mutation. These results have important implications for genetic diagnosis of PKD1 because they indicate that the majority of mutations lie within the duplicated area, which is difficult to study. The regions of polycystin removed in each mutation so far described are assessed for their functional significance; an area disrupted by two new small in-frame changes is highlighted. PKD1 mutations are contrasted with those in the PKD1/TSC2 contiguous-gene syndrome, and the likely mutational mechanism in PKD1 is considered. 36 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Conserved nucleotide sequences in the open reading frame and 3' untranslated region of selenoprotein P mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, K E; Lloyd, R S; Burk, R F

    1993-01-01

    Rat liver selenoprotein P contains 10 selenocysteine residues in its primary structure (deduced). It is the only selenoprotein characterized to date that has more than one selenocysteine residue. Selenoprotein P cDNA has been cloned from human liver and heart cDNA libraries and sequenced. The open reading frames are identical and contain a signal peptide, indicating that the protein is secreted by both organs and is therefore not exclusively produced in the liver. Ten selenocysteine residues (deduced) are present. Comparison of the open reading frame of the human cDNA with the rat cDNA reveals a 69% identity of the nucleotide sequence and 72% identity of the deduced amino acid sequence. Two regions in the 3' untranslated portion have high conservation between human and rat. Each of these regions contains a predicted stable stem-loop structure similar to the single stem-loop structures reported in 3' untranslated regions of type I iodothyronine 5'-deiodinase and glutathione peroxidase. The stem-loop structure of type I iodothyronine 5'-deiodinase has been shown to be necessary for incorporation of the selenocysteine residue at the UGA codon. Because only two stem-loop structures are present in the 3' untranslated region of selenoprotein P mRNA, it can be concluded that a separate stem-loop structure is not required for each selenocysteine residue. Images PMID:8421687

  18. The untranslated regions of classic swine fever virus RNA trigger apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wei-Li; Chen, Chung-Lun; Huang, Shi-Wei; Wu, Chia-Chen; Chen, I-Hsuan; Nadar, Muthukumar; Su, Yin-Peng; Tsai, Ching-Hsiu

    2014-01-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) causes a broad range of disease in pigs, from acute symptoms including high fever and hemorrhages, to chronic disease or unapparent infection, depending on the virus strain. CSFV belongs to the genus Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae. It carries a single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome. An internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) drives the translation of a single open reading frame encoding a 3898 amino acid long polypeptide chain. The open reading frame is followed by a 3' UTR comprising four highly structured stem-loops. In the present study, a synthetic RNA composed of the 5' and 3' UTRs of the CSFV genome devoid of any viral coding sequence and separated by a luciferase gene cassette (designated 5'UTR-Luc-3'UTR) triggered apoptotic cell death as early as 4 h post-transfection. The apoptosis was measured by DNA laddering analysis, TUNEL assay, annexin-V binding determined by flow cytometry, and by analysis of caspase activation. Contrasting with this, only trace DNA laddering was observed in cells transfected with the individual 5' or 3' UTR RNA; even when the 5' UTR and 3' UTR were co-transfected as separate RNA molecules, DNA laddering did not reach the level induced by the chimeric 5'UTR-Luc-3'UTR RNA. Interestingly, RNA composed of the 5'UTR and of stem-loop I of the 3'UTR triggered much stronger apoptosis than the 5' or 3'UTR alone. These results indicate that the 5' and 3' UTRs act together in cis induce apoptosis. We furthered obtained evidence that the UTR-mediated apoptosis required double-stranded RNA and involved translation shutoff possibly through activation of PKR. PMID:24533157

  19. Genomic stability of murine leukemia viruses containing insertions at the Env-3' untranslated region boundary.

    PubMed

    Logg, C R; Logg, A; Tai, C K; Cannon, P M; Kasahara, N

    2001-08-01

    Retroviruses containing inserts of exogenous sequences frequently eliminate the inserted sequences upon spread in susceptible cells. We have constructed replication-competent murine leukemia virus (MLV) vectors containing internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-transgene cassettes at the env-3' untranslated region boundary in order to examine the effects of insert sequence and size on the loss of inserts during viral replication. A virus containing an insertion of 1.6 kb replicated with greatly attenuated kinetics relative to wild-type virus and lost the inserted sequences in a single infection cycle. In contrast, MLVs containing inserts of 1.15 to 1.30 kb replicated with kinetics only slightly attenuated compared to wild-type MLV and exhibited much greater stability, maintaining their genomic integrity over multiple serial infection cycles. Eventually, multiple species of deletion mutants were detected simultaneously in later infection cycles; once detected, these variants rapidly dominated the population and thereafter appeared to be maintained at a relative equilibrium. Sequence analysis of these variants identified preferred sites of recombination in the parental viruses, including both short direct repeats and inverted repeats. One instance of insert deletion through recombination with an endogenous retrovirus was also observed. When specific sequences involved in these recombination events were eliminated, deletion variants still arose with the same kinetics upon virus passage and by apparently similar mechanisms, although at different locations in the vectors. Our results suggest that while lengthened, insert-containing genomes can be maintained over multiple replication cycles, preferential deletions resulting in loss of the inserted sequences confer a strong selective advantage. PMID:11435579

  20. Structural Domains within the 3′ Untranslated Region of Turnip Crinkle Virus▿

    PubMed Central

    McCormack, John C.; Yuan, Xuefeng; Yingling, Yaroslava G.; Kasprzak, Wojciech; Zamora, Rodolfo E.; Shapiro, Bruce A.; Simon, Anne E.

    2008-01-01

    The genomes of positive-strand RNA viruses undergo conformational shifts that complicate efforts to equate structures with function. We have initiated a detailed analysis of secondary and tertiary elements within the 3′ end of Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) that are required for viral accumulation in vivo. MPGAfold, a massively parallel genetic algorithm, suggested the presence of five hairpins (H4a, H4b, and previously identified hairpins H4, H5, and Pr) and one H-type pseudoknot (Ψ3) within the 3′-terminal 194 nucleotides (nt). In vivo compensatory mutagenesis analyses confirmed the existence of H4a, H4b, Ψ3 and a second pseudoknot (Ψ2) previously identified in a TCV satellite RNA. In-line structure probing of the 194-nt fragment supported the coexistence of H4, H4a, H4b, Ψ3 and a pseudoknot that connects H5 and the 3′ end (Ψ1). Stepwise replacements of TCV elements with the comparable elements from Cardamine chlorotic fleck virus indicated that the complete 142-nt 3′ end, and subsets containing Ψ3, H4a, and H4b or Ψ3, H4a, H4b, H5, and Ψ2, form functional domains for virus accumulation in vivo. A new 3-D molecular modeling protocol (RNA2D3D) predicted that H4a, H4b, H5, Ψ3, and Ψ2 are capable of simultaneous existence and bears some resemblance to a tRNA. The related Japanese iris necrotic ring virus does not have comparable domains. These results provide a framework for determining how interconnected elements participate in processes that require 3′ untranslated region sequences such as translation and replication. PMID:18579599

  1. Upstream open reading frame in 5'-untranslated region reduces titin mRNA translational efficiency.

    PubMed

    Cadar, Adrian G; Zhong, Lin; Lin, Angel; Valenzuela, Mauricio O; Lim, Chee C

    2014-10-10

    Titin is the largest known protein and a critical determinant of myofibril elasticity and sarcomere structure in striated muscle. Accumulating evidence that mRNA transcripts are post-transcriptionally regulated by specific motifs located in the flanking untranslated regions (UTRs) led us to consider the role of titin 5'-UTR in regulating its translational efficiency. Titin 5'-UTR is highly homologous between human, mouse, and rat, and sequence analysis revealed the presence of a stem-loop and two upstream AUG codons (uAUGs) converging on a shared in frame stop codon. We generated a mouse titin 5'-UTR luciferase reporter construct and targeted the stem-loop and each uAUG for mutation. The wild-type and mutated constructs were transfected into the cardiac HL-1 cell line and primary neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVM). SV40 driven 5'-UTR luciferase activity was significantly suppressed by wild-type titin 5'-UTR (∼ 70% in HL-1 cells and ∼ 60% in NRVM). Mutating both uAUGs was found to alleviate titin 5'-UTR suppression, while eliminating the stem-loop had no effect. Treatment with various growth stimuli: pacing, PMA or neuregulin had no effect on titin 5'-UTR luciferase activity. Doxorubicin stress stimuli reduced titin 5'-UTR suppression, while H2O2 had no effect. A reported single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs13422986 at position -4 of the uAUG2 was introduced and found to further repress titin 5'-UTR luciferase activity. We conclude that the uAUG motifs in titin 5'-UTR serve as translational repressors in the control of titin gene expression, and that mutations/SNPs of the uAUGs or doxorubicin stress could alter titin translational efficiency. PMID:25264194

  2. Role of 3’-untranslated region translational control in cancer development, diagnostics and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Vislovukh, Andrii; Vargas, Thaiz Rivera; Polesskaya, Anna; Groisman, Irina

    2014-01-01

    The messenger RNA 3’-untranslated region (3’UTR) plays an important role in regulation of gene expression on the posttranscriptional level. The 3’UTR controls gene expression via orchestrated interaction between the structural components of mRNAs (cis-element) and the specific trans-acting factors (RNA binding proteins and non-coding RNAs). The crosstalk of these factors is based on the binding sequences and/or direct protein-protein interaction, or just functional interaction. Much new evidence that has accumulated supports the idea that several RNA binding factors can bind to common mRNA targets: to the non-overlapping binding sites or to common sites in a competitive fashion. Various factors capable of binding to the same RNA can cooperate or be antagonistic in their actions. The outcome of the collective function of all factors bound to the same mRNA 3’UTR depends on many circumstances, such as their expression levels, affinity to the binding sites, and localization in the cell, which can be controlled by various physiological conditions. Moreover, the functional and/or physical interactions of the factors binding to 3’UTR can change the character of their actions. These interactions vary during the cell cycle and in response to changing physiological conditions. Abnormal functioning of the factors can lead to disease. In this review we will discuss how alterations of these factors or their interaction can affect cancer development and promote or enhance the malignant phenotype of cancer cells. Understanding these alterations and their impact on 3’UTR-directed posttranscriptional gene regulation will uncover promising new targets for therapeutic intervention and diagnostics. We will also discuss emerging new tools in cancer diagnostics and therapy based on 3’UTR binding factors and approaches to improve them. PMID:24600513

  3. Polymorphism in the 3' untranslated region of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene detected by enzyme mismatch cleavage: evolution of haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Ramus, S J; Cotton, R G

    1995-12-01

    A polymorphism was identified in 3' untranslated region of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene using the newly described mutation detection method, enzyme mismatch cleavage. This polymorphism, 1546 G-->A, was linked to three mutations on several haplotype backgrounds. A group of haplotypes was identified as evolving from the one ancestral haplotype on which this base substitution occurred. The possible Celtic or Viking origin of this polymorphism is discussed. PMID:8522340

  4. The 5' untranslated region of alfalfa mosaic virus RNA 1 is involved in negative-strand RNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Vlot, A Corina; Bol, John F

    2003-10-01

    The three genomic RNAs of alfalfa mosaic virus each contain a unique 5' untranslated region (5' UTR). Replacement of the 5' UTR of RNA 1 by that of RNA 2 or 3 yielded infectious replicons. The sequence of a putative 5' stem-loop structure in RNA 1 was found to be required for negative-strand RNA synthesis. A similar putative 5' stem-loop structure is present in RNA 2 but not in RNA 3. PMID:14512577

  5. Species characterization in the genus Pestivirus according to palindromic nucleotide substitutions in the 5'-untranslated region.

    PubMed

    Giangaspero, Massimo; Harasawa, Ryô

    2011-06-01

    The palindromic nucleotide substitutions (PNS) at the three variable loci (V1, V2 and V3) in the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of the Pestivirus genome have been considered for taxonomical segregation of the species, through the evaluation of 534 strains. On the basis of qualitative and quantitative secondary structure characteristics, species have been identified within the genus, determining genetic distances between species isolates, clarifying borderline and multirelated sequences, and characterizing and clustering the Pestivirus strains showing unexpected genomic sequences. Nine genomic groups have been identified: the species Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2), Border disease virus (BDV) and Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and the tentative species Pronghorn, Giraffe, Bovine viral diarrhea virus 3 (BVDV-3) (HoBi group), Border disease virus 2 (BDV-2) (Italian small ruminant isolates) and Bungowannah. Palindromic positions have been characterized according to changes in nucleotide base-pairs identifying low variable positions (LVP) including base-pairs present in less than 80% of the genus. The determination of divergence between single strain sequences or genetic groups was obtained easily by comparing base-pairing combinations from aligned secondary structures. This provided clear information such as the level of heterogeneity within a species, the relatedness between species, or facilitating the characterization and clustering of specific strains. The BVDV-1 and BDV species resulted heterogeneous, showing isolates located on a borderline in the species. Within the BVDV-2 species, two main genogroups were identified, with strains showing common sequence characteristics to both groups (multirelated strains). They could be allocated correctly by quantitative analysis. Similarly, the relation between CSFV and BDV species appeared very clearly. Also in this case, ambiguous strain sequences could be clustered in the

  6. Specific protein binding to a conserved region of the ornithine decarboxylase mRNA 5'-untranslated region.

    PubMed

    Manzella, J M; Blackshear, P J

    1992-04-01

    An RNA gel retardation assay was used to identify one or more cellular protein(s) (ornithine decarboxylase mRNA 5'-UTR binding protein (ODCBP)) that bind specifically to a conserved region of the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of rat ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) mRNA. Ultraviolet light cross-linking demonstrated that this protein has an apparent Mr = 58,000 in mammalian cells. Treatment with the oxidizing agent diamide prevented binding of the ODCBP to ODC mRNA; addition of beta-mercaptoethanol reversed this inhibition and permitted mRNA.ODCBP complex formation. Cytoplasmic extracts from a variety of animal cells and tissues demonstrated similar binding activities; however, there was marked tissue-specific expression of the protein in the rat, with brain, heart, lung, and testis containing large amounts, and kidney, spleen, and skeletal muscle expressing negligible amounts. Binding was completely prevented by several mutations within a highly conserved heptanucleotide region (CCAU/ACUC) that was within 61 bases of the initiation codon in ODC mRNAs from mammals, Xenopus, and Caenorhabditis elegans; mutations 5' and 3' of the conserved heptanucleotide domain had no effect on binding activity. Binding was not affected by manipulation of cellular polyamine levels or by treatment of cells with agents that stimulate ODC biosynthesis. Thus, we have identified a widely distributed cellular protein that binds to a conserved domain within the 5'-UTR of ODC mRNA from many animal species; functional consequences of this binding remain to be determined. PMID:1551914

  7. An analysis by restriction enzymes of the genomic structure of the 3' untranslated region of the human estrogen receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Keaveney, M; Neilan, J; Gannon, F

    1989-04-12

    The estrogen receptor gene has a very long 3' untranslated region. As a first step towards the analysis of this structural feature for any functional role, we have cloned the human genomic estrogen receptor gene. Extensive restriction enzyme analysis of this DNA and comparison of the sizes of the DNA fragments obtained with those predicted from published cDNA sequences indicate that the 3' exon extends for at least 4304 bases from base number 2018 in the cDNA to the end of the cDNA. The data also show that the most 3' intron in this gene occurs between bases 1902 and 2018 of the cDNA. PMID:2930778

  8. Molecular Characterization of a Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) Containing a 57-Nucleotide Insertion in the 3' Untranslated Region (3'UTR)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) virus containing a 57 nt insertion in the 3’ untranslated region (3’UTR) was generated by a transposon (tn) mediated mutagenesis. Characterization of the mutant virus (A24-3’UTR8110) revealed no significant differences in virus growth, translation efficiency and...

  9. Glucocorticoid regulation of human pulmonary surfactant protein-B mRNA stability involves the 3'-untranslated region.

    PubMed

    Huang, Helen W; Bi, Weizhen; Jenkins, Gaye N; Alcorn, Joseph L

    2008-04-01

    Expression of pulmonary surfactant, a complex mixture of lipids and proteins that acts to reduce alveolar surface tension, is developmentally regulated and restricted to lung alveolar type II cells. The hydrophobic protein surfactant protein-B (SP-B) is essential in surfactant function, and insufficient levels of SP-B result in severe respiratory dysfunction. Glucocorticoids accelerate fetal lung maturity and surfactant synthesis both experimentally and clinically. Glucocorticoids act transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally to increase steady-state levels of human SP-B mRNA; however, the mechanism(s) by which glucocorticoids act post-transcriptionally is unknown. We hypothesized that glucocorticoids act post-transcriptionally to increase SP-B mRNA stability via sequence-specific mRNA-protein interactions. We found that glucocorticoids increase SP-B mRNA stability in isolated human type II cells and in nonpulmonary cells, but do not alter mouse SP-B mRNA stability in a mouse type II cell line. Deletion analysis of an artificially-expressed SP-B mRNA indicates that the SP-B mRNA 3'-untranslated region (UTR) is necessary for stabilization, and the region involved can be restricted to a 126-nucleotide-long region near the SP-B coding sequence. RNA electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicate that cytosolic proteins bind to this region in the absence or presence of glucocorticoids. The formation of mRNA:protein complexes is not seen in other regions of the SP-B mRNA 3'-UTR. These results indicate that a specific 126-nucleotide region of human SP-B 3'-UTR is necessary for increased SP-B mRNA stability by glucocorticoids by a mechanism that is not lung cell specific and may involve mRNA-protein interactions. PMID:18006875

  10. Single-site cleavage in the 5'-untranslated region of Leishmaniavirus RNA is mediated by the viral capsid protein.

    PubMed Central

    MacBeth, K J; Patterson, J L

    1995-01-01

    Leishmaniavirus (LRV) is a double-stranded RNA virus that persistently infects the protozoan parasite Leishmania. LRV produces a short RNA transcript, corresponding to the 5' end of positive-sense viral RNA, both in vivo and in in vitro polymerase assays. The short transcript is generated by a single site-specific cleavage event in the 5' untranslated region of the 5.3-kb genome. This cleavage event can be reproduced in vitro with purified viral particles and a substrate RNA transcript possessing the viral cleavage site. A region of nucleotides required for cleavage was identified by analyzing the cleavage sites yielding the short transcripts of various LRV isolates. A 6-nt deletion at this cleavage site completely abolished RNA processing. In an in vitro cleavage assay, baculovirus-expressed capsid protein possessed an endonuclease activity identical to that of native virions, showing that the viral capsid protein is the RNA endonuclease. Identification of the LRV capsid protein as an RNA endonuclease is unprecedented among known viral capsid proteins. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7568059

  11. A combination of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the 3′ untranslated region of HLA-G is associated with preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Quach, K.; Grover, S.A.; Kenigsberg, S.; Librach, C.L.

    2016-01-01

    Reduced expression of human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) has been linked to onset of preeclampsia. Associations have also been reported between preeclampsia and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the 3′-untranslated region (UTR) of the HLA-G gene. However, there are conflicting results between studies. This studied examined whether a SNP, by itself or in combination with other SNPs, in the 3′UTR of the HLA-G gene is associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia. Placenta samples were obtained from 47 preeclamptic and 68 control cases. DNA was extracted, and the 3′UTR was sequenced and analyzed for nine polymorphisms using different genetic models of inheritance. Four of these polymorphisms have never been analyzed for an association with preeclampsia. Disputing existing reports, preeclamptic cases were suggestively associated with a G/G-genotype at SNP +3187 (p < 0.05). Several SNP combinations were more prevalent in preeclampsia cases. Following corrections for multiple testing, one SNP combination (+3027C/C and +3187G/G) was significantly more prevalent in preeclampsia cases using co-dominant, additive, and dominant models (p < 0.001). Taken together with the current literature, the data suggests that HLA-G 3′UTR SNP-pair associations, and not individual SNPs, could be useful in a predictive test for the susceptibility to preeclampsia. PMID:25454622

  12. Effects of 3′ Untranslated Region Mutations on Plus-Strand Priming during Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Robson, Nicole D.; Telesnitsky, Alice

    1999-01-01

    A conserved purine-rich motif located near the 3′ end of retroviral genomes is involved in the initiation of plus-strand DNA synthesis. We mutated sequences both within and flanking the Moloney murine leukemia virus polypurine tract (PPT) and determined the effects of these alterations on viral DNA synthesis and replication. Our results demonstrated that both changes in highly conserved PPT positions and a mutation that left only the cleavage-proximal half of the PPT intact led to delayed replication and reduced the colony-forming titer of replication defective retroviral vectors. A mutation that altered the cleavage proximal half of the PPT and certain 3′ untranslated region mutations upstream of the PPT were incompatible with or severely impaired viral replication. To distinguish defects in plus-strand priming from other replication defects and to assess the relative use of mutant and wild-type PPTs, we examined plus-strand priming from an ectopic, secondary PPT inserted in U3. The results demonstrated that the analyzed mutations within the PPT primarily affected plus-strand priming whereas mutations upstream of the PPT appeared to affect both plus-strand priming and other stages of viral replication. PMID:9882295

  13. Pathway optimization by re-design of untranslated regions for L-tyrosine production in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Cheol Kim, Seong; Eun Min, Byung; Gyu Hwang, Hyun; Woo Seo, Sang; Yeol Jung, Gyoo

    2015-01-01

    L-tyrosine is a commercially important compound in the food, pharmaceutical, chemical, and cosmetic industries. Although several attempts have been made to improve L-tyrosine production, translation-level expression control and carbon flux rebalancing around phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) node still remain to be achieved for optimizing the pathway. Here, we demonstrate pathway optimization by altering gene expression levels for L-tyrosine production in Escherichia coli. To optimize the L-tyrosine biosynthetic pathway, a synthetic constitutive promoter and a synthetic 5′-untranslated region (5′-UTR) were introduced for each gene of interest to allow for control at both transcription and translation levels. Carbon flux rebalancing was achieved by controlling the expression level of PEP synthetase using UTR Designer. The L-tyrosine productivity of the engineered E. coli strain was increased through pathway optimization resulting in 3.0 g/L of L-tyrosine titer, 0.0354 g L-tyrosine/h/g DCW of productivity, and 0.102 g L-tyrosine/g glucose yield. Thus, this work demonstrates that pathway optimization by 5′-UTR redesign is an effective strategy for the development of efficient L-tyrosine-producing bacteria. PMID:26346938

  14. Pathway optimization by re-design of untranslated regions for L-tyrosine production in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong Cheol; Min, Byung Eun; Gyu Hwang, Hyun; Seo, Sang Woo; Jung, Gyoo Yeol

    2015-01-01

    L-tyrosine is a commercially important compound in the food, pharmaceutical, chemical, and cosmetic industries. Although several attempts have been made to improve L-tyrosine production, translation-level expression control and carbon flux rebalancing around phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) node still remain to be achieved for optimizing the pathway. Here, we demonstrate pathway optimization by altering gene expression levels for L-tyrosine production in Escherichia coli. To optimize the L-tyrosine biosynthetic pathway, a synthetic constitutive promoter and a synthetic 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) were introduced for each gene of interest to allow for control at both transcription and translation levels. Carbon flux rebalancing was achieved by controlling the expression level of PEP synthetase using UTR Designer. The L-tyrosine productivity of the engineered E. coli strain was increased through pathway optimization resulting in 3.0 g/L of L-tyrosine titer, 0.0354 g L-tyrosine/h/g DCW of productivity, and 0.102 g L-tyrosine/g glucose yield. Thus, this work demonstrates that pathway optimization by 5'-UTR redesign is an effective strategy for the development of efficient L-tyrosine-producing bacteria. PMID:26346938

  15. CaMKIIalpha 3' untranslated region-directed mRNA translocation in living neurons: visualization by GFP linkage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rook, M. S.; Lu, M.; Kosik, K. S.

    2000-01-01

    The CaMKIIalpha mRNA extends into distal hippocampal dendrites, and the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) is sufficient to mediate this localization. We labeled the 3'UTR of the CaMKIIalpha mRNA in hippocampal cultures by using a green fluorescent protein (GFP)/MS2 bacteriophage tagging system. The CaMKIIalpha 3'UTR formed discrete granules throughout the dendrites of transfected cells. The identity of the fluorescent granules was verified by in situ hybridization. Over 30 min time periods these granules redistributed without a net increase in granule number; with depolarization there is a tendency toward increased numbers of granules in the dendrites. These observations suggest that finer time resolution of granule motility might reveal changes in the motility characteristics of granules after depolarization. So that motile granules could be tracked, shorter periods of observation were required. The movements of motile granules can be categorized as oscillatory, unidirectional anterograde, or unidirectional retrograde. Colocalization of CaMKIIalpha 3'UTR granules and synapses suggested that oscillatory movements allowed the granules to sample several local synapses. Neuronal depolarization increased the number of granules in the anterograde motile pool. Based on the time frame over which the granule number increased, the translocation of granules may serve to prepare the dendrite for mounting an adequate local translation response to future stimuli. Although the resident pool of granules can respond to signals that induce local translation, the number of granules in a dendrite might reflect its activation history.

  16. Stable and enhanced gene expression in Clostridium acetobutylicum using synthetic untranslated regions with a stem-loop.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joungmin; Jang, Yu-Sin; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T; Lee, Sang Yup

    2016-07-20

    Gene overexpression is one of the most basic strategies in metabolic engineering, but the factors determining gene expression levels have been poorly studied in Clostridium species. In this study, we found that a short single-stranded 5' untranslated region (UTR) sequence led to decreased gene expression in Clostridium acetobutylicum. Using an in vitro enzyme assay and reverse transcription-quantitative PCR, we found that addition of a small stem-loop at the 5' end of mRNA increased mRNA levels and thereby protein expression levels up to 4.6-fold, possibly protecting mRNA from exonuclease attack. Gene-expression levels were apparently independent of the stability of the added stem-loop; the existence of a stem-loop itself appears to be more important. Our results indicate that efficient expression cassettes can be designed by taking the 5' UTR into consideration, as the expression levels can vary even though the same promoter and RBS are used. These findings will be useful for developing a more reliable gene expression system for metabolic engineering of Clostridium strains. PMID:27188957

  17. Mutation of the 5'-untranslated region stem-loop structure inhibits α1(I) collagen expression in vivo.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Christopher J; Stefanovic, Branko; Seki, Ekihiro; Aoyama, Tomonori; Latour, Anne M; Marzluff, William F; Rippe, Richard A; Brenner, David A

    2011-03-11

    Type I collagen is a heterotrimeric extracellular matrix protein consisting of two α1(I) chains and one α2(I) chain. During liver fibrosis, activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the major source of the type I collagen that accumulates in the damaged tissue. Expression of α1(I) and α2(I) collagen mRNA is increased 60-fold compared with quiescent stellate cells and is due predominantly to post-transcriptional message regulation. Specifically, a stem-loop structure in the 5'-untranslated region of α1(I) collagen mRNA may regulate mRNA expression in activated HSCs through its interaction with stem-loop binding proteins. The stem-loop may also be necessary for efficient production and folding of the type I collagen heterotrimer. To assess the role of the stem-loop in type I collagen expression in vivo, we generated a knock-in mouse harboring a mutation that abolished the stem-loop structure. Heterozygous and homozygous knock-in mice exhibited a normal phenotype. However, steady-state levels of α1(I) collagen mRNA decreased significantly in homozygous mutant MEFs as well as HSCs; intracellular and secreted type I collagen protein levels also decreased. Homozygous mutant mice developed less liver fibrosis. These results confirm an important role of the 5' stem-loop in regulating type I collagen mRNA and protein expression and provide a mouse model for further study of collagen-associated diseases. PMID:21193410

  18. Characterization of an Essential RNA Secondary Structure in the 3′ Untranslated Region of the Murine Coronavirus Genome

    PubMed Central

    Hsue, Bilan; Hartshorne, Toinette; Masters, Paul S.

    2000-01-01

    We have previously identified a functionally essential bulged stem-loop in the 3′ untranslated region of the positive-stranded RNA genome of mouse hepatitis virus. This 68-nucleotide structure is composed of six stem segments interrupted by five bulges, and its structure, but not its primary sequence, is entirely conserved in the related bovine coronavirus. The functional importance of individual stem segments of this stem-loop was characterized by genetic analysis using targeted RNA recombination. We also examined the effects of stem segment mutations on the replication of mouse hepatitis virus defective interfering RNAs. These studies were complemented by enzymatic and chemical probing of the stem-loop. Taken together, our results confirmed most of the previously proposed structure, but they revealed that the terminal loop and an internal loop are larger than originally thought. Three of the stem segments were found to be essential for viral replication. Further, our results suggest that the stem segment at the base of the stem-loop is an alternative base-pairing structure for part of a downstream, and partially overlapping, RNA pseudoknot that has recently been shown to be necessary for bovine coronavirus replication. PMID:10888630

  19. Worldwide HLA-E nucleotide and haplotype variability reveals a conserved gene for coding and 3' untranslated regions.

    PubMed

    Felício, L P; Porto, I O P; Mendes-Junior, C T; Veiga-Castelli, L C; Santos, K E; Vianello-Brondani, R P; Sabbagh, A; Moreau, P; Donadi, E A; Castelli, E C

    2014-02-01

    The human leukocyte antigen-E (HLA-E) locus is a human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene associated with immune-modulation and suppression of the immune response by the interaction with specific natural killer (NK) and T cell receptors (TCRs). It is considered one of the most conserved genes of the human MHC; however, this low nucleotide variability seems to be a consequence of the scarce number of studies focusing on this subject. In this manuscript we assessed the nucleotide variability at the HLA-E coding and 3' untranslated regions (3'UTRs) in Brazil and in the populations from the 1000Genomes Consortium. Twenty-eight variable sites arranged into 33 haplotypes were detected and most of these haplotypes (98.2%) are encoding one of the two HLA-E molecules found worldwide, E*01:01 and E*01:03. Moreover, three worldwide spread haplotypes, associated with the coding alleles E*01:01:01, E*01:03:01 and E*01:03:02, account for 85% of all HLA-E haplotypes, suggesting that they arose early before human speciation. In addition, the low nucleotide diversity found for the HLA-E coding and 3'UTR in worldwide populations suggests that the HLA-E gene is in fact a conserved gene, which might be a consequence of its key role in the modulation of the immune system. PMID:24400773

  20. Identification of a nucleotide in 5' untranslated region contributing to virus replication and virulence of Coxsackievirus A16.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaolong; Liu, Xin; Wang, Shaohua; Li, Jingliang; Hou, Min; Liu, Guanchen; Zhang, Wenyan; Yu, Xiao-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) and enterovirus 71 (EV71) are two main causative pathogens of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Unlike EV71, virulence determinants of CA16, particularly within 5' untranslated region (5'UTR), have not been investigated until now. Here, a series of nucleotides present in 5'UTR of lethal but not in non-lethal CA16 strains were screened by aligning nucleotide sequences of lethal circulating Changchun CA16 and the prototype G10 as well as non-lethal SHZH05 strains. A representative infectious clone based on a lethal Changchun024 sequence and infectious mutants with various nucleotide alterations in 5'UTR were constructed and further investigated by assessing virus replication in vitro and virulence in neonatal mice. Compared to the lethal infectious clone, the M2 mutant with a change from cytosine to uracil at nucleotide 104 showed weaker virulence and lower replication capacity. The predicted secondary structure of the 5'UTR of CA16 RNA showed that M2 mutant located between the cloverleaf and stem-loop II, affected interactions between the 5'UTR and the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) and A1 (hnRNP A1) that are important for translational activity. Thus, our research determined a virulence-associated site in the 5'UTR of CA16, providing a crucial molecular target for antiviral drug development. PMID:26861413

  1. Identification of a nucleotide in 5′ untranslated region contributing to virus replication and virulence of Coxsackievirus A16

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhaolong; Liu, Xin; Wang, Shaohua; Li, Jingliang; Hou, Min; Liu, Guanchen; Zhang, Wenyan; Yu, Xiao-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) and enterovirus 71 (EV71) are two main causative pathogens of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Unlike EV71, virulence determinants of CA16, particularly within 5′ untranslated region (5′UTR), have not been investigated until now. Here, a series of nucleotides present in 5′UTR of lethal but not in non-lethal CA16 strains were screened by aligning nucleotide sequences of lethal circulating Changchun CA16 and the prototype G10 as well as non-lethal SHZH05 strains. A representative infectious clone based on a lethal Changchun024 sequence and infectious mutants with various nucleotide alterations in 5′UTR were constructed and further investigated by assessing virus replication in vitro and virulence in neonatal mice. Compared to the lethal infectious clone, the M2 mutant with a change from cytosine to uracil at nucleotide 104 showed weaker virulence and lower replication capacity. The predicted secondary structure of the 5′UTR of CA16 RNA showed that M2 mutant located between the cloverleaf and stem-loop II, affected interactions between the 5′UTR and the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) and A1 (hnRNP A1) that are important for translational activity. Thus, our research determined a virulence-associated site in the 5′UTR of CA16, providing a crucial molecular target for antiviral drug development. PMID:26861413

  2. Long 5′ untranslated regions regulate the RNA stability of the deep-sea filamentous phage SW1

    PubMed Central

    Jian, Huahua; Xiong, Lei; Xu, Guanpeng; Xiao, Xiang; Wang, Fengping

    2016-01-01

    Virus production in the deep-sea environment has been found to be high, and viruses have been suggested to play significant roles in the overall functioning of this ecosystem. Nevertheless, little is known about these viruses, including the mechanisms that control their production, which makes them one of the least understood biological entities on Earth. Previously, we isolated the filamentous phage SW1, whose virus production and gene transcription were found to be active at low temperatures, from a deep-sea bacterium, Shewanella piezotolerans WP3. In this study, the operon structure of phage SW1 is presented, which shows two operons with exceptionally long 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs). In addition, the 5′UTR was confirmed to significantly influence the RNA stability of the SW1 transcripts. Our study revealed novel regulation of the operon and led us to propose a unique regulatory mechanism for Inoviruses. This type of RNA-based regulation may represent a mechanism for significant viral production in the cold deep biosphere. PMID:26898180

  3. Identification of Rhopalosiphum Padi Virus 5' Untranslated Region Sequences Required for Cryptic Promoter Activity and Internal Ribosome Entry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming-Kun; Lin, Jie-Zue; Jinn, Tzyy-Rong; Chan, Hong-Lin; Wu, Tzong-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The 579-nucleotide 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) of the Rhopalosiphum padi virus (RhPV) possesses a cross-kingdom internal ribosome entry site (IRES) activity that functions in insect, mammalian, and plant-derived in vitro translation systems, and six TAAG motifs within the DNA fragment encoding the RhPV 5'UTR were previously found to confer the RhPV 5'UTR with late promoter activity in baculovirus. In the present study, various truncated RhPV 5'UTR sequences were produced, and among them, a fragment of 110 bp ranging from nucleotides 309 to 418 was identified to be the shortest fragment responsible for the late promoter activity in baculovirus infected Sf21 cells. This 110 bp fragment contains a TAAG tandem repeat that retains more than 60% of the late promoter activity of the full length RhPV 5'UTR sequence. Further, IRES activity remained unchanged in all truncated RhPV 5'UTR constructs. Taken together, this novel 110 bp fragment having late promoter activity in baculovirus as well as IRES activity in mammalian cell, renders it a useful tool for the development of a "shuttle" bi-cistronic baculovirus gene expression and/or delivery vector. PMID:26184188

  4. The hmsT 3' untranslated region mediates c-di-GMP metabolism and biofilm formation in Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hui; Mao, Xu-Jian; Guo, Xiao-Peng; Sun, Yi-Cheng

    2016-03-01

    Yersinia pestis, the cause of plague, forms a biofilm in the proventriculus of its flea vector to enhance transmission. Biofilm formation in Y. pestis is regulated by the intracellular levels of cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP). In this study, we investigated the role of the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) in hmsT mRNA, a transcript that encodes a diguanylate cyclase that stimulates biofilm formation in Y. pestis by synthesizing the second messenger c-di-GMP. Deletion of the 3'UTR increased the half-life of hmsT mRNA, thereby upregulating c-di-GMP levels and biofilm formation. Our findings indicate that multiple regulatory sequences might be present in the hmsT 3'UTR that function together to mediate mRNA turnover. We also found that polynucleotide phosphorylase is partially responsible for hmsT 3'UTR-mediated mRNA decay. In addition, the hmsT 3'UTR strongly repressed gene expression at 37°C and 26°C, but affected gene expression only slightly at 21°C. Our findings suggest that the 3'UTR might be involved in precise and rapid regulation of hmsT expression, allowing Y. pestis to fine-tune c-di-GMP synthesis and consequently regulate biofilm production to adapt to the changing host environment. PMID:26711808

  5. Key role of the 3' untranslated region in the cell cycle regulated expression of the Leishmania infantum histone H2A genes: minor synergistic effect of the 5' untranslated region

    PubMed Central

    Abanades, Daniel R; Ramírez, Laura; Iborra, Salvador; Soteriadou, Ketty; González, Victor M; Bonay, Pedro; Alonso, Carlos; Soto, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Background Histone synthesis in Leishmania is tightly coupled to DNA replication by a post-transcriptional mechanism operating at the level of translation. Results In this work we have analyzed the implication of the 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTR) in the cell cycle regulated expression of the histone H2A in Leishmania infantum. For that purpose, L. infantum promastigotes were stably transfected with different plasmid constructs in which the CAT coding region used as a reporter was flanked by the 5' and 3' UTR regions of the different H2A genes. We report that in spite of their sequence differences, histone H2A 5' and 3' UTRs conferred a cell cycle dependent pattern of expression on the CAT reporter since de novo synthesis of CAT increased when parasites enter the S phase. Using one established L. infantum cell line we showed that CAT expression is controlled by the same regulatory events that control the endogenous histone gene expression. Thus, although we did not detect changes in the level of CAT mRNAs during cell cycle progression, a drastic change in the polysome profiles of CAT mRNAs was observed during the progression from G1 to S phase. In the S phase CAT mRNAs were on polyribosomal fractions, but in the G1 phase the association of CAT transcripts with ribosomes was impaired. Furthermore, it was determined that the addition of just the H2A 3' UTR to the CAT reporter gene is sufficient to achieve a similar pattern of post-transcriptional regulation indicating that this region contains the major regulatory sequences involved in the cell cycle dependent expression of the H2A genes. On the other hand, although CAT transcripts bearing the H2A 5' alone were translated both in the G1 and S phase, higher percentages of transcripts were detected on polyribosomes in the S phase correlating with an increase in the de novo synthesis of CAT. Thus, it can be concluded that this region also contributes, although to a minor extent than the 3' UTR, in the enhancement

  6. 5′ and 3′ Untranslated Regions Strongly Enhance Performance of Geminiviral Replicons in Nicotiana benthamiana Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Diamos, Andrew G.; Rosenthal, Sun H.; Mason, Hugh S.

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported a recombinant protein production system based on a geminivirus replicon that yields high levels of vaccine antigens and monoclonal antibodies in plants. The bean yellow dwarf virus (BeYDV) replicon generates massive amounts of DNA copies, which engage the plant transcription machinery. However, we noticed a disparity between transcript level and protein production, suggesting that mRNAs could be more efficiently utilized. In this study, we systematically evaluated genetic elements from human, viral, and plant sources for their potential to improve the BeYDV system. The tobacco extensin terminator enhanced transcript accumulation and protein production compared to other commonly used terminators, indicating that efficient transcript processing plays an important role in recombinant protein production. Evaluation of human-derived 5′ untranslated regions (UTRs) indicated that many provided high levels of protein production, supporting their cross-kingdom function. Among the viral 5′ UTRs tested, we found the greatest enhancement with the tobacco mosaic virus omega leader. An analysis of the 5′ UTRs from the Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotinana benthamiana photosystem I K genes found that they were highly active when truncated to include only the near upstream region, providing a dramatic enhancement of transgene production that exceeded that of the tobacco mosaic virus omega leader. The tobacco Rb7 matrix attachment region inserted downstream from the gene of interest provided significant enhancement, which was correlated with a reduction in plant cell death. Evaluation of Agrobacterium strains found that EHA105 enhanced protein production and reduced cell death compared to LBA4301 and GV3101. We used these improvements to produce Norwalk virus capsid protein at >20% total soluble protein, corresponding to 1.8 mg/g leaf fresh weight, more than twice the highest level ever reported in a plant system. We also produced the monoclonal antibody

  7. A eukaryotic-like 3′ untranslated region in Salmonella enterica hilD mRNA

    PubMed Central

    López-Garrido, Javier; Puerta-Fernández, Elena; Casadesús, Josep

    2014-01-01

    Long 3′ untranslated regions (3′UTRs) are common in eukaryotic mRNAs. In contrast, long 3′UTRs are rare in bacteria, and have not been characterized in detail. We describe a 3′UTR of 310 nucleotides in hilD mRNA, a transcript that encodes a transcriptional activator of Salmonella enterica pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1). Deletion of the hilD 3′UTR increases the hilD mRNA level, suggesting that the hilD 3′UTR may play a role in hilD mRNA turnover. Cloning of the hilD 3′UTR downstream of the green fluorescent protein (gfp) gene decreases green fluorescent protein (GFP) activity in both Escherichia coli and S. enterica, indicating that the hilD 3′UTR can act as an independent module. S. enterica mutants lacking either ribonuclease E or polynucleotide phosphorylase contain similar amounts of hilD and hilD Δ3′UTR mRNAs, suggesting that the hilD 3′UTR is a target for hilD mRNA degradation by the degradosome. The hilD 3′UTR is also necessary for modulation of hilD and SPI-1 expression by the RNA chaperone Hfq. Overexpression of SPI-1 in the absence of the hilD 3′UTR retards Salmonella growth and causes uncontrolled invasion of epithelial cells. Based on these observations, we propose that the S. enterica hilD 3′UTR is a cis-acting element that contributes to cellular homeostasis by promoting hilD mRNA turnover. PMID:24682814

  8. The alpha-synuclein 5'untranslated region targeted translation blockers: anti-alpha synuclein efficacy of cardiac glycosides and Posiphen.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Jack T; Mikkilineni, Sohan; Cantuti-Castelvetri, Ippolita; Smith, Deborah H; Huang, Xudong; Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra; Cahill, Catherine M; Maccecchini, Maria L; Lahiri, Debomoy K; Greig, Nigel H

    2011-03-01

    Increased brain α-synuclein (SNCA) protein expression resulting from gene duplication and triplication can cause a familial form of Parkinson's disease (PD). Dopaminergic neurons exhibit elevated iron levels that can accelerate toxic SNCA fibril formation. Examinations of human post mortem brain have shown that while mRNA levels for SNCA in PD have been shown to be either unchanged or decreased with respect to healthy controls, higher levels of insoluble protein occurs during PD progression. We show evidence that SNCA can be regulated via the 5'untranslated region (5'UTR) of its transcript, which we modeled to fold into a unique RNA stem loop with a CAGUGN apical loop similar to that encoded in the canonical iron-responsive element (IRE) of L- and H-ferritin mRNAs. The SNCA IRE-like stem loop spans the two exons that encode its 5'UTR, whereas, by contrast, the H-ferritin 5'UTR is encoded by a single first exon. We screened a library of 720 natural products (NPs) for their capacity to inhibit SNCA 5'UTR driven luciferase expression. This screen identified several classes of NPs, including the plant cardiac glycosides, mycophenolic acid (an immunosuppressant and Fe chelator), and, additionally, posiphen was identified to repress SNCA 5'UTR conferred translation. Western blotting confirmed that Posiphen and the cardiac glycoside, strophanthidine, selectively blocked SNCA expression (~1 μM IC(50)) in neural cells. For Posiphen this inhibition was accelerated in the presence of iron, thus providing a known APP-directed lead with potential for use as a SNCA blocker for PD therapy. These are candidate drugs with the potential to limit toxic SNCA expression in the brains of PD patients and animal models in vivo. PMID:21221670

  9. PTB binds to the 3' untranslated region of the human astrovirus type 8: a possible role in viral replication.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Hernández, Wendy; Velez-Uriza, Dora; Valdés, Jesús; Vélez-Del Valle, Cristina; Salas-Benito, Juan; Martínez-Contreras, Rebeca; García-Espítia, Matilde; Salas-Benito, Mariana; Vega-Almeida, Tania; De Nova-Ocampo, Mónica

    2014-01-01

    The 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of human astroviruses (HAstV) consists of two hairpin structures (helix I and II) joined by a linker harboring a conserved PTB/hnRNP1 binding site. The identification and characterization of cellular proteins that interact with the 3'UTR of HAstV-8 virus will help to uncover cellular requirements for viral functions. To this end, mobility shift assays and UV cross-linking were performed with uninfected and HAstV-8-infected cell extracts and HAstV-8 3'UTR probes. Two RNA-protein complexes (CI and CII) were recruited into the 3'UTR. Complex CII formation was compromised with cold homologous RNA, and seven proteins of 35, 40, 45, 50, 52, 57/60 and 75 kDa were cross-linked to the 3'UTR. Supermobility shift assays indicated that PTB/hnRNP1 is part of this complex, and 3'UTR-crosslinked PTB/hnRNP1 was immunoprecipitated from HAstV-8 infected cell-membrane extracts. Also, immunofluorescence analyses revealed that PTB/hnRNP1 is distributed in the nucleus and cytoplasm of uninfected cells, but it is mainly localized perinuclearly in the cytoplasm of HAstV-8 infected cells. Furthermore, the minimal 3'UTR sequences recognized by recombinant PTB are those conforming helix I, and an intact PTB/hnRNP1-binding site. Finally, small interfering RNA-mediated PTB/hnRNP1 silencing reduced synthesis viral genome and virus yield in CaCo2 cells, suggesting that PTB/hnRNP1 is required for HAstV replication. In conclusion, PTB/hnRNP1 binds to the 3'UTR HAstV-8 and is required or participates in viral replication. PMID:25406089

  10. PTB Binds to the 3’ Untranslated Region of the Human Astrovirus Type 8: A Possible Role in Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa-Hernández, Wendy; Velez-Uriza, Dora; Valdés, Jesús; Vélez-Del Valle, Cristina; Salas-Benito, Juan; Martínez-Contreras, Rebeca; García-Espítia, Matilde; Salas-Benito, Mariana; Vega-Almeida, Tania; De Nova-Ocampo, Mónica

    2014-01-01

    The 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of human astroviruses (HAstV) consists of two hairpin structures (helix I and II) joined by a linker harboring a conserved PTB/hnRNP1 binding site. The identification and characterization of cellular proteins that interact with the 3′UTR of HAstV-8 virus will help to uncover cellular requirements for viral functions. To this end, mobility shift assays and UV cross-linking were performed with uninfected and HAstV-8-infected cell extracts and HAstV-8 3′UTR probes. Two RNA-protein complexes (CI and CII) were recruited into the 3′UTR. Complex CII formation was compromised with cold homologous RNA, and seven proteins of 35, 40, 45, 50, 52, 57/60 and 75 kDa were cross-linked to the 3′UTR. Supermobility shift assays indicated that PTB/hnRNP1 is part of this complex, and 3′UTR-crosslinked PTB/hnRNP1 was immunoprecipitated from HAstV-8 infected cell-membrane extracts. Also, immunofluorescence analyses revealed that PTB/hnRNP1 is distributed in the nucleus and cytoplasm of uninfected cells, but it is mainly localized perinuclearly in the cytoplasm of HAstV-8 infected cells. Furthermore, the minimal 3′UTR sequences recognized by recombinant PTB are those conforming helix I, and an intact PTB/hnRNP1-binding site. Finally, small interfering RNA-mediated PTB/hnRNP1 silencing reduced synthesis viral genome and virus yield in CaCo2 cells, suggesting that PTB/hnRNP1 is required for HAstV replication. In conclusion, PTB/hnRNP1 binds to the 3′UTR HAstV-8 and is required or participates in viral replication. PMID:25406089

  11. Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein Interactions with a G quadruplex structure in the 3′-Untranslated Region of NR2B mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Stefanovic, Snezana; DeMarco, Brett A.; Underwood, Ayana; Williams, Kathryn R.; Bassell, Gary J.; Mihailescu, Mihaela Rita

    2015-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome, the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability, is caused by a trinucleotide CGG expansion in the 5′-untranslated region of the FMR1 gene, which leads to the loss of expression of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). FMRP, an RNA-binding protein that regulates the translation of specific mRNAs, has been shown to bind a subset of its mRNA targets by recognizing G quadruplex structures. It has been suggested that FMRP controls the local protein synthesis of several protein components of the Post Synaptic Density (PSD) in response to specific cellular needs. We have previously shown that the interactions between FMRP and mRNAs of the PSD scaffold proteins PSD-95 and Shank1 are mediated via stable G-quadruplex structures formed within the 3′-untranslated regions of these mRNAs. In this study we used biophysical methods to show that a comparable G quadruplex structure forms in the 3′-untranslated region of the glutamate receptor subunit NR2B mRNA encoding for a subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors that is recognized specifically by FMRP, suggesting a common theme for FMRP recognition of its dendritic mRNA targets. PMID:26412477

  12. Porcine SOX9 Gene Expression Is Influenced by an 18bp Indel in the 5’-Untranslated Region

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yuyun; Ding, Nengshui; Huang, Lusheng; Schütz, Ekkehard

    2015-01-01

    Sex determining region Y-box 9 (SOX9) is an important regulator of sex and skeletal development and is expressed in a variety of embryonal and adult tissues. Loss or gain of function resulting from mutations within the coding region or chromosomal aberrations of the SOX9 locus lead to a plethora of detrimental phenotypes in humans and animals. One of these phenotypes is the so-called male-to-female or female-to-male sex-reversal which has been observed in several mammals including pig, dog, cat, goat, horse, and deer. In 38,XX sex-reversal French Large White pigs, a genome-wide association study suggested SOX9 as the causal gene, although no functional mutations were identified in affected animals. However, besides others an 18bp indel had been detected in the 5′-untranslated region of the SOX9 gene by comparing affected animals and controls. We have identified the same indel (Δ18) between position +247bp and +266bp downstream the transcription start site of the porcine SOX9 gene in four other pig breeds; i.e., German Large White, Laiwu Black, Bamei, and Erhualian. These animals have been genotyped in an attempt to identify candidate genes for porcine inguinal and/or scrotal hernia. Because the 18bp segment in the wild type 5′-UTR harbours a highly conserved cAMP-response element (CRE) half-site, we analysed its role in SOX9 expression in vitro. Competition and immunodepletion electromobility shift assays demonstrate that the CRE half-site is specifically recognized by CREB. Both binding of CREB to the wild type as well as the absence of the CRE half-site in Δ18 reduced expression efficiency in HEK293T, PK–15, and ATDC5 cells significantly. Transfection experiments of wild type and Δ18 SOX9 promoter luciferase constructs show a significant reduction of RNA and protein levels depending on the presence or absence of the 18bp segment. Hence, the data presented here demonstrate that the 18bp indel in the porcine SOX9 5′-UTR is of functional importance and

  13. UTRdb and UTRsite: specialized databases of sequences and functional elements of 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions of eukaryotic mRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Pesole, Graziano; Liuni, Sabino; Grillo, Giorgio; Licciulli, Flavio; Larizza, Alessandra; Makalowski, Wojciech; Saccone, Cecilia

    2000-01-01

    The 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions of eukaryotic mRNAs may play a crucial role in the regulation of gene expression controlling mRNA localization, stability and translational efficiency. For this reason we developed UTRdb, a specialized database of 5′ and 3′ untranslated sequences of eukaryotic mRNAs cleaned from redundancy. UTRdb entries are enriched with specialized information not present in the primary databases including the presence of nucleotide sequence patterns already demonstrated by experimental analysis to have some functional role. All these patterns have been collected in the UTRsite database so that it is possible to search any input sequence for the presence of annotated functional motifs. Furthermore, UTRdb entries have been annotated for the presence of repetitive elements. All internet resources implemented for retrieval and functional analysis of 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions of eukaryotic mRNAs are accessible at http://bigarea.area.ba.cnr.it:8000/EmbIT/UTRHome/ PMID:10592223

  14. Functional Characterization of a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in the 3' Untranslated Region of Sheep DLX3 Gene.

    PubMed

    Rong, Enguang; Zhang, Zhiwei; Qiao, Shupei; Yang, Hua; Yan, Xiaohong; Li, Hui; Wang, Ning

    2015-01-01

    The Distal-less 3 (homeobox protein DLX-3), a transcription factor, is critical for the development of hair follicle and hair formation and regeneration. We previously identified and found that four SNPs (c. *118T>C, c. *228T>C, c. *688A>G and c. *1,038_1,039 insC) in 3' untranslated region (UTR) of sheep DLX3 were in high linkage disequilibrium with each other and significantly associated with wool crimp (P<0.05), however, the underlying mechanisms by which these SNPs affect the wool crimp remains unknown. In the present study, we performed association analysis between these four identified SNPs and DLX3 gene expression in sheep skin using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The results showed that these SNPs were significantly associated with sheep skin DLX3 mRNA expression levels. Then, we constructed DLX3 3'UTR luciferase reporters and validated the association. The reporter assays showed that the three major haplotypes, derived from the four SNPs, had significantly different effects on luciferase reporter activity and the four SNPs also had significantly different allelic effects on the luciferase reporter activity (p < 0.05). Bioinformatics analysis showed that the SNP (c. *1,038_1,039 insC) was located within a potential miR-188 binding site of the 3'UTR of sheep DLX3 mRNA. This SNP may affect miR-188-mediated DLX3 gene expression and result in phenotypic variation. To test the hypothesis, we investigated the effects of miR-188 mimic and inhibitor on the activity of the DLX3 3'UTR luciferase reporter with different SNP alleles. The results showed that in both sheep fetal fibroblasts (SFFs) and human HaCaT cells, miR-188 mimic could significantly decrease the allele D (deletion) luciferase reporter activity (p < 0.05), but miR-188 inhibitor could increased the reporter activitiy. However, neither miR-188 mimc nor inhibitor could influence the allele I (insertion) reporter activity. In addition, transfection of miR-188 mimic dramatically decreased the endogenous

  15. Functional Characterization of a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in the 3' Untranslated Region of Sheep DLX3 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Enguang; Zhang, Zhiwei; Qiao, Shupei; Yang, Hua; Yan, Xiaohong; Li, Hui; Wang, Ning

    2015-01-01

    The Distal-less 3 (homeobox protein DLX-3), a transcription factor, is critical for the development of hair follicle and hair formation and regeneration. We previously identified and found that four SNPs (c. *118T>C, c. *228T>C, c. *688A>G and c. *1,038_1,039 insC) in 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of sheep DLX3 were in high linkage disequilibrium with each other and significantly associated with wool crimp (P<0.05), however, the underlying mechanisms by which these SNPs affect the wool crimp remains unknown. In the present study, we performed association analysis between these four identified SNPs and DLX3 gene expression in sheep skin using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The results showed that these SNPs were significantly associated with sheep skin DLX3 mRNA expression levels. Then, we constructed DLX3 3′UTR luciferase reporters and validated the association. The reporter assays showed that the three major haplotypes, derived from the four SNPs, had significantly different effects on luciferase reporter activity and the four SNPs also had significantly different allelic effects on the luciferase reporter activity (p < 0.05). Bioinformatics analysis showed that the SNP (c. *1,038_1,039 insC) was located within a potential miR-188 binding site of the 3′UTR of sheep DLX3 mRNA. This SNP may affect miR-188-mediated DLX3 gene expression and result in phenotypic variation. To test the hypothesis, we investigated the effects of miR-188 mimic and inhibitor on the activity of the DLX3 3′UTR luciferase reporter with different SNP alleles. The results showed that in both sheep fetal fibroblasts (SFFs) and human HaCaT cells, miR-188 mimic could significantly decrease the allele D (deletion) luciferase reporter activity (p < 0.05), but miR-188 inhibitor could increased the reporter activitiy. However, neither miR-188 mimc nor inhibitor could influence the allele I (insertion) reporter activity. In addition, transfection of miR-188 mimic dramatically decreased the

  16. Partial deletion of stem-loop 2 in the 3' untranslated region of foot-and-mouth disease virus identifies a region that is dispensable for virus replication.

    PubMed

    Biswal, Jitendra K; Subramaniam, Saravanan; Ranjan, Rajeev; Pattnaik, Bramhadev

    2016-08-01

    The 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) genome plays an essential role in virus replication, but the properties of the 3' UTR are not completely defined. In order to determine the role of different regions of the 3' UTR in FMDV replication, we conducted site-directed mutagenesis of the 3' UTR of FMDV serotype O IND R2/1975 using a cDNA clone. Through independent serial deletions in various regions of the 3' UTR, we demonstrated that deletion of nucleotides between the stem-loop (SL) structures and in the beginning and the end regions of the SL2 structure could be lethal for FMDV replication. However, a block deletion of 20 nucleotides (nt 60 to 79) in the middle of SL2 did not affect the viability of FMDV in cultured cells. Characterisation of the deletion mutant virus (O(R2/1975-Δ3'UTR 60-79)) revealed no significant difference in growth kinetics or RNA replication ability compared to the parental virus. However, the mutant virus produced slightly larger plaques when compared to the parental virus. This is the first description of a dispensable 20-nucleotide region in SL2 of the FMDV 3' UTR. PMID:27233801

  17. Functional characterization of the human TPH2 5′ regulatory region: untranslated region and polymorphisms modulate gene expression in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guo-Lin; Vallender, Eric J.; Miller, Gregory M.

    2009-01-01

    Tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2) is a recently identified TPH isoform responsible for neuronal serotonin (5-HT) synthesis, and TPH2 polymorphisms are associated with a range of behavioral traits and psychiatric disorders. This study characterized cis-acting elements and three common polymorphisms (−703G/T, −473T/A, and 90A/G) in the 5′ regulatory region of human TPH2 by using luciferase reporter assay, quantitative real-time PCR, and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). The core promoter of human TPH2 was localized to the region between −107 and +7, and the segment of +8 to +53 within the 5′-UTR was found to exert a potent inhibitory effect on gene expression at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. In both RN46A and HEK-293 cell lines, the TTA (−703T/−473T/90A) haplotype of the three polymorphisms showed the lowest gene expression compared with other haplotypes, and the −703G/T and −473T/A polymorphisms tended to exert a synergic effect on gene expression dependent upon the sequence of the 5′-UTR. In RN46A, the 90A/G polymorphism significantly increased luciferase activity and mRNA level irrespective of the other two polymorphisms, while in HEK-293 cells the effect of 90A/G was dependent on the alleles at loci −703 and −473. EMSA showed that all the three polymorphisms potentially alter DNA–protein interactions, while the 90A/G polymorphism predictably alters the 5′-UTR secondary structure of mRNA and influences RNA–protein interactions. In conclusion, our present study demonstrates that both the 5′-UTR and common polymorphisms (especially the 90A/G) in the 5′ regulatory region of human TPH2 have a significant impact on gene expression. PMID:17972101

  18. Evidence for involvement of 3'-untranslated region in determining angiotensin II receptor coupling specificity to G-protein.

    PubMed Central

    Thekkumkara, Thomas J; Linas, Stuart L

    2003-01-01

    The mRNA 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of many genes has been identified as an important regulator of the mRNA transcript itself as well as the translated product. Previously, we demonstrated that Chinese-hamster ovary-K1 cells stably expressing angiotensin receptor subtypes (AT(1A)) with and without 3'-UTR differed in AT(1A) mRNA content and its coupling with intracellular signalling pathways. Moreover, RNA mobility-shift assay and UV cross-linking studies using the AT(1A) 3'-UTR probe identified a major mRNA-binding protein complex of 55 kDa in Chinese-hamster ovary-K1 cells. In the present study, we have determined the functional significance of the native AT(1A) receptor 3'-UTR in rat liver epithelial (WB) cell lines by co-expressing the AT(1A) 3'-UTR sequence 'decoy' to compete with the native receptor 3'-UTR for its mRNA-binding proteins. PCR analysis using specific primers for the AT(1A) receptor and [(125)I]angiotensin II (AngII)-binding studies demonstrated the expression of the native AT(1A) receptors in WB (B(max)=2.7 pmol/mg of protein, K(d)=0.56 nM). Northern-blot analysis showed a significant increase in native receptor mRNA expression in 3'-UTR decoy-expressing cells, confirming the role of 3'-UTR in mRNA destabilization. Compared with vehicle control, AngII induced DNA and protein synthesis in wild-type WB as measured by [(3)H]thymidine and [(3)H]leucine incorporation respectively. Activation of [(3)H]thymidine and [(3)H]leucine correlated with a significant increase in cell number (cellular hyperplasia). In these cells, AngII stimulated GTPase activity by AT(1) receptor coupling with G-protein alpha i. We also delineated that functional coupling of AT(1A) receptor with G-protein alpha i is an essential mechanism for AngII-mediated cellular hyperplasia in WB by specifically blocking G-protein alpha i activation. In contrast with wild-type cells, stable expression of the 3'-UTR 'decoy' produced AngII-stimulated protein synthesis and cellular

  19. Dis3- and exosome subunit-responsive 3 Prime mRNA instability elements

    SciTech Connect

    Kiss, Daniel L.; Hou, Dezhi; Gross, Robert H.; Andrulis, Erik D.

    2012-07-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Successful use of a novel RNA-specific bioinformatic tool, RNA SCOPE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identified novel 3 Prime UTR cis-acting element that destabilizes a reporter mRNA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Show exosome subunits are required for cis-acting element-mediated mRNA instability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Define precise sequence requirements of novel cis-acting element. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Show that microarray-defined exosome subunit-regulated mRNAs have novel element. -- Abstract: Eukaryotic RNA turnover is regulated in part by the exosome, a nuclear and cytoplasmic complex of ribonucleases (RNases) and RNA-binding proteins. The major RNase of the complex is thought to be Dis3, a multi-functional 3 Prime -5 Prime exoribonuclease and endoribonuclease. Although it is known that Dis3 and core exosome subunits are recruited to transcriptionally active genes and to messenger RNA (mRNA) substrates, this recruitment is thought to occur indirectly. We sought to discover cis-acting elements that recruit Dis3 or other exosome subunits. Using a bioinformatic tool called RNA SCOPE to screen the 3 Prime untranslated regions of up-regulated transcripts from our published Dis3 depletion-derived transcriptomic data set, we identified several motifs as candidate instability elements. Secondary screening using a luciferase reporter system revealed that one cassette-harboring four elements-destabilized the reporter transcript. RNAi-based depletion of Dis3, Rrp6, Rrp4, Rrp40, or Rrp46 diminished the efficacy of cassette-mediated destabilization. Truncation analysis of the cassette showed that two exosome subunit-sensitive elements (ESSEs) destabilized the reporter. Point-directed mutagenesis of ESSE abrogated the destabilization effect. An examination of the transcriptomic data from exosome subunit depletion-based microarrays revealed that mRNAs with ESSEs are found in every up-regulated mRNA data set but are

  20. Spouse-to-Spouse Transmission and Evolution of Hypervariable Region 1 and 5’ Untranslated Region of Hepatitis C Virus Analyzed by Next-Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Caraballo Cortes, Kamila; Zagordi, Osvaldo; Jabłońska, Joanna; Pawełczyk, Agnieszka; Kubisa, Natalia; Perlejewski, Karol; Bukowska-Ośko, Iwona; Płoski, Rafał; Radkowski, Marek; Laskus, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission between spouses remains poorly characterized, largely due to the limited availability of samples from the early stage of infection, as well as methodological constraints. A fifty-eight year-old male developed acute hepatitis C infection and his 53-year old spouse has been HCV-positive for over 10 years. Serum samples were collected from both at the time of acute hepatitis C diagnosis in male (baseline) and then at 9 and 13 months. Hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) and 5’ untranslated region (5’UTR) sequences were amplified and subjected to next generation sequencing (NGS) using a pyrosequencing platform. Genetic variants were inferred by Shorah reconstruction method and compared by phylogenetic and sequence diversity analysis. As the sequencing error of the procedure was previously determined to be ≤ 1.5%, the analysis was conducted with and without the 1.5% cut-off with regard to the frequency of variants. No identical HVR1 variants were identified in spouses at baseline and follow-up samples regardless whether the cut-off was applied or not. However, there was high similarity (98.3%) between a minor baseline donor variant (1.7% frequency) and the most abundant baseline recipient variant (62.5% frequency). Furthermore, donor and recipient strains clustered together when compared to 10 control subjects from the same area and infected with the same HCV subtype. There was an increase in HVR1 complexity (number of genetic variants) over time in both spouses. In contrast, the 5'UTR region was stable and of low complexity throughout the study. In conclusion, intrafamilial HCV transmission may be established by a very minor variant and investigation of this phenomenon requires high-sensitivity assays, such as NGS. PMID:26918636

  1. UTRdb and UTRsite: specialized databases of sequences and functional elements of 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions of eukaryotic mRNAs. Update 2002

    PubMed Central

    Pesole, Graziano; Liuni, Sabino; Grillo, Giorgio; Licciulli, Flavio; Mignone, Flavio; Gissi, Carmela; Saccone, Cecilia

    2002-01-01

    The 5′- and 3′-untranslated regions (5′- and 3′-UTRs) of eukaryotic mRNAs are known to play a crucial role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression modulating nucleo-cytoplasmic mRNA transport, translation efficiency, subcellular localization and stability. UTRdb is a specialized database of 5′ and 3′ untranslated sequences of eukaryotic mRNAs cleaned from redundancy. UTRdb entries are enriched with specialized information not present in the primary databases including the presence of nucleotide sequence patterns already demonstrated by experimental analysis to have some functional role. All these patterns have been collected in the UTRsite database so that it is possible to search any input sequence for the presence of annotated functional motifs. Furthermore, UTRdb entries have been annotated for the presence of repetitive elements. All Internet resources we implemented for retrieval and functional analysis of 5′- and 3′-UTRs of eukaryotic mRNAs are accessible at http://bighost.area.ba.cnr.it/BIG/UTRHome/. PMID:11752330

  2. A strong inhibitor of gene expression in the 5' untranslated region of the pollen-specific LAT59 gene to tomato.

    PubMed

    Curie, C; McCormick, S

    1997-11-01

    Promoter sequences that direct pollen-specific expression have been previously identified in the LAT59 (for late anther tomato) gene. Here, we show that the LAT59 sequences encoding the 5' untranslated region inhibit expression of reporter genes by > 20-fold in transient expression experiments and up to 300-fold after stable transformation. Inhibition occurred in somatic cells as well as in pollen. Our results indicate that the inhibitor still functions after pollen germination and therefore does not modulate the level of the LAT59 protein during pollen development. The presence of the leader sequence dramatically decreased mRNA accumulation but without affecting translation rate and mRNA stability. We believe that the leader inhibits transcription. We mapped the inhibitor to a region in the leader that coincides with a putative stem-loop and present evidence that this stem-loop participates in inhibition. PMID:9401125

  3. A strong inhibitor of gene expression in the 5' untranslated region of the pollen-specific LAT59 gene to tomato.

    PubMed Central

    Curie, C; McCormick, S

    1997-01-01

    Promoter sequences that direct pollen-specific expression have been previously identified in the LAT59 (for late anther tomato) gene. Here, we show that the LAT59 sequences encoding the 5' untranslated region inhibit expression of reporter genes by > 20-fold in transient expression experiments and up to 300-fold after stable transformation. Inhibition occurred in somatic cells as well as in pollen. Our results indicate that the inhibitor still functions after pollen germination and therefore does not modulate the level of the LAT59 protein during pollen development. The presence of the leader sequence dramatically decreased mRNA accumulation but without affecting translation rate and mRNA stability. We believe that the leader inhibits transcription. We mapped the inhibitor to a region in the leader that coincides with a putative stem-loop and present evidence that this stem-loop participates in inhibition. PMID:9401125

  4. Insertion of part of an intron into the 5' untranslated region of a Caenorhabditis elegans gene converts it into a trans-spliced gene.

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, R; Thomas, J; Spieth, J; Blumenthal, T

    1991-01-01

    In nematodes, the RNA products of some genes are trans-spliced to a 22-nucleotide spliced leader (SL), while the RNA products of other genes are not. In Caenorhabditis elegans, there are two SLs, SL1 and SL2, donated by two distinct small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles in a process functionally quite similar to nuclear intron removal. We demonstrate here that it is possible to convert a non-trans-spliced gene into a trans-spliced gene by placement of an intron missing only the 5' splice site into the 5' untranslated region. Stable transgenic strains were isolated expressing a gene in which 69 nucleotides of a vit-5 intron, including the 3' splice site, were inserted into the 5' untranslated region of a vit-2/vit-6 fusion gene. The RNA product of this gene was examined by primer extension and PCR amplification. Although the vit-2/vit-6 transgene product is not normally trans-spliced, the majority of transcripts from this altered gene were trans-spliced to SL1. We termed the region of a trans-spliced mRNA precursor between the 5' end and the first 3' splice site an "outron." Our results suggest that if a transcript begins with intronlike sequence followed by a 3' splice site, this alone may constitute an outron and be sufficient to demarcate a transcript as a trans-splice acceptor. These findings leave open the possibility that specific sequences are required to increase the efficiency of trans-splicing. Images PMID:1848665

  5. Identification of a complex that binds to the CD154 3' untranslated region: implications for a role in message stability during T cell activation.

    PubMed

    Barnhart, B; Kosinski, P A; Wang, Z; Ford, G S; Kiledjian, M; Covey, L R

    2000-10-15

    CD154 expression is regulated throughout a time course of CD3-dependent T cell activation by differential mRNA decay. To understand the molecular basis of the "stability" phase of this pathway, experiments were conducted to identify sequences and specific complexes important in this regulation. Gel retardation assays using extracts from both Jurkat T cells and CD3-activated CD4(+) T cells revealed a major complex (complex I) that bound a 65-bp highly CU-rich region of the CD154 3' untranslated region. The specificity of the CU-rich element for complex-I formation was confirmed by disruption of this complex by oligo(dCT) competition. Formation of complex I strongly correlated with CD154 mRNA stability across a time course of T cell activation. UV cross-linking identified a major oligo(dCT)-sensitive species at approximately 90 kDa that showed induced and increased expression in extracts from 24- and 48-hr anti-CD3-activated T cells, respectively. This protein was absent in equivalent extracts from resting or 2-h-activated T cells. Using an in vitro decay assay, we found that a CD154-specific transcript was more rapidly degraded in 2-h-activated extract and stabilized in the 24- and 48-h extracts compared to extracts from resting T cells. Disruption of complex I resulted in the rapid decay of a CD154-specific transcript demonstrating a functional role for complex I in mRNA stabilization in vitro. These studies support a model of posttranscriptional regulation of CD154 expression being controlled in part by the interaction of a poly(CU)-binding complex with a specific sequence in the 3' untranslated region. PMID:11035087

  6. The regulation of gene expression in transformed maize aleurone and endosperm protoplasts. Analysis of promoter activity, intron enhancement, and mRNA untranslated regions on expression.

    PubMed Central

    Gallie, D R; Young, T E

    1994-01-01

    Gene expression in the aleurone and endosperm is highly regulated during both seed development and germination. Studies of alpha-amylase expression in the aleurone of barley (Hordeum vulgare) have generated the current paradigm for hormonal control of gene expression in germinating cereal grain. Gene expression studies in both the aleurone and endosperm tissues of maize (Zea mays) seed have been hampered because of a lack of an efficient transformation system. We report here the rapid isolation of protoplasts from maize aleurone and endosperm tissue, their transformation using polyethylene glycol or electroporation, and the regulation of gene expression in these cells. Adh1 promoter activity was reduced relative to the 35S promoter in aleurone and endosperm protoplasts compared to Black Mexican Sweet suspension cells in which it was nearly as strong as the 35S promoter. Intron-mediated stimulation of expression was substantially higher in transformed aleurone or endosperm protoplasts than in cell-suspension culture protoplasts, and the data suggest that the effect of an intron may be affected by cell type. To examine cytoplasmic regulation, the 5' and 3' untranslated regions from a barley alpha-amylase were fused to the firefly luciferase-coding region, and their effect on translation and mRNA stability was examined following the delivery of in vitro synthesized mRNA to aleurone and endosperm protoplasts. The alpha-amylase untranslated regions regulated translational efficiency in a tissue-specific manner, increasing translation in aleurone or endosperm protoplasts but not in maize or carrot cell-suspension protoplasts, in animal cells, or in in vitro translation lysates. PMID:7824660

  7. A Mutation in the 5′ Untranslated Region Increases Stability of norA mRNA, Encoding a Multidrug Resistance Transporter of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Bénédicte; Truong-Bolduc, Que Chi; Zhang, Xiamei; Hooper, David C.

    2001-01-01

    NorA, a multidrug efflux pump in Staphylococcus aureus, protects the cell from multiple drugs, including quinolones. The flqB mutation (T→G) in the 5′ untranslated region upstream of norA causes norA overexpression of 4.9-fold in cis, as measured in norA::blaZ fusions. The transcriptional initiation site of norA was unchanged in mutant and wild-type strains, but the half-life of norA mRNA was increased 4.8-fold in the flqB mutant compared to the wild-type strain. Computer-generated folding of the first 68 nucleotides of the norA transcript predicts an additional stem-loop and changes in a putative RNase III cleavage site in the flqB mutant. PMID:11244079

  8. Endothelial cytosolic proteins bind to the 3' untranslated region of endothelial nitric oxide synthase mRNA: regulation by tumor necrosis factor alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, J; Sánchez de Miguel, L; Montón, M; Casado, S; López-Farré, A

    1997-01-01

    Changes in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression may be involved in the endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation dysfunction associated with several vascular diseases. In the present work, we demonstrate that eNOS mRNA contains a previously undescribed cis element in the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR). A U+C-rich segment in the 3' UTR is critical in complex formation with bovine aortic endothelial cell cytosolic proteins. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), which destabilizes eNOS mRNA, increased the binding activity of the cytosolic proteins in a time-dependent manner. These data suggest that endothelial cytosolic proteins bind to the 3' UTR of eNOS mRNA. These proteins may play a role in TNF-alpha-induced eNOS mRNA destabilization. PMID:9315630

  9. Hypoxia stimulates binding of a cytoplasmic protein to a pyrimidine-rich sequence in the 3'-untranslated region of rat tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA.

    PubMed

    Czyzyk-Krzeska, M F; Dominski, Z; Kole, R; Millhorn, D E

    1994-04-01

    Reduced oxygen tension (hypoxia) induces a 3-fold increase in stability of mRNA for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine synthesis, in the pheochromocytoma (PC12) clonal cell line. To investigate the possibility that RNA-protein interactions are involved in mediating this increase in stability, RNA gel shift assays were performed using different fragments of labeled TH mRNA and the S-100 fraction of PC12 cytoplasmic protein extracts. We identified a sequence within the 3'-untranslated region of TH mRNA that binds cytoplasmic protein. RNase T1 mapping revealed that the protein was bound to a 28 nucleotide long sequence that is located between bases 1551-1579 of TH mRNA. Moreover, protein binding to this fragment was prevented with an antisense oligonucleotide directed against bases 1551-1579 and subsequent RNase H digestion. This fragment of the 3'-untranslated region of TH mRNA is rich in pyrimidine nucleotides, and the binding of cytoplasmic protein to this fragment was reduced by competition with other polypyrimidine sequences including poly(C) but not poly(U) polymers. The binding of the protein to TH mRNA was increased when cytoplasmic proteins were extracted from PC12 cells exposed to hypoxia (5% O2) for 24 h. Electrophoresis of the UV cross-linked RNA-protein complex on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a complex of 74 kDa. The potential role of this protein-TH mRNA interaction in regulation of TH mRNA stability during hypoxia is discussed. PMID:7908289

  10. Ca2+ ionophore A23187-dependent stabilization of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor messenger RNA in murine thymoma EL-4 cells is mediated through two distinct regions in the 3'-untranslated region.

    PubMed

    Iwai, Y; Akahane, K; Pluznik, D H; Cohen, R B

    1993-05-15

    We analyze the role of the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 in the induction of GM-CSF mRNA expression in EL-4 thymoma cells. Northern analysis shows that A23187 increases the half-life of GM-CSF mRNA. To identify potential Ca2+ response elements in the GM-CSF mRNA, we produced stable transfectants containing pRSV-CAT (EL-4cat) or hybrid constructs in which most of the GM-CSF 3'-untranslated region (EL-4gm) or the adenosine-uridine boxes alone (EL-4au) were placed in a downstream position from the CAT coding region. A23187 induces a 4.4-fold increase in CAT activity in EL-4cat cells and a 210-fold and 48-fold increase in CAT activity in EL-4gm and EL-4au cells, respectively. Actinomycin D chase experiments in transfected cells demonstrate that A23187 increases the half-life of CAT mRNA from 15 min to 3 h in EL-4au cells and more than 3 h in EL-4gm cells, suggesting that the effect of Ca2+ is mediated predominantly by the adenosine-uridine boxes with a smaller contribution from upstream regions. To map these upstream regions, we transfected cells with constructs containing mutations of the 3'-untranslated region. With two of these mutations, corresponding to a region located about 160 bases upstream of the adenosine-uridine boxes, CAT activity was induced only 50-fold compared to 200-fold in EL-4gm cells. These data indicate that two regions within the GM-CSF 3'-untranslated region interact to modulate Ca2+ effects on GM-CSF mRNA half-life. PMID:8482841

  11. Molecular Archaeology of Flaviviridae Untranslated Regions: Duplicated RNA Structures in the Replication Enhancer of Flaviviruses and Pestiviruses Emerged via Convergent Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Gritsun, Dmitri J.; Jones, Ian M.; Gould, Ernest A.; Gritsun, Tamara S.

    2014-01-01

    RNA secondary structures in the 3′untranslated regions (3′UTR) of the viruses of the family Flaviviridae, previously identified as essential (promoters) or beneficial (enhancers) for replication, have been analysed. Duplicated enhancer elements are revealed as a global feature in the evolution of the 3′UTR of distantly related viruses within the genera Flavivirus and Pestivirus. For the flaviviruses, duplicated structures occur in the 3′UTR of all four distantly related ecological virus subgroups (tick-borne, mosquito-borne, no known vector and insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFV). RNA structural differences distinguish tick-borne flaviviruses with discrete pathogenetic characteristics. For Aedes- and Culex-associated ISFV, secondary RNA structures with different conformations display numerous short ssRNA direct repeats, exposed as loops and bulges. Long quadruplicate regions comprise almost the entire 3′UTR of Culex-associated ISFV. Extended duplicated sequence and associated RNA structures were also discovered in the 3′UTR of pestiviruses. In both the Flavivirus and Pestivirus genera, duplicated RNA structures were localized to the enhancer regions of the 3′UTR suggesting an adaptive role predominantly in wild-type viruses. We propose sequence reiteration might act as a scaffold for dimerization of proteins involved in assembly of viral replicase complexes. Numerous nucleotide repeats exposed as loops/bulges might also interfere with host immune responses acting as a molecular sponge to sequester key host proteins or microRNAs. PMID:24647143

  12. A functional AT/G polymorphism in the 5'-untranslated region of SETDB2 in the IgE locus on human chromosome 13q14.

    PubMed

    Holt, R J; Vandiedonck, C; Willis-Owen, S A; Knight, J C; Cookson, W O; Moffatt, M F; Zhang, Y

    2015-10-01

    The immunoglobulin E (IgE)-associated locus on human chromosome 13q14 influencing asthma-related traits contains the genes PHF11 and SETDB2. SETDB2 is located in the same linkage disequilibrium region as PHF11 and polymorphisms within SETDB2 have been shown to associate with total serum IgE levels. In this report, we sequenced the 15 exons of SETDB2 and identified a single previously ungenotyped mutation (AT/G, rs386770867) in the 5'-untranslated region of the gene. The polymorphism was found to be significantly associated with serum IgE levels in our asthma cohort (P=0.0012). Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed that the transcription factor Ying Yang 1 binds to the AT allele, whereas SRY (Sex determining Region Y) binds to the G allele. Allele-specific transcription analysis (allelotyping) was performed in 35 individuals heterozygous for rs386770867 from a panel of 200 British families ascertained through probands with severe stage 3 asthma. The AT allele was found to be significantly overexpressed in these individuals (P=1.26×10(-21)). A dual-luciferase assay with the pGL3 luciferase reporter gene showed that the AT allele significantly affects transcriptional activities. Our results indicate that the IgE-associated AT/G polymorphism (rs386770867) regulates transcription of SETDB2. PMID:26378653

  13. Clinical significance of a novel single nucleotide polymorphism in the 5′ untranslated region of the Rabphillin-3A-Like gene in colorectal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Katkoori, Venkat R.; Jia, Xu; Chatla, Chakrapani; Kumar, Sanjay; Ponnazhagan, Selvarangan; Callens, Tom; Messiaen, Ludwine; Grizzle, William E.; Manne, Upender

    2009-01-01

    The recently identified human ortholog of the Rabphillin-3A-Like (RPH3AL) gene, located at the 17p13.3 locus, has been assessed for its mutational status and clinical significance in colorectal adenocarcinoma (CRC). Prospectively collected 95 frozen CRCs and their matching benign colonic epithelial tissues were evaluated for mutations and mRNA expression. Since, we observed a higher incidence of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at the −25 position in the 5′ untranslated region (5′UTR-25) of RPH3AL, we performed the genotyping analysis of this SNP in a retrospective CRC cohort (n=134) to assess their clinical importance. Univariate and multivariate outcome analyses were performed. The cDNA analysis has detected point mutations in 6 CRCs, coding region SNPs in 14 CRCs, and non-coding region SNPs in 38 CRCs. Combined analyses of both cohorts has demonstrated that the incidence of SNP at 5′UTR-25 was 41% (95 of 229), and its A/A genotype (9%, 20 of 229) was observed exclusively in non-Hispanic Caucasians, and 19 of these cases were diagnosed with nodal metastasis. Patients who exhibited homozygous for A or C alleles had a significantly decreased levels of mRNA expression, increased risk of CRC recurrence and mortality. Therefore, these findings have significant clinical implications in assessing the aggressiveness of CRC. PMID:17981610

  14. Clinical significance of a novel single nucleotide polymorphism in the 5' untranslated region of the Rabphillin-3A-Like gene in colorectal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Katkoori, Venkat R; Jia, Xu; Chatla, Chakrapani; Kumar, Sanjay; Ponnazhagan, Selvarangan; Callens, Tom; Messiaen, Ludwine; Grizzle, William E; Manne, Upender

    2008-01-01

    The recently identified human ortholog of the Rabphillin-3A-Like (RPH3AL) gene, located at the 17p13.3 locus, has been assessed for its mutational status and clinical significance in colorectal adenocarcinoma (CRC). Prospectively collected 95 frozen CRCs and their matching benign colonic epithelial tissues were evaluated for mutations and mRNA expression. Since, we observed a higher incidence of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at the -25 position in the 5'untranslated region (5'UTR-25) of RPH3AL, we performed the genotyping analysis of this SNP in a retrospective CRC cohort (n=134) to assess their clinical importance. Univariate and multivariate outcome analyses were performed. The cDNA analysis has detected point mutations in 6 CRCs, coding region SNPs in 14 CRCs, and non-coding region SNPs in 38 CRCs. Combined analyses of both cohorts has demonstrated that the incidence of SNP at 5'UTR-25 was 41% (95 of 229), and its A/A genotype (9%, 20 of 229) was observed exclusively in non-Hispanic Caucasians, and 19 of these cases were diagnosed with nodal metastasis. Patients who exhibited homozygous for A or C alleles had a significantly decreased levels of mRNA expression, increased risk of CRC recurrence and mortality. Therefore, these findings have significant clinical implications in assessing the aggressiveness of CRC. PMID:17981610

  15. A functional AT/G polymorphism in the 5′-untranslated region of SETDB2 in the IgE locus on human chromosome 13q14

    PubMed Central

    Holt, R J; Vandiedonck, C; Willis-Owen, S A; Knight, J C; Cookson, W O; Moffatt, M F; Zhang, Y

    2015-01-01

    The immunoglobulin E (IgE)-associated locus on human chromosome 13q14 influencing asthma-related traits contains the genes PHF11 and SETDB2. SETDB2 is located in the same linkage disequilibrium region as PHF11 and polymorphisms within SETDB2 have been shown to associate with total serum IgE levels. In this report, we sequenced the 15 exons of SETDB2 and identified a single previously ungenotyped mutation (AT/G, rs386770867) in the 5′-untranslated region of the gene. The polymorphism was found to be significantly associated with serum IgE levels in our asthma cohort (P=0.0012). Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed that the transcription factor Ying Yang 1 binds to the AT allele, whereas SRY (Sex determining Region Y) binds to the G allele. Allele-specific transcription analysis (allelotyping) was performed in 35 individuals heterozygous for rs386770867 from a panel of 200 British families ascertained through probands with severe stage 3 asthma. The AT allele was found to be significantly overexpressed in these individuals (P=1.26 × 10−21). A dual-luciferase assay with the pGL3 luciferase reporter gene showed that the AT allele significantly affects transcriptional activities. Our results indicate that the IgE-associated AT/G polymorphism (rs386770867) regulates transcription of SETDB2. PMID:26378653

  16. Sequences of a hairpin structure in the 3'-untranslated region mediate regulation of human pulmonary surfactant protein B mRNA stability.

    PubMed

    Huang, Helen W; Payne, David E; Bi, Weizhen; Pan, Su; Bruce, Shirley R; Alcorn, Joseph L

    2012-05-15

    The ability of pulmonary surfactant to reduce alveolar surface tension requires adequate expression of surfactant protein B (SP-B). Dexamethasone (DEX, 10(-7) M) increases human SP-B mRNA stability by a mechanism that requires a 126-nt-long segment (the 7.6S region) of the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR). The objective of this study was to identify sequences in the 7.6S region that mediate regulation of SP-B mRNA stability. The 7.6S region was found to be sufficient for DEX-mediated stabilization of mRNA. Sequential substitution mutagenesis of the 7.6S region indicates that a 90-nt region is required for DEX-mediated stabilization and maintenance of intrinsic stability. In this region, one 30-nt-long element (002), predicted to form a stem-loop structure, is sufficient for DEX-mediated stabilization of mRNA and intrinsic mRNA stability. Cytosolic proteins specifically bind element 002, and binding activity is unaffected whether proteins are isolated from cells incubated in the absence or presence of DEX. While loop sequences of element 002 have no role in regulation of SP-B mRNA stability, the proximal stem sequences are required for DEX-mediated stabilization and specific binding of proteins. Mutation of the sequences that comprise the proximal or distal arm of the stem negates the destabilizing activity of element 002 on intrinsic SP-B mRNA stability. These results indicate that cytosolic proteins bind a single hairpin structure that mediates intrinsic and hormonal regulation of SP-B mRNA stability via mechanisms that involve sequences of the stems of the hairpin structure. PMID:22367784

  17. Interactome analysis of the EV71 5' untranslated region in differentiated neuronal cells SH-SY5Y and regulatory role of FBP3 in viral replication.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsing-I; Chang, Ying-Ying; Lin, Jhao-Yin; Kuo, Rei-Lin; Liu, Hao-Ping; Shih, Shin-Ru; Wu, Chih-Ching

    2016-09-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71), a single-stranded RNA virus, is one of the most serious neurotropic pathogens in the Asia-Pacific region. Through interactions with host proteins, the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) of EV71 is important for viral replication. To gain a protein profile that interact with the EV71 5'UTR in neuronal cells, we performed a biotinylated RNA-protein pull-down assay in conjunction with LC-MS/MS analysis. A total of 109 proteins were detected and subjected to Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) analyses. These proteins were found to be highly correlated with biological processes including RNA processing/splicing, epidermal cell differentiation, and protein folding. A protein-protein interaction network was constructed using the STRING online database to illustrate the interactions of those proteins that are mainly involved in RNA processing/splicing or protein folding. Moreover, we confirmed that the far-upstream element binding protein 3 (FBP3) was able to bind to the EV71 5'UTR. The redistribution of FBP3 in subcellular compartments was observed after EV71 infection, and the decreased expression of FBP3 in host neuronal cells markedly inhibited viral replication. Our results reveal various host proteins that potentially interact with the EV71 5'UTR in neuronal cells, and we found that FBP3 could serve as a positive regulator in host cells. PMID:27291656

  18. Ultra-deep sequencing analysis of the hepatitis A virus 5'-untranslated region among cases of the same outbreak from a single source.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shuang; Nakamoto, Shingo; Kanda, Tatsuo; Jiang, Xia; Nakamura, Masato; Miyamura, Tatsuo; Shirasawa, Hiroshi; Sugiura, Nobuyuki; Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Azusa; Gonoi, Tohru; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a causative agent of acute viral hepatitis for which an effective vaccine has been developed. Here we describe ultra-deep pyrosequences (UDPSs) of HAV 5'-untranslated region (5'UTR) among cases of the same outbreak, which arose from a single source, associated with a revolving sushi bar. We determined the reference sequence from HAV-derived clone from an attendant by the Sanger method. Sixteen UDPSs from this outbreak and one from another sporadic case were compared with this reference. Nucleotide errors yielded a UDPS error rate of < 1%. This study confirmed that nucleotide substitutions of this region are transition mutations in outbreak cases, that insertion was observed only in non-severe cases, and that these nucleotide substitutions were different from those of the sporadic case. Analysis of UDPSs detected low-prevalence HAV variations in 5'UTR, but no specific mutations associated with severity in these outbreak cases. To our surprise, HAV strains in this outbreak conserved HAV IRES sequence even if we performed analysis of UDPSs. UDPS analysis of HAV 5'UTR gave us no association between the disease severity of hepatitis A and HAV 5'UTR substitutions. It might be more interesting to perform ultra-deep sequencing of full length HAV genome in order to reveal possible unknown genomic determinants associated with disease severity. Further studies will be needed. PMID:24396287

  19. An Indel Polymorphism in the MtnA 3' Untranslated Region Is Associated with Gene Expression Variation and Local Adaptation in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Glaser-Schmitt, Amanda; Duchen, Pablo; Parsch, John

    2016-01-01

    Insertions and deletions (indels) are a major source of genetic variation within species and may result in functional changes to coding or regulatory sequences. In this study we report that an indel polymorphism in the 3’ untranslated region (UTR) of the metallothionein gene MtnA is associated with gene expression variation in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster. A derived allele of MtnA with a 49-bp deletion in the 3' UTR segregates at high frequency in populations outside of sub-Saharan Africa. The frequency of the deletion increases with latitude across multiple continents and approaches 100% in northern Europe. Flies with the deletion have more than 4-fold higher MtnA expression than flies with the ancestral sequence. Using reporter gene constructs in transgenic flies, we show that the 3' UTR deletion significantly contributes to the observed expression difference. Population genetic analyses uncovered signatures of a selective sweep in the MtnA region within populations from northern Europe. We also find that the 3’ UTR deletion is associated with increased oxidative stress tolerance. These results suggest that the 3' UTR deletion has been a target of selection for its ability to confer increased levels of MtnA expression in northern European populations, likely due to a local adaptive advantage of increased oxidative stress tolerance. PMID:27120580

  20. Characterization of the partial RNA1 and RNA2 3' untranslated region of tomato ringspot virus isolates from North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 3' non-translated regions (NTRs) of RNA1 and RNA2 of Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV) are long and virtually identical. In this study, sequences containing most of the 3’ NTRs (1168-1265 bp) were determined from 18 ToRSV isolates collected from fruit trees, small fruits, and grapevines in North Am...

  1. Unorthodox expression of an enzyme: evidence for an untranslated region within carA from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, S C; Abdelal, A T

    1990-01-01

    The genes encoding carbamoylphosphate synthetase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 were cloned in Escherichia coli. Deletion and transposition analysis determined the locations of carA, encoding the small subunit, and carB, encoding the large subunit, on the chromosomal insert. The nucleotide sequence of carA and the flanking regions was determined. The derived amino acid sequence for the small subunit of carbamoylphosphate synthetase from P. aeruginosa exhibited 68% homology with its counterparts in E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium. The derived sequences in the three organisms were essentially identical in the three polypeptide segments that are conserved in glutamine amidotransferases but showed low homology at the amino- and carboxy-terminal regions. The amino-terminal amino acid sequences were determined for the large and small subunits. The first 15 amino acids of the large subunit were identical to those derived from the carB sequence. However, comparison of the derived sequence for carA with the amino-terminal amino acid sequence for the small subunit suggested that codons 5 to 8 are not translated. The DNA sequence for the region encompassing these four codons was confirmed by direct sequencing of chromosomal DNA after amplification by the polymerase chain reaction. The mRNA sequence was also deduced by in vitro synthesis of cDNA, enzymatic amplification, and sequencing, confirming that 12 nucleotides in the 5' terminal of carA are transcribed but are not translated. Images FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 7 FIG. 8 PMID:2153657

  2. Genomewide mapping and screening of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) 3' untranslated regions identify bicistronic and polycistronic viral transcripts as frequent targets of KSHV microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Bai, Zhiqiang; Huang, Yufei; Li, Wan; Zhu, Ying; Jung, Jae U; Lu, Chun; Gao, Shou-Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) encodes over 90 genes and 25 microRNAs (miRNAs). The KSHV life cycle is tightly regulated to ensure persistent infection in the host. In particular, miRNAs, which primarily exert their effects by binding to the 3' untranslated regions (3'UTRs) of target transcripts, have recently emerged as key regulators of KSHV life cycle. Although studies with RNA cross-linking immunoprecipitation approach have identified numerous targets of KSHV miRNAs, few of these targets are of viral origin because most KSHV 3'UTRs have not been characterized. Thus, the extents of viral genes targeted by KSHV miRNAs remain elusive. Here, we report the mapping of the 3'UTRs of 74 KSHV genes and the effects of KSHV miRNAs on the control of these 3'UTR-mediated gene expressions. This analysis reveals new bicistronic and polycistronic transcripts of KSHV genes. Due to the 5'-distal open reading frames (ORFs), KSHV bicistronic or polycistronic transcripts have significantly longer 3'UTRs than do KSHV monocistronic transcripts. Furthermore, screening of the 3'UTR reporters has identified 28 potential new targets of KSHV miRNAs, of which 11 (39%) are bicistronic or polycistronic transcripts. Reporter mutagenesis demonstrates that miR-K3 specifically targets ORF31-33 transcripts at the lytic locus via two binding sites in the ORF33 coding region, whereas miR-K10a-3p and miR-K10b-3p and their variants target ORF71-73 transcripts at the latent locus through distinct binding sites in both 5'-distal ORFs and intergenic regions. Our results indicate that KSHV miRNAs frequently target the 5'-distal coding regions of bicistronic or polycistronic transcripts and highlight the unique features of KSHV miRNAs in regulating gene expression and life cycle. PMID:24155407

  3. Replication protein of tobacco mosaic virus cotranslationally binds the 5′ untranslated region of genomic RNA to enable viral replication

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura-Nagaya, Kazue; Ishibashi, Kazuhiro; Huang, Ying-Ping; Miyashita, Shuhei; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Genomic RNA of positive-strand RNA viruses replicate via complementary (i.e., negative-strand) RNA in membrane-bound replication complexes. Before replication complex formation, virus-encoded replication proteins specifically recognize genomic RNA molecules and recruit them to sites of replication. Moreover, in many of these viruses, selection of replication templates by the replication proteins occurs preferentially in cis. This property is advantageous to the viruses in several aspects of viral replication and evolution, but the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been characterized. Here, we used an in vitro translation system to show that a 126-kDa replication protein of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), a positive-strand RNA virus, binds a 5′-terminal ∼70-nucleotide region of TMV RNA cotranslationally, but not posttranslationally. TMV mutants that carried nucleotide changes in the 5′-terminal region and showed a defect in the binding were unable to synthesize negative-strand RNA, indicating that this binding is essential for template selection. A C-terminally truncated 126-kDa protein, but not the full-length 126-kDa protein, was able to posttranslationally bind TMV RNA in vitro, suggesting that binding of the 126-kDa protein to the 70-nucleotide region occurs during translation and before synthesis of the C-terminal inhibitory domain. We also show that binding of the 126-kDa protein prevents further translation of the bound TMV RNA. These data provide a mechanistic explanation of how the 126-kDa protein selects replication templates in cis and how fatal collision between translating ribosomes and negative-strand RNA-synthesizing polymerases on the genomic RNA is avoided. PMID:24711385

  4. A Viral mRNA Motif at the 3'-Untranslated Region that Confers Translatability in a Cell-Specific Manner. Implications for Virus Evolution.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Moreno, Manuel; Sanz, Miguel Angel; Carrasco, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Sindbis virus (SINV) mRNAs contain several motifs that participate in the regulation of their translation. We have discovered a motif at the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of viral mRNAs, constituted by three repeated sequences, which is involved in the translation of both SINV genomic and subgenomic mRNAs in insect, but not in mammalian cells. These data illustrate for the first time that an element present at the 3'-UTR confers translatability to mRNAs from an animal virus in a cell-specific manner. Sequences located at the beginning of the 5'-UTR may also regulate SINV subgenomic mRNA translation in both cell lines in a context of infection. Moreover, a replicon derived from Sleeping disease virus, an alphavirus that have no known arthropod vector for transmission, is much more efficient in insect cells when the repeated sequences from SINV are inserted at its 3'-UTR, due to the enhanced translatability of its mRNAs. Thus, these findings provide a clue to understand, at the molecular level, the evolution of alphaviruses and their host range. PMID:26755446

  5. Identification of the MmeHairy gene and expression analysis affected by two SNPs in the 3'-untranslated region in the clam Meretrix meretrix.

    PubMed

    Nie, Qing; Yue, Xin; Liu, Baozhong

    2016-04-01

    As a bHLH transcriptional repressor, Hairy-related proteins can bind to DNA sites in target gene promoters and negatively regulate gene transcription. In the present study, the full-length cDNA of Hairy was obtained from the clam Meretrix meretrix (MmeHairy), and two SNPs in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of this gene, SNP1066 and 1067, were identified and characterized. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed that MmeHairy belongs to the Hairy protein subfamily. Analysis of tissue expression patterns showed that the mRNA of MmeHairy had the highest expression level in the hepatopancreas. The expression levels of MmeHairy were up-regulated in the hepatopancreas after Vibrio challenge. Genotyping and quantitative analysis showed that the mRNA levels of MmeHairy were significantly different among individual clams with different genotypes at SNP1066 and 1067 (P < 0.05), which indicated that these two SNP loci may affect the expression of MmeHairy and could be used as candidate markers for future selection in M. meretrix breeding programs. PMID:26873874

  6. A 3' untranslated region variant in FMR1 eliminates neuronal activity-dependent translation of FMRP by disrupting binding of the RNA-binding protein HuR.

    PubMed

    Suhl, Joshua A; Muddashetty, Ravi S; Anderson, Bart R; Ifrim, Marius F; Visootsak, Jeannie; Bassell, Gary J; Warren, Stephen T

    2015-11-24

    Fragile X syndrome is a common cause of intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder. The gene underlying the disorder, fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1), is silenced in most cases by a CGG-repeat expansion mutation in the 5' untranslated region (UTR). Recently, we identified a variant located in the 3'UTR of FMR1 enriched among developmentally delayed males with normal repeat lengths. A patient-derived cell line revealed reduced levels of endogenous fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), and a reporter containing a patient 3'UTR caused a decrease in expression. A control reporter expressed in cultured mouse cortical neurons showed an expected increase following synaptic stimulation that was absent when expressing the patient reporter, suggesting an impaired response to neuronal activity. Mobility-shift assays using a control RNA detected an RNA-protein interaction that is lost with the patient RNA, and HuR was subsequently identified as an associated protein. Cross-linking immunoprecipitation experiments identified the locus as an in vivo target of HuR, supporting our in vitro findings. These data suggest that the disrupted interaction of HuR impairs activity-dependent translation of FMRP, which may hinder synaptic plasticity in a clinically significant fashion. PMID:26554012

  7. Constitutive activity of the tumor necrosis factor promoter is canceled by the 3' untranslated region in nonmacrophage cell lines; a trans-dominant factor overcomes this suppressive effect.

    PubMed Central

    Kruys, V; Kemmer, K; Shakhov, A; Jongeneel, V; Beutler, B

    1992-01-01

    The role of the mouse tumor necrosis factor (TNF) promoter, 5' untranslated region (UTR), and 3' UTR in TNF gene expression has been examined in three nonmacrophage cell lines (HeLa, NIH 3T3, and L-929). The TNF promoter is not macrophage-specific. On the contrary, it constitutively drives reporter gene expression in all three cell lines. Not only the full-length promoter but also truncated versions of the promoter, lacking NF-kappa B binding motifs, are active in each type of cell. The TNF 3' UTR effectively cancels reporter gene expression in HeLa cells and in NIH 3T3 cells but fails to block expression in L-929 cells. L-929 cells contain a factor that overcomes the inhibitory influence of the TNF 3' UTR. Its action depends upon the presence of sequences found in the TNF 5' UTR. Cell-fusion experiments reveal that this activator is trans-dominant. These studies highlight the essential role played by the TNF 3' UTR, which silences the TNF gene in cells that might otherwise express TNF. They also reveal the existence of an escape mechanism whereby inappropriate synthesis of TNF might occur. Images PMID:1731340

  8. Nucleolin and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C proteins specifically interact with the 3'-untranslated region of amyloid protein precursor mRNA.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, S H; Malter, J S

    1995-07-21

    The central nervous system deposition by neurons and glia of beta A4 amyloid protein is an important contributing factor to the development of Alzheimer's disease. Amyloidogenic cells overexpress amyloid precursor protein (APP) mRNAs suggesting a transcriptional or post-transcriptional defect may contribute to this process. We have previously shown that APP mRNAs display regulated stability which is dependent on a 29-base element within the 3'-untranslated region (UTR). This domain specifically interacted with several cytoplasmic RNA-binding proteins. We have purified these APP RNA-binding proteins from a human T-cell leukemia and demonstrate that five cytoplasmic proteins of 70, 48, 47, 39, and 38 kDa form the previously observed APP RNA protein complexes. Amino acid sequence analyses showed that the 70-, 48-, and 47-kDa proteins were fragments of nucleolin and that the 39- and 38-kDa proteins were heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) C protein. Northwestern and Western blot analyses of purified material further confirmed these data. Nucleolin protein is known to shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm but hnRNP C has not been reported within the cytoplasm. This report of sequence specific, mRNA binding by nucleolin and hnRNP C suggests that these proteins participate in the post-transcriptional regulation of APP mRNA through 3'-UTR, site-specific interactions. PMID:7615529

  9. The Anticholinesterase Phenserine and Its Enantiomer Posiphen as 5′Untranslated-Region-Directed Translation Blockers of the Parkinson's Alpha Synuclein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Mikkilineni, Sohan; Cantuti-Castelvetri, Ippolita; Cahill, Catherine M.; Balliedier, Amelie; Greig, Nigel H.; Rogers, Jack T.

    2012-01-01

    There is compelling support for limiting expression of alpha-synuclein (α-syn) in the brains of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. An increase of SNCA gene copy number can genetically cause familial PD where increased dose of this pathogenic protein correlates with severity of symptoms (triplication of the SNCA gene causes dementia in PD patients). Gene promoter polymorphisms were shown to increase α-synuclein expression as a risk for PD. Cholinesterase inhibitors can clinically slow cognitive decline in the later stages of PD etiology similar to their widespread use in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Pertinent to this, we identified that the well-tolerated anticholinesterase, phenserine, blocked neural SNCA mRNA translation and tested for targeting via its 5′untranslated region (5′UTR) in a manner similar to its action to limit the expression of the AD-specific amyloid precursor protein (APP). Posiphen, its better-tolerated (+) enantiomer (devoid of anticholinesterase action), repressed neural α-synuclein translation. Primary metabolic analogs of posiphen were, likewise, characterized using primary fetal neurons grown ex vivo from the brains of Parkinson's transgenic mice expressing the human SNCA gene. PMID:22693681

  10. CFTR mRNA expression is regulated by an upstream open reading frame and RNA secondary structure in its 5' untranslated region.

    PubMed

    Lukowski, Samuel W; Rothnagel, Joseph A; Trezise, Ann E O

    2015-02-15

    Post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression through 5' untranslated region (5'UTR)-encoded cis-acting elements is an important mechanism for the control of protein expression levels. Through controlling specific aspects of translation initiation, expression can be tightly regulated while remaining responsive to cellular requirements. With respect to cystic fibrosis (CF), the overexpression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein trafficking mutants, such as delta-F508, is of great biological and clinical interest. By understanding the post-transcriptional mechanisms that regulate CFTR expression, new procedures can be developed to enhance CFTR expression in homozygous delta-F508 CF patients. We have identified the key elements of a complex negative regulatory mechanism that is encoded within the human CFTR 5'UTR and show how these elements act in combination to restrict CFTR gene expression to a consistently low level in a transcript-specific manner. This study shows, for the first time, that endogenous human CFTR expression is post-transcriptionally regulated through a 5'UTR-mediated mechanism. We show that the very low levels of endogenous CFTR expression, compared with other low expression genes, are maintained through the co-operative inhibitory effects of an upstream open reading frame and a thermodynamically stable RNA secondary structure. PMID:25274779

  11. Cytoplasmic protein binding to highly conserved sequences in the 3' untranslated region of mouse protamine 2 mRNA, a translationally regulated transcript of male germ cells.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Y K; Hecht, N B

    1991-05-01

    The expression of the protamines, the predominant nuclear proteins of mammalian spermatozoa, is regulated translationally during male germ-cell development. The 3' untranslated region (UTR) of protamine 1 mRNA has been reported to control its time of translation. To understand the mechanisms controlling translation of the protamine mRNAs, we have sought to identify cis elements of the 3' UTR of protamine 2 mRNA that are recognized by cytoplasmic factors. From gel retardation assays, two sequence elements are shown to form specific RNA-protein complexes. Protein binding sites of the two complexes were determined by RNase T1 mapping, by blocking the putative binding sites with antisense oligonucleotides, and by competition assays. The sequences of these elements, located between nucleotides + 537 and + 572 in protamine 2 mRNA, are highly conserved among postmeiotic translationally regulated nuclear proteins of the mammalian testis. Two closely linked protein binding sites were detected. UV-crosslinking studies revealed that a protein of about 18 kDa binds to one of the conserved sequences. These data demonstrate specific protein binding to a highly conserved 3' UTR of translationally regulated testicular mRNA. PMID:2023906

  12. The 5′-untranslated region of the mouse mammary tumor virus mRNA exhibits cap-independent translation initiation

    PubMed Central

    Vallejos, Maricarmen; Ramdohr, Pablo; Valiente-Echeverría, Fernando; Tapia, Karla; Rodriguez, Felipe E.; Lowy, Fernando; Huidobro-Toro, J. Pablo; Dangerfield, John A.; López-Lastra, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the identification of an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) within the 5′-untranslated region (5′-UTR) of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV). The 5′-UTR of the full-length mRNA derived from the infectious, complete MMTV genome was cloned into a dual luciferase reporter construct containing an upstream Renilla luciferase gene (RLuc) and a downstream firefly luciferase gene (FLuc). In rabbit reticulocyte lysate, the MMTV 5′-UTR was capable of driving translation of the second cistron. In vitro translational activity from the MMTV 5′-UTR was resistant to the addition of m7GpppG cap-analog and cleavage of eIF4G by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) L-protease. IRES activity was also demonstrated in the Xenopus laevis oocyte by micro-injection of capped and polyadenylated bicistronic RNAs harboring the MMTV-5′-UTR. Finally, transfection assays showed that the MMTV-IRES exhibits cell type-dependent translational activity, suggesting a requirement for as yet unidentified cellular factors for its optimal function. PMID:19889724

  13. A Viral mRNA Motif at the 3′-Untranslated Region that Confers Translatability in a Cell-Specific Manner. Implications for Virus Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Moreno, Manuel; Sanz, Miguel Angel; Carrasco, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Sindbis virus (SINV) mRNAs contain several motifs that participate in the regulation of their translation. We have discovered a motif at the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of viral mRNAs, constituted by three repeated sequences, which is involved in the translation of both SINV genomic and subgenomic mRNAs in insect, but not in mammalian cells. These data illustrate for the first time that an element present at the 3′-UTR confers translatability to mRNAs from an animal virus in a cell-specific manner. Sequences located at the beginning of the 5′-UTR may also regulate SINV subgenomic mRNA translation in both cell lines in a context of infection. Moreover, a replicon derived from Sleeping disease virus, an alphavirus that have no known arthropod vector for transmission, is much more efficient in insect cells when the repeated sequences from SINV are inserted at its 3′-UTR, due to the enhanced translatability of its mRNAs. Thus, these findings provide a clue to understand, at the molecular level, the evolution of alphaviruses and their host range. PMID:26755446

  14. Nucleolin Interacts with the Feline Calicivirus 3′ Untranslated Region and the Protease-Polymerase NS6 and NS7 Proteins, Playing a Role in Virus Replication ▿

    PubMed Central

    Cancio-Lonches, Clotilde; Yocupicio-Monroy, Martha; Sandoval-Jaime, Carlos; Galvan-Mendoza, Iván; Ureña, Luis; Vashist, Surender; Goodfellow, Ian; Salas-Benito, Juan; Gutiérrez-Escolano, Ana Lorena

    2011-01-01

    Cellular proteins play many important roles during the life cycle of all viruses. Specifically, host cell nucleic acid-binding proteins interact with viral components of positive-stranded RNA viruses and regulate viral translation, as well as RNA replication. Here, we report that nucleolin, a ubiquitous multifunctional nucleolar shuttling phosphoprotein, interacts with the Norwalk virus and feline calicivirus (FCV) genomic 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs). Nucleolin can also form a complex in vitro with recombinant Norwalk virus NS6 and -7 (NS6/7) and can be copurified with the analogous protein from feline calicivirus (p76 or NS6/7) from infected feline kidney cells. Nucleolin RNA levels or protein were not modified during FCV infection; however, as a consequence of the infection, nucleolin was seen to relocalize from the nucleoli to the nucleoplasm, as well as to the perinuclear area where it colocalizes with the feline calicivirus NS6/7 protein. In addition, antibodies to nucleolin were able to precipitate viral RNA from feline calicivirus-infected cells, indicating a direct or indirect association of nucleolin with the viral RNA during virus replication. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of nucleolin resulted in a reduction of the cytopathic effect and virus yield in CrFK cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that nucleolin is a nucleolar component that interacts with viral RNA and NS6/7 and is required for feline calicivirus replication. PMID:21680514

  15. Involvement of the 5'-untranslated region in cold-regulated expression of the rbpA1 gene in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis M3.

    PubMed Central

    Sato, N; Nakamura, A

    1998-01-01

    Transcript of the rbpA1 gene in Anabaena variabilis accumulates significantly at low growth temperatures below 28 degreesC. This accumulation was maximal at 16 degreesC. Accumulation of the rbpA1 transcript was completely abolished by rifampicin, but not by chloramphenicol. Photosynthesis was not required for this cold-induced accumulation. This accumulation of transcript was partly accounted for by increased stability of the rbpA1 transcript at low temperature. Expression of chimeric genes containing 3'-deleted rbpA1 sequences fused to the lacZ gene was regulated by low temperature when almost the entire 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) remained undeleted. Further deletion resulted in constitutive expression of the chimeric gene. The 5'-UTR sequence formed two types of complexes in vitro with protein extract from cells grown at 38 degreesC, but not with extract from the 22 degreesC grown cells. Affinity purification identified polypeptides of 75 and 32 kDa in Complex 1 and a 72 kDa polypeptide in Complex 2. These results are compatible with a model in which expression of the rbpA1 gene is regulated by transcriptional derepression at low temperature, although additional mechanisms, such as regulation of mRNA stability, might also contribute to temperature-dependent regulation. PMID:9547280

  16. A Polymorphism in the 5′-Untranslated Region of the Porcine Cholecystokinin Type A Receptor Gene Affects Feed Intake and Growth

    PubMed Central

    Houston, R. D.; Haley, C. S.; Archibald, A. L.; Cameron, N. D.; Plastow, G. S.; Rance, K. A.

    2006-01-01

    The location and utilization of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and candidate genes with significant effects on economically important traits are becoming increasingly important in livestock breeding programs. The porcine cholecystokinin type A receptor (CCKAR) is a candidate gene for performance traits, due to its known role in the physiological control of feed intake, satiety, and obesity. We investigated the association of CCKAR polymorphisms with feeding, growth, and efficiency traits in an F2 population derived from a cross between Meishan and Large White founder animals and in lines of Large White pigs that had been divergently selected on the basis of lean growth efficiency traits. In the F2 population, CCKAR genotype was significantly associated with daily feed intake and average daily gain. The effects of the polymorphisms were then assessed in a larger-scale analysis of segregating commercial lines. A newly discovered single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) within the 5′-untranslated region (5′-UTR) had highly significant effects on feed intake, average daily gain, and days to 110 kg, which were not seen for a previously reported SNP within the CCKAR gene. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the novel SNP disrupts the binding of the YY1 transcription factor, which raises the possibility that it is the causal variant. The 5′-UTR SNP could be utilized as a molecular genetic test for increased feed intake, faster lean growth, and reduced days to market weight in segregating commercial lines. PMID:16951077

  17. Nucleolin interacts with the feline calicivirus 3' untranslated region and the protease-polymerase NS6 and NS7 proteins, playing a role in virus replication.

    PubMed

    Cancio-Lonches, Clotilde; Yocupicio-Monroy, Martha; Sandoval-Jaime, Carlos; Galvan-Mendoza, Iván; Ureña, Luis; Vashist, Surender; Goodfellow, Ian; Salas-Benito, Juan; Gutiérrez-Escolano, Ana Lorena

    2011-08-01

    Cellular proteins play many important roles during the life cycle of all viruses. Specifically, host cell nucleic acid-binding proteins interact with viral components of positive-stranded RNA viruses and regulate viral translation, as well as RNA replication. Here, we report that nucleolin, a ubiquitous multifunctional nucleolar shuttling phosphoprotein, interacts with the Norwalk virus and feline calicivirus (FCV) genomic 3' untranslated regions (UTRs). Nucleolin can also form a complex in vitro with recombinant Norwalk virus NS6 and -7 (NS6/7) and can be copurified with the analogous protein from feline calicivirus (p76 or NS6/7) from infected feline kidney cells. Nucleolin RNA levels or protein were not modified during FCV infection; however, as a consequence of the infection, nucleolin was seen to relocalize from the nucleoli to the nucleoplasm, as well as to the perinuclear area where it colocalizes with the feline calicivirus NS6/7 protein. In addition, antibodies to nucleolin were able to precipitate viral RNA from feline calicivirus-infected cells, indicating a direct or indirect association of nucleolin with the viral RNA during virus replication. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of nucleolin resulted in a reduction of the cytopathic effect and virus yield in CrFK cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that nucleolin is a nucleolar component that interacts with viral RNA and NS6/7 and is required for feline calicivirus replication. PMID:21680514

  18. Hel-N1: an autoimmune RNA-binding protein with specificity for 3' uridylate-rich untranslated regions of growth factor mRNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Levine, T D; Gao, F; King, P H; Andrews, L G; Keene, J D

    1993-01-01

    We have investigated the RNA binding specificity of Hel-N1, a human neuron-specific RNA-binding protein, which contains three RNA recognition motifs. Hel-N1 is a human homolog of Drosophila melanogaster elav, which plays a vital role in the development of neurons. A random RNA selection procedure revealed that Hel-N1 prefers to bind RNAs containing short stretches of uridylates similar to those found in the 3' untranslated regions (3' UTRs) of oncoprotein and cytokine mRNAs such as c-myc, c-fos, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Direct binding studies demonstrated that Hel-N1 bound and formed multimers with c-myc 3' UTR mRNA and required, as a minimum, a specific 29-nucleotide stretch containing AUUUG, AUUUA, and GUUUUU. Deletion analysis demonstrated that a fragment of Hel-N1 containing 87 amino acids, encompassing the third RNA recognition motif, forms an RNA binding domain for the c-myc 3' UTR. In addition, Hel-N1 was shown to be reactive with autoantibodies from patients with paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis both before and after binding to c-myc mRNA. Images PMID:8497264

  19. Variant in the 5' untranslated region of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor is associated with susceptibility to mastitis in cattle.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Mayumi; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu

    2012-09-01

    Mastitis is a common infectious disease of the mammary gland and generates large losses in the dairy industry. By means of positional cloning and functional analysis techniques, we here show that insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) can possibly mediate susceptibility to mastitis through autophagy. Scanning the whole genome of cows (Bos taurus) that were susceptible or resistant to mastitis in the half-sib families revealed that susceptible cows had a relatively long stretch of cytosine residues (C stretch) in the 5' untranslated region of IGF1R. The forebrain embryonic zinc finger-like (FEZL) transcription factor, which was previously identified as a factor controlling mastitis resistance in the same half-sib families, bound the C stretch of IGF1R. The susceptible type of FEZL with a glycine stretch containing 13 glycines (13G) and the longer C stretch of IGF1R together enhanced expression of IGF1R. Enhancing IGF1R inhibited autophagy in response to Streptococcus agalactiae invasion of mammary epithelial cells, whereas treatment with rapamycin, a known inducer of autophagy, rescued it. Cows carrying the variant combination of 13GFEZL might be more susceptible to mastitis as the result of impaired autophagy. Our results suggest that IGF1R could control innate immunity in mammals and serve as a potential tool for preventing mastitis. PMID:22973545

  20. The tRNA methyltransferase NSun2 stabilizes p16INK4 mRNA by methylating the 3′-untranslated region of p16

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaotian; Liu, Zhenyun; Yi, Jie; Tang, Hao; Xing, Junyue; Yu, Minqwei; Tong, Tanjun; Shang, Yongfeng; Gorospe, Myriam; Wang, Wengong

    2012-01-01

    The impact of methylation of the 3′-untranslated region (UTR) of a messenger RNA (mRNA) remains largely unknown. Here we show that NSun2, a transfer RNA methyltransferase, inhibits the turnover of p16INK4 mRNA. Knockdown of NSun2 reduces p16 expression by shortening the half-life of the p16 mRNA, while overexpression of NSun2 stabilizes the p16 mRNA. In vitro methylation assays show that NSun2 methylates the p16 3′UTR at A988. Knockdown of NSun2 reduces the stability of the EGFP-p16 chimeric reporter transcripts bearing wild-type p16 3′UTR, but not p16 3′UTR with a mutant methylation site. Methylation by NSun2 prevents the association of p16 3′UTR with HuR, AUF1 and Ago2/RISC, and prevents the recruitment of EGFP-p16 3′UTR chimeric transcripts to processing bodies. In response to oxidative stress, NSun2 is essential for elevating p16 expression levels. We conclude that NSun2-mediated methylation of the p16 3′UTR is a novel mechanism to stabilize p16 mRNA. PMID:22395603

  1. Improved Annotation of 3′ Untranslated Regions and Complex Loci by Combination of Strand-Specific Direct RNA Sequencing, RNA-Seq and ESTs

    PubMed Central

    Song, Junfang; Duc, Céline; Storey, Kate G.; McLean, W. H. Irwin; Brown, Sara J.; Simpson, Gordon G.; Barton, Geoffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    The reference annotations made for a genome sequence provide the framework for all subsequent analyses of the genome. Correct and complete annotation in addition to the underlying genomic sequence is particularly important when interpreting the results of RNA-seq experiments where short sequence reads are mapped against the genome and assigned to genes according to the annotation. Inconsistencies in annotations between the reference and the experimental system can lead to incorrect interpretation of the effect on RNA expression of an experimental treatment or mutation in the system under study. Until recently, the genome-wide annotation of 3′ untranslated regions received less attention than coding regions and the delineation of intron/exon boundaries. In this paper, data produced for samples in Human, Chicken and A. thaliana by the novel single-molecule, strand-specific, Direct RNA Sequencing technology from Helicos Biosciences which locates 3′ polyadenylation sites to within +/− 2 nt, were combined with archival EST and RNA-Seq data. Nine examples are illustrated where this combination of data allowed: (1) gene and 3′ UTR re-annotation (including extension of one 3′ UTR by 5.9 kb); (2) disentangling of gene expression in complex regions; (3) clearer interpretation of small RNA expression and (4) identification of novel genes. While the specific examples displayed here may become obsolete as genome sequences and their annotations are refined, the principles laid out in this paper will be of general use both to those annotating genomes and those seeking to interpret existing publically available annotations in the context of their own experimental data. PMID:24722185

  2. Nodule parenchyma-specific expression of the sesbania rostrata early nodulin gene SrEnod2 is mediated by its 3' untranslated region

    PubMed Central

    Chen, R; Silver, DL; de Bruijn FJ

    1998-01-01

    The early nodulin Enod2 gene encodes a putative hydroxyproline-rich cell wall protein and is expressed exclusively in the nodule parenchyma cell layer. The latter finding suggests that the Enod2 protein may contribute to the special morphological features of the nodule parenchyma and to the creation of an oxygen diffusion barrier. The Enod2 gene of the stem-nodulating legume Sesbania rostrata (SrEnod2) is induced specifically in roots by the plant hormone cytokinin, and this induction occurs at a post-transcriptional level. Here, we characterize the cis determinant(s) in the SrEnod2 locus responsible for nodule parenchyma-specific expression and show that the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the SrEnod2 gene is both required and sufficient for directing chimeric reporter gene expression in the nodule parenchyma of transgenic Lotus corniculatus plants. Moreover, we show that the SrEnod2 3' UTR does not act as a tissue-specific enhancer element. By conducting a detailed deletion analysis of the 5' and 3' SrEnod2 regions, we delimited the minimal promoter of the SrEnod2 gene, and it appears that the 5' flanking sequences are not essential for nodule parenchyma-specific expression. This finding is in contrast with the report that the 5' upstream region of the soybean Enod2 gene directs nodule parenchyma-specific expression, indicating that different mechanisms may be involved in regulating the expression of these two genes. We definitively demonstrate that the cis element(s) for tissue-specific expression is located within the 3' UTR of a plant nuclear gene. PMID:9761788

  3. Isolation of an insulin-like growth factor II cDNA with a unique 5 prime untranslated region from human placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Shujane; Daimon, Makoto; Wang, Chunyeh; Ilan, J. ); Jansen, M. )

    1988-03-01

    Human insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) cDNA from a placental library was isolated and sequenced. The 5{prime} untranslated region (5{prime}-UTR) sequence of this cDNA differs completely from that of adult human liver and has considerable base sequence identity to the same region of an IGF-II cDNA of a rat liver cell line, BRL-3A. Human placental poly(A){sup +} RNA was probed with either the 5{prime}-UTR of the isolated human placental IGF-II cDNA or the 5{prime}-UTR of the IGF-II cDNA obtained from adult human liver. No transcripts were detected by using the 5{prime}-UTR of the adult liver IGF-II as the probe. In contrast, three transcripts of 6.0, 3.2, and 2.2 kilobases were detected by using the 5{prime}-UTR of the placental IGF-II cDNA as the probe or the probe from the coding sequence. A fourth IGF-II transcript of 4.9 kilobases presumably containing a 5{prime}-UTR consisting of a base sequence dissimilar to that of either IGF-II 5{prime}-UTR was apparent. Therefore, IGF-II transcripts detected may be products of alternative splicing as their 5{prime}-UTR sequence is contained within the human IGF-II gene or they may be a consequence of alternative promoter utilization in placenta.

  4. Comparative Transcriptomics of Eastern African Cichlid Fishes Shows Signs of Positive Selection and a Large Contribution of Untranslated Regions to Genetic Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Baldo, Laura; Santos, M.Emília; Salzburger, Walter

    2011-01-01

    The hundreds of endemic species of cichlid fishes in the East African Great Lakes Tanganyika, Malawi, and Victoria are a prime model system in evolutionary biology. With five genomes currently being sequenced, eastern African cichlids also represent a forthcoming genomic model for evolutionary studies of genotype-to-phenotype processes in adaptive radiations. Here we report the functional annotation and comparative analyses of transcriptome data sets for two eastern African cichlid species, Astatotilapia burtoni and Ophthalmotilapia ventralis, representatives of the modern haplochromines and ectodines, respectively. Nearly 647,000 expressed sequence tags were assembled in more than 46,000 contigs for each species using the 454 sequencing technology, largely expanding the current sequence data set publicly available for these cichlids. Total predicted coverage of their proteome diversity is approximately 50% for both species. Comparative qualitative and quantitative analyses show very similar transcriptome data for the two species in terms of both functional annotation and relative abundance of gene ontology terms expressed. Average genetic distance between species is 1.75% when all transcript types are considered including nonannotated sequences, 1.33% for annotated sequences only including untranslated regions, and decreases to nearly half, 0.95%, for coding sequences only, suggesting a large contribution of noncoding regions to their genetic diversity. Comparative analyses across the two species, tilapia and the outgroup medaka based on an overlapping data set of 1,216 genes (∼526 kb) demonstrate cichlid-specific signature of disruptive selection and provide a set of candidate genes that are putatively under positive selection. Overall, these data sets offer the genetic platform for future comparative analyses in light of the upcoming genomes for this taxonomic group. PMID:21617250

  5. A 205-Nucleotide Deletion in the 3′ Untranslated Region of Avian Leukosis Virus Subgroup J, Currently Emergent in China, Contributes to Its Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qi; Gao, Yulong; Wang, Yongqiang; Qin, Liting; Qi, Xiaole; Qu, Yue; Gao, Honglei

    2012-01-01

    In the past 5 years, an atypical clinical outbreak of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J), which contains a unique 205-nucleotide deletion in its 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR), has become epidemic in chickens in China. To determine the role of the 205-nucleotide deletion in the pathogenicity of ALV-J, a pair of viruses were constructed and rescued. The first virus was an ALV-J Chinese isolate (designated HLJ09SH01) containing the 205-nucleotide deletion in its 3′UTR. The second virus was a chimeric clone in which the 3′UTR contains a 205-nucleotide sequence corresponding to a region of the ALV-J prototype virus. The replication and pathogenicity of the rescued viruses (rHLJ09SH01 and rHLJ09SH01A205) were investigated. Compared to rHLJ09SH01A205, rHLJ09SH01 showed a moderate growth advantage in vitro and in vivo, in addition to exhibiting a higher oncogenicity rate and lethality rate in layers and broilers. Increased vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and vascular endothelial growth receptor subtype 2 (VEGFR-2) expression was induced by rHLJ09SH01 more so than by rHLJ09SH01A205 during early embryonic vascular development, but this increased expression disappeared when the expression levels were normalized to the viral levels. This finding suggests that the expression of VEGF-A and VEGFR-2 is associated with viral replication and may also represent a novel molecular mechanism underlying the oncogenic potential of ALV-J. Overall, our findings not only indicate that the unique 205-nucleotide deletion in the ALV-J genome occurred naturally in China and contributes to increased pathogenicity but also point to the possible mechanism of ALV-J-induced oncogenicity. PMID:22993155

  6. Activator protein-2gamma (AP-2gamma) expression is specifically induced by oestrogens through binding of the oestrogen receptor to a canonical element within the 5'-untranslated region.

    PubMed Central

    Orso, Francesca; Cottone, Erika; Hasleton, Mark D; Ibbitt, J Claire; Sismondi, Piero; Hurst, Helen C; De Bortoli, Michele

    2004-01-01

    The activator protein 2 (AP-2) transcription factors are essential proteins for oestrogenic repression of the ERBB2 proto-oncogene in breast cancer cells. In the present study, we have examined the possible oestrogenic regulation of AP-2 genes themselves in breast-tumour-derived lines. As early as 1 h after oestrogen treatment, AP-2gamma mRNA was markedly increased, whereas AP-2alpha was down-regulated, but with slower kinetics, and AP-2beta was not affected at all. Addition of anti-oestrogens ablated these effects. Modulation of the protein levels corresponded to changes in the transcript levels, thus suggesting that in oestrogen-treated cells, an inversion of the balance between AP-2alpha and AP-2gamma isoforms occurs. The 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of the human AP-2gamma gene contains one consensus and one degenerate oestrogen-responsive element (ERE). Reporter constructs carrying the AP-2gamma promoter and the 5'-UTR were up-regulated by oestrogens in transient transfection assays. Deletion of the most conserved (but not of the degenerate) ERE from reporter constructs abrogated the oestrogenic response, although both ERE-containing segments were footprinted in DNaseI protection assays. In vitro binding assays demonstrated the ability of oestrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) to bind to this site, and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis of the endogenous gene showed that ERalpha occupies this region in response to oestrogens. We conclude that AP-2gamma is a primary oestrogen-responsive gene and suggest that AP-2 proteins may mediate some oestrogenic responses. PMID:14565844

  7. Identification of two proteins that bind to a pyrimidine-rich sequence in the 3'-untranslated region of GAP-43 mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, N; Baekelandt, V; Goritchenko, L; Benowitz, L I

    1997-01-01

    GAP-43 is a membrane phosphoprotein that is important for the development and plasticity of neural connections. In undifferentiated PC12 pheochromocytoma cells, GAP-43 mRNA degrades rapidly ( t = 5 h), but becomes stable when cells are treated with nerve growth factor. To identify trans- acting factors that may influence mRNA stability, we combined column chromatography and gel mobility shift assays to isolate GAP-43 mRNA binding proteins from neonatal bovine brain tissue. This resulted in the isolation of two proteins that bind specifically and competitively to a pyrimidine-rich sequence in the 3'-untranslated region of GAP-43 mRNA. Partial amino acid sequencing revealed that one of the RNA binding proteins coincides with FBP (far upstream element binding protein), previously characterized as a protein that resembles hnRNP K and which binds to a single-stranded, pyrimidine-rich DNA sequence upstream of the c -myc gene to activate its expression. The other binding protein shares sequence homology with PTB, a polypyrimidine tract binding protein implicated in RNA splicing and regulation of translation initiation. The two proteins bind to a 26 nt pyrimidine-rich sequence lying 300 nt downstream of the end of the coding region, in an area shown by others to confer instability on a reporter mRNA in transient transfection assays. We therefore propose that FBP and the PTB-like protein may compete for binding at the same site to influence the stability of GAP-43 mRNA. PMID:9092640

  8. Evolution and Emergence of Enteroviruses through Intra- and Inter-species Recombination: Plasticity and Phenotypic Impact of Modular Genetic Exchanges in the 5’ Untranslated Region

    PubMed Central

    Muslin, Claire; Joffret, Marie-Line; Pelletier, Isabelle; Blondel, Bruno; Delpeyroux, Francis

    2015-01-01

    Genetic recombination shapes the diversity of RNA viruses, including enteroviruses (EVs), which frequently have mosaic genomes. Pathogenic circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) genomes consist of mutated vaccine poliovirus (PV) sequences encoding capsid proteins, and sequences encoding nonstructural proteins derived from other species’ C EVs, including certain coxsackieviruses A (CV-A) in particular. Many cVDPV genomes also have an exogenous 5’ untranslated region (5’ UTR). This region is involved in virulence and includes the cloverleaf (CL) and the internal ribosomal entry site, which play major roles in replication and the initiation of translation, respectively. We investigated the plasticity of the PV genome in terms of recombination in the 5’ UTR, by developing an experimental model involving the rescue of a bipartite PV/CV-A cVDPV genome rendered defective by mutations in the CL, following the co-transfection of cells with 5’ UTR RNAs from each of the four human EV species (EV-A to -D). The defective cVDPV was rescued by recombination with 5’ UTR sequences from the four EV species. Homologous and nonhomologous recombinants with large deletions or insertions in three hotspots were isolated, revealing a striking plasticity of the 5’ UTR. By contrast to the recombination of the cVDPV with the 5’ UTR of group II (EV-A and -B), which can decrease viral replication and virulence, recombination with the 5’ UTRs of group I (EV-C and -D) appeared to be evolutionarily neutral or associated with a gain in fitness. This study illustrates how the genomes of positive-strand RNA viruses can evolve into mosaic recombinant genomes through intra- or inter-species modular genetic exchanges, favoring the emergence of new recombinant lineages. PMID:26562151

  9. 3'-untranslated region of SP-B mRNA mediates inhibitory effects of TPA and TNF-alpha on SP-B expression.

    PubMed

    Pryhuber, G S; Church, S L; Kroft, T; Panchal, A; Whitsett, J A

    1994-07-01

    Surfactant protein-B (SP-B) is a small hydrophobic polypeptide that enhances spreading and stability of surfactant phospholipids in the alveolus of the lung. Decreased expression of SP-B is associated with respiratory failure in premature infants and in adult patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13 acetate (TPA) cause ARDS-like lung injury in vivo. Inhibitory effects of TPA and TNF-alpha on SP-B mRNA expression in vitro were mediated by decreased SP-B mRNA stability rather than by decreased rate of SP-B gene transcription. In the present study, a human pulmonary adenocarcinoma cell line, NCI H441-4, was stably transfected with expression vectors consisting of the thymidine kinase (TK) promotor and human growth hormone (hGH) gene, in which the hGH 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) was replaced by the 2.0-kb human SP-B cDNA [pTKGH(SP-B2.0)] or the 837-bp human SP-B 3'-UTR [pTKGH(SP-B.837)]. The mRNAs and cellular growth hormone protein generated from the chimeric TKGH(SP-B2.0) and TKGH(SP-B.837) genes were each inhibited by approximately 50% by TPA and TNF-alpha. Dexamethasone decreased the inhibitory effects of TPA and TNF-alpha. The inhibition of steady-state hGH-SP-B mRNA by TPA and TNF-alpha was mediated by a cis-active element located in the 3-UTR region of SP-B mRNA. PMID:8048538

  10. Comparative Complete Genome Analysis of Chicken and Turkey Megriviruses (Family Picornaviridae): Long 3′ Untranslated Regions with a Potential Second Open Reading Frame and Evidence for Possible Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Boros, Ákos; Pankovics, Péter; Knowles, Nick J.; Nemes, Csaba; Delwart, Eric

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Members of the family Picornaviridae consist of small positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) viruses capable of infecting various vertebrate species, including birds. One of the recently identified avian picornaviruses, with a remarkably long (>9,040-nucleotide) but still incompletely sequenced genome, is turkey hepatitis virus 1 (THV-1; species Melegrivirus A, genus Megrivirus), a virus associated with liver necrosis and enteritis in commercial turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). This report presents the results of the genetic analysis of three complete genomes of megriviruses from fecal samples of chickens (chicken/B21-CHV/2012/HUN, GenBank accession no. KF961186, and chicken/CHK-IV-CHV/2013/HUN, GenBank accession no. KF961187) (Gallus gallus domesticus) and turkey (turkey/B407-THV/2011/HUN, GenBank accession no. KF961188) (Meleagris gallopavo) with the largest picornavirus genome (up to 9,739 nucleotides) so far described. The close phylogenetic relationship to THV-1 in the nonstructural protein-coding genome region and possession of the same internal ribosomal entry site type (IVB-like) suggest that the study strains belong to the genus Megrivirus. However, the genome comparisons revealed numerous unique variations (e.g., different numbers of potential 2A peptides, unusually long 3′ genome parts with various lengths of a potential second open reading frame, and multiple repeating sequence motifs in the 3′ untranslated region) and heterogeneous sequence relationships between the structural and nonstructural genome regions. These differences suggest the classification of chicken megrivirus-like viruses into a candidate novel species in the genus Megrivirus. Based on the different phylogenetic positions of chicken megrivirus-like viruses at the structural and nonstructural genome regions, the recombinant nature of these viruses is plausible. IMPORTANCE The comparative genome analysis of turkey and novel chicken megriviruses revealed numerous unique

  11. The 3' untranslated region C > T polymorphism of prohibitin is a breast cancer risk modifier in Polish women carrying a BRCA1 mutation.

    PubMed

    Jakubowska, Anna; Gronwald, Jacek; Górski, Bohdan; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Benner, Axel; Lubiński, Jan; Scott, Rodney J; Hamann, Ute

    2007-07-01

    The variable penetrance of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers suggests that other genetic or environmental factors modify breast cancer risk. The C to T transition in the 3' untranslated region of the prohibitin (PHB) gene alters mRNA function and has been shown to be associated with an increased breast cancer risk among young North-American women who have one first-degree relative with breast cancer. To investigate whether the PHB 3'UTR polymorphism acts as a modifier of hereditary breast cancer risk we performed a case-control study among female BRCA1 mutation carriers, which included 258 cases and 258 controls who were unaffected by ovarian cancer, in situ breast carcinoma or any other type of cancer. Controls were matched to cases by year of birth and BRCA1 mutation (5382insC, 300 T > G, 4153delA). Genotyping analysis was performed using RFLP-PCR. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated using conditional and penalised univariable and multivariable logistic regression. Multivariable penalised logistic regression revealed CT (OR(adj), 2.03; 95% CI, 1.17-3.59) and combined CT + TT (OR(adj), 2.12; 95% CI, 1.23-3.70) genotypes as significant modifiers of breast cancer risk. Breast cancer risk did not differ between carriers of the 300 T > G and 5382insC mutation. Our results suggest that the PHB 3'UTR T allele increases the risk of breast cancer in patients who are already at increased risk of disease. PMID:17004108

  12. Poly(A)-Binding Protein Facilitates Translation of an Uncapped/Nonpolyadenylated Viral RNA by Binding to the 3′ Untranslated Region

    PubMed Central

    Iwakawa, Hiro-oki; Tajima, Yuri; Taniguchi, Takako; Kaido, Masanori; Mise, Kazuyuki; Tomari, Yukihide; Taniguchi, Hisaaki

    2012-01-01

    Viruses employ an alternative translation mechanism to exploit cellular resources at the expense of host mRNAs and to allow preferential translation. Plant RNA viruses often lack both a 5′ cap and a 3′ poly(A) tail in their genomic RNAs. Instead, cap-independent translation enhancer elements (CITEs) located in the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) mediate their translation. Although eukaryotic translation initiation factors (eIFs) or ribosomes have been shown to bind to the 3′CITEs, our knowledge is still limited for the mechanism, especially for cellular factors. Here, we searched for cellular factors that stimulate the 3′CITE-mediated translation of Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV) RNA1 using RNA aptamer-based one-step affinity chromatography, followed by mass spectrometry analysis. We identified the poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) as one of the key players in the 3′CITE-mediated translation of RCNMV RNA1. We found that PABP binds to an A-rich sequence (ARS) in the viral 3′ UTR. The ARS is conserved among dianthoviruses. Mutagenesis and a tethering assay revealed that the PABP-ARS interaction stimulates 3′CITE-mediated translation of RCNMV RNA1. We also found that both the ARS and 3′CITE are important for the recruitment of the plant eIF4F and eIFiso4F factors to the 3′ UTR and of the 40S ribosomal subunit to the viral mRNA. Our results suggest that dianthoviruses have evolved the ARS and 3′CITE as substitutes for the 3′ poly(A) tail and the 5′ cap of eukaryotic mRNAs for the efficient recruitment of eIFs, PABP, and ribosomes to the uncapped/nonpolyadenylated viral mRNA. PMID:22593149

  13. Molecular characterization, sexually dimorphic expression, and functional analysis of 3'-untranslated region of vasa gene in half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis).

    PubMed

    Huang, Jinqiang; Chen, Songlin; Liu, Yang; Shao, Changwei; Lin, Fan; Wang, Na; Hu, Qiaomu

    2014-07-15

    Vasa is a highly conserved ATP-dependent RNA helicase expressed mainly in germ cells. The vasa gene plays a crucial role in the development of germ cell lineage and has become an excellent molecular marker in identifying germ cells in teleosts. However, little is known about the structure and function of the vasa gene in flatfish. In this study, the vasa gene (Csvasa) was isolated and characterized in half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis), an economically important flatfish in China. In the obtained 6425-bp genomic sequence, 23 exons and 22 introns were identified. The Csvasa gene encodes a 663-amino acid protein, including highly conserved domains of the DEAD-box protein family. The amino acid sequence also shared a high homology with other teleosts. Csvasa expression was mainly restricted to the gonads, with little or no expression in other tissues. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that Csvasa expression levels decreased during embryonic and early developmental stages and increased with the primordial germ cell proliferation. A typical sexually dimorphic expression pattern of Csvasa was observed during early development and sex differentiation, suggesting that the Csvasa gene might play a differential role in the proliferation and differentiation of male and female primordial germ cells (PGCs). Csvasa mRNA expression levels in neomales were significantly lower than those in normal males and females, indicating that the Csvasa gene might be implicated in germ cell development after sex reversal by temperature treatment. In addition, medaka (Oryzias latipes) PGCs could be transiently labeled by microinjection of synthesized mRNA containing the green fluorescence protein gene and 3'-untranslated region of Csvasa, which confirmed that the Csvasa gene has the potential to be used as a visual molecular marker of germ cells and laid a foundation for manipulation of PGCs in tongue sole reproduction. PMID:24768058

  14. Poly(A)-binding protein facilitates translation of an uncapped/nonpolyadenylated viral RNA by binding to the 3' untranslated region.

    PubMed

    Iwakawa, Hiro-Oki; Tajima, Yuri; Taniguchi, Takako; Kaido, Masanori; Mise, Kazuyuki; Tomari, Yukihide; Taniguchi, Hisaaki; Okuno, Tetsuro

    2012-08-01

    Viruses employ an alternative translation mechanism to exploit cellular resources at the expense of host mRNAs and to allow preferential translation. Plant RNA viruses often lack both a 5' cap and a 3' poly(A) tail in their genomic RNAs. Instead, cap-independent translation enhancer elements (CITEs) located in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) mediate their translation. Although eukaryotic translation initiation factors (eIFs) or ribosomes have been shown to bind to the 3'CITEs, our knowledge is still limited for the mechanism, especially for cellular factors. Here, we searched for cellular factors that stimulate the 3'CITE-mediated translation of Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV) RNA1 using RNA aptamer-based one-step affinity chromatography, followed by mass spectrometry analysis. We identified the poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) as one of the key players in the 3'CITE-mediated translation of RCNMV RNA1. We found that PABP binds to an A-rich sequence (ARS) in the viral 3' UTR. The ARS is conserved among dianthoviruses. Mutagenesis and a tethering assay revealed that the PABP-ARS interaction stimulates 3'CITE-mediated translation of RCNMV RNA1. We also found that both the ARS and 3'CITE are important for the recruitment of the plant eIF4F and eIFiso4F factors to the 3' UTR and of the 40S ribosomal subunit to the viral mRNA. Our results suggest that dianthoviruses have evolved the ARS and 3'CITE as substitutes for the 3' poly(A) tail and the 5' cap of eukaryotic mRNAs for the efficient recruitment of eIFs, PABP, and ribosomes to the uncapped/nonpolyadenylated viral mRNA. PMID:22593149

  15. Translational enhancement of recombinant protein synthesis in transgenic silkworms by a 5'-untranslated region of polyhedrin gene of Bombyx mori Nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    PubMed

    Iizuka, Masashi; Tomita, Masahiro; Shimizu, Katsuhiko; Kikuchi, Yutaka; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi

    2008-06-01

    Previously, we established a method to produce recombinant proteins (r-proteins) in cocoons of germline transgenic silkworms, and showed that a step(s) in post-transcription processes was rate-limiting in obtaining a high yield of r-proteins. In this study, we examined whether the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of the polyhedrin gene (pol) of nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) has a translational enhancer activity in the r-protein expression by middle silk gland (MSG) cells of silkworm Bombyx mori (Bm). Sericin 1 gene (ser1) promoter-driven transformation vectors were constructed in which pol5'-UTRs of NPVs isolated from four different species, Bm, Spodoptera frugiperda, Ectropis oblique, and Malacosoma neustria, were each placed upstream of a reporter gene. Transient expression assays in MSGs showed that these pol5'-UTRs all enhanced the protein expression of reporter genes, and the pol5'-UTR of Bm NPV (pol5'-UTR/Bm) was the most effective among them. Thus, transgenic silkworms were generated, which bore the ser1 promoter-driven His-tagged secretory EGFP (sEGFP-His) gene under the control of pol5'-UTR/Bm. The synthesis of sEGFP-His proteins in MSGs of the transgenic worms was approximately 1.5-fold higher than that in those bearing null vectors. However, its mRNA expression levels were 67% of the control worms, indicating that the pol5'-UTR/Bm specifically enhanced the translational level. In conclusion, pol5'-UTR/Bm increased the yield of r-protein production in transgenic silkworms by enhancing the translational activity and this 5'-UTR could be useful for the mass production of r-proteins in germline transgenic silkworms. PMID:18640598

  16. A SNP in the 3'-untranslated region of AMPKγ1 may associate with serum ketone body and milk production of Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudi, Ahmad; Zargaran, Amir; Amini, Hamid-Reza; Assadi, Assad; Vajdi Hokmabad, Reza; Eghbalsaied, Shahin

    2015-12-10

    AMPK is the key switch for providing the energy balance between cellular anabolic and catabolic processes. In this study, we aimed to screen the PRKAG1 (AMPKγ1) gene in high, moderate, and low producing Holstein dairy cows. A sample of 100 pregnant dairy cows, comprising 41 high, 33 moderate, and 26 low milk yields were selected from three large dairy herds in Isfahan province of Iran. Body condition score (BCS) was estimated before parturition while beta hydroxyl butyric acid (BHBA) as a measure of ketone bodies was measured at the fifth day postpartum. In addition, using three primer pairs covering exons 2-11 and 3'-UTR of the PRKAG1 gene, a random sample of 10 high milk yield dairy cows were amplified and sequenced. The sequencing results showed the presence of a T12571C mutation in intron 6 and a T14280C mutation in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of the PRKAG1 gene. Following a PCR reaction for amplification of the 3'-UTR amplicons, single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) assay was implemented for discrimination of the mutation in the studied population. Then, we evaluated if the mutation associates with the BCS, serum BHBA level, and production traits. The experimental analysis showed that the mutated allele significantly increased the BHBA level, BCS, as well as milk and protein yield. Bioinformatic study revealed that this 3'-UTR mutation distorts the target site of mir-423-5p microRNA which is one of the most highly expressed microRNAs in the bovine mammary gland, liver, and kidney. Given the role of AMPK in energy metabolism, the newly identified 3'-UTR mutation highlights the importance of AMPK and suggests a role of miRNAs for regulation of cellular metabolism, metabolism disorders, and production traits in Holstein dairy cows. PMID:26226224

  17. Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein binds to the 5' untranslated region of the mouse mammary tumor virus mRNA and stimulates cap-independent translation initiation.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, Carlos J; Contreras, Nataly; Angulo, Jenniffer; Vera-Otarola, Jorge; Pino-Ajenjo, Constanza; Llorian, Miriam; Ameur, Melissa; Lisboa, Francisco; Pino, Karla; Lowy, Fernando; Sargueil, Bruno; López-Lastra, Marcelo

    2016-05-01

    The 5' untranslated region (UTR) of the full-length mRNA of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) harbors an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES). In this study, we show that the polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB), an RNA-binding protein with four RNA recognition motifs (RRMs), binds to the MMTV 5' UTR stimulating its IRES activity. There are three isoforms of PTB: PTB1, PTB2, and PTB4. Results show that PTB1 and PTB4, but not PTB2, stimulate MMTV-IRES activity. PTB1 promotes MMTV-IRES-mediated initiation more strongly than PTB4. When expressed in combination, PTB1 further enhanced PTB4 stimulation of the MMTV-IRES, while PTB2 fully abrogates PTB4-induced stimulation. PTB1-induced stimulation of MMTV-IRES was not altered in the presence of PTB4 or PTB2. Mutational analysis reveals that stimulation of MMTV-IRES activity is abrogated when PTB1 is mutated either in RRM1/RRM2 or RRM3/RRM4. In contrast, a PTB4 RRM1/RRM2 mutant has reduced effect over MMTV-IRES activity, while stimulation of the MMTV-IRES activity is still observed when the PTB4 RRM3/RMM4 mutant is used. Therefore, PTB1 and PTB4 differentially stimulate the IRES activity. In contrast, PTB2 acts as a negative modulator of PTB4-induced stimulation of MMTV-IRES. We conclude that PTB1 and PTB4 act as IRES trans-acting factors of the MMTV-IRES. PMID:26972759

  18. A variable number of tandem repeats in the 3'-untranslated region of the dopamine transporter modulates striatal function during working memory updating across the adult age span.

    PubMed

    Sambataro, Fabio; Podell, Jamie E; Murty, Vishnu P; Das, Saumitra; Kolachana, Bhaskar; Goldberg, Terry E; Weinberger, Daniel R; Mattay, Venkata S

    2015-08-01

    Dopamine modulation of striatal function is critical for executive functions such as working memory (WM) updating. The dopamine transporter (DAT) regulates striatal dopamine signaling via synaptic reuptake. A variable number of tandem repeats in the 3'-untranslated region of SLC6A3 (DAT1-3'-UTR-VNTR) is associated with DAT expression, such that 9-repeat allele carriers tend to express lower levels (associated with higher extracellular dopamine concentrations) than 10-repeat homozygotes. Aging is also associated with decline of the dopamine system. The goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of aging and DAT1-3'-UTR-VNTR on the neural activity and functional connectivity of the striatum during WM updating. Our results showed both an age-related decrease in striatal activity and an effect of DAT1-3'-UTR-VNTR. Ten-repeat homozygotes showed reduced striatal activity and increased striatal-hippocampal connectivity during WM updating relative to the 9-repeat carriers. There was no age by DAT1-3'-UTR-VNTR interaction. These results suggest that, whereas striatal function during WM updating is modulated by both age and genetically determined DAT levels, the rate of the age-related decline in striatal function is similar across both DAT1-3'-UTR-VNTR genotype groups. They further suggest that, because of the baseline difference in striatal function based on DAT1-3'-UTR-VNTR polymorphism, 10-repeat homozygotes, who have lower levels of striatal function throughout the adult life span, may reach a threshold of decreased striatal function and manifest impairments in cognitive processes mediated by the striatum earlier in life than the 9-repeat carriers. Our data suggest that age and DAT1-3'-UTR-VNTR polymorphism independently modulate striatal function. PMID:25997640

  19. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the 3'-untranslated region of the KRAS gene disrupts the interaction with let-7a and enhances the metastatic potential of osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shiqian; Hou, Chunying; Li, Guojun; Zhong, Yang; Zhang, Jie; Guo, Xinzhen; Li, Baoxin; Bi, Zhenggang; Shao, Ming

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to explore the molecular mechanism with which a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs61764370) interferes with the interaction between the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) and let-7a, and its association with the metastasis of osteosarcoma (OS). In this study, we confirmed that KRAS is a target of let-7a in OS cells, and the introduction of rs61764370 minor allele into KRAS 3'-UTR significantly compromised the microRNA (miRNA)/mRNA interaction using a luciferase reporter system. Additionally, a total of 36 OS tissue samples of three different genotypes (TT,22; TG,10; GG,4) were obtained, and the expression of let-7a and KRAS was determined. We showed that let-7a mRNA expression was similar between each group whereas the mRNA and protein expression of KRAS in the TT genotype group was significantly lower than that in the GT or GG genotype groups. Moreover, we identified a negative regulatory relationship between let-7a and KRAS. Furthermore, we demonstrated that let-7a and KRAS interfered with the viability, invasiveness and migration of OS cells genotyped as TT. In the OS cells genotyped as TG, let-7a exerted minimal effects, and the effect of KRAS siRNA remained. Taken together, the findings of the present study demonstrated that the KRAS 3'-UTR rs61764370 polymorphism interfered with miRNA/mRNA interaction, and showed that the minor allele was associated with an elevated risk of developing metastatic disease in OS. PMID:27430246

  20. Analyses of Subgenomic Promoters of Hibiscus Chlorotic Ringspot Virus and Demonstration of 5′ Untranslated Region and 3′-Terminal Sequences Functioning as Subgenomic Promoters

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weimin; Wong, Sek-Man

    2006-01-01

    Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV), which belongs to the genus Carmovirus, generates two 3′-coterminal subgenomic RNAs (sgRNAs) of 1.4 kb and 1.7 kb. Transcription start sites of the two sgRNAs were identified at nucleotides (nt) 2178 and 2438, respectively. The full promoter of sgRNA1, a 118-base sequence, is localized between positions +6 and −112 relative to its transcription start site (+1). Similarly, a 132-base sequence, from +6 to −126, defines the sgRNA2 promoter. Computer analysis revealed that both sgRNA promoters share a similar two-stem-loop (SL1 + SL2) structure, immediately upstream of the transcription start site. Mutational analysis of the primary sequence and secondary structures showed further similarities between the two subgenomic promoters. The basal portion of SL2, encompassing the transcription start site, was essential for transcription activity in each promoter, while SL1 and the upper portion of SL2 played a role in transcription enhancement. Both the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) and the last 87 nt at the 3′ UTR of HCRSV genomic RNA are likely to be the putative genomic plus-strand and minus-strand promoters, respectively. They function well as individual sgRNA promoters to produce ectopic subgenomic RNAs in vivo but not to the same levels of the actual sgRNA promoters. This suggests that HCRSV sgRNA promoters share common features with the promoters for genomic plus-strand and minus-strand RNA synthesis. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that both the 5′ UTR and part of the 3′ UTR can be duplicated and function as sgRNA promoters within a single viral genome. PMID:16537607

  1. Spliceosomal introns in the 5′ untranslated region of plant BTL RING-H2 ubiquitin ligases are evolutionary conserved and required for gene expression

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Introns located close to the 5′ end of a gene or in the 5′ untranslated region often exert positive effects on gene expression. This effect, known as intron-mediated enhancement (IME), has been observed in diverse eukaryotic organisms, including plants. The sequences involved in IME seem to be spread across the intron and function in an additive manner. The IMEter algorithm was developed to predict plant introns that may enhance gene expression. We have identified several plant members of the BTL class of E3s, which may have orthologs across eukaryotes, that contain a 5′UTR intron. The RING finger E3 ligases are key enzymes of the ubiquitination system that mediate the transfer of ubiquitin to substrates. Results In this study, we retrieved BTL sequences from several angiosperm species and found that 5′UTR introns showing a strong IMEter score were predicted, suggesting that they may be conserved by lineage. Promoter-GUS fusion lines were used to confirm the IME effect of these 5′UTR introns on gene expression. IMEter scores of BTLs were compared with the 5′UTR introns of two gene families MHX and polyubiquitin genes. Conclusions Analysis performed in two Arabidopsis BTL E3 ligases genes indicated that the 5′UTR introns were essential for gene expression in all the tissues tested. Comparison of the average 5′UTR intron size on three gene families in ten angiosperm species suggests that a prevalent size for a 5′UTR intron is in the range of 600 nucleotides, and that the overall IMEter score within a gene family is preserved across several angiosperms. Our results indicated that gene expression dependent on a 5′UTR intron is an efficient regulatory mechanism in BTL E3 ligases that has been preserved throughout plant evolution. PMID:24228887

  2. 5[prime] to 3[prime] nucleic acid synthesis using 3[prime]-photoremovable protecting group

    DOEpatents

    Pirrung, M.C.; Shuey, S.W.; Bradley, J.C.

    1999-06-01

    The present invention relates, in general, to a method of synthesizing a nucleic acid, and, in particular, to a method of effecting 5[prime] to 3[prime] nucleic acid synthesis. The method can be used to prepare arrays of oligomers bound to a support via their 5[prime] end. The invention also relates to a method of effecting mutation analysis using such arrays. The invention further relates to compounds and compositions suitable for use in such methods.

  3. Analysis of Mutations within the 5′ Untranslated Region, Interferon Sensitivity Region, and PePHD Region as a Function of Response to Interferon Therapy in Hepatitis C Virus-Infected Patients in India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Romi; Subramani, Murugan; Khaja, Mohammed N.; Madhavi, Chandra; Roy, Swagata; Habibullah, Chittoor M.; Das, Saumitra

    2006-01-01

    Mutations in several subgenomic regions have been implicated in influencing response to interferon therapy; however, a comprehensive picture of Indian patients was lacking. Based on the viral load and clinical factors, 10 out of 15 patients were found to be complete responders, whereas 5 patients were nonresponders. The pretreatment viral RNA load of the patients was found to be between 5.20 and 6.13 log10 IU/ml, which eventually fell to 2.77 log10 IU/ml after 24 weeks of treatment, whereas in the case of nonresponders, the average was 5.38 log10 IU/ml. In order to study the influence of the hepatitis C virus genotype on the response to interferon therapy, the 5′ untranslated region sequences of the samples were analyzed, which showed that genotype 3 patients responded better than genotype 1 patients. Additionally, the mutations in the interferon sensitivity-determining region (ISDR) of the NS5A protein and the double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase-eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha phosphorylation homology domain (PePHD) of the E2 envelope protein, before and after treatment, were compared with nonresponder prototype J. Although, no clear correlation was found in the case of the mutated ISDR, some significant changes in residues were observed in the PePHD region, which could be helpful in understanding the molecular basis of resistance to therapy. Interestingly, analysis of the quasispecies variations showed a change in genotype in one sample during treatment, which might have contributed to the resistance. The results suggest that the mutations in different regions of the viral genome might have a concerted effect on the response to interferon therapy. PMID:16517843

  4. Delayed translational silencing of ceruloplasmin transcript in gamma interferon-activated U937 monocytic cells: role of the 3' untranslated region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazumder, B.; Fox, P. L.

    1999-01-01

    Ceruloplasmin (Cp) is an acute-phase protein with ferroxidase, amine oxidase, and pro- and antioxidant activities. The primary site of Cp synthesis in human adults is the liver, but it is also synthesized by cells of monocytic origin. We have shown that gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) induces the synthesis of Cp mRNA and protein in monocytic cells. We now report that the induced synthesis of Cp is terminated by a mechanism involving transcript-specific translational repression. Cp protein synthesis in U937 cells ceased after 16 h even in the presence of abundant Cp mRNA. RNA isolated from cells treated with IFN-gamma for 24 h exhibited a high in vitro translation rate, suggesting that the transcript was not defective. Ribosomal association of Cp mRNA was examined by sucrose centrifugation. When Cp synthesis was high, i.e., after 8 h of IFN-gamma treatment, Cp mRNA was primarily associated with polyribosomes. However, after 24 h, when Cp synthesis was low, Cp mRNA was primarily in the nonpolyribosomal fraction. Cytosolic extracts from cells treated with IFN-gamma for 24 h, but not for 8 h, contained a factor which blocked in vitro Cp translation. Inhibitor expression was cell type specific and present in extracts of human cells of myeloid origin, but not in several nonmyeloid cells. The inhibitory factor bound to the 3' untranslated region (3'-UTR) of Cp mRNA, as shown by restoration of in vitro translation by synthetic 3'-UTR added as a "decoy" and detection of a binding complex by RNA gel shift analysis. Deletion mapping of the Cp 3'-UTR indicated an internal 100-nucleotide region of the Cp 3'-UTR that was required for complex formation as well as for silencing of translation. Although transcript-specific translational control is common during development and differentiation and global translational control occurs during responses to cytokines and stress, to our knowledge, this is the first report of translational silencing of a specific transcript following cytokine

  5. A partial MECP2 duplication in a mildly affected adult male: a putative role for the 3' untranslated region in the MECP2 duplication phenotype

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Duplications of the X-linked MECP2 gene are associated with moderate to severe intellectual disability, epilepsy, and neuropsychiatric illness in males, while triplications are associated with a more severe phenotype. Most carrier females show complete skewing of X-inactivation in peripheral blood and an apparent susceptibility to specific personality traits or neuropsychiatric symptoms. Methods We describe the clinical phenotype of a pedigree segregating a duplication of MECP2 found on clinical array comparative genomic hybridization. The position, size, and extent of the duplication were delineated in peripheral blood samples from affected individuals using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and fluorescence in situ hybridization, as well as targeted high-resolution oligonucleotide microarray analysis and long-range PCR. The molecular consequences of the rearrangement were studied in lymphoblast cell lines using quantitative real-time PCR, reverse transcriptase PCR, and western blot analysis. Results We observed a partial MECP2 duplication in an adult male with epilepsy and mild neurocognitive impairment who was able to function independently; this phenotype has not previously been reported among males harboring gains in MECP2 copy number. The same duplication was inherited by this individual’s daughter who was also affected with neurocognitive impairment and epilepsy and carried an additional copy-number variant. The duplicated segment involved all four exons of MECP2, but excluded almost the entire 3' untranslated region (UTR), and the genomic rearrangement resulted in a MECP2-TEX28 fusion gene mRNA transcript. Increased expression of MECP2 and the resulting fusion gene were both confirmed; however, western blot analysis of lysates from lymphoblast cells demonstrated increased MeCP2 protein without evidence of a stable fusion gene protein product. Conclusion The observations of a mildly affected adult male with a MECP2 duplication and

  6. Association of HLA-G 3’ Untranslated Region Polymorphisms with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in a Japanese Population: A Case-Control Association Study

    PubMed Central

    Hachiya, Yuki; Kawasaki, Aya; Oka, Shomi; Kondo, Yuya; Ito, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Isao; Kusaoi, Makio; Amano, Hirofumi; Suda, Akiko; Setoguchi, Keigo; Nagai, Tatsuo; Shimada, Kota; Sugii, Shoji; Okamoto, Akira; Chiba, Noriyuki; Suematsu, Eiichi; Ohno, Shigeru; Katayama, Masao; Kono, Hajime; Hirohata, Shunsei; Takasaki, Yoshinari; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Sumida, Takayuki; Nagaoka, Shouhei; Tohma, Shigeto; Furukawa, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    HLA-G plays a role in fetal-maternal tolerance as well as immunoregulation, and has been suggested to be involved in autoimmune diseases and cancers. HLA-G encodes two potentially functional polymorphisms in the 3’ untranslated region, 14bp insertion/deletion (14bp indel, rs371194629) and a single nucleotide polymorphism rs1063320, previously reported to affect HLA-G expression level or splicing isoform and to be associated with susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, the results of SLE association studies are inconsistent, probably due to the small sample size of each study and lack of consideration of linkage disequilibrium (LD) with HLA-class II haplotypes in each population. In this study, we performed association studies of these polymorphisms on 843 patients with SLE and 778 healthy controls in a Japanese population, in many of whom HLA-DRB1 alleles have been genotyped at the four-digit level. LD was detected between DRB1*13:02, protective against multiple autoimmune diseases in the Japanese, and the rs1063320 G (D’ = 0.86, r2 = 0.02) and with 14bp del (D’ = 0.62, r2 = 0.01), but not between SLE-susceptible DRB1*15:01 and HLA-G. Although significant association with overall SLE was not detected, 14bp ins allele was significantly associated with SLE with the age of onset <20 years, when compared with healthy controls (P = 0.0067, PFDR = 0.039, OR 1.44, additive model) or with SLE patients with the age of onset ≥20 (P = 0.033, PFDR = 0.0495, OR 2.09, additive model). This association remained significant after conditioning on DRB1*13:02 or DRB1*15:01. On the other hand, significant association was detected between rs1063320 C and anti-RNP antibody and anti-Sm antibody positive SLE, which was dependent on negative LD with DRB1*13:02. eQTL analysis showed reduced HLA-G mRNA level in 14bp ins/ins individuals. In conclusion, our observations showed that HLA-G 14bp ins allele represents a genetic contribution on early-onset SLE

  7. Role of Alpha/Beta Interferon in Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Pathogenesis: Effect of an Attenuating Mutation in the 5′ Untranslated Region

    PubMed Central

    White, Laura J.; Wang, Jia-Gang; Davis, Nancy L.; Johnston, Robert E.

    2001-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) is an important equine and human pathogen of the Americas. In the adult mouse model, cDNA-derived, virulent V3000 inoculated subcutaneously (s.c.) causes high-titer peripheral replication followed by neuroinvasion and lethal encephalitis. A single change (G to A) at nucleotide 3 (nt 3) of the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of the V3000 genome resulted in a virus (V3043) that was avirulent in mice. The mechanism of attenuation by the V3043 mutation was studied in vivo and in vitro. Kinetic studies of virus spread in adult mice following s.c. inoculation showed that V3043 replication was reduced in peripheral organs compared to that of V3000, titers in serum also were lower, and V3043 was cleared more rapidly from the periphery than V3000. Because clearance of V3043 from serum began 1 to 2 days prior to clearance of V3000, we examined the involvement of alpha/beta interferon (IFN-α/β) activity in VEE pathogenesis. In IFN-α/βR−/− mice, the course of the wild-type disease was extremely rapid, with all animals dying within 48 h (average survival time of 30 h compared to 7.7 days in the wild-type mice). The mutant V3043 was as virulent as the wild type (100% mortality, average survival time of 30 h). Virus titers in serum, peripheral organs, and the brain were similar in V3000- and V3043-infected IFN-α/βR−/− mice at all time points up until the death of the animals. Consistent with the in vivo data, the mutant virus exhibited reduced growth in vitro in several cell types except in cells that lacked a functional IFN-α/β pathway. In cells derived from IFN-α/βR−/− mice, the mutant virus showed no growth disadvantage compared to the wild-type virus, suggesting that IFN-α/β plays a major role in the attenuation of V3043 compared to V3000. There were no differences in the induction of IFN-α/β between V3000 and V3043, but the mutant virus was more sensitive than V3000 to the antiviral actions of IFN-α/β in

  8. Maintaining the structural integrity of the bamboo mosaic virus 3′ untranslated region is necessary for retaining the catalytic constant for minus-strand RNA synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV) and the Potato virus X (PVX) are members of the genus Potexvirus and have a single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome. The 3′-untranslated region (UTR) of the BaMV RNA genome was mapped structurally into ABC (a cloverleaf-like), D (a stem-loop), and E (pseudoknot) domains. The BaMV replicase complex that was isolated from the infected plants was able to recognize the 3′ UTR of PVX RNA to initiate minus-strand RNA synthesis in vitro. Results To investigate whether the 3′ UTR of PVX RNA is also compatible with BaMV replicase in vivo, we constructed chimera mutants using a BaMV backbone containing the PVX 3′ UTR, which was inserted in or used to replace the various domains in the 3′ UTR of BaMV. None of the mutants, except for the mutant with the PVX 3′ UTR inserted upstream of the BaMV 3′ UTR, exhibited a detectable accumulation of viral RNA in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. The in vitro BaMV RdRp replication assay demonstrated that the RNA products were generated by the short RNA transcripts, which were derived from the chimera mutants to various extents. Furthermore, the Vmax/KM of the BaMV 3′ UTR (rABCDE) was approximately three fold higher than rABCP, rP, and rDE in minus-strand RNA synthesis. These mutants failed to accumulate viral products in protoplasts and plants, but were adequately replicated in vitro. Conclusions Among the various studied BaMV/PVX chimera mutants, the BaMV-S/PABCDE that contained non-interrupted BaMV 3′ UTR was the only mutant that exhibited a wild-type level of viral product accumulation in protoplasts and plants. These results indicate that the continuity of the domains in the 3′ UTR of BaMV RNA was not interrupted and the domains were not replaced with the 3′ UTR of PVX RNA in vivo. PMID:23800142

  9. Association of HLA-G 3' Untranslated Region Polymorphisms with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in a Japanese Population: A Case-Control Association Study.

    PubMed

    Hachiya, Yuki; Kawasaki, Aya; Oka, Shomi; Kondo, Yuya; Ito, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Isao; Kusaoi, Makio; Amano, Hirofumi; Suda, Akiko; Setoguchi, Keigo; Nagai, Tatsuo; Shimada, Kota; Sugii, Shoji; Okamoto, Akira; Chiba, Noriyuki; Suematsu, Eiichi; Ohno, Shigeru; Katayama, Masao; Kono, Hajime; Hirohata, Shunsei; Takasaki, Yoshinari; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Sumida, Takayuki; Nagaoka, Shouhei; Tohma, Shigeto; Furukawa, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Naoyuki

    2016-01-01

    HLA-G plays a role in fetal-maternal tolerance as well as immunoregulation, and has been suggested to be involved in autoimmune diseases and cancers. HLA-G encodes two potentially functional polymorphisms in the 3' untranslated region, 14bp insertion/deletion (14bp indel, rs371194629) and a single nucleotide polymorphism rs1063320, previously reported to affect HLA-G expression level or splicing isoform and to be associated with susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, the results of SLE association studies are inconsistent, probably due to the small sample size of each study and lack of consideration of linkage disequilibrium (LD) with HLA-class II haplotypes in each population. In this study, we performed association studies of these polymorphisms on 843 patients with SLE and 778 healthy controls in a Japanese population, in many of whom HLA-DRB1 alleles have been genotyped at the four-digit level. LD was detected between DRB1*13:02, protective against multiple autoimmune diseases in the Japanese, and the rs1063320 G (D' = 0.86, r2 = 0.02) and with 14bp del (D' = 0.62, r2 = 0.01), but not between SLE-susceptible DRB1*15:01 and HLA-G. Although significant association with overall SLE was not detected, 14bp ins allele was significantly associated with SLE with the age of onset <20 years, when compared with healthy controls (P = 0.0067, PFDR = 0.039, OR 1.44, additive model) or with SLE patients with the age of onset ≥20 (P = 0.033, PFDR = 0.0495, OR 2.09, additive model). This association remained significant after conditioning on DRB1*13:02 or DRB1*15:01. On the other hand, significant association was detected between rs1063320 C and anti-RNP antibody and anti-Sm antibody positive SLE, which was dependent on negative LD with DRB1*13:02. eQTL analysis showed reduced HLA-G mRNA level in 14bp ins/ins individuals. In conclusion, our observations showed that HLA-G 14bp ins allele represents a genetic contribution on early-onset SLE independent

  10. The 5′ Untranslated Region of the Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 mRNA Enables Cap-Independent Translation Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Olivares, Eduardo; Landry, Dori M.; Cáceres, C. Joaquín; Pino, Karla; Rossi, Federico; Navarrete, Camilo; Huidobro-Toro, Juan Pablo; Thompson, Sunnie R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a complex human retrovirus that causes adult T cell leukemia and of HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. The mRNA of some complex retroviruses, including the human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV), can initiate translation using a canonical cap-dependent mechanism or through an internal ribosome entry site (IRES). In this study, we present strong evidence showing that like HIV-1 and SIV, the 5′-untranslated region (5′UTR) of the HTLV-1 full-length mRNA harbors an IRES. Cap-independent translational activity was evaluated and demonstrated using dual luciferase bicistronic mRNAs in rabbit reticulocyte lysate, in mammalian cell culture, and in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Characterization of the HTLV-1 IRES shows that its activity is dependent on the ribosomal protein S25 (RPS25) and that its function is highly sensitive to the drug edeine. Together, these findings suggest that the 5′UTR of the HTLV-1 full-length mRNA enables internal recruitment of the eukaryotic translation initiation complex. However, the recognition of the initiation codon requires ribosome scanning. These results suggest that, after internal recruitment by the HTLV-1 IRES, a scanning step takes place for the 40S ribosomal subunit to be positioned at the translation initiation codon. IMPORTANCE The mechanism by which retroviral mRNAs recruit the 40S ribosomal subunit internally is not understood. This study provides new insights into the mechanism of translation initiation used by the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). The results show that the HTLV-1 mRNA can initiate translation via a noncanonical mechanism mediated by an internal ribosome entry site (IRES). This study also provides evidence showing the involvement of cellular proteins in HTLV-1 IRES-mediated translation initiation. Together, the data presented in this report significantly contribute to the understanding of HTLV-1 gene

  11. Novel 5′ Untranslated Region Directed Blockers of Iron-Regulatory Protein-1 Dependent Amyloid Precursor Protein Translation: Implications for Down Syndrome and Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra; Cahill, Catherine; Balleidier, Amelie; Huang, Conan; Lahiri, Debomoy K.; Huang, Xudong; Rogers, Jack T.

    2013-01-01

    We reported that iron influx drives the translational expression of the neuronal amyloid precursor protein (APP), which has a role in iron efflux. This is via a classic release of repressor interaction of APP mRNA with iron-regulatory protein-1 (IRP1) whereas IRP2 controls the mRNAs encoding the L- and H-subunits of the iron storage protein, ferritin. Here, we identified thirteen potent APP translation blockers that acted selectively towards the uniquely configured iron-responsive element (IRE) RNA stem loop in the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of APP mRNA. These agents were 10-fold less inhibitory of 5′UTR sequences of the related prion protein (PrP) mRNA. Western blotting confirmed that the ‘ninth’ small molecule in the series selectively reduced neural APP production in SH-SY5Y cells at picomolar concentrations without affecting viability or the expression of α-synuclein and ferritin. APP blocker-9 (JTR-009), a benzimidazole, reduced the production of toxic Aβ in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells to a greater extent than other well tolerated APP 5′UTR-directed translation blockers, including posiphen, that were shown to limit amyloid burden in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). RNA binding assays demonstrated that JTR-009 operated by preventing IRP1 from binding to the IRE in APP mRNA, while maintaining IRP1 interaction with the H-ferritin IRE RNA stem loop. Thus, JTR-009 constitutively repressed translation driven by APP 5′UTR sequences. Calcein staining showed that JTR-009 did not indirectly change iron uptake in neuronal cells suggesting a direct interaction with the APP 5′UTR. These studies provide key data to develop small molecules that selectively reduce neural APP and Aβ production at 10-fold lower concentrations than related previously characterized translation blockers. Our data evidenced a novel therapeutic strategy of potential impact for people with trisomy of the APP gene on chromosome 21, which is a phenotype long associated with Down

  12. microRNA-18b Modulates Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Expression in Deer Antler Cell Proliferation by Directly Targeting Its 3′ Untranslated Region

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mu; Hu, Rui; Li, Ting; Meng, Xingyu

    2015-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a multipromoter gene that has complex biological functions and plays an important role in Chinese sika deer antler cell differentiation and proliferation. microRNAs and their roles in deer antler growth have attracted much attention. In the present study, to investigate the effect of microRNAs on the regulation of IGF-1 during the rapid growth of antlers, miRNA GeneChip analysis and TargetScan Human software were used to screen microRNAs that bind to the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of IGF-1. The results indicated that a significantly differential expression of miR-18b was observed in cartilage and mesenchymal of antler tip tissue and the presence of miR-18b-binding sites within the IGF-1 3′UTR. A miR-18b mimic was then transfected into antler cartilage cells to overexpress miR-18b and the expression levels were quantified by real-time PCR. Real-time PCR showed that the expression level of miR-18b in transfected cells was significantly increased compared with the control group (p<0.01). Dual luciferase assays revealed that miR-18b decreased the fluorescence value of the luciferase reporter gene in the group transfected with the wild-type vector of IGF-1 3′UTR. In contrast, the relative luciferase activity in the group transfected with the mutant vector of IGF-1 3′UTR did not change obviously. MTT assays and cell cycle analyses confirmed that overexpression of the miR-18b mimic inhibited the proliferation of cartilage cells. In contrast, transfection of a miR-18b inhibitor increased the cell proliferation rate. Furthermore, Western blot analyses revealed that overexpression of miR-18b mimics downregulated the protein levels of IGF-1, while IGF-1 expression increased after transfection of miR-18b inhibitors. Taken together, our findings show that miR-18b is a potentially novel target in deer antler cell proliferation. miR-18b may modulate IGF-1 expression of sika deer antler. PMID:25756952

  13. microRNA-18b modulates insulin-like growth factor-1 expression in deer antler cell proliferation by directly targeting its 3' untranslated region.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wei; Li, Mu; Hu, Rui; Li, Ting; Meng, Xingyu

    2015-04-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a multipromoter gene that has complex biological functions and plays an important role in Chinese sika deer antler cell differentiation and proliferation. microRNAs and their roles in deer antler growth have attracted much attention. In the present study, to investigate the effect of microRNAs on the regulation of IGF-1 during the rapid growth of antlers, miRNA GeneChip analysis and TargetScan Human software were used to screen microRNAs that bind to the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of IGF-1. The results indicated that a significantly differential expression of miR-18b was observed in cartilage and mesenchymal of antler tip tissue and the presence of miR-18b-binding sites within the IGF-1 3'UTR. A miR-18b mimic was then transfected into antler cartilage cells to overexpress miR-18b and the expression levels were quantified by real-time PCR. Real-time PCR showed that the expression level of miR-18b in transfected cells was significantly increased compared with the control group (p<0.01). Dual luciferase assays revealed that miR-18b decreased the fluorescence value of the luciferase reporter gene in the group transfected with the wild-type vector of IGF-1 3'UTR. In contrast, the relative luciferase activity in the group transfected with the mutant vector of IGF-1 3'UTR did not change obviously. MTT assays and cell cycle analyses confirmed that overexpression of the miR-18b mimic inhibited the proliferation of cartilage cells. In contrast, transfection of a miR-18b inhibitor increased the cell proliferation rate. Furthermore, Western blot analyses revealed that overexpression of miR-18b mimics downregulated the protein levels of IGF-1, while IGF-1 expression increased after transfection of miR-18b inhibitors. Taken together, our findings show that miR-18b is a potentially novel target in deer antler cell proliferation. miR-18b may modulate IGF-1 expression of sika deer antler. PMID:25756952

  14. Requirement for Host RNA-Silencing Components and the Virus-Silencing Suppressor when Second-Site Mutations Compensate for Structural Defects in the 3′ Untranslated Region

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Maitreyi; Stupina, Vera A.; Gao, Feng; Szarko, Christine R.; Kuhlmann, Micki M.; Yuan, Xuefeng; Shi, Kerong

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) contains a structured 3′ region with hairpins and pseudoknots that form a complex network of noncanonical RNA:RNA interactions supporting higher-order structure critical for translation and replication. We investigated several second-site mutations in the p38 coat protein open reading frame (ORF) that arose in response to a mutation in the asymmetric loop of a critical 3′ untranslated region (UTR) hairpin that disrupts local higher-order structure. All tested second-site mutations improved accumulation of TCV in conjunction with a partial reversion of the primary mutation (TCV-rev1) but had neutral or a negative effect on wild-type (wt) TCV or TCV with the primary mutation. SHAPE (selective 2′-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension) structure probing indicated that these second-site mutations reside in an RNA domain that includes most of p38 (domain 2), and evidence for RNA:RNA interactions between domain 2 and 3′UTR-containing domain 1 was found. However, second-site mutations were not compensatory in the absence of p38, which is also the TCV silencing suppressor, or in dcl-2/dcl4 or ago1/ago2 backgrounds. One second-site mutation reduced silencing suppressor activity of p38 by altering one of two GW motifs that are required for p38 binding to double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) and interaction with RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC)-associated AGO1/AGO2. Another second-site mutation substantially reduced accumulation of TCV-rev1 in the absence of p38 or DCL2/DCL4. We suggest that the second-site mutations in the p38 ORF exert positive effects through a similar downstream mechanism, either by enhancing accumulation of beneficial DCL-produced viral small RNAs that positively regulate the accumulation of TCV-rev1 or by affecting the susceptibility of TCV-rev1 to RISC loaded with viral small RNAs. IMPORTANCE Genomes of positive-strand RNA viruses fold into high-order RNA structures. Viruses with mutations in regions

  15. Functional role for the angiotensin II receptor (AT1A) 3'-untranslated region in determining cellular responses to agonist: evidence for recognition by RNA binding proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Thekkumkara, T J; Thomas, W G; Motel, T J; Baker, K M

    1998-01-01

    We demonstrate a functional role for the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of the angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor subtype AT1A mRNA in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells by stably transfecting the coding region of the receptor gene with or without the 845 bp 3'-UTR. Two cell lines expressing similar levels of cell-surface receptors (with 3'-UTR, Bmax=571 fmol/mg protein; without 3'-UTR, Bmax=663 fmol/mg protein) were used in the present study. Both cell lines expressed high-affinity receptors (with 3'-UTR, Kd=0.83 nM; without 3'-UTR, Kd=0.82 nM), and binding studies with 125I-labelled Ang II in the presence of GTP[S] demonstrated that both coupled to heterotrimeric G-proteins. Despite these similarities, significant differences were observed for receptor-mediated cell signalling pathways. In cells without the 3'-UTR, Ang II stimulated an increase in cAMP accumulation (11-fold above control) and in cells with the 3'-UTR no stimulation was observed, which was consistent with previous observations in most endogenous Ang II receptor (AT1)-expressing cells. Activation of cAMP by Ang II in cells without the 3'-UTR correlated with an inhibition of DNA synthesis, determined by [3H]thymidine incorporation. Ang II-mediated responses were blocked by EXP3174, a selective non-peptide receptor antagonist. We also observed differences in the transient profiles of intracellular calcium between cells with and without the 3'-UTR in response to Ang II. In cells with the 3'-UTR, a sustained level of intracellular calcium was observed after Ang II stimulation, whereas cells without the 3'-UTR displayed a full return to basal level within 50 s of Ang II treatment. Even though the expressed exogenous gene is under the control of a constitutively expressing promoter (cytomegalovirus promoter), Northern-blot analysis revealed a considerably greater accumulation of AT1A mRNA in cells without the 3'-UTR compared with cells with the 3'-UTR. Analysis of the decay rate of the AT1A mRNA in

  16. Regulation of Hepatitis C Virus Genome Replication by Xrn1 and MicroRNA-122 Binding to Individual Sites in the 5′ Untranslated Region

    PubMed Central

    Thibault, Patricia A.; Huys, Adam; Amador-Cañizares, Yalena; Gailius, Julie E.; Pinel, Dayna E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT miR-122 is a liver-specific microRNA (miRNA) that binds to two sites (S1 and S2) on the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome and promotes the viral life cycle. It positively affects viral RNA stability, translation, and replication, but the mechanism is not well understood. To unravel the roles of miR-122 binding at each site alone or in combination, we employed miR-122 binding site mutant viral RNAs, Hep3B cells (which lack detectable miR-122), and complementation with wild-type miR-122, an miR-122 with the matching mutation, or both. We found that miR-122 binding at either site alone increased replication equally, while binding at both sites had a cooperative effect. Xrn1 depletion rescued miR-122-unbound full-length RNA replication to detectable levels but not to miR-122-bound levels, confirming that miR-122 protects HCV RNA from Xrn1, a cytoplasmic 5′-to-3′ exoribonuclease, but also has additional functions. In cells depleted of Xrn1, replication levels of S1-bound HCV RNA were slightly higher than S2-bound RNA levels, suggesting that both sites contribute, but their contributions may be unequal when the need for protection from Xrn1 is reduced. miR-122 binding at S1 or S2 also increased translation equally, but the effect was abolished by Xrn1 knockdown, suggesting that the influence of miR-122 on HCV translation reflects protection from Xrn1 degradation. Our results show that occupation of each miR-122 binding site contributes equally and cooperatively to HCV replication but suggest somewhat unequal contributions of each site to Xrn1 protection and additional functions of miR-122. IMPORTANCE The functions of miR-122 in the promotion of the HCV life cycle are not fully understood. Here, we show that binding of miR-122 to each of the two binding sites in the HCV 5′ UTR contributes equally to HCV replication and that binding to both sites can function cooperatively. This suggests that active Ago2–miR-122 complexes

  17. The 3′ Untranslated Region of Pea Enation Mosaic Virus Contains Two T-Shaped, Ribosome-Binding, Cap-Independent Translation Enhancers

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Feng; Kasprzak, Wojciech K.; Szarko, Christine; Shapiro, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many plant viruses without 5′caps or 3′ poly(A) tails contain 3′ proximal, cap-independent translation enhancers (3′CITEs) that bind to ribosomal subunits or translation factors thought to assist in ribosome recruitment. Most 3′CITEs participate in a long-distance kissing-loop interaction with a 5′ proximal hairpin to deliver ribosomal subunits to the 5′ end for translation initiation. Pea Enation Mosaic Virus (PEMV) contains two adjacent 3′CITEs in the center of its 703-nucleotide 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR), the ribosome-binding, kissing-loop T-shaped structure (kl-TSS) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding Panicum mosaic virus-like translation enhance (PTE). We now report that PEMV contains a third, independent 3′CITE located near the 3′ terminus. This 3′CITE is composed of three hairpins and two pseudoknots, similar to the TSS 3′CITE of the carmovirus Turnip crinkle virus (TCV). As with the TCV TSS, the PEMV 3′TSS is predicted to fold into a T-shaped structure that binds to 80S ribosomes and 60S ribosomal subunits. A small hairpin (kl-H) upstream of the 3′TSS contains an apical loop capable of forming a kissing-loop interaction with a 5′ proximal hairpin and is critical for the accumulation of full-length PEMV in protoplasts. Although the kl-H and 3′TSS are dispensable for the translation of a reporter construct containing the complete PEMV 3′UTR in vitro, deleting the normally required kl-TSS and PTE 3′CITEs and placing the kl-H and 3′TSS proximal to the reporter termination codon restores translation to near wild-type levels. This suggests that PEMV requires three 3′CITEs for proper translation and that additional translation enhancers may have been missed if reporter constructs were used in 3′CITE identification. IMPORTANCE The rapid life cycle of viruses requires efficient translation of viral-encoded proteins. Many plant RNA viruses contain 3′ cap-independent translation

  18. Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein C Proteins Interact with the Human Papillomavirus Type 16 (HPV16) Early 3′-Untranslated Region and Alleviate Suppression of HPV16 Late L1 mRNA Splicing*

    PubMed Central

    Dhanjal, Soniya; Kajitani, Naoko; Glahder, Jacob; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Johansson, Cecilia; Schwartz, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    In order to identify cellular factors that regulate human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) gene expression, cervical cancer cells permissive for HPV16 late gene expression were identified and characterized. These cells either contained a novel spliced variant of the L1 mRNAs that bypassed the suppressed HPV16 late, 5′-splice site SD3632; produced elevated levels of RNA-binding proteins SRSF1 (ASF/SF2), SRSF9 (SRp30c), and HuR that are known to regulate HPV16 late gene expression; or were shown by a gene expression array analysis to overexpress the RALYL RNA-binding protein of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C (hnRNP C) family. Overexpression of RALYL or hnRNP C1 induced HPV16 late gene expression from HPV16 subgenomic plasmids and from episomal forms of the full-length HPV16 genome. This induction was dependent on the HPV16 early untranslated region. Binding of hnRNP C1 to the HPV16 early, untranslated region activated HPV16 late 5′-splice site SD3632 and resulted in production of HPV16 L1 mRNAs. Our results suggested that hnRNP C1 controls HPV16 late gene expression. PMID:25878250

  19. Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein C Proteins Interact with the Human Papillomavirus Type 16 (HPV16) Early 3'-Untranslated Region and Alleviate Suppression of HPV16 Late L1 mRNA Splicing.

    PubMed

    Dhanjal, Soniya; Kajitani, Naoko; Glahder, Jacob; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Johansson, Cecilia; Schwartz, Stefan

    2015-05-22

    In order to identify cellular factors that regulate human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) gene expression, cervical cancer cells permissive for HPV16 late gene expression were identified and characterized. These cells either contained a novel spliced variant of the L1 mRNAs that bypassed the suppressed HPV16 late, 5'-splice site SD3632; produced elevated levels of RNA-binding proteins SRSF1 (ASF/SF2), SRSF9 (SRp30c), and HuR that are known to regulate HPV16 late gene expression; or were shown by a gene expression array analysis to overexpress the RALYL RNA-binding protein of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C (hnRNP C) family. Overexpression of RALYL or hnRNP C1 induced HPV16 late gene expression from HPV16 subgenomic plasmids and from episomal forms of the full-length HPV16 genome. This induction was dependent on the HPV16 early untranslated region. Binding of hnRNP C1 to the HPV16 early, untranslated region activated HPV16 late 5'-splice site SD3632 and resulted in production of HPV16 L1 mRNAs. Our results suggested that hnRNP C1 controls HPV16 late gene expression. PMID:25878250

  20. Hepatitis C Genotype Prevalence in Monastir Region, Tunisia: Correlation between 5' Untranslated Region (5'UTR), Non-structural 5B (NS5B), and Core Sequences in HCV Subtyping.

    PubMed

    Souii, Amira; Elargoubi, Aida; Fallecker, Catherine; Mastouri, Maha; Drouet, Emmanuel

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a causative agent of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. It constitutes a major public health around the world. There is no vaccine available against HCV, and current therapies are effective in only small percentage of patients. HCV has wide population-specific genotype variability. Genotype knowledge and viral load assessment are equally important for designing therapeutic strategies. Taking into account that the molecular epidemiology of HCV variants circulating in Tunisia is not yet well elucidated, and that, at present, little is known about the distribution pattern of HCV in Monastir region (Tunisia), we aimed, herein, to evaluate the prevalence of HCV genotypes in Monastir and to identify risk-related factors. For this purpose, 50 anti-HCV antibody-positive cases were diagnosed and subjected to viral RNA extraction, amplification, genotyping, and viral load quantification. Molecular epidemiology was studied by 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) sequencing as compared with the non-structural 5B (NS5B) and core region sequences. Overall concordance between 5' UTR, core, and NS5B sequencing was 100 %. The highest prevalent genotype was 1b (50 %) followed by genotypes 1a (16 %), 4a (12 %), 2a (10 %), 2c (8 %), and 3a (4 %). Interestingly, the subtype 1b had a statistically significant higher viral load than the other genotypes followed by subtype 1a. Based on these data, this study revealed a high prevalence of HCV genotype 1 (subtypes 1b and 1a) compared to other genotypes. A continued monitoring of HCV and knowledge of circulating genotypes could impact on future vaccine formulations. PMID:27189386

  1. Cloning of the human heparan sulfate-N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase gene from the Treacher Collins syndrome candidate region at 5q32-q33.1

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, J.; Loftus, S.K.; Gladwin, A.J.

    1995-03-20

    Treacher Collins syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder of craniofacial development, the features of which include conductive hearing loss and cleft palate. Previous studies have shown that the Treacher Collins syndrome locus is flanked by D5S519 and SPARC, and a yeast artificial chromosome contig encompassing this {open_quotes}critical region{close_quotes} has been completed. In the current investigation a cosmid containing D5S519 has been used to screen a human placental cDNA library. This has resulted in the cloning of the human heparan sulfate-N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase gene. Two different mRNA species that have identical protein coding sequences but that differ in the size and sequence of the 3{prime} untranslated regions (3{prime}UTR) have been identified. The smaller species has a 3{prime}UTR of 1035 bp, whereas that of the larger is 4878 bp. 24 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Stability and translation of TCR zeta mRNA are regulated by the adenosine-uridine-rich elements in splice-deleted 3' untranslated region of zeta-chain.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Bhabadeb; Krishnan, Sandeep; Tsokos, Christos G; Robertson, James W; Fisher, Carolyn U; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P; Tsokos, George C

    2006-12-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) T cells display reduced expression of TCR zeta protein. Recently, we reported that in SLE T cells, the residual TCR zeta protein is predominantly derived from an alternatively spliced form that undergoes splice deletion of 562 nt (from 672 to 1233 bases) within the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of TCR zeta mRNA. The stability and translation of the alternatively spliced form of TCR zeta mRNA are low compared with that of the wild-type TCR zeta mRNA. We report that two adenosine-uridine-rich sequence elements (AREs), defined by the splice-deleted 3' UTR region, but not an ARE located upstream are responsible for securing TCR zeta mRNA stability and translation. The stabilizing effect of the splice-deleted region-defined AREs extended to the luciferase mRNA and was not cell type-specific. The findings demonstrate distinct sequences within the splice-deleted region 672 to 1233 of the 3' UTR, which regulate the transcription, mRNA stability, and translation of TCR zeta mRNA. The absence of these sequences represents a molecular mechanism that contributes to altered TCR zeta-chain expression in lupus. PMID:17114503

  3. The chicken FMR1 gene is highly conserved with a CCT 5{prime} - untranslated repeat and encodes an RNA-binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Price, D.K.; Zhang, F.; Ashley, C.T. Jr.; Warren, S.T.

    1996-01-01

    The transcriptional silencing of the human gene, fragile X metal retardation 1 (FMR1), is due to abnormal methylation in response to an expanded 5{prime}-untranslated CGG trinucleotide repeat and accounts for most cases of fragile X syndrome, a frequent inherited form of metal retardation. Although the encoded fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is known to have properties of a RNA-binding protein, the precise function of FMRP remains to be elucidated. We report the cloning of the chicken homolog of FMR1 and show strong evolutionary conservation, with nucleotide and amino acid identities of 85 and 92%, respectively, between chicken and human. In place of the mammalian CGG trinucleotide repeat, a 99-nt tripartite repetitive element containing a CCT trinucleotide repeat flanked on both sides by dinucleotide repeats was identified. Blocks of highly conserved 3{prime}-untranslated sequence were also found. Within the coding region, two copies each of the highly conserved K homology motif and the Arg-Gly-Gly (RGG) box motif, both ribonucleotide particle family domains implicated in RNA binding, were identified. Chicken FMRP was found to bind RNA in vitro, and this activity correlated with the presence of the carboxy-terminal portion of the protein that includes the RGG motifs. 49 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Sequence and spatial requirements for the tissue- and species-independent 3{prime}-end processing mechanism of plant mRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, L.; Ueda, T.; Messing, J.

    1994-10-01

    Two cis-regulatory regions are required for efficient mRNA 3{prime}-end processing of the maize 27-kDa zein mRNA: a region containing a duplicated AAUGAA poly(A) signal and a region that is present upstream from it. Strict spatial positioning of these two regions is required for efficient mRNA 3{prime}-end processing. Insertions of a stuffer sequence as short as 17 or 18 bp either between the upstream region and the two AAUGAA motifs or between the two AAUGAA motifs drastically reduced the efficiency of 3{prime}-end processing. Mutational analyses of the nucleotide preference at the fourth position of the AAUGAA motif revealed the preference order G > A >> C or U, suggesting that AAUAAA is neither a defective nor an optimal poly(A) signal for the 27-kDa zein mRNA. As for the 3{prime} control region of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) transcription unit, the mRNA 3{prime}-end processing mechanism mediated by the 27-kDa zein 3{prime} control sequence is neither tissue nor species specific. The 3{prime} upstream sequence of the 27-kDa zein gene can functionally replace that of the CaMV transcription unit. Conversely, the CaMV upstream sequence can mediate mRNA polyadenylation in the presence of a duplicated 27-kDa zein poly(A) signal. However, instead of the proximal poly(A) signal normally used in the 27-kDa zein mRNA, the distal signal is utilized. These results suggest that a general mechanism controls the 3{prime}-end processing of plant mRNAs and that the cis-regulatory functions mediated by their upstream regions are interchangeable. 35 refs., 5 figs.

  5. A polymorphism at the microRNA binding site in the 3′-untranslated region of C14orf101 is associated with the risk of gastric cancer development

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cuiju; Zhao, Yufei; Ming, Yanming; Zhao, Shengnan; Guo, Zhanjun

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) bind to the 3′-untranslated regions (3′-UTRs) of mRNAs, affecting translation and regulating cell differentiation, tumorigenesis and apoptosis. Genetic polymorphisms in these regions in target genes are able to affect the binding affinity between miRNA and target genes, ultimately affecting the expression of individual miRNAs. In the present case-control study, genotyping of 5 microRNA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located at the binding site of the 3′-UTR of RYR3 (rs1044129), C14orf101 (rs4901706), KIAA0423 (rs1053667), GOLGA7 (rs11337) and KRT81 (rs3660) genes was assessed in order to investigate its role in gastric cancer (GC). The results indicated that the rs4901706 SNP, which is located in the 3′-UTR of C14orf101, was associated with GC development risk, as determined by χ2 analysis (relative risk, 1.630; 95% confidence interval, 1.070–2.483; P=0.022). A Renilla/luciferase reporter assay also indicated the different binding affinity between the SNP of rs4901706 and microRNA. In conclusion, rs4901706 SNP of C14orf101 gene in the microRNA binding site may be used as a valuable biomarker when predicting GC risk. PMID:27602096

  6. Perinuclear localization of slow troponin C m RNA in muscle cells is controlled by a cis-element located at its 3' untranslated region.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Kishore K; Oitomen, Ferry M; Patel, Gopal P; Bag, Jnanankur

    2005-03-01

    The process of mRNA localization within a specific cytoplasmic region is an integral aspect of the regulation of gene expression. Furthermore, colocalization of mRNAs and their respective translation products may facilitate the proper assembly of multi-subunit complexes like the thick and thin filaments of muscle. This postulate was tested by investigating the cytoplasmic localization of three mRNAs-the alpha-actin, slow troponin C (sTnC), and slow troponin I (sTnI), which encode different poly-peptide partners of the thin filament. Using in situ hybridization we showed that all three thin filament mRNAs are localized in the perinuclear cytoplasm of cultured C2C12 muscle cells. Their localization differs from that of the nonmuscle beta-actin mRNA, which is localized in the peripheral region of both proliferating nondifferentiated myoblasts and the differentiated myocytes. Analysis of the localization signal of the sTnC mRNA showed that a 40-nucleotide-long region of the sTnC mRNA 3' UTR is sufficient to confer the perinuclear localization on a heterologous reporter beta-Gal mRNA. This localization signal showed tissue specificity and worked only in the differentiated myocytes, but not in the proliferating myoblasts or in HeLa cells. The predicted secondary structure of the localization signal suggests the presence of multiple stem and loop structures in this region of the 3' UTR. Mutations within the stem region of the localization signal, which abolish the base pairing in this region, significantly reduced its perinuclear mRNA localization activity. Using UV-induced photo-cross-linking of RNA and proteins we found that a myotube-specific 42-kDa polypeptide binds to the localization signal. PMID:15701732

  7. Genetic analysis of the central untranslated genome region and the proximal coding part of the F gene of wild-type and vaccine canine distemper morbilliviruses.

    PubMed

    Liermann, H; Harder, T C; Löchelt, M; von Messling, V; Baumgärtner, W; Moennig, V; Haas, L

    1998-01-01

    Located between the open reading frames encoding the matrix (M) and the fusion (F) protein the morbillivirus genome contains an unusually large non-coding intercistronic region (M-F UTR) of up to 5.6% of the full length genome. Any function(s) of this region have largely remained obscure. Here, we analyze the M-F UTR and the proximal coding part of the downstream F gene of several recent canine distemper morbillivirus (CDV) wild-type (wt) isolates and vaccine strains. While the F gene coding part appeared to be highly conserved (about 93% homology), a considerable degree of strain-specific variation of up to 21.4% was evident when comparing the M-F UTR. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a co-circulation of several contemporary CDV genotypes within a close geographic range (central Europe). A remarkably distinct CDV wt lineage, so far detected only in mustelids, is displayed. A rather non-scattered pattern of mutations within the M-F UTR suggested superimposition of RNA sequence and/or secondary structure constraints. Extensive folding in the long (460 nt) and moderately GC-rich 5'-UTR of the F mRNA was evident, particularly around the putative F protein translation initiation codon (AUG461 of the Onderstepoort vaccine strain). The region immediately preceding the putative F initiation site also harbored the only mutation unique to both vaccine strains within the F-5'UTR (position 455: Awt vs. Cvac). The putative F protein start codon, AUG461, was found to be mutated to AUA or GUA in all wt isolates analyzed and in another vaccine strain (Rockborn). Possible consequences for F protein translation initiation in wt CDV are discussed. PMID:9926401

  8. Most microRNAs in the single-cell alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii are produced by Dicer-like 3-mediated cleavage of introns and untranslated regions of coding RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Valli, Adrian A.; Santos, Bruno A.C.M.; Hnatova, Silvia; Bassett, Andrew R.; Molnar, Attila; Chung, Betty Y.; Baulcombe, David C.

    2016-01-01

    We describe here a forward genetic screen to investigate the biogenesis, mode of action, and biological function of miRNA-mediated RNA silencing in the model algal species, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Among the mutants from this screen, there were three at Dicer-like 3 that failed to produce both miRNAs and siRNAs and others affecting diverse post-biogenesis stages of miRNA-mediated silencing. The DCL3-dependent siRNAs fell into several classes including transposon- and repeat-derived siRNAs as in higher plants. The DCL3-dependent miRNAs differ from those of higher plants, however, in that many of them are derived from mRNAs or from the introns of pre-mRNAs. Transcriptome analysis of the wild-type and dcl3 mutant strains revealed a further difference from higher plants in that the sRNAs are rarely negative switches of mRNA accumulation. The few transcripts that were more abundant in dcl3 mutant strains than in wild-type cells were not due to sRNA-targeted RNA degradation but to direct DCL3 cleavage of miRNA and siRNA precursor structures embedded in the untranslated (and translated) regions of the mRNAs. Our analysis reveals that the miRNA-mediated RNA silencing in C. reinhardtii differs from that of higher plants and informs about the evolution and function of this pathway in eukaryotes. PMID:26968199

  9. Most microRNAs in the single-cell alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii are produced by Dicer-like 3-mediated cleavage of introns and untranslated regions of coding RNAs.

    PubMed

    Valli, Adrian A; Santos, Bruno A C M; Hnatova, Silvia; Bassett, Andrew R; Molnar, Attila; Chung, Betty Y; Baulcombe, David C

    2016-04-01

    We describe here a forward genetic screen to investigate the biogenesis, mode of action, and biological function of miRNA-mediated RNA silencing in the model algal species,Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Among the mutants from this screen, there were three atDicer-like 3that failed to produce both miRNAs and siRNAs and others affecting diverse post-biogenesis stages of miRNA-mediated silencing. The DCL3-dependent siRNAs fell into several classes including transposon- and repeat-derived siRNAs as in higher plants. The DCL3-dependent miRNAs differ from those of higher plants, however, in that many of them are derived from mRNAs or from the introns of pre-mRNAs. Transcriptome analysis of the wild-type anddcl3mutant strains revealed a further difference from higher plants in that the sRNAs are rarely negative switches of mRNA accumulation. The few transcripts that were more abundant indcl3mutant strains than in wild-type cells were not due to sRNA-targeted RNA degradation but to direct DCL3 cleavage of miRNA and siRNA precursor structures embedded in the untranslated (and translated) regions of the mRNAs. Our analysis reveals that the miRNA-mediated RNA silencing inC. reinhardtiidiffers from that of higher plants and informs about the evolution and function of this pathway in eukaryotes. PMID:26968199

  10. The Rev protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 counteracts the effect of an AU-rich negative element in the human papillomavirus type 1 late 3' untranslated region.

    PubMed Central

    Tan, W; Schwartz, S

    1995-01-01

    We have identified a sequence in the late 3' untranslated region of human papillomavirus type 1 mRNAs that acts posttranscriptionally to repress gene expression. Deletion analysis localized the inhibitory element to an AU-rich sequence between nucleotides 6958 and 6984 on the human papillomavirus type 1 genome. This sequence inhibits gene expression in an orientation-dependent manner. Upon transfection of eucaryotic cells with plasmids containing this sequence, approximately 4-fold-lower cytoplasmic mRNA levels and 64- to 128-fold-lower protein levels were produced compared with those produced by plasmids lacking the inhibitory sequence. Interestingly, providing the constitutive transport element of simian retrovirus type 1 in sense orientation counteracted inhibition exerted by the human papillomavirus type 1 sequence. Inhibition could also be overcome by the presence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Rev protein in trans and its target sequence, the Rev-responsive element, in cis. Rev is a nuclear protein and acts by promoting nuclear export of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 mRNAs encoding structural proteins. Our results are consistent with a model for human papillomavirus type 1 late-gene expression in which mRNAs containing human papillomavirus type 1 inhibitory sequences enter a nonproductive route in the nucleus, resulting in inefficient mRNA utilization. Rev directs mRNA containing inhibitory sequences to a productive route by interacting with the Rev-responsive element. PMID:7707519

  11. Ribosomal Protein S1 Specifically Binds to the 5′ Untranslated Region of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Stationary-Phase Sigma Factor rpoS mRNA in the Logarithmic Phase of Growth

    PubMed Central

    Ševo, Milica; Buratti, Emanuele; Venturi, Vittorio

    2004-01-01

    The rpoS gene encodes the stationary-phase sigma factor (RpoS or σs), which was identified in several gram-negative bacteria as a central regulator controlling the expression of genes involved in cell survival in response to cessation of growth (stationary phase) and providing cross-protection against various stresses. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the levels of σs increase dramatically at the onset of the stationary phase and are regulated at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. The P. aeruginosa rpoS gene is transcribed as a monocistronic rpoS mRNA transcript comprised of an unusually long 373-bp 5′ untranslated region (5′ UTR). In this study, the 5′ UTR and total protein extracts from P. aeruginosa logarithmic and stationary phases of growth were used in order to investigate the protein-RNA interactions that may modulate the translational process. It was observed that a 69-kDa protein, which corresponded to ribosomal protein S1, preferentially binds the 5′ UTR of the rpoS mRNA in the logarithmic phase and not in the stationary phase. This is the first report of a protein-rpoS mRNA 5′ UTR interaction in P. aeruginosa, and the possible involvement of protein S1 in translation regulation of rpoS is discussed. PMID:15262927

  12. A variant in 3′-untranslated region of KRAS compromises its interaction with hsa-let-7g and contributes to the development of lung cancer in patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hua; Zhang, Linlin; Teng, Geling; Wu, Yanhua; Chen, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of the present study was to explore the molecular mechanism by which a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs712) interferes with interaction between 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR) of KRAS and let-7g, and its association with development of lung cancer in the patients with COPD. Materials and methods In this study, we confirmed that KRAS is a target of let-7g in lung cancer cells, and that introduction of rs712 minor allele into 3′-UTR significantly compromised the miRNA/mRNA interaction by using a luciferase reporter system. Additionally, a total of 35 lung tissue samples were obtained (TT:17, TG:12, GG:6), and let-7g and KRAS expression levels were determined. Results We showed that let-7g level was similar between groups, and the concentration of KRAS in GG genotype group was significantly higher than in TT or GT genotype group. Meanwhile, we found COPD patients with GG genotype had significantly higher risk for lung cancer (odds ratio OR =6.83, P=0.0081), compared with TT and GT genotypes. Conclusion Our study demonstrated that KRAS 3′-UTR rs712 polymorphism interfered with miRNA/mRNA interaction, and showed that the minor allele was associated with an elevated risk for development of lung cancer in COPD. PMID:26316738

  13. MicroRNA-30c-1-3p is a silencer of the pregnane X receptor by targeting the 3'-untranslated region and alters the expression of its target gene cytochrome P450 3A4.

    PubMed

    Vachirayonstien, Thaveechai; Yan, Bingfang

    2016-09-01

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a master regulator of genes involved in drug elimination. Recently, activation of PXR has also been linked to the development of many disease conditions such as metabolic disorders and malignancies. MicroRNAs (miRs) emerge as important molecular species involved in these conditions. This study was undertaken to test a large number of miRs for their ability to regulate PXR expression. As many as 58 miRs were tested and miR-30c-1-3p was identified to suppress PXR expression. The suppression was achieved by targeting the 3'-untranslated region, 438 nucleotides from the stop codon. The suppression was detected in multiple cell lines from different organ origins. In addition, miR-30c-1-3p altered basal and induced expression of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), a prototypical target gene of PXR. The alteration varied depending on the time and amounts of miR-30c-1-3p. CYP3A4 is responsible for the metabolism of more than 50% medicines. The interconnection between miR-30c-1-3p and PXR signifies a role of miRs in drug-drug interactions and chemosensitivity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Xenobiotic nuclear receptors: New Tricks for An Old Dog, edited by Dr. Wen Xie. PMID:27085140

  14. Nuleclear extracts of Crithidia fasciculata contain a factor(s) that binds to the 5'-untranslated regions of TOP2 and RPA1 mRNAs containing sequences required for their cell cycle regulation.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, R; Ray, D S

    1998-09-11

    The Crithidia fasciculata replication protein A gene, RPA1, and topoisomerase II gene, TOP2, encode proteins involved in the replication of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, respectively. Transcripts of both genes accumulate periodically during the cell cycle and attain their maximum levels just before S phase. Octamer consensus sequences within the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of both genes have been shown to be necessary for cycling of these transcripts. Using a gel retardation assay, we show here that nuclear extracts of C. fasciculata contain a protein factor(s) that binds specifically to RNA from 5'-UTRs of TOP2 and RPA1 genes. In addition, mutations in the consensus octamer sequence abolish binding to the RNA in both cases. Ultraviolet cross-linking using a radiolabeled TOP2 5'-UTR probe identified proteins with apparent molecular masses of 74 and 37 kDa in the RNA-protein complex. Nuclear extracts prepared from synchronized cells show that the binding activity varies during the cell cycle in parallel with TOP2 and RPA1 mRNA levels. These results suggest that the cell cycle regulation of the mRNA levels of trypanosomatid DNA replication genes may be mediated by binding of specific proteins to conserved sequences in the 5'-UTR of their transcripts. PMID:9726980

  15. Decreased stability and translation of T cell receptor zeta mRNA with an alternatively spliced 3'-untranslated region contribute to zeta chain down-regulation in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Bhabadeb; Tsokos, Christos G; Krishnan, Sandeep; Robertson, James; Fisher, Carolyn U; Warke, Rahul G; Warke, Vishal G; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P; Tsokos, George C

    2005-05-13

    The molecular mechanisms involved in the aberrant expression of T cell receptor (TCR) zeta chain of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus are not known. Previously we demonstrated that although normal T cells express high levels of TCR zeta mRNA with wild-type (WT) 3' untranslated region (3' UTR), systemic lupus erythematosus T cells display significantly high levels of TCR zeta mRNA with the alternatively spliced (AS) 3' UTR form, which is derived by splice deletion of nucleotides 672-1233 of the TCR zeta transcript. Here we report that the stability of TCR zeta mRNA with an AS 3' UTR is low compared with TCR zeta mRNA with WT 3' UTR. AS 3' UTR, but not WT 3' UTR, conferred similar instability to the luciferase gene. Immunoblotting of cell lysates derived from transfected COS-7 cells demonstrated that TCR zeta with AS 3' UTR produced low amounts of 16-kDa protein. In vitro transcription and translation also produced low amounts of protein from TCR zeta with AS 3' UTR. Taken together our findings suggest that nucleotides 672-1233 bp of TCR zeta 3' UTR play a critical role in its stability and also have elements required for the translational regulation of TCR zeta chain expression in human T cells. PMID:15743765

  16. A 3′ untranslated region variant in FMR1 eliminates neuronal activity-dependent translation of FMRP by disrupting binding of the RNA-binding protein HuR

    PubMed Central

    Suhl, Joshua A.; Muddashetty, Ravi S.; Anderson, Bart R.; Ifrim, Marius F.; Visootsak, Jeannie; Bassell, Gary J.; Warren, Stephen T.

    2015-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome is a common cause of intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder. The gene underlying the disorder, fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1), is silenced in most cases by a CGG-repeat expansion mutation in the 5′ untranslated region (UTR). Recently, we identified a variant located in the 3′UTR of FMR1 enriched among developmentally delayed males with normal repeat lengths. A patient-derived cell line revealed reduced levels of endogenous fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), and a reporter containing a patient 3′UTR caused a decrease in expression. A control reporter expressed in cultured mouse cortical neurons showed an expected increase following synaptic stimulation that was absent when expressing the patient reporter, suggesting an impaired response to neuronal activity. Mobility-shift assays using a control RNA detected an RNA–protein interaction that is lost with the patient RNA, and HuR was subsequently identified as an associated protein. Cross-linking immunoprecipitation experiments identified the locus as an in vivo target of HuR, supporting our in vitro findings. These data suggest that the disrupted interaction of HuR impairs activity-dependent translation of FMRP, which may hinder synaptic plasticity in a clinically significant fashion. PMID:26554012

  17. Replacement of the yeast TRP4 3' untranslated region by a hammerhead ribozyme results in a stable and efficiently exported mRNA that lacks a poly(A) tail.

    PubMed Central

    Düvel, Katrin; Valerius, Oliver; Mangus, David A; Jacobson, Allan; Braus, Gerhard H

    2002-01-01

    The mRNA poly(A) tail serves different purposes, including the facilitation of nuclear export, mRNA stabilization, efficient translation, and, finally, specific degradation. The posttranscriptional addition of a poly(A) tail depends on sequence motifs in the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) of the mRNA and a complex trans-acting protein machinery. In this study, we have replaced the 3' UTR of the yeast TRP4 gene with sequences encoding a hammerhead ribozyme that efficiently cleaves itself in vivo. Expression of the TRP4-ribozyme allele resulted in the accumulation of a nonpolyadenylated mRNA. Cells expressing the TRP4-ribozyme mRNA showed a reduced growth rate due to a reduction in Trp4p enzyme activity. The reduction in enzyme activity was not caused by inefficient mRNA export from the nucleus or mRNA destabilization. Rather, analyses of mRNA association with polyribosomes indicate that translation of the ribozyme-containing mRNA is impaired. This translational defect allows sufficient synthesis of Trp4p to support growth of trp4 cells, but is, nevertheless, of such magnitude as to activate the general control network of amino acid biosynthesis. PMID:12003493

  18. SHAPE Analysis of the RNA Secondary Structure of the Mouse Hepatitis Virus 5′ Untranslated Region and N-Terminal Nsp1 Coding Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dong; Liu, Pinghua; Wudeck, Elyse V.; Giedroc, David P.; Leibowitz, Julian L.

    2014-01-01

    SHAPE technology was used to analyze RNA secondary structure of the 5′ most 474 nts of the MHV-A59 genome encompassing the minimal 5′ cis-acting region required for defective interfering RNA replication. The structures generated were in agreement with previous characterizations of SL1 through SL4 and two recently predicted secondary structure elements, S5 and SL5A. SHAPE provided biochemical support for four additional stem-loops not previously functionally investigated in MHV. Secondary structure predictions for 5′ regions of MHV-A59, BCoV and SARS-CoV were similar despite high sequence divergence. The pattern of SHAPE reactivity of in virio genomic RNA, ex virio genomic RNA, and in vitro synthesized RNA were similar, suggesting that binding of N protein or other proteins to virion RNA fails to protect the RNA from reaction with lipid permeable SHAPE reagent. Reverse genetic experiments suggested that SL5C and SL6 within the nsp1 coding sequence are not required for viral replication. PMID:25462342

  19. Mapping the RNA binding sites for human immunodeficiency virus type-1 gag and NC proteins within the complete HIV-1 and -2 untranslated leader regions.

    PubMed Central

    Damgaard, C K; Dyhr-Mikkelsen, H; Kjems, J

    1998-01-01

    Encapsidation of HIV-1 genomic RNA is mediated by specific interactions between the RNA packaging signal and the Gag protein. During maturation of the virion, the Gag protein is processed into smaller fragments, including the nucleocapsid (NC) domain which remains associated with the viral genomic RNA. We have investigated the binding of glutathione- S -transferase (GST) Gag and NC fusion proteins from HIV-1, to the entire HIV-1 and -2 leader RNAencompassing the packaging signal. We have mapped the binding sites at conditions where only about two complexes are formed and find that GST-Gag and GST-NC fusion proteins bind specifically to discrete sites within the leader. Analysis of the HIV-1 leader indicated that GST-Gag strongly associates with the PSI stem-loop and to a lesser extent with regions near the primer binding site. GST-NC binds the same regions but with reversed preferences. The HIV-1 proteins also interact specifically with the 5'-leader of HIV-2 and the major site of interaction mapped to a stem-loop, with homology to the HIV-1 PSI stem-loop structure. The different specificities of Gag and NC may reflect functionally distinct roles in the viral replication, and suggest that the RNA binding specificity of NC is modulated by its structural context. PMID:9685481

  20. The dark matter of the cancer genome: aberrations in regulatory elements, untranslated regions, splice sites, non-coding RNA and synonymous mutations.

    PubMed

    Diederichs, Sven; Bartsch, Lorenz; Berkmann, Julia C; Fröse, Karin; Heitmann, Jana; Hoppe, Caroline; Iggena, Deetje; Jazmati, Danny; Karschnia, Philipp; Linsenmeier, Miriam; Maulhardt, Thomas; Möhrmann, Lino; Morstein, Johannes; Paffenholz, Stella V; Röpenack, Paula; Rückert, Timo; Sandig, Ludger; Schell, Maximilian; Steinmann, Anna; Voss, Gjendine; Wasmuth, Jacqueline; Weinberger, Maria E; Wullenkord, Ramona

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a disease of the genome caused by oncogene activation and tumor suppressor gene inhibition. Deep sequencing studies including large consortia such as TCGA and ICGC identified numerous tumor-specific mutations not only in protein-coding sequences but also in non-coding sequences. Although 98% of the genome is not translated into proteins, most studies have neglected the information hidden in this "dark matter" of the genome. Malignancy-driving mutations can occur in all genetic elements outside the coding region, namely in enhancer, silencer, insulator, and promoter as well as in 5'-UTR and 3'-UTR Intron or splice site mutations can alter the splicing pattern. Moreover, cancer genomes contain mutations within non-coding RNA, such as microRNA, lncRNA, and lincRNA A synonymous mutation changes the coding region in the DNA and RNA but not the protein sequence. Importantly, oncogenes such as TERT or miR-21 as well as tumor suppressor genes such as TP53/p53, APC, BRCA1, or RB1 can be affected by these alterations. In summary, coding-independent mutations can affect gene regulation from transcription, splicing, mRNA stability to translation, and hence, this largely neglected area needs functional studies to elucidate the mechanisms underlying tumorigenesis. This review will focus on the important role and novel mechanisms of these non-coding or allegedly silent mutations in tumorigenesis. PMID:26992833

  1. An isolated case of lissencephaly caused by the insertion of a mitochondrial genome-derived DNA sequence into the 5' untranslated region of the PAFAH1B1 (LIS1) gene.

    PubMed

    Millar, David S; Tysoe, Carolyn; Lazarou, Lazarus P; Pilz, Daniela T; Mohammed, Shehla; Anderson, Katharine; Chuzhanova, Nadia; Cooper, David N; Butler, Rachel

    2010-08-01

    A 130 base pair (bp) insertion (g.-8delCins130) into the 5' untranslated region of the PAFAH1B1 (LIS1) gene, seven nucleotides upstream of the translational initiation site, was detected in an isolated case of lissencephaly. The inserted DNA sequence exhibited perfect homology to two non-contiguous regions of the mitochondrial genome (8479 to 8545 and 8775 to 8835, containing portions of two genes, ATP8 and ATP6 ), as well as near-perfect homology (1 bp mismatch) to a nuclear mitochondrial pseudogene (NUMT) sequence located on chromosome 1p36. This lesion was not evident on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequence analysis of either parent, indicating that the mutation had occurred de novo in the patient. Experiments designed to distinguish between a mitochondrial and a nuclear genomic origin for the inserted DNA sequence were, however, inconclusive. Mitochondrial genome sequences from both the patient and his parents were sequenced and found to be identical to the sequence inserted into the PAFAH1B1 gene. Analysis of parental PCR products from the chromosome 1-specific NUMT were also consistent with the interpretation that the inserted sequence had originated directly from the mitochondrial genome. The chromosome 1-specific NUMT in the patient proved to be refractory to PCR analysis, however, suggesting that this region of chromosome 1 could have been deleted or rearranged. Although it remains by far the most likely scenario, in the absence of DNA sequence information from the patient's own chromosome 1-specific NUMT, we cannot unequivocally confirm that the 130 bp insertion originated from mitochondrial genome rather than from the NUMT. PMID:20846927

  2. Nucleotide Variability and Translation Efficiency of the 5′ Untranslated Region of Hepatitis A Virus: Update from Clinical Isolates Associated with Mild and Severe Hepatitis▿

    PubMed Central

    Mackiewicz, Vincent; Cammas, Anne; Desbois, Delphine; Marchadier, Eric; Pierredon, Sandra; Beaulieux, Frédérik; Dussaix, Elisabeth; Vagner, Stephan; Roque-Afonso, Anne-Marie

    2010-01-01

    Mutations in the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of hepatitis A virus (HAV) have been associated with enhanced in vitro replication and viral attenuation in animal models. To address the possible role of IRES variability in clinical presentation, IRES sequences were obtained from HAV isolates associated with benign (n = 8) or severe (n = 4) hepatitis. IRES activity was assessed using a bicistronic dual-luciferase expression system in adenocarcinoma (HeLa) and hepatoma (HuH7) cell lines. Activity was higher in HuH7 than in HeLa cells, except for an infrequently isolated genotype IIA strain. Though globally low, significant variation in IRES-dependent translation efficiency was observed between field isolates, reflecting the low but significant genetic variability of this region (94.2% ± 0.5% nucleotide identity). No mutation was exclusive of benign or severe hepatitis, and variations in IRES activity were not associated with a clinical phenotype, indirectly supporting the preponderance of host factors in determining the clinical presentation. PMID:20631141

  3. Nucleotide variability and translation efficiency of the 5' untranslated region of hepatitis A virus: update from clinical isolates associated with mild and severe hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Mackiewicz, Vincent; Cammas, Anne; Desbois, Delphine; Marchadier, Eric; Pierredon, Sandra; Beaulieux, Frédérik; Dussaix, Elisabeth; Vagner, Stephan; Roque-Afonso, Anne-Marie

    2010-10-01

    Mutations in the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of hepatitis A virus (HAV) have been associated with enhanced in vitro replication and viral attenuation in animal models. To address the possible role of IRES variability in clinical presentation, IRES sequences were obtained from HAV isolates associated with benign (n = 8) or severe (n = 4) hepatitis. IRES activity was assessed using a bicistronic dual-luciferase expression system in adenocarcinoma (HeLa) and hepatoma (HuH7) cell lines. Activity was higher in HuH7 than in HeLa cells, except for an infrequently isolated genotype IIA strain. Though globally low, significant variation in IRES-dependent translation efficiency was observed between field isolates, reflecting the low but significant genetic variability of this region (94.2% +/- 0.5% nucleotide identity). No mutation was exclusive of benign or severe hepatitis, and variations in IRES activity were not associated with a clinical phenotype, indirectly supporting the preponderance of host factors in determining the clinical presentation. PMID:20631141

  4. The 5′ untranslated region of the soybean cytosolic glutamine synthetase β1 gene contains prokaryotic translation initiation signals and acts as a translational enhancer in plants

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Jose Luis; Wilson, Olivia L.

    2013-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes the synthesis of glutamine from glutamate and ammonia. In plants, it occurs as two major isoforms, a cytosolic form (GS1) and a nuclear encoded chloroplastic form. The focus of this paper is to determine the role of the 5′UTR of a GS1 gene. GS1 gene constructs with and without its 5′ and 3′ UTRs, driven by a constitutive promoter, were agroinfiltrated into tobacco leaves and the tissues were analyzed for both transgene transcript and protein accumulation. The constructs were also tested in an in vitro transcription/translation system and in Escherichia coli. Our results showed that while the 3′ UTR functioned in the destabilization of the transcript, the 5′ UTR acted as a translation enhancer in plant cells but not in the in vitro translation system. The 5′UTR of the GS1 gene when placed in front of a reporter gene (uidA), showed a 20-fold increase in the level of GUS expression in agroinfiltrated leaves when compared to the same gene construct without the 5′UTR. The 5′UTR-mediated translational enhancement is probably another step in the regulation of GS in plants. The presence of the GS1 5′ UTR in front of the GS1 coding region allowed for its translation in E. coli suggesting the commonality of the translation initiation mechanism for this gene between plants and bacteria. PMID:23080263

  5. PCK1 is negatively regulated by bta-miR-26a, and a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the 3' untranslated region is involved in semen quality and longevity of Holstein bulls.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jinming; Guo, Fang; Zhang, Zebin; Zhang, Yuanpei; Wang, Xiuge; Ju, Zhihua; Yang, Chunhong; Wang, Changfa; Hou, Minghai; Zhong, Jifeng

    2016-03-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (PCK1) is a multi-functional enzyme that plays important roles in physiological processes, including reproduction. We previously reported that the PCK1 transcript has five splice variants; PCK1-AS4, which lacks exon 5, is enriched in the testis of Holstein bulls. In the present study, we profiled select PCK1 transcript variants in the testis, epididymus, and semen of high- and low-performance bulls, and examined the possibility that microRNAs may be involved in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-mediated modulation of PCK1 expression. PCK1-AS4 abundance is not significantly different between high- and low-performance bulls. Luciferase reporter assays, however, showed that bovine PCK1 expression is repressed by bta-miR-26a in HepG2 hepatocyte cells. One SNP (c. + 2183 G > T) at the miRNA-binding site of PCK1 does not influence PCK1 expression, but is associated with elevated ejaculation volume, fresh sperm motility, and genomic estimated breeding value of longevity, as well as with reduced values of composite index and calving ease. Collectively, the identified 3'-untranslated-region SNP variant highlights the importance of PCK1 in the fecundity of Holstein bulls, and implicates a role for bta-miR-26a in regulating PCK1 abundance. Further study is needed to assess the effects of other genetic variants in 5'-flanking region and exons of PCK1 on enzyme levels in the testis and sperm. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 83: 217-225, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26725319

  6. Identification of sequences within the murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor mRNA 3'-untranslated region that mediate mRNA stabilization induced by mitogen treatment of EL-4 thymoma cells.

    PubMed

    Iwai, Y; Bickel, M; Pluznik, D H; Cohen, R B

    1991-09-25

    Phorbol esters (TPA) and concanavalin A (ConA) are known to induce granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) production in murine thymoma EL-4 cells by mRNA stabilization. The role of the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) in GM-CSF mRNA stabilization induced by TPA and ConA in EL-4 cells was examined by transfection studies using chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) constructions. The GM-CSF 3'-UTR contains a 63-nucleotide region at its 3' end with repeating ATTTA motifs which is responsible for mRNA degradation in a variety of cell types (Shaw, G., and Kamen, R. (1986) Cell 46, 659-666). We produced constructs containing most of the GM-CSF 3'-UTR (303 nucleotides, pRSV-CATgm) or the 3'-terminal AT-rich region (116 nucleotides, pRSV-CATau) and measured CAT enzyme activity and CAT mRNA after transient transfection into EL-4 and NIH 3T3 cells. Low levels of CAT activity were seen in both cells with either plasmid compared with levels of CAT activity obtained with pRSV-CAT. TPA treatment caused an approximately 10-fold increase in CAT activity and mRNA in EL-4 cells transfected with pRSV-CATgm. No increases were seen in EL-4 cells transfected with pRSV-CATau or pRSV-CAT. No response to TPA was detected in transfected NIH 3T3 cells, indicating that the response to TPA is relatively cell-specific. There was no increase in CAT activity after ConA treatment in EL-4 or NIH 3T3 cells transfected with any of the constructs suggesting that the GM-CSF 3'-UTR lacks elements that can respond alone to ConA. Nuclear run-on and actinomycin D chase experiments in EL-4 cells showed that TPA induces CAT activity via mRNA stabilization. By linker-substitution mutagenesis we show that TPA inducibility depends on a 60-nucleotide region of the 3'-UTR whose 5' end is located 160 nucleotides upstream of the 5' end of the AU-rich region. PMID:1917935

  7. Untranslated regions from C4 amaranth AhRbcS1 mRNAs confer translational enhancement and preferential bundle sheath cell expression in transgenic C4 Flaveria bidentis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Minesh; Corey, Amy C; Yin, Li-Ping; Ali, Shahjahan; Taylor, William C; Berry, James O

    2004-11-01

    Many aspects of photosynthetic gene expression are posttranscriptionally regulated in C4 plants. To determine if RbcS mRNA untranslated regions (UTRs) in themselves could confer any characteristic C4 expression patterns, 5'- and 3'-UTRs of AhRbcS1 mRNA from the C4 dicot amaranth were linked to a gusA reporter gene. These were constitutively transcribed from a cauliflower mosaic virus promoter and assayed for posttranscriptional expression patterns in transgenic lines of the C4 dicot Flaveria bidentis. Three characteristic C4 expression patterns were conferred by heterologous AhRbcS1 UTRs in transgenic F. bidentis. First, the AhRbcS1 UTRs conferred strong translational enhancement of gusA expression, relative to control constructs lacking these UTRs. Second, while the UTRs did not appear to confer tissue-specific expression when analyzed by beta-glucuronidase activity assays, differences in gusA mRNA accumulation were observed in leaves, stems, and roots. Third, the AhRbcS1 UTRs conferred preferential gusA expression (enzyme activity and gusA mRNA accumulation) in leaf bundle sheath cells. AhRbcS1 UTR-mediated translational enhancement was also observed in transgenic C3 plants (tobacco [Nicotiana tabacum]) and in in vitro translation extracts. These mRNAs appear to be translated with different efficiencies in C4 versus C3 plants, indicating that processes determining overall translational efficiency may vary between these two categories of higher plants. Our findings suggest that the AhRbcS1 5'-UTR functions as a strong translational enhancer in leaves and other tissues, and may work synergistically with the 3'-UTR to modulate overall levels of Rubisco gene expression in different tissues and cell types of C4 plants. PMID:15489276

  8. Efficient Translation Initiation Directed by the 900-Nucleotide-Long and GC-Rich 5′ Untranslated Region of the Human Retrotransposon LINE-1 mRNA Is Strictly Cap Dependent Rather than Internal Ribosome Entry Site Mediated▿

    PubMed Central

    Dmitriev, Sergey E.; Andreev, Dmitri E.; Terenin, Ilya M.; Olovnikov, Ivan A.; Prassolov, Vladimir S.; Merrick, William C.; Shatsky, Ivan N.

    2007-01-01

    Retrotransposon L1 is a mobile genetic element of the LINE family that is extremely widespread in the mammalian genome. It encodes a dicistronic mRNA, which is exceptionally rare among eukaryotic cellular mRNAs. The extremely long and GC-rich L1 5′ untranslated region (5′UTR) directs synthesis of numerous copies of RNA-binding protein ORF1p per mRNA. One could suggest that the 5′UTR of L1 mRNA contained a powerful internal ribosome entry site (IRES) element. Using transfection of cultured cells with the polyadenylated monocistronic (L1 5′UTR-Fluc) or bicistronic (Rluc-L1 5′UTR-Fluc) RNA constructs, capped or uncapped, it has been firmly established that the 5′UTR of L1 does not contain an IRES. Uncapping reduces the initiation activity of the L1 5′UTR to that of background. Moreover, the translation is inhibited by upstream AUG codons in the 5′UTR. Nevertheless, this cap-dependent initiation activity of the L1 5′UTR was unexpectedly high and resembles that of the beta-actin 5′UTR (84 nucleotides long). Strikingly, the deletion of up to 80% of the nucleotide sequence of the L1 5′UTR, with most of its stem loops, does not significantly change its translation initiation efficiency. These data can modify current ideas on mechanisms used by 40S ribosomal subunits to cope with complex 5′UTRs and call into question the conception that every long GC-rich 5′UTR working with a high efficiency has to contain an IRES. Our data also demonstrate that the ORF2 translation initiation is not directed by internal initiation, either. It is very inefficient and presumably based on a reinitiation event. PMID:17470553

  9. West Nile virus encodes a microRNA-like small RNA in the 3′ untranslated region which up-regulates GATA4 mRNA and facilitates virus replication in mosquito cells

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Mazhar; Torres, Shessy; Schnettler, Esther; Funk, Anneke; Grundhoff, Adam; Pijlman, Gorben P.; Asgari, Sassan

    2012-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) belongs to a group of medically important single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses causing deadly disease outbreaks around the world. The 3′ untranslated region (3′-UTR) of the flavivirus genome, in particular the terminal 3′ stem–loop (3′SL) fulfils multiple functions in virus replication and virus–host interactions. Using the Kunjin strain of WNV (WNVKUN), we detected a virally encoded small RNA, named KUN-miR-1, derived from 3′SL. Transcription of WNVKUN pre-miRNA (3′SL) in mosquito cells either from plasmid or Semliki Forest virus (SFV) RNA replicon resulted in the production of mature KUN-miR-1. Silencing of Dicer-1 but not Dicer-2 led to a reduction in the miRNA levels. Further, when a synthetic inhibitor of KUN-miR-1 was transfected into mosquito cells, replication of viral RNA was significantly reduced. Using cloning and bioinformatics approaches, we identified the cellular GATA4 mRNA as a target for KUN-miR-1. KUN-miR-1 produced in mosquito cells during virus infection or from plasmid DNA, SFV RNA replicon or mature miRNA duplex increased accumulation of GATA4 mRNA. Depletion of GATA4 mRNA by RNA silencing led to a significant reduction in virus RNA replication while a KUN-miR-1 RNA mimic enhanced replication of a mutant WNVKUN virus producing reduced amounts of KUN-miR-1, suggesting that GATA4-induction via KUN-miR-1 plays an important role in virus replication. PMID:22080551

  10. Oligomerizations of deoxyadenosine bis-phosphates and of their 3-prime-5-prime, 3-prime-3-prime, and 5-prime-5-prime dimers - Effects of a pyrophosphate-linked, poly(T) analog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visscher, J.; Bakker, C. G.; Schwartz, Alan W.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of a 3-prime-5-prime pyrophosphate-linked oligomer of pTp on oligomerizations of pdAp and of its 3-prime-5-prime, 3-prime-3-prime, and 5-prime-5-prime dimers was investigated, using HPLC to separate the reaction mixtures; peak detection was by absorbance monitoring at 254 nm. It was expected that the dimers would form stable complexes with the template, with the degree of stability depending upon the internal linkage of each dimer. It was found that, although the isomers differ substantially in their oligomerization behavior in the absence of template, the analog-template catalyzes the oligomerization to about the same extent in all three cases.

  11. Reverse Stroop Effects with Untranslated Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blais, Chris; Besner, Derek

    2006-01-01

    Translation accounts have argued that the presence of a Stroop effect in the context of a nonvocal untranslated response is caused by verbal mediation. In its simplest form, color-labeled buttons are translated into a verbal code that interferes with color responses. On this logic, in the reverse Stroop task (identify the word; ignore the color),…

  12. rs78378222 polymorphism in the 3'-untranslated region of TP53 contributes to development of age-associated cataracts by modifying microRNA-125b-induced apoptosis of lens epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Li, Xiao; Zhu, Siquan

    2016-09-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) negatively regulate the expression of the target genes by binding to 'seed sequences' in the 3'‑untranslated region (3'‑UTR) mRNA transcripts, and the variants within or nearby 'seed sequences' may compromise or enhance miRNA/mRNA interaction leading to either 'loss‑of‑function' or 'gain‑of‑function' effects. Cataracts are the leading cause of blindness worldwide and are characterized by progressive aggregation and precipitation of lens proteins, and the development of age‑related cataracts is associated with dysregulated cellular activities of lens epithelial cells. Luciferase assays and online miRNA databases were used to validate that tumor protein p53 (TP53) is the target gene of miR‑125b. Furthermore, reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were conducted to detect expression levels of miR‑125b and TP53 in different groups of cells transfected with miR‑125b mimics or inhibitors. In addition, flow cytometry analysis and the MTT assay were conducted to detect the effects of miR‑125b on apoptosis and cell viability. The current study demonstrated that the rs78378222 polymorphism minor allele introduces a novel potential miR‑125b binding site in the TP53 3'‑UTR with a consecutive 8‑bp perfect match, creating a 'gain‑of‑function' variant and affecting the regulation of TP53 expression. A luciferase assay demonstrated that transfection of lens epithelial cells with wild type TP53 3'‑UTR significantly reduced the luciferase activity of the miR‑125b overexpressing cells compared with scramble controls. In addition, the luciferase activity of miR‑125b overexpressing cells transfected with the construct containing the rs78378222 polymorphism minor allele was also reduced compared with cells transfected with the wild type 3'‑UTR. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the expression level of miR‑125 was comparable in epithelial cells from patients with age

  13. Characterization of Flavonoid 3[prime],5[prime]-Hydroxylase in Microsomal Membrane Fraction of Petunia hybrida Flowers.

    PubMed Central

    Menting, JGT.; Scopes, R. K.; Stevenson, T. W.

    1994-01-01

    We have detected a flavonoid 3[prime],5[prime]-hydroxylase (F3[prime],5[prime]H) in the microsomal fraction of Petunia hybrida flowers. Activity varied with the development of flowers, peaking immediately prior to and during anthesis, but was absent in mature flowers. F3[prime],5[prime]H activity in flower extracts from genetically defined floral color mutants correlated strictly with the genotypes Hf1 and Hf2. No activity was detected in flowers from mutants homozygous recessive for both alleles. F3[prime],5[prime]H activity was dependent on NADPH and molecular oxygen; there was only slight activity with NADH. The enzyme catalyzes the hydroxylation of 5,7,4[prime]-trihydroxyflavonone at the 3[prime] and 5[prime] positions, and of 5,7,3[prime],4[prime]-tetrahydroxyflavonone and dihydroquercetin at the 5[prime] position. Hydroxylase activity was inhibited by plant growth regulators (1-aminobenzotriazole and tetcyclacis) and by CO, N-ethylmaleimide, diethyldithiocarbamate, and cytochrome (Cyt) c. Activity was not affected by diethylpyrocarbonate or phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, but was enhanced by 2-mercaptoethanol. A polyclonal antibody that inhibits higher plant NADPH-Cyt P450 reductase inhibited the F3[prime],5[prime]H. The data are consistent with the suggestion that the P. hybrida F3[prime],5[prime]H is a monooxygenase consisting of a Cyt P450 and a NADPH-Cyt P-450 reductase. Cyts P450 were detected in microsomal membranes and in solubilized detergent extracts of these membranes. F3[prime],5[prime]H activity was sensitive to low concentrations of all detergents tested, and therefore solubilization of the active enzyme was not achieved. Reaction products other than flavanones were observed in F3[prime],5[prime]H assays and these may be formed by enzymic oxidation of flavanones. The possibility of a microsomal flavone synthase of a type that has not been described in P. hybrida is discussed. PMID:12232356

  14. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hrq1 requires a long 3 Prime -tailed DNA substrate for helicase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Sung-Hun; Choi, Do-Hee; Lee, Rina; Bae, Sung-Ho

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hrq1 has intrinsic 3 Prime -5 Prime helicase and DNA strand annealing activities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hrq1 requires a long 3 Prime -tail for efficient DNA unwinding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Helicase activity of Hrq1 is stimulated by a fork structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hrq1 is a moderately processive helicase. -- Abstract: RecQ helicases are well conserved proteins from bacteria to human and function in various DNA metabolism for maintenance of genome stability. Five RecQ helicases are found in humans, whereas only one RecQ helicase has been described in lower eukaryotes. However, recent studies predicted the presence of a second RecQ helicase, Hrq1, in fungal genomes and verified it as a functional gene in fission yeast. Here we show that 3 Prime -5 Prime helicase activity is intrinsically associated with Hrq1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We also determined several biochemical properties of Hrq1 helicase distinguishable from those of other RecQ helicase members. Hrq1 is able to unwind relatively long duplex DNA up to 120-bp and is significantly stimulated by a preexisting fork structure. Further, the most striking feature of Hrq1 is its absolute requirement for a long 3 Prime -tail ( Greater-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 70-nt) for efficient unwinding of duplex DNA. We also found that Hrq1 has potent DNA strand annealing activity. Our results indicate that Hrq1 has vigorous helicase activity that deserves further characterization to expand our understanding of RecQ helicases.

  15. The 5′-untranslated region of p16INK4a melanoma tumor suppressor acts as a cellular IRES, controlling mRNA translation under hypoxia through YBX1 binding

    PubMed Central

    Bisio, Alessandra; Latorre, Elisa; Andreotti, Virginia; Bressac-de Paillerets, Brigitte; Harland, Mark; Scarra, Giovanna Bianchi; Ghiorzo, Paola; Spitale, Robert C.; Provenzani, Alessandro; Inga, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    CDKN2A/p16INK4a is an essential tumor suppressor gene that controls cell cycle progression and replicative senescence. It is also the main melanoma susceptibility gene. Here we report that p16INK4a 5′UTR mRNA acts as a cellular Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES). The potential for p16INK4a 5′UTR to drive cap-independent translation was evaluated by dual-luciferase assays using bicistronic and monocistronic vectors. Results of reporters' relative activities coupled to control analyses for actual bicistronic mRNA transcription, indicated that the wild type p16INK4a 5′UTR could stimulate cap-independent translation. Notably, hypoxic stress and the treatment with mTOR inhibitors enhanced the translation-stimulating property of p16INK4a 5′UTR. RNA immunoprecipitation performed in melanoma-derived SK-Mel-28 and in a patient-derived lymphoblastoid cell line indicated that YBX1 can bind the wild type p16INK4a mRNA increasing its translation efficiency, particularly during hypoxic stress. Modulation of YBX1 expression further supported its involvement in cap-independent translation of the wild type p16INK4a but not a c.-42T>A variant. RNA SHAPE assays revealed local flexibility changes for the c.-42T>A variant at the predicted YBX1 binding site region. Our results indicate that p16INK4a 5′UTR contains a cellular IRES that can enhance mRNA translation efficiency, in part through YBX1. PMID:26498684

  16. Defining a novel cis element in the 3'-untranslated region of mammalian ribonucleotide reductase component R2 mRNA: role in transforming growth factor-beta 1 induced mRNA stabilization.

    PubMed Central

    Amara, F M; Chen, F Y; Wright, J A

    1995-01-01

    Ribonucleotide reductase R2 gene expression is elevated in BALB/c 3T3 fibroblasts treated with transforming growth factor beta 1. We investigated the possibility that the 3'-UTR of ribonucleotide reductase R2 mRNA contains regulatory information for TGF-beta 1 induced message stability. Using end-labeled RNA fragments in gel shift assays and UV cross-linking analyses, we detected in the 3'-UTR a novel 9 nucleotide (nt) cis element, 5'-GAGUUUGAG-3' site, which interacted specifically with a cytosolic protease sensitive factor to form a 75 kDa complex. The cis element protein binding activity was inducible and markedly up-regulated cross-link 4 h after TGF-beta 1 treatment of mouse BALB/c 3T3 cells. Other 3'-UTRs [IRE, GM-CSF, c-myc and homopolymer (U)] were poor competitors to the cis element with regard to forming the TGF-beta 1 dependent RNA-protein complex. However, the cis element effectively competed out the formation of the R2 3'-UTR protein complex. Cytosolic extracts from a variety of mammalian cell lines (monkey Cos7, several mouse fibrosarcomas and human HeLa S3) demonstrated similar TGF-beta 1 dependent RNA-protein band shifts as cell extract from BALB/c 3T3 mouse fibroblasts. Binding was completely prevented by several different mutations within the cis element, and by substitution mutagenesis, we were able to predict the consensus sequences, 5'-GAGUUUNNN-3' and 5'-NNNUUUGAG-3' for optimal protein binding. These results support a model in which the 9 nt region functions in cis to destabilize R2 mRNA in cells; and upon activation, a TGF-beta 1 responsive protein is induced and interacts with the 9 nt cis element in a mechanism that leads to stabilization of the mRNA. This appears to be the first example of a mRNA binding site that is involved in TGF-beta 1-mediated effects. Images PMID:7784197

  17. U-rich sequence-binding proteins (URBPs) interacting with a 20-nucleotide U-rich sequence in the 3' untranslated region of c-fos mRNA may be involved in the first step of c-fos mRNA degradation.

    PubMed Central

    You, Y; Chen, C Y; Shyu, A B

    1992-01-01

    Rapid decay of the c-fos transcript plays a critical role in controlling transforming potential of the c-fos proto-oncogene. One of the mRNA instability determinants is a 75-nucleotide AU-rich element (ARE) present in the 3' untranslated region of the c-fos transcript. It appears to control two steps in the process of c-fos mRNA degradation: removal of the poly(A) tail, which does not require the AUUUA motifs, and subsequent degradation of deadenylated mRNA, which appears to be dependent on the AUUUA motifs. In this study, we report the identification of four U-rich sequence binding proteins (URBPs) that specifically interact with a 20-nucleotide U-rich sequence within the c-fos ARE. Gel mobility shift assay and competition experiments showed that these protein factors form three specific band-shifted complexes with the c-fos ARE. Binding activity of one of the protein factors, a 37-kDa protein, is significantly affected by serum induction and by pretreatment of cells with drugs known to stabilize many of the immediate-early gene mRNAs. Combining UV cross-linking with a new approach, designated sequential RNase digestion, we were able to better determine the molecular masses of these cellular proteins. The binding sites for the four proteins were all mapped to a 20-nucleotide U-rich sequence located at the 3' half of the c-fos ARE, which contains no AUUUA pentanucleotides but stretches of uridylate residues. Single U-to-A point mutations in each of the three AUUUA motifs within the c-fos ARE have little effect on formation of the mobility-shifted complexes. Our data indicate c-fos ARE-protein interaction involves recognition of U stretches rather than recognition of the AUUUA motifs. We propose that UTBP binding may be involved in the first step, removal of the Poly(A) tail, in the c-fos ARE-mediated decay pathway. Images PMID:1620106

  18. An AU-Rich Sequence Element (UUUN[A/U]U) Downstream of the Edited C in Apolipoprotein B mRNA Is a High-Affinity Binding Site for Apobec-1: Binding of Apobec-1 to This Motif in the 3′ Untranslated Region of c-myc Increases mRNA Stability

    PubMed Central

    Anant, Shrikant; Davidson, Nicholas O.

    2000-01-01

    Apobec-1, the catalytic subunit of the mammalian apolipoprotein B (apoB) mRNA-editing enzyme, is a cytidine deaminase with RNA binding activity for AU-rich sequences. This RNA binding activity is required for Apobec-1 to mediate C-to-U RNA editing. Filter binding assays, using immobilized Apobec-1, demonstrate saturable binding to a 105-nt apoB RNA with a Kd of ∼435 nM. A series of AU-rich templates was used to identify a high-affinity (∼50 nM) binding site of consensus sequence UUUN[A/U]U, with multiple copies of this sequence constituting the high-affinity binding site. In order to determine whether this consensus site could be functionally demonstrated from within an apoB RNA, circular-permutation analysis was performed, revealing one major (UUUGAU) and one minor (UU) site located 3 and 16 nucleotides, respectively, downstream of the edited base. Secondary-structure predictions reveal a stem-loop flanking the edited base with Apobec-1 binding to the consensus site(s) at an open loop. A similar consensus (AUUUA) is present in the 3′ untranslated regions of several mRNAs, including that of c-myc, that are known to undergo rapid degradation. In this context, it is presumed that the consensus motif acts as a destabilizing element. As an independent test of the ability of Apobec-1 to bind to this sequence, F442A cells were transfected with Apobec-1 and the half-life of c-myc mRNA was determined following actinomycin D treatment. These studies demonstrated an increase in the half-life of c-myc mRNA from 90 to 240 min in control versus Apobec-1-expressing cells. Apobec-1 expression mutants, in which RNA binding activity is eliminated, failed to alter c-myc mRNA turnover. Taken together, the data establish a consensus binding site for Apobec-1 embedded in proximity to the edited base in apoB RNA. Binding to this site in other target RNAs raises the possibility that Apobec-1 may be involved in other aspects of RNA metabolism, independent of its role as an apoB RNA

  19. The SUMO (Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier) Ligase PIAS3 Primes ATR for Checkpoint Activation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ching-Shyi; Zou, Lee

    2016-01-01

    The maintenance of genomic stability relies on the concerted action of DNA repair and DNA damage signaling pathways. The PIAS (protein inhibitor of activated STAT) family of SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) ligases has been implicated in DNA repair, but whether it plays a role in DNA damage signaling is still unclear. Here, we show that the PIAS3 SUMO ligase is important for activation of the ATR (ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related)-regulated DNA damage signaling pathway. PIAS3 is the only member of the PIAS family that is indispensable for ATR activation. In response to different types of DNA damage and replication stress, PIAS3 plays multiple roles in ATR activation. In cells treated with camptothecin (CPT), PIAS3 contributes to formation of DNA double-stranded breaks. In UV (ultraviolet light)- or HU (hydroxyurea)-treated cells, PIAS3 is required for efficient ATR autophosphorylation, one of the earliest events during ATR activation. Although PIAS3 is dispensable for ATRIP (ATR-interacting protein) SUMOylation and the ATR-ATRIP interaction, it is required for maintaining the basal kinase activity of ATR prior to DNA damage. In the absence of PIAS3, ATR fails to display normal kinase activity after DNA damage, which accompanies with reduced phosphorylation of ATR substrates. Together, these results suggest that PIAS3 primes ATR for checkpoint activation by sustaining its basal kinase activity, revealing a new function of the PIAS family in DNA damage signaling. PMID:26565033

  20. Differential regulation of alternative 3{prime} splicing of {epsilon} messenger RNA variants

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz-Sanchez, D.; Zhang, K.; Saxon, A.

    1995-08-15

    Alternative 3{prime} splicing of the one active human {epsilon} heavy chain gene results in variants of {epsilon} mRNA encoding distinct IgE proteins. The same relative amounts of these {epsilon} mRNA variants were produced by non-atopic donor B cells when driven in a variety of T-dependent or T-independent systems. The most abundant variants were those for classic secreted {epsilon} and a novel secreted form (CH4-M2{double_prime}). In contrast, cells from subjects with high levels of serum IgE secondary to parasitic infection or atopy spontaneously produced higher relative levels of the CH4-M2{prime} {epsilon} mRNA variant, lower relative amounts of both the membrane and CH4-M2{double_prime} secreted variants, and very low levels of the CH4{prime}-CH5 variant. The existence of and corresponding changes in levels of the CH4-M2{prime}-enclosed secreted protein were demonstrated. IL-10 induced this same differential expression of {epsilon} splice variants in vitro when used to costimulate IL-4 plus CD40-driven B cells and could differentially enhance the production of CH4-M2{prime} protein by established IgE-secreting cell lines. Inhibition of IgE by cross-linking the low affinity IgE receptor (CD23) decreased the levels of {epsilon} mRNA and resulted in a distinct pattern of {epsilon} mRNA characterized by a dramatic decrease in CH4-M2{prime} splice variant. IL-6, IL-2, or IFN-{gamma} did not change the {epsilon} mRNA pattern. Overall, the absolute and relative amounts of the different {epsilon} mRNA splice variants produced appear to be controlled in a differentiation-related fashion.

  1. Novel adenosine 3 prime ,5 prime -cyclic monophosphate dependent protein kinases in a marine diatom

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, P.P.C.; Volcani, B.E. )

    1989-08-08

    Two novel adenosine 3{prime},5{prime}-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) dependent protein kinases have been isolated from the diatom Cylindrotheca fusiformis. The kinases, designated I and II, are eluted from DEAE-Sephacel at 0.10 and 0.15 M NaCl. They have a high affinity for cAMP and are activated by micromolar cAMP. They exhibit maximal activity at 5 mM Mg{sup 2+} and pH 8 with the preferred phosphate donor ATP and phosphate acceptor histone H1. They phosphorylate sea urchin sperm histone H1 on a single serine site in the sequence Arg-Lys-Gly-Ser({sup 32}P)-Ser-Asn-Ala-Arg and have an apparent M{sub r} of 75,000 as determined by gel filtration and sucrose density sedimentation. In the kinase I preparation a single protein band with an apparent M{sub r} of about 78,000 is photolabeled with 8-azido({sup 32}P)cAMP and is also phosphorylated with ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)ATP in a cAMP-dependent manner, after autoradiography following sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis. The rate of phosphorylation of the 78,000-dalton band is independent of the enzyme concentration. The results indicate that (i) these diatom cAMP-dependent protein kinases are monomeric proteins, possessing both the cAMP-binding regulatory and catalytic domains on the same polypeptide chain, (ii) the enzymes do not dissociate into smaller species upon activation by binding cAMP, and (iii) self-phosphorylation of the enzymes by an intrapeptide reaction is cAMP dependent. The two diatom cAMP kinases are refractory to the heat-stable protein kinase modulator from rabbit muscle, but they respond differently to proteolytic degradation and to inhibition by arachidonic acid and several microbial alkaloids.

  2. 3[prime] end maturation of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplast atpB mRNA is a two-step process

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, D.B.; Kindle, K.L. )

    1993-04-01

    The research studied the 3[prime] end maturation of green algae chloroplast atpB mRNA. Most data on transcription termination and 3[prime] end maturation in chloroplasts have been based on in vitro experiments. Newly developed chloroplast transformation techniques have allowed the use of a green algae, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, to examine chloroplast mRNA 3[prime] end stability determinants and mRNA processing both in vitro and in vivo. The results of this research showed that Chlamydomonas chloroplast protein extracts contain an endonuclease activity that cleaves a synthetic precursor of atpB mRNA 10 nucleotides downstream on the mature 3[prime] end in vitro. Rapid cleavage by this endonuclease is followed by exonucleolytic removal of 10 nucleotides to yield the mature 3[prime] end.

  3. Characterization of radiation-induced products of thymidine 3{prime}-monophosphate and thymidylyl (3{prime}{yields}5{prime}) thymidine by high-performance liquid chromatography and laser-desorption fourier-transform mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, H.; Hettich, R.L.

    1994-09-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and laser-desorption Fourier-transform mass spectrometry (LD FTMS) have been applied for direct measurements of radiation-induced products of nucleic acid constituents containing thymidine. Laser desorption FTMS could be used for the direct detection (neither hydrolyzed nor derivatized) of X-ray-induced decomposition products of aqueous thymidine monophosphate. After these initial experiments, a variety of hydrogenated and hydroxylated thymine standards were acquired and examined by FTMS to assist in the identification of unknown radiation-induced decomposition products of thymine-containing nucleotides and dinucleotides. To extend these studies to dinucleotides, the radiation-induced products generated by the gamma radiolysis of thymidylyl (3{prime}{yields}5{prime}) thymidine (TpT) were isolated by reverse-phase HPLC and identified by LD FTMS. Thymine and thymidine 3{prime}-monophosphate were observed as the major products in this case. Several of the minor products of the HPLC profile were pooled in a single fraction and characterized simultaneously by LD FTMS. The resulting mass spectra indicated the presence of hydroxy-5,6-dihydothymidine monophosphate, 5,6-dihydrothymidine monophosphate and thymidine monophosphate, thymine glycol, hydroxy-5,6-dihydrothymine, 5-hydroxy-methyl-uracil and 5,6-dihydrothymine. The combination of HPLC purification and LD FTMS structural characterization provides a useful tool for the direct measurement of radiation-induced products of nucleotides and dinucleotides. 28 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. The untranslated side of hair and skin mammalian pigmentation: Beyond coding sequences.

    PubMed

    Rouzaud, Francois; Oulmouden, Ahmad; Kos, Lidia

    2010-05-01

    For several decades, tremendous advances in studying skin and hair pigmentation of mammals have been made using Mendelian genetics principles. A number of loci and their associated traits have been extensively examined, crossings performed, and phenotypes well documented. Continuously improving PCR techniques allowed the molecular cloning and sequencing of the first pigmentation genes at the end of the 20th century, a period followed by an intense effort to detect and describe polymorphisms in the coding regions and correlate allelic combinations with the observed melanogenic phenotypes. However, a number of phenotypes and biological events could not be elucidated solely by analysis of the coding regions of genes. Messenger RNA isolation, characterization and quantification techniques allowed groups to move ahead and investigate molecular mechanisms whose secrets lay within the noncoding regions of pigmentation genes transcripts such as MC1R, ASIP, or Mitf. The untranslated elements contain specific nucleotidic sequences and structures that dramatically influence the mRNA half-life and processing thus impacting protein translation and melanin production. As we are progressively uncovering the complex processes regulating melanocyte biology, unraveling complete mRNA structures and understanding mechanisms beyond coding regions has become critical. PMID:20222017

  5. Unusually high conservation of untranslated sequences in cDNAs for Trimeresurus flavoviridis phospholipase A2 isozymes.

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, T; Oda, N; Nakashima, K; Sasaki, H; Hattori, M; Sakaki, Y; Kihara, H; Ohno, M

    1992-01-01

    As a step toward understanding the structure and function of phospholipases A2 (PLA2s), we isolated and sequenced several cDNAs encoding Trimeresurus flavoviridis venom PLA2 isozymes including two [Lys49]PLA2s called basic proteins I and II, [Thr37]PLA2, and PLX'-PLA2. Comparison of the nucleotide sequences of these cDNAs with the previously isolated [Asp49]PLA2 cDNA revealed some interesting findings from the viewpoint of evolution. First, the homologies of the 5' and 3' untranslated regions (98% and 89%, respectively) were much higher than that of the protein-coding regions (67%). The predicted secondary structure showed the characteristic stem-loop structures for both the untranslated regions of the mRNAs, suggesting that these regions play some functional role(s) in translation or stability of mRNAs. Second, base substitutions appeared to have occurred at similar rates for the three positions of codons among these PLA2s. The results are discussed in terms of evolution of PLA2s. Northern blot analysis showed that these PLA2s are specific to venom gland. Images PMID:1528861

  6. Trans-activation function of a 3 prime truncated X gene-cell fusion product from integrated hepatitis B virus DNA in chronic hepatitis tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Takada, Shinako; Koike, Katsuro )

    1990-08-01

    To investigate the expression and transactivation function of the X gene in integrated hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA from chronic hepatitis tissues, a series of transfectants containing cloned integrated HBV DNAs was made and analyzed for X mRNA expression and trans-activation activity by using a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase assay. Most of the integrated HBV DNAs expressed X mRNA and encoded a product with trans-activation activity in spite of the loss of the 3{prime} end region of the X gene due to integration. From cDNA cloning and sequence analysis of X mRNA transcribed from native or integrated HBV DNA, the X protein was found to be translated from the X open reading frame without splicing. For integrated HBV DNA, transcription was extended to a cellular flanking DNA and an X gene-cell fusion transcript was terminated by using a cellular poly(A) signal. The amino acid sequence deduced from an X-cell fusion transcript indicated truncation of the carboxyl-terminal five amino acids, but the upstream region of seven amino acids conserved among hepadnaviruses was retained in the integrated HBV DNA, suggesting that this conserved region is essential for the transactivation function of the X protein. These findings support the following explanation for hepatocarcinogenesis by HBV DNA integration: the expression of a cellular oncogene(s) is transactivated at the time of chronic infection by the increasing amounts of the integrated HBV gene product(s), such as the X-cell fusion product.

  7. Long Tract of Untranslated CAG Repeats Is Deleterious in Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Min-Jon; Li, Chui-Yen; Wang, Li-Chun; Chen, Luen-Kui; Pan, Huichin

    2011-01-01

    The most frequent trinucleotide repeat found in human disorders is the CAG sequence. Expansion of CAG repeats is mostly found in coding regions and is thought to cause diseases through a protein mechanism. Recently, expanded CAG repeats were shown to induce toxicity at the RNA level in Drosophila and C. elegans. These findings raise the possibility that CAG repeats may trigger RNA-mediated pathogenesis in mammals. Here, we demonstrate that transgenic mice expressing EGFP transcripts with long CAG repeats in the 3′ untranslated region develop pathogenic features. Expression of the transgene was directed to the muscle in order to compare the resulting phenotype to that caused by the CUG expansion, as occurs in myotonic dystrophy. Transgenic mice expressing 200, but not those expressing 0 or 23 CAG repeats, showed alterations in muscle morphology, histochemistry and electrophysiology, as well as abnormal behavioral phenotypes. Expression of the expanded CAG repeats in testes resulted in reduced fertility due to defective sperm motility. The production of EGFP protein was significantly reduced by the 200 CAG repeats, and no polyglutamine-containing product was detected, which argues against a protein mechanism. Moreover, nuclear RNA foci were detected for the long CAG repeats. These data support the notion that expanded CAG repeat RNA can cause deleterious effects in mammals. They also suggest the possible involvement of an RNA mechanism in human diseases with long CAG repeats. PMID:21283659

  8. Cortisol metabolism in hepatocytes of rainbow trout treated with 3,3{prime},4,4{prime} tetrachlorobiphenyl

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayan, M.M.; Fiest, G.; Otto, D.; Moon, T.W.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of hepatocytes for cortisol uptake and metabolism in 3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCBP) treated trout. Two groups of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were either given an intraperitoneal implant of peanut oil alone or peanut oil containing TCBP (10 mg.kg{sup {minus}1} body weight) and sampled six weeks later. The toxicant exposed fish had significantly lower condition factor and plasma glucose concentration, whereas plasma cortisol, protein and hepatocyte protein concentration and liver ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity were significantly higher in the TCBP compared to the sham group. There was no significant difference in plasma lactate and amino acid concentration, hepatocyte glycogen content or liver cytosolic cortisol binding affinity or capacity between the two groups. The uptake of [{sup 3}H] cortisol was significantly higher in the hepatocytes of TCBP treated fish compared to the sham fish. Also, there was enhanced catabolism of [{sup 3}H] cortisol by hepatocytes of TCBP treated fish; the major metabolite appeared to be tetrahydrocortisone. The results indicate that the potential for cortisol clearance is enhanced in hepatocytes of TCBP treated trout. The data also tend to suggest in vivo regulatory mechanisms that might possibly prevent the increased clearance of the hormone from circulation in toxicant exposed fish.

  9. Subchronic toxicity of 2,2{prime},3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-hexachlorobiphenyl in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Lecavalier, P.; Chu, I.; Feeley, M.

    1997-06-27

    The subchronic toxicity of 2,2{prime},3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 128) was investigated in rats following dietary exposure at 0, 0.05, 0.5, 5, or 50 ppm for 13 wk. The growth rate was not affected by treatment and no apparent clinical signs of toxicity were observed. There was a significant increase in liver weight in the 50 ppm females. The liver ethoxy-resorufin deethylase (EROD) activity was increased by five- and fourfold in the highest dose males and females, respectively, while aminopyrine demethylase (ADPM) activity was significantly increased only in the highest dose females. Liver vitamin A was significantly reduced in the highest dose females. No other biochemical or hematological effects were observed. Treatment-related histopathological changes were seen in the thyroid and liver, and to a lesser extent in the bone marrow and thymus. Residue data showed a dose-dependent accumulation of PCB 128 in the following tissues: fat, liver, kidney, brain, spleen, and serum, with the highest concentration being found in fat followed by liver and kidney. Based on these data, the no-observable-adverse-effect level of PCB 128 was judged to be 0.5 ppm in diet or 42 {mu}g/kg body weight. 29 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  10. Sequence analysis of two genomic regions containing the KIT and the FMS receptor tyrosine kinase genes

    SciTech Connect

    Andre, C.; Hampe, A.; Lachaume, P.

    1997-01-15

    The KIT and FMS tyrosine kinase receptors, which are implicated in the control of cell growth and differentiation, stem through duplications from a common ancestor. We have conducted a detailed structural analysis of the two loci containing the KIT and FMS genes. The sequence of the {approximately}90-kb KIT locus reveals the position and size of the 21 introns and of the 5{prime} regulatory region of the KIT gene. The introns and the 3{prime}-untranslated parts of KIT and FMS have been analyzed in parallel. Comparison of the two sequences shows that, while introns of both genes have extensively diverged in size and sequence, this divergence is, at least in part, due to intron expansion through internal duplications, as suggested by the discrete extant analogies. Repetitive elements as well as exon predictions obtained using the GRAIL and GENEFINDER programs are described in detail. These programs led us to identify a novel gene, designated SMF, immediately downstream of FMS, in the opposite orientation. This finding emphasizes the gene-rich characteristic of this genomic region. 49 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Accuracy of Deoxynucleotide Incorporation by Soybean Chloroplast DNA Polymerases Is Independent of the Presence of a 3[prime] to 5[prime] Exonuclease.

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, J. C.; Heinhorst, S.; Cannon, G. C.

    1995-01-01

    DNA polymerase was purified from soybean (Glycine max) chloroplasts that were actively replicating DNA. The main form (form I) of the enzyme was associated with a low level of 3[prime] to 5[prime] exonuclease activity throughout purification, although the ratio of exonuclease to polymerase activity decreased with each successive purification step. A second form (form II) of DNA polymerase, which elutes from DEAE-cellulose at a higher salt concentration than form I, was devoid of any exonuclease activity. To assess the potential function of the 3[prime] to 5[prime] exonuclease in proofreading, the fidelity of deoxynucleotide incorporation was measured for form I DNA polymerase throughout purification. Despite the steadily decreasing ratio of 3[prime] to 5[prime] exonuclease to polymerase activity, the extent of misincorporation by form I enzyme remained unchanged during the final purification steps, suggesting that the exonuclease did not contribute to the accuracy of DNA synthesis by this polymerase. Fidelity of form I DNA polymerase, when compared with that of form II, revealed a higher level of misincorporation for form I enzyme, a finding that is consistent with the exonuclease playing little or no role in exonucleolytic proofreading. PMID:12228434

  12. Use of 3' untranslated sequences of human cDNAs for rapid chromosome assignment and conversion to STSs: implications for an expression map of the genome.

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, A S; Khan, A S; Hopkins, J A; Sikela, J M

    1991-01-01

    A general mapping strategy is described in which the 3'untranslated regions of human cDNAs are used to design PCR primers which will selectively amplify human genomic sequences in a rodent background. When applied to panels of human x hamster somatic cell hybrid DNAs, this approach provides a PCR-based method for rapidly assigning genes to specific chromosomes and chromosomal regions. In addition, it follows from the virtual absence of introns in the 3'untranslated region of vertebrate genes that within this region the cDNA sequences almost always will be identical to those of the genomic DNA and can therefore be used to automatically generate gene-specific sequence-tagged sites (STSs). We have applied this strategy to six human cDNAs and demonstrate that 1) the primers selectively amplify human genomic DNA and 2) the PCR product is of the size predicted from the cDNA. To test this approach further we have utilized it to confirm the known chromosomal location of the retinoblastoma gene. Lastly, we describe how this strategy can readily be applied to unknown human cDNAs, and thereby be integrated into efforts to generate a human STS expression map of the genome. A strategy for production of such a map, using human brain cDNAs as a model, is described. Images PMID:2030965

  13. Translational control of maskin mRNA by its 3' untranslated region

    PubMed Central

    Meijer, Hedda A.; Radford, Helois E.; Wilson, Lolita S.; Lissenden, Sarah; de Moor, Cornelia H.

    2007-01-01

    Background information. Maskin is a member of the acidic transforming coiled-coil (TACC) domain proteins found in Xenopus leavis oocytes and embryos. It is implicated in the coordination of the spindle and has been reported to mediate translational repression of cyclin B1 mRNA. Results We report here that maskin mRNA is translationally repressed at the level of initiation in stage 4 oocytes and becomes activated in stage 6 oocytes. The translational repression of maskin mRNA correlates with the presence of a short poly(A) tail on this mRNA in stage 4 oocytes. The 3' UTR of maskin can confer the translational regulation to a reporter mRNA, and so can the 3' UTR of human TACC3. A conserved GUCU repeat element was found to repress translation in both stage 4 and stage 6 oocytes, but deletion of this element did not abrogate repression in stage 4 oocytes. UV crosslinking experiments indicated that overlapping sets of proteins bind efficiently to both the maskin and the cyclin B1 3' UTRs. As previously reported, CPEB binds to the cyclin B1 3' UTR, but its binding to the maskin 3' UTR is minimal. By RNA affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry, we identified the embryonic deadenylation element binding protein (EDEN-BP) as one of the proteins binding to both the maskin and the cyclin B1 3' UTRs. Conclusion Maskin mRNA is translationally regulated by at least two repressor elements and an activation element. One of the repessor elements is the evolutionarily conserved GUCU repeat. EDEN-BP binds to both the maskin and cyclin B1 3' UTRs, indicating it may be involved in the deadenylation of these mRNAs. PMID:17241108

  14. The role of the 5' untranslated regions of Potyviridae in translation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jincan; Roberts, Robyn; Rakotondrafara, Aurélie M

    2015-08-01

    The Potyviridae family relies on a cap-independent translation mechanism to facilitate protein expression. The genomic architecture of the viral RNAs of the Potyviridae family resembles those of the animal picornaviruses. The viral genomes lack a 5' cap structure. Instead, they have the viral protein VPg covalently linked to the 5' end of the RNA. The viral RNAs code for a single large polyprotein, which is then cleaved into several functional subunits. With their common genome organization with the Picornaviridae, it has been largely assumed that the members of the plant Potyviridae family share similar translation mechanism. We will describe the remarkably diverse translational enhancers identified within the family and their unique mechanisms of translation, from internal recruitment of the ribosomes to ribosomal scanning from the 5' end and the recruitment of the VPg in translation. The divergence among the potyviral translation enhancers is heightened with the recent discovery of Triticum mosaic virus, an atypical member of the Potyviridae family, for which its 5' leader by far exceeds the typical length of plant viral leaders and contains features typically found in animal viruses. Much remains to be learned on how these highly divergent elements enable potyviruses, which include some of the most damaging plant viruses, to take over the host translation apparatus. While no clear consensus sequence, structure or mechanism has been reported yet among the potyviral elements, more thorough studies are needed to fill in the gap of knowledge. PMID:25683508

  15. Exclusion of candidate genes from the chromosome 1q juvenile glaucoma region and mapping of the peripheral cannabis receptor gene (CNR2) to chromosome 1

    SciTech Connect

    Sunden, S.L.F.; Nichols, B.E.; Alward, W.L.M.

    1994-09-01

    Juvenile onset primary open angle glaucoma has been mapped by linkage to 1q21-q31. Several candidate genes were evaluated in the same family used to identify the primary linkage. Atrionatriuretic peptide receptor A (NPR1) and laminin C1 (LAMC1) have been previously mapped to this region and could putatively play a role in the pathogenesis of glaucoma. A third gene, the peripheral cannabis receptor (CNR2) was not initially mapped in humans but was a candidate because of the relief that cannabis affords some patients with primary open angle glaucoma. Microsatellites associated with NPR1 and LAMC1 revealed multiple recombinations in affected members of this pedigree. CNR2 was shown to be on chromosome 1 by PCR amplification of a 150 bp fragment of the 3{prime} untranslated region in monochromosomal somatic cell hybrids (NIGMS panel No. 2). These primers also revealed a two allele single strand conformation polymorphism which showed multiple recombinants with juvenile onset primary open angle glaucoma in large pedigrees, segregating this disorder. The marker was then mapped to 1p34-p36 by linkage, with the most likely location between liver alkaline phosphatase (ALPL) and alpha-L-1 fucosidase (FUCA1).

  16. An Untranslated cis-Element Regulates the Accumulation of Multiple C4 Enzymes in Gynandropsis gynandra Mesophyll Cells[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Steven J.; Reyna-Llorens, Ivan; Knerova, Jana; Stanley, Susan

    2016-01-01

    C4 photosynthesis is a complex phenotype that allows more efficient carbon capture than the ancestral C3 pathway. In leaves of C4 species, hundreds of transcripts increase in abundance compared with C3 relatives and become restricted to mesophyll (M) or bundle sheath (BS) cells. However, no mechanism has been reported that regulates the compartmentation of multiple enzymes in M or BS cells. We examined mechanisms regulating CARBONIC ANHYDRASE4 (CA4) in C4 Gynandropsis gynandra. Increased abundance is directed by both the promoter region and introns of the G. gynandra gene. A nine-nucleotide motif located in the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) is required for preferential accumulation of GUS in M cells. This element is present and functional in three additional 5′ UTRs and six 3′ UTRs where it determines accumulation of two isoforms of CA and pyruvate,orthophosphate dikinase in M cells. Although the GgCA4 5′ UTR is sufficient to direct GUS accumulation in M cells, transcripts encoding GUS are abundant in both M and BS. Mutating the GgCA4 5′ UTR abolishes enrichment of protein in M cells without affecting transcript abundance. The work identifies a mechanism that directs cell-preferential accumulation of multiple enzymes required for C4 photosynthesis. PMID:26772995

  17. Nucleotide sequence of 3' untranslated portion of human alpha globin mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, J T; deRiel, J K; Forget, B G; Marotta, C A; Weissman, S M

    1977-01-01

    We have determined the nucleotide sequence of 75 nucleotides of the 3'-untranslated portion of normal human alpha globin mRNA which corresponds to the elongated amino acid sequence of the chain termination mutant Hb Constant Spring. This was accomplished by sequence analysis of cDNA fragments obtained by restriction endonuclease or T4 endonuclease IV cleavage of human globin cDNA synthesized from globin mRNA by use of viral reverse transcriptase. Analysis of cRNA synthesized from cDNA by use of RNA polymerase provided additional confirmatory sequence information. Possible polymorphism has been identified at one site of the sequence. Our sequence overlaps with, and extends the sequence of 43 nucleotides determined by Proudfood and coworkers for the very 3'-terminal portion of human alpha globin mRNA. The complete 3'-untranslated sequence of human alpha globin mRNA (112 nucleotides including termination codon) shows little homology to that of the human or rabbit beta globin mRNAs except for the presence of the hexanucleotide sequence AAUAAA which is found in most eukaryotic mRNAs near the 3'-terminal poly (A). Images PMID:909779

  18. Deletion analysis of the 5' untranslated leader sequence of tobacco mosaic virus RNA.

    PubMed

    Takamatsu, N; Watanabe, Y; Iwasaki, T; Shiba, T; Meshi, T; Okada, Y

    1991-03-01

    To determine the sequences essential for viral multiplication in the 5' untranslated leader sequence of tobacco mosaic virus RNA, mutant TMV-L (a tomato strain) RNAs which carry several deletions in this 71-nucleotide sequence were constructed by an in vitro transcription system and their multiplication was analyzed by introducing mutant RNA into tobacco protoplasts by electroporation. Large deletions of the sequence from nucleotides 9 to 47 or 25 to 71 abolished viral multiplication; when about 10-nucleotide deletions were introduced throughout this 5' leader sequence, only deletion of the sequence from nucleotides 2 to 8 abolished detectable viral multiplication. This mutant RNA, however, directed the synthesis of the 130,000-molecular-weight protein in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate in vitro translation system, and consequently this 5'-proximal portion appears likely to be essential for replication. PMID:1995954

  19. A{sup -2} {yields} G transition at the 3{prime} acceptor splice site of IVS17 characterizes the COL2A1 gene mutation in the original Stickler syndrome kindred

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C.J.; Ganguly, A.; Considine, E.

    1996-06-14

    Hereditary progressive arthro-ophthalmopathy, or {open_quotes}Stickler syndrome,{close_quotes} is an autosomal dominant osteochondrodysplasia characterized by a variety of ocular and skeletal anomalies which frequently lead to retinal detachment and precocious osteoarthritis. A variety of mutations in the COL2A1 gene have been identified in {open_quotes}Stickler{close_quotes} families; in most cases studied thus far, the consequence of mutation is the premature generation of a stop codon. We report here the characterization of a COL2A1 gene mutation in the original kindred described by Stickler et al. Conformational sensitive gel electrophoresis (CSGE) was used to screen for mutations in the entire COL2A1 gene in an affected member from the kindred. A prominent heteroduplex species was noted in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product from a region of the gene including exons 17 to 20. Direct sequencing of PCR-amplified genomic DNA resulted in the identification of a base substitution at the A{sup -2} position of the 3{prime} splice acceptor site of IVS17. Sequencing of DNA from affected and unaffected family members confirmed that the mutation segregated with the disease phenotype. Reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis of poly A+ RNA demonstrated that the mutant allele utilized a cryptic splice site in exon 18 of the gene, eliminating 16 bp at the start of exon 18. This frameshift eventually results in a premature termination codon. These findings are the first report of a splice site mutation in classical Stickler syndrome and they provide a satisfying historical context in which to view COL2A1 mutations in this dysplasia. 25 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Effects of pre- and postnatal exposure to 3,3[prime],4,4-[prime],5-pentachlorobiphenyl on physical development, neurobehavior and xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Bernhoft, A.; Nafstad, I.; Engen, P. ); Skaare, J.U. )

    1994-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of the coplanar non-ortho-chlorinated congener 3,3[prime],4,4[prime],5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126) in rats exposed during fetal development and postnatal suckling period. Two groups of eight dams were administered by gavage six doses of 10 and 20 [mu]g/kg body weight of PCB-126 dissolved in corn oil every second day from days 9 to 19 of gestation. The corresponding control rats were treated with corn oil only. The physical development of the offspring was observed. The effects of PCB-126 on hepatic xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme activities and the concentrations of PCB in the liver and brain were investigated in samples from pups of different age and from their mothers. The litter size, the body weights, and the survival of the exposed sucklings were reduced, and the onset of spontaneous movement and neuromuscular maturation were delayed, whereas the development of reflexes was not affected. The body weight was still reduced in a dose-related manner up to 18 weeks postpartum. Also, the postpartum body weight of the PCB-exposed mothers was reduced as compared to controls, but the difference disappeared at weaning. The hepatic enzyme activities of cytochrome P450 1A1 examined by ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) toward 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) were increased in both the exposed pups and their mothers, and the relative liver weight was increased in the exposed pups. Hepatic PCB-126 residues were detected in samples collected throughout the experiment, whereas no detectable concentration was found in the brain. The authors conclude that exposure of this PCB congener in utero and through lactation showed fetotoxic effects, delayed physical maturation, and induced liver xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes without causing neurobehavioral effects.

  1. Mixed-function oxidase enzyme activity and oxidative stress in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) exposed to 3,3{prime},4,4{prime}5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126)

    SciTech Connect

    Palace, V.P.; Klaverkamp, J.F.; Lockhart, W.L. |; Metner, D.A.; Muir, D.C.G.; Brown, S.B.

    1996-06-01

    Juvenile lake trout were intraperitoneally injected with corn oil containing nominal concentrations of 0, 0.6, 6.3, or 25 {micro}g [{sup 14}C]-3,3{prime},4,4{prime},5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126) per gram of body weight. The PCB-126 accumulated in liver in a dose-dependent manner to a sustained concentration by 6 weeks and remained elevated for the 30-week experimental period. Mixed-function oxidase (MFO) enzyme activity was elevated in the two highest dose groups relative to the control group, but not in the low-dose group throughout the 30 weeks. Oxidative stress, measured by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances test, was correlated with ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and was elevated in liver of the two highest PCB dose groups but not the low-dose group. The activities of the enzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were unaffected by PCB-126 exposure. The nonenzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were unaffected by PCB-126 exposure. The nonenzymatic antioxidant tocopherol was depleted to approximately 75% of the control concentration in liver of all three PCB-dosed groups. Hepatic ascorbic acid levels were not different in any of the treatment groups. Retinol was depleted by greater than an order of magnitude in liver of the two highest dose groups but not in the los-dose group. This study demonstrates a correlation between hepatic MFO activity and oxidative stress in PCB-exposed lake trout. Tocopherol and retinol may be important mediators of oxidative stress but additional study is required to confirm the antioxidant activity of retinol.

  2. Lack of developmental and reproductive toxicity of 2,3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 105) in ring-necked pheasants

    SciTech Connect

    Hornung, M.W.; Miller, L.; Peterson, R.E.; Melancon, M.

    1995-12-31

    One of these PCBs, 2,3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 105) has the potential to produce toxicity by an Ah receptor-mediated mechanism. To determine the potency of PCB 105 for producing reproductive and developmental toxicity, adult ring-necked pheasant hens were orally dosed with 0, 0.06, 0.6 or 6 mg PCB 105/kg hen/week for 10 weeks after which hens were bred with control roosters once per week for 8 weeks. Eggs were collected daily and incubated until hatched, or for 28 days, after which embryo development was evaluated. Fertilized egg production, embryo mortality and chick mortality were not significantly different between treatment groups, nor were total body, liver and heart weights of chicks 1 day post-hatch (dph). To determine whether signs of PCB 105 toxicity were delayed, the first chick to hatch from each hen was evaluated at 21 dph for signs of toxicity. Chick total body, liver and heart weights at 21 dph were not significantly different between treatment groups. Three hepatic microsomal monooxygenase activities were significantly elevated in 1 day old chicks from hens given a cumulative PCB 105 dose of 6 mg/kg and in 21 day old chicks from hens given a cumulative PCB dose of 60 mg/kg as compared to respective control chicks. These results indicate that a cumulative PCB 105 dose up to 60 mg/kg hen does not decrease the production of fertilized eggs or increase embryo or chick mortality in ring-necked pheasants, but does increase chick hepatic monooxygenase activity.

  3. Stable, Microfabricated Thin Layer Chromatography Plates without Volume Distortion on Patterned, Carbon and Al2O3-Primed Carbon Nanotube Forests

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, David S.; Kanyal, Supriya S.; Gupta, Vipul; Vail, Michael A.; Dadson, Andrew; Engelhard, Mark H.; Vanfleet, Richard; Davis, Robert C.; Linford, Matthew R.

    2012-09-28

    In a recent report (Song, J.; et al., Advanced Functional Materials 2011, 21, 1132-1139) some of us described the fabrication of thin layer chromatography (TLC) plates from patterned carbon nanotube (CNT) forests, which were directly infiltrated/coated with silicon by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) of silicon using SiH4. Following infiltration, the nanotubes were removed from the assemblies and the silicon simultaneously converted to SiO2 in a high temperature oxidation step. However, while straightforward, this process had some shortcomings, not the least of which was some distortion of the lithographically patterned features during the volume expansion that accompanied oxidation. Herein we overcome theis issue and also take substantial steps forward in the microfabrication of TLC plates by showing: (i) A new method for creating an adhesion promotion layer on CNT forests by depositing a few nanometers of carbon followed by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al2O3. This method for appears to be new, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the expected presence of oxygen after carbon deposition. ALD of Al2O3 alone and in combination with the carbon on patterned CNT forests was also explored as an adhesion promotion layer for CNT forest infiltration. (ii) Rapid, conformal deposition of an inorganic material that does not require subsequent oxidation: fast pseudo-ALD growth of SiO2 via alumina catalyzed deposition of tris(tert-butoxy)silanol onto the carbon/Al2O3-primed CNT forests. (iii) Faithful reproduction of the features in the masks used to microfabricate the TLC plates (M-TLC) this advance springs from the previous two points. (iv) A bonded (amino) phase on a CNT-templated microfabricated TLC plate. (v) Fast, highly efficient (125,000 - 225,000 N/m) separations of fluorescent dyes on M-TLC plates. (vi) Extensive characterization of our new materials by TEM, SEM, EDAX, DRIFT, and XPS. (vii) A substantially lower process temperature for the

  4. HPLC determination of tocopherol, retinol, dehydroretinol and retinyl palmitate in tissues of Lake Char (Salvelinus namaycush) exposed to coplanar 3,3[prime],4,4[prime],5-pentachlorobiphenyl

    SciTech Connect

    Palace, V.P. . Dept. of Zoology); Brown, S.B. . Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans)

    1994-03-01

    Tocopherol, retinol, dehydroretinol, and retinyl palmitate were measured by reversed-phase HPLC in liver, kidney, and plasma of lake char exposed to orally administered coplanar 3,3[prime],4,4[prime],5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB). Tocopherol concentrations were unaffected after eight weeks. Liver retinol, dehydroretinol, and retinyl palmitate concentrations were lower, whereas kidney retinyl palmitate was elevated in PCB-exposed groups. Tissue retinoid concentrations provide sensitive indicators of coplanar PCB exposure in fish.

  5. Structural analysis of covalent peptide dimers, bis(pyridine-2-carboxamidonetropsin)(CH[sub 2])[sub 3][sup 6], in complex with 5[prime]-TGACT-3[prime] sites by two-dimensional NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, T.J.; Geierstanger, B.H.; Wemmer, D.E. ); Mrksich, M.; Dervan, P.B. )

    1993-11-03

    The peptide pyridine-2-carboxamidonetropsin (2-PyN) binds specifically in the minor groove of 5[prime]-(A,T)G-(A,T)C(A,T)-3[prime] sequences as a side-by-side antiparallel dimer. Tethering two 2-PyN ligands through the nitrogens of the central pyrrole rings with propyl, butyl, pentyl and hexyl linkers affords covalent peptide dimers, bis(pyridine-2-carboxamide-netropsin)(CH[sub 2])[sub 3[minus]6], which bind in the minor groove of DNA with increased binding affinities and improved sequence specificities. Two-dimensional NMR studies of the complexes formed upon binding of these covalent peptide dimers to an oligonucleotide containing a 5[prime]-TGACT-3[prime] site reveal that the dimeric peptides bind as intramolecular dimers with nearly identical geometry and peptide-DNA contacts as in the (2-PyN)[sub 2][center dot]5[prime]-TGACT-3[prime] complex. 13 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Characterization of different 5'-untranslated exons of the ASIP gene in black-and-tan Doberman Pinscher and brindle Boxer dogs.

    PubMed

    Ciampolini, Roberta; Cecchi, Francesca; Spaterna, Andrea; Bramante, Assunta; Bardet, Sylvia M; Oulmouden, Ahmad

    2013-02-01

    Differential expression of the ASIP gene and its interaction with MC1R have provided basic insight into pigment-type switching in mammals. Here, we report the characterization of a specific red-haired skin transcript and a specific black-haired skin transcript in the ASIP gene in the black-and-tan Doberman Pinscher. It is also shown that the brindle-haired skin of the Boxer exhibits a deregulated expression resulting in various 5'-untranslated exons. Comparative sequence analysis revealed a short interspersed element and a poly(A) stretch inserted within the promoter region of the ASIP in the Boxer. Genotyping studies have shown that both insertions are also present in brindle and fawn animals of the Boxer and Great Dane breeds. Furthermore, we genotyped MC1R and K loci for their known variants that affect coat color in dogs. As expected, all animals were homozygotes (E(M) /E(M) ) for the mask mutation, and fawn animals were k(y) /k(y) . Unexpectedly, we found that all brindle animals were heterozygotes k(B) /k(y) . Our results suggest that differential expression of ASIP determine pigment-type switching in a MC1R and K allele-dependent manner in dogs. PMID:22524303

  7. 3′ Untranslated Regions Mediate Transcriptional Interference between Convergent Genes Both Locally and Ectopically in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Luwen; Jiang, Ning; Wang, Lin; Fang, Ou; Leach, Lindsey J.; Hu, Xiaohua; Luo, Zewei

    2014-01-01

    Paired sense and antisense (S/AS) genes located in cis represent a structural feature common to the genomes of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and produce partially complementary transcripts. We used published genome and transcriptome sequence data and found that over 20% of genes (645 pairs) in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome are arranged in convergent pairs with overlapping 3′-UTRs. Using published microarray transcriptome data from the standard laboratory strain of S. cerevisiae, our analysis revealed that expression levels of convergent pairs are significantly negatively correlated across a broad range of environments. This implies an important role for convergent genes in the regulation of gene expression, which may compensate for the absence of RNA-dependent mechanisms such as micro RNAs in budding yeast. We selected four representative convergent gene pairs and used expression assays in wild type yeast and its genetically modified strains to explore the underlying patterns of gene expression. Results showed that convergent genes are reciprocally regulated in yeast populations and in single cells, whereby an increase in expression of one gene produces a decrease in the expression of the other, and vice-versa. Time course analysis of the cell cycle illustrated the functional significance of this relationship for the three pairs with relevant functional roles. Furthermore, a series of genetic modifications revealed that the 3′-UTR sequence plays an essential causal role in mediating transcriptional interference, which requires neither the sequence of the open reading frame nor the translation of fully functional proteins. More importantly, transcriptional interference persisted even when one of the convergent genes was expressed ectopically (in trans) and therefore does not depend on the cis arrangement of convergent genes; we conclude that the mechanism of transcriptional interference cannot be explained by the transcriptional collision model, which postulates a clash between simultaneous transcriptional processes occurring on opposite DNA strands. PMID:24465217

  8. Genetic Variation in the 3'-Untranslated Region of NBN Gene Is Associated with Gastric Cancer Risk in a Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xun; Ren, Chuanli; Xie, Lan; Dai, Ningbin; Gu, Yayun; Yan, Caiwang; Dai, Juncheng; Ma, Hongxia; Jiang, Yue; Chen, Jiaping; Hu, Zhibin; Shen, Hongbing; Wu, Haorong; Jin, Guangfu

    2015-01-01

    NBN plays a crucial role in carcinogenesis as a core component for both homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) repair pathways. Genetic variants in the NBN gene have been associated with multiple cancers risk, suggesting pleiotropic effect on cancer. We hypothesized that genetic variants in the NBN gene may modify the risk of gastric cancer. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the association between four potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms in NBN and gastric cancer risk in a case–control study of 1,140 gastric cancer cases and 1,547 controls in a Chinese population. We found that the A allele of rs10464867 (G>A) was significantly associated with a decreased risk of gastric cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 0.81, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.71–0.94; P = 4.71×10−3). Furthermore, the association between A allele of rs10464867 and decreased risk of gastric cancer was more significantly in elder individuals (per-allele OR = 0.72[0.59–0.88], P = 1.07×10−3), and male individuals (per-allele OR = 0.73[0.62–0.87], P = 3.68×10−4). We further conducted a haplotype analysis and identified that the NBN Ars10464867Grs14448Grs1063053 haplotype conferred stronger protective effect on gastric cancer (OR = 0.76[0.65–0.89], P = 6.39×10−4). In summary, these findings indicate that genetic variants at NBN gene may contribute to gastric cancer susceptibility and may further advance our understanding of NBN gene in cancer development. PMID:26402912

  9. Progranulin transcripts with short and long 5' untranslated regions (UTRs) are differentially expressed via posttranscriptional and translational repression.

    PubMed

    Capell, Anja; Fellerer, Katrin; Haass, Christian

    2014-09-12

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration is associated with cytoplasmic or nuclear deposition of the TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43). Haploinsufficiency of progranulin (GRN) is a major genetic risk factor for frontotemporal lobar degeneration associated with TDP-43 deposition. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms that control cellular expression of GRN is required not only to understand disease etiology but also for the development of potential therapeutic strategies. We identified different GRN transcripts with short (38-93 nucleotides) or long (219 nucleotides) 5' UTRs and demonstrate a cellular mechanism that represses translation of GRN mRNAs with long 5' UTRs. The long 5' UTR of GRN mRNA contains an upstream open reading frame (uORF) that is absent in all shorter transcripts. Because such UTRs can be involved in translational control as well as in mRNA stability, we compared the expression of GRN in cells expressing cDNAs with and without 5' UTRs. This revealed a selective repression of GRN translation and a reduction of mRNA levels by the 219-nucleotide-long 5' UTR. The specific ability of this GRN 5' UTR to repress protein expression was further confirmed by its transfer to an independent reporter. Deletion analysis identified a short stretch between nucleotides 76 and 125 containing two start codons within one uORF that is required and sufficient for repression of protein expression. Mutagenesis of the two AUG codons within the uORF is sufficient to reduce translational repression. Therefore initiating ribosomes at the AUGs of the uORF fail to efficiently initiate translation at the start codon of GRN. In parallel the 5' UTR also affects mRNA stability; thus two independent mechanisms determine GRN expression via mRNA stability and translational efficiency. PMID:25056957

  10. 5'TRU: identification and analysis of translationally regulative 5'untranslated regions in amino acid starved yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Rachfall, Nicole; Heinemeyer, Isabelle; Morgenstern, Burkhard; Valerius, Oliver; Braus, Gerhard H

    2011-06-01

    We describe a method to identify and analyze translationally regulative 5'UTRs (5'TRU) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Two-dimensional analyses of (35)S-methionine metabolically labeled cells revealed 13 genes and proteins, whose protein biosynthesis is post-transcriptionally up-regulated on amino acid starvation. The 5'UTRs of the respective mRNAs were further investigated. A plasmid-based reporter-testing system was developed to analyze their capability to influence translation dependent on amino acid availability. Most of the 13 candidate 5'UTRs are able to enhance translation independently of amino acids. Two 5'UTRs generally repressed translation, and the 5'UTRs of ENO1, FBA1, and TPI1 specifically up-regulated translation when cells were starved for amino acids. The TPI1-5'UTR exhibited the strongest effect in the testing system, which is consistent with elevated Tpi1p-levels in amino acid starved cells. Bioinformatical analyses support that an unstructured A-rich 5' leader is beneficial for efficient translation when amino acids are scarce. Accordingly, the TPI1-5'UTR was shown to contain an A-rich tract in proximity to the mRNA-initiation codon, required for its amino acid dependent regulatory function. PMID:21444828

  11. A Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism in 3'-Untranslated Region of Endothelin-1 Reduces Risk of Dementia After Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wanwan; Fu, Qizhi; Zhang, Yanpeng; Zhang, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Ischemic stroke is widely recognized as a major health problem and social burden worldwide, and it usually leads to dementia. In this study, we aimed to better understand the pathogenesis in the development of dementia following ischemic stroke. MATERIAL AND METHODS We exploited miRNA database to search for the target for miR-125a and validated the found target using luciferase assay. Further, we performed real-time PCR and Western blot analysis to examine the expression of miR-125a and its target in the tissue samples. In addition, a polymorphism was genotyped and its association with post-stroke dementia was analyzed. RESULTS We identified enthothelin-1 (ET-1) as a target of miR-125a, and this relationship was validated using luciferase assay. Furthermore, transfection of miR-125a inhibitor substantially upregulated the expression of ET-1, while miR-125a and ET-1 siRNA caused downregulation of ET-1 in endothelial cells. In addition, we found that a polymorphism (rs12976445) interferes with the expression of miR-125a, which in turn caused an increase in the expression of ET-1 in human endothelial cells. Logistic regression analysis showed that rs12976445 is significantly associated with the risk of dementia after ischemic stroke. CONCLUSIONS Our study demonstrated the pathogenesis mechanism during the development of dementia after ischemic stroke by investigating the relationship between miR-125a and its target ET-1, promising a potential pathological solution for post-stroke dementia in the future. PMID:27106952

  12. Potency of 3,3{prime},4,4{prime},5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126), alone and in combination with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), to produce lake trout early life-stage mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Zabel, E.W.; Peterson, R.E.; Cook, P.M.

    1995-12-01

    Newly fertilized lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) eggs were exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 3,3{prime},4,4{prime},5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126), or their combination, and sac fry mortality was used to determine toxic potencies. The toxic equivalency factor (TEF) for PCB 126 was 0.0030. The dose-response curve for the PCB 126/TCDD mixture based on TCDD toxic equivalents was not significantly different from that for TCDD alone, suggesting additivity between the two congeners in causing sac fry mortality.

  13. Acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, zinc, ammonia, 3,3 prime -dichlorobenzidine, 2,6-dichloro-4-nitroaniline, methylene chloride, and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol to juvenile grass shrimp and killifish

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, D.T.; Fisher, D.J. )

    1990-05-01

    The acute toxicity of several compounds was investigated while performing a toxicity evaluation of a complex chemical effluent. The tests were conducted for one or more of the following reasons: (1) data were not available for the chemical; (2) data were not available for the species; or (3) data were not available for the juvenile life stage of the species. Forty-eight hour acute toxicity tests were run on juvenile grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) and juvenile killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) exposed to the following compounds: cadmium, copper, zinc, ammonia, 3,3{prime}-dichlorobenzidine, 2,6-dichloro-4-nitroaniline, methylene chloride (dichloromethane) and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol.

  14. Exome sequencing detection of two untranslated GFPT1 mutations in a family with limb-girdle myasthenia.

    PubMed

    Maselli, R A; Arredondo, J; Nguyen, J; Lara, M; Ng, F; Ngo, M; Pham, J M; Yi, Q; Stajich, J M; McDonald, K; Hauser, M A; Wollmann, R L

    2014-02-01

    The term 'limb-girdle myasthenia' (LGM) was first used to describe three siblings with proximal limb weakness without oculobulbar involvement, but with EMG decrement and responsiveness to anticholinesterase medication. We report here that exome sequencing in the proband of this family revealed several sequence variations in genes linked to proximal limb weakness. However, the only mutations that cosegregated with disease were an intronic IVS7-8A>G mutation and the previously reported 3'-UTR c.*22C>A mutation in GFPT1, a gene linked to LGM. A minigene assay showed that IVS7-8A>G activates an alternative splice acceptor that results in retention of the last seven nucleotides of intron 7 and a frameshift leading to a termination codon 13 nucleotides downstream from the new splice site. An anconeus muscle biopsy revealed mild reduction of the axon terminal size and postsynaptic fold simplification. The amplitudes of miniature endplate potentials and quantal release were also diminished. The DNA of the mildly affected father of the proband showed only the intronic mutation along with sequence variations in other genes potentially relevant to LGM. Thus, this study performed in the family originally described with LGM showed two GFPT1 untranslated mutations, which may cause disease by reducing GFPT1 expression and ultimately impairing protein glycosylation. PMID:23488891

  15. Hydrothermal syntheses, crystal structures and luminescence properties of zinc(II) and cadmium(II) coordination polymers based on bifunctional 3,2 Prime :6 Prime ,3 Prime Prime -terpyridine-4 Prime -carboxylic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Na; Guo, Hui-Lin; Hu, Huai-Ming; Song, Juan; Xu, Bing; Yang, Meng-Lin; Dong, Fa-Xin; Xue, Gang-Lin

    2013-02-15

    Five new coordination polymers, [Zn{sub 2}(ctpy){sub 2}Cl{sub 2}]{sub n} (1), [Zn{sub 2}(ctpy){sub 2}(ox)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n} (2), [Zn{sub 2}(ctpy)(3-btc)(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n}{center_dot}0.5nH{sub 2}O (3), [Cd(ctpy){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (4), [Cd{sub 4}(ctpy){sub 2}(2-btc){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n}{center_dot}2nH{sub 2}O (5), (Hctpy=3,2 Prime :6 Prime ,3 Prime Prime -terpyridine-4 Prime -carboxylic acid, H{sub 2}ox=oxalic acid, H{sub 3}(3-btc)=1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid, H{sub 3}(2-btc)=1,2,4-benzenetricarboxylic acid) have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds 1-2 are a one-dimensional chain with weak interactions to form 3D supramolecular structures. Compound 3 is a 4-nodal 3D topology framework comprised of binuclear zinc units and (ctpy){sup -} anions. Compound 4 shows two dimensional net. Compound 5 is a (4,5,6)-connected framework with {l_brace}4{sup 4}{center_dot}6{sup 2}{r_brace}{l_brace}4{sup 6}{center_dot}6{sup 4}{r_brace}{sub 2}{l_brace}4{sup 9}{center_dot}6{sup 6}{r_brace} topology. In addition, the thermal stabilities and photoluminescence properties of 1-5 were also studied in the solid state. - Graphical abstract: Five new Zn/Cd compounds with 3,2 Prime :6 Prime ,3 Prime Prime -terpyridine-4 Prime -carboxylic acid were prepared. The photoluminescence and thermal stabilities properties of 1-5 were investigated in the solid state. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Five new zinc/cadmium metal-organic frameworks have been hydrothermal synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structural variation is attributed to the diverse metal ions and auxiliary ligand. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compounds 1-5 exhibit 1D ring chain, 2D layer and 3D open-framework, respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These compounds exhibit strong solid state luminescence emission at room temperature.

  16. Mapping of the active site of Escherichia coli methionyl-tRNA synthetase: Identification of amino acid residues labeled by periodate-oxidized tRNA sup fMet molecules having modified lengths at the 3 prime -acceptor end

    SciTech Connect

    Hountondji, C.; Schmitter, J.M.; Beauvallet, C.; Blanquet, S. )

    1990-09-04

    Initiator tRNA molecules modified at the 3{prime}-end and lacking either A{sub 76} (tRNA-C{sub 75}), the C{sub 75}-A{sub 76} (tRNA-C{sub 74}), the C{sub 74}-C{sub 75}-A{sub 76} (tRNA-A{sub 73}), or the A{sub 73}-C{sub 74}-C{sub 75}-A{sub 76} (tRNA-A{sub 72}) nucleotides were prepared stepwise by repeated periodate, lysine, and alkaline phosphatase treatments. When incubated with trypsin-modified methionyl-tRNA synthetase (MTS{sub T}), excess amounts of the dialdehyde derivative of each of these shortened tRNAs (tRNA-C{sub 75}ox, tRNA-A{sub 73}ox, and tRNA-A{sub 72}ox) abolished both the isotopic ({sup 32}P)PP{sub i}ATP exchange and the tRNA aminoacylation activities of the enzyme. In the presence of limiting concentrations of the various tRNAox species, the relative extents of inactivation of the enzyme were consistent with the formation of 1:1 complexes of the reacting tRNAs with the monomeric modified synthetase. Specificity of the labeling was further established by demonstrating that tRNA-C{sub 75}ox binds the enzyme with an equilibrium constant and stoichiometry values in good agreement with those for the binding of nonoxidized tRNA-C{sub 75}. The peptides of MTS{sub T} labeled with either tRNA-C{sub 75}ox or tRNA-C{sub 74}ox were identified. In a previous work all these peptides but one (peptide D) had been already found labeled upon MTS{sub T} incubation with ({sup 14}C)tRNA-A{sub 76}ox. According to the crystallographic structure of MTS{sub T}, the labeled residues K335, K61, K142, K147, and K149 are within a sphere of about 5.5-{angstrom} radius. The present results therefore argue for a marked flexibility of the 3{prime}-end of the enzyme-bound tRNA, enabling it to contact any of the identified reacting residues. Such a cluster of basic amino acids may reflect ionic requirements in the guiding of the negatively charged CCA arm of tRNA toward enzyme-bound methionyl-adenylate.

  17. Potency of 3,3{prime},4,4{prime},5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) and 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), to produce lake trout early life stage mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Zabel, E.W.; Peterson, R.E.; Cook, P.M.

    1995-12-31

    Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) relative to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) have been determined in rainbow trout for certain polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and biphenyls (PCBs) using endpoints of early life stage mortality. Rainbow trout are a convenient model fish species. However, one of the major species at risk in the Great Lakes, and the fish species most sensitive to TCDD, is lake trout. The current study sought to (1) determine in lake trout the toxic potency of 3,3{prime},4,4{prime},5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) in order to test the validity of generalizing TEFs across related species and (2) determine whether PCB 126 and TCDD act in an additive manner at a ratio similar to that found in feral lake trout eggs from the Great Lakes. Newly fertilized lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) eggs were exposed to TCDD, PCB 126, or their combination at a ratio of 75:1, and sac fry mortality was used to determine toxic potencies. Signs of PCB 126 toxicity in lake trout early life stages were yolk-sac edema, multifocal hemorrhages, craniofacial malformations and mortality, identical to toxicity caused by TCDD. The TEF for PCB 126 was 0.003, which is similar to the TEF of 0.005 determined for rainbow trout early life stage mortality, suggesting that TEFs for the same endpoint are similar across related fish species. The dose-response curve for the congener mixture based on TCDD toxic equivalence was not significantly different from TCDD alone, suggesting that the congener combination acted additively to produce lake trout early life stage mortality.

  18. Pro32Pro33 mutations in the integrin β3 PSI domain result in αIIbβ3 priming and enhanced adhesion: reversal of the hypercoagulability phenotype by the Src inhibitor SKI-606.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Kendra H; Jessen, Tammy; Crawford, Emily L; Chung, Chang Y; Sutcliffe, James S; Carneiro, Ana M

    2014-06-01

    The plasma-membrane integrin αIIbβ3 (CD41/CD61, GPIIbIIIa) is a major functional receptor in platelets during clotting. A common isoform of integrin β3, Leu33Pro is associated with enhanced platelet function and increased risk for coronary thrombosis and stroke, although these findings remain controversial. To better understand the molecular mechanisms by which this sequence variation modifies platelet function, we produced transgenic knockin mice expressing a Pro32Pro33 integrin β3. Consistent with reports utilizing human platelets, we found significantly reduced bleeding and clotting times, as well as increased in vivo thrombosis, in Pro32Pro33 homozygous mice. These alterations paralleled increases in platelet attachment and spreading onto fibrinogen resulting from enhanced integrin αIIbβ3 function. Activation with protease-activated receptor 4- activating peptide, the main thrombin signaling receptor in mice, showed no significant difference in activation of Pro32Pro33 mice as compared with controls, suggesting that inside-out signaling remains intact. However, under unstimulated conditions, the Pro32Pro33 mutation led to elevated Src phosphorylation, facilitated by increased talin interactions with the β3 cytoplasmic domain, indicating that the αIIbβ3 intracellular domains are primed for activation while the ligand-binding domain remains unchanged. Acute dosing of animals with a Src inhibitor was sufficient to rescue the clotting phenotype in knockin mice to wild-type levels. Together, our data establish that the Pro32Pro33 structural alteration modifies the function of integrin αIIbβ3, priming the integrin for outside-in signaling, ultimately leading to hypercoagulability. Furthermore, our data may support a novel approach to antiplatelet therapy by Src inhibition where hemostasis is maintained while reducing risk for cardiovascular disease. PMID:24695082

  19. Chromosomal localization of the human fibromodulin gene

    SciTech Connect

    Roughley, P.J.; Sztrolovics, R.; Grover, J.

    1994-09-01

    The identification and mapping of genes is a fundamental step in understanding inherited diseases. This study reports the chromosomal localization of the human gene encoding fibromodulin, a collagen-binding proteoglycan which exhibits a wide distribution in connective tissue extracellular matrices. Attempts to localize the gene utilizing a probe covering the published coding region of the human fibromodulin cDNA were unsuccessful. Thus, in order to obtain an alternate probe, the 3{prime}-untranslated region of the cDNA was cloned utilizing the 3{prime}-RACE protocol. Southern blot analysis of human genomic DNA with probes covering either the coding sequence or the 3{prime}-untranslated region revealed simple patterns, indicative of a single-copy gene. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis with the 3{prime}-untranslated region probe resulted in hybridization at two chromosomal regions. The majority of signals were observed at 1q32, but some signals were also observed at 9q34.1. The localization of the fibromodulin gene to chromosome 1 was confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction analysis of genomic DNA from a panel of somatic cell hybrid lines. In addition to allowing the gene localization, cloning of the 3{prime}-untranslated region demonstrates that the human fibromodulin cDNA possesses an insert of approximately 160 base pairs which is not present in the published bovine sequence. The human sequence also possesses a single polyadenylation signal, yielding a 3 kb mRNA which was observed in Northern blotting experiments. These results now provide the necessary information to evaluate the potential role of fibromodulin in genetic disorders of connective tissues.

  20. In Vivo Analysis of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Cox2 mRNA 5'-Untranslated Leader Functions in Mitochondrial Translation Initiation and Translational Activation

    PubMed Central

    Dunstan, H. M.; Green-Willms, N. S.; Fox, T. D.

    1997-01-01

    We have used mutational and revertant analysis to study the elements of the 54-nucleotide COX2 5'-untranslated leader involved in translation initiation in yeast mitochondria and in activation by the COX2 translational activator, Pet111p. We generated a collection of mutants with substitutions spanning the entire COX2 5'-UTL by in vitro mutagenesis followed by mitochondrial transformation and gene replacement. The phenotypes of these mutants delimit a 31-nucleotide segment, from -16 to -46, that contains several short sequence elements necessary for COX2 5'-UTL function in translation. The sequences from -16 to -47 were shown to be partially sufficient to promote translation in a foreign context. Analysis of revertants of both the series of linker-scanning alleles and two short deletion/insertion alleles has refined the positions of several possible functional elements of the COX2 5'-untranslated leader, including a putative RNA stem-loop structure that functionally interacts with Pet111p and an octanucleotide sequence present in all S. cerevisiae mitochondrial mRNA 5'-UTLs that is a potential rRNA binding site. PMID:9286670

  1. Riboswitches in unexpected places--a synthetic riboswitch in a protein coding region.

    PubMed

    Topp, Shana; Gallivan, Justin P

    2008-12-01

    In natural and engineered systems, cis-RNA regulatory elements such as riboswitches are typically found within untranslated regions rather than within the protein coding sequences of genes. However, RNA sequences with important regulatory roles can exist within translated regions. Here, we present a synthetic riboswitch that is encoded within the translated region of a gene and represses Escherichia coli gene expression greater than 25-fold in the presence of a small-molecule ligand. The ability to encode riboswitches within translated regions as well as untranslated regions provides additional opportunities for creating new genetic control elements. Furthermore, evidence that a riboswitch can function in the translated region of a gene suggests that future efforts to identify natural riboswitches should consider this possibility. PMID:18945803

  2. The Protein Zfand5 Binds and Stabilizes mRNAs with AU-rich Elements in Their 3′-Untranslated Regions*

    PubMed Central

    He, Guoan; Sun, Dongxu; Ou, Zhiying; Ding, Aihao

    2012-01-01

    AU-rich elements (AREs) in the 3′-UTR of unstable transcripts play a vital role in the regulation of many inflammatory mediators. To identify novel ARE-dependent gene regulators, we screened a human leukocyte cDNA library for candidates that enhanced the activity of a luciferase reporter bearing the ARE sequence from TNF (ARETNF). Among 171 hits, we focused on Zfand5 (zinc finger, AN1-type domain 5), a 23-kDa protein containing two zinc finger domains. Zfand5 expression was induced in macrophages in response to IFNγ and Toll-like receptor ligands. Knockdown of Zfand5 in macrophages decreased expression of ARE class II transcripts TNF and COX2, whereas overexpression stabilized TNF mRNA by suppressing deadenylation. Zfand5 specifically bound to ARETNF mRNA and competed with tristetraprolin, a protein known to bind and destabilize class II ARE-containing RNAs. Truncation studies indicated that both zinc fingers of Zfand5 contributed to its mRNA-stabilizing function. These findings add Zfand5 to the growing list of RNA-binding proteins and suggest that Zfand5 can enhance ARE-containing mRNA stability by competing with tristetraprolin for mRNA binding. PMID:22665488

  3. Truncated form of VACM-1/cul-5 with an extended 3' untranslated region stimulates cell growth via a MAPK-dependent pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Sartor, Ashleigh; Kossoris, J.B.; Wilcox, R.; Shearer, R.; Zeneberg, A.E.; Zhao, P.; Lazdins, I.; Burnatowska-Hledin, Maria A. . E-mail: hledin@hope.edu

    2006-05-19

    We have sequenced a 4.9 kb clone (KLB22) which shares 99% sequence homology with the rabbit vasopressin-activated calcium mobilizing (VACM-1) protein. The 5' terminus sequence of KLB22 cDNA (nucleotides 1-1961) is continuous and overlapping with nucleotides 1226-3186 of the VACM-1 cDNA sequence. The 3'UTR of KLB22 cDNA extends beyond the 3'UTR of VACM-1 by 2999 nt. KLB22 cDNA encodes a 497 amino acid protein, which putatively begins at Met 284 of the 780 amino acid VACM-1 protein. The in vitro translation of KLB22 cDNA yields a 59 kDa protein. When expressed in cos-1 cells, the truncated VACM-1 protein localizes to the nucleus. KLB22 cDNA transfected cells show increased growth rates and increased levels of phosphorylated MAPK when compared to the vector or to VACM-1 cDNA transfected cells. Finally, in vivo, KLB22 protein expression is tissue specific and can be detected in kidney and in heart atrium. These results suggest that truncated VACM-1 cDNA (KLB22) increases cell proliferation through a MAPK pathway.

  4. Three tightly linked genes encoding human type I keratins: conservation of sequence in the 5'-untranslated leader and 5'-upstream regions of coexpressed keratin genes.

    PubMed Central

    RayChaudhury, A; Marchuk, D; Lindhurst, M; Fuchs, E

    1986-01-01

    We have isolated and subcloned three separate segments of human DNA which share strong sequence homology with a previously sequenced gene encoding a type I keratin, K14 (50 kilodaltons). Restriction endonuclease mapping has demonstrated that these three genes are tightly linked chromosomally, whereas the K14 gene appears to be separate. As judged by positive hybridization-translation and Northern blot analyses, the central linked gene encodes a keratin, K17, which is expressed in abundance with K14 and two other type I keratins in cultured human epidermal cells. None of these other epidermal keratin mRNAs appears to be generated from the K17 gene through differential splicing of its transcript. The sequence of the K17 gene reveals striking homologies not only with the coding portions and intron positions of the K14 gene, but also with its 5'-noncoding and 5'-upstream sequences. These similarities may provide an important clue in elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the coexpression of the two genes. Images PMID:2431270

  5. Prohibitin Expression Deregulation in Gastric Cancer Is Associated with the 3′ Untranslated Region 1630 C>T Polymorphism and Copy Number Variation

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Cirilo, Priscila Daniele Ramos; Mazzotti, Tatiane Katsue Furuya; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Wisnieski, Fernanda; Demachki, Samia; Martinez, Margarita Cortes; Assumpção, Paulo Pimentel; Chammas, Roger; Burbano, Rommel Rodríguez; Smith, Marília Cardoso

    2014-01-01

    PHB is a reported oncogene and tumor suppressor in gastric cancer. Here, we evaluated whether the PHB copy number and the rs6917 polymorphism affect its expression in gastric cancer. Down-regulation and up-regulation of PHB were observed in the evaluated tumors. Reduced expression was associated with tumor dedifferentiation and cancer initiation. The T allele of the rs6917 polymorphism was associated with reduced PHB mRNA levels. Moreover, the up-regulation of PHB appeared to be regulated by the gain of additional gene copies. Thus, PHB copy number variation and differential expression of the rs6917 polymorphism may play a role in PHB transcriptional regulation. PMID:24879411

  6. Prohibitin expression deregulation in gastric cancer is associated with the 3' untranslated region 1630 C>T polymorphism and copy number variation.

    PubMed

    Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Cirilo, Priscila Daniele Ramos; Mazzotti, Tatiane Katsue Furuya; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Wisnieski, Fernanda; Demachki, Samia; Martinez, Margarita Cortes; Assumpção, Paulo Pimentel; Chammas, Roger; Burbano, Rommel Rodríguez; Smith, Marília Cardoso

    2014-01-01

    PHB is a reported oncogene and tumor suppressor in gastric cancer. Here, we evaluated whether the PHB copy number and the rs6917 polymorphism affect its expression in gastric cancer. Down-regulation and up-regulation of PHB were observed in the evaluated tumors. Reduced expression was associated with tumor dedifferentiation and cancer initiation. The T allele of the rs6917 polymorphism was associated with reduced PHB mRNA levels. Moreover, the up-regulation of PHB appeared to be regulated by the gain of additional gene copies. Thus, PHB copy number variation and differential expression of the rs6917 polymorphism may play a role in PHB transcriptional regulation. PMID:24879411

  7. HLA-E coding and 3' untranslated region variability determined by next-generation sequencing in two West-African population samples.

    PubMed

    Castelli, Erick C; Mendes-Junior, Celso T; Sabbagh, Audrey; Porto, Iane O P; Garcia, André; Ramalho, Jaqueline; Lima, Thálitta H A; Massaro, Juliana D; Dias, Fabrício C; Collares, Cristhianna V A; Jamonneau, Vincent; Bucheton, Bruno; Camara, Mamadou; Donadi, Eduardo A

    2015-12-01

    HLA-E is a non-classical Human Leucocyte Antigen class I gene with immunomodulatory properties. Whereas HLA-E expression usually occurs at low levels, it is widely distributed amongst human tissues, has the ability to bind self and non-self antigens and to interact with NK cells and T lymphocytes, being important for immunosurveillance and also for fighting against infections. HLA-E is usually the most conserved locus among all class I genes. However, most of the previous studies evaluating HLA-E variability sequenced only a few exons or genotyped known polymorphisms. Here we report a strategy to evaluate HLA-E variability by next-generation sequencing (NGS) that might be used to other HLA loci and present the HLA-E haplotype diversity considering the segment encoding the entire HLA-E mRNA (including 5'UTR, introns and the 3'UTR) in two African population samples, Susu from Guinea-Conakry and Lobi from Burkina Faso. Our results indicate that (a) the HLA-E gene is indeed conserved, encoding mainly two different protein molecules; (b) Africans do present several unknown HLA-E alleles presenting synonymous mutations; (c) the HLA-E 3'UTR is quite polymorphic and (d) haplotypes in the HLA-E 3'UTR are in close association with HLA-E coding alleles. NGS has proved to be an important tool on data generation for future studies evaluating variability in non-classical MHC genes. PMID:26187162

  8. Characterization of the interaction between alphaCP(2) and the 3'-untranslated region of collagen alpha1(I) mRNA.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, J N; Kauschke, S G; Stefanovic, B; Burchardt, E R; Brenner, D A

    2000-11-01

    Activated hepatic stellate cells produce increased type I collagen in hepatic fibrosis. The increase in type I collagen protein results from an increase in mRNA levels that is mainly mediated by increased mRNA stability. Protein-RNA interactions in the 3'-UTR of the collagen alpha1(I) mRNA correlate with stabilization of the mRNA during hepatic stellate cell activation. A component of the binding complex is alphaCP(2). Recombinant alphaCP(2) is sufficient for binding to the 3'-UTR of collagen alpha1(I). To characterize the binding affinity of and specificity for alphaCP(2), we performed electrophoretic mobility shift assays using the poly(C)-rich sequence in the 3'-UTR of collagen alpha1(I) as probe. The binding affinity of alphaCP(2) for the 3'-UTR sequence is approximately 2 nM in vitro and the wild-type 3' sequence binds with high specificity. Furthermore, we demonstrate a system for detecting protein-nucleotide interactions that is suitable for high throughput assays using molecular beacons. Molecular beacons, developed for DNA-DNA hybridization, are oligonucleotides with a fluorophore and quencher brought together by a hairpin sequence. Fluorescence increases when the hairpin is disrupted by binding to an antisense sequence or interaction with a protein. Molecular beacons displayed a similar high affinity for binding to recombinant alphaCP(2) to the wild-type 3' sequence, although the kinetics of binding were slower. PMID:11058131

  9. Genome-wide association identifies a deletion in the 3’ untranslated region of Striatin in a canine model of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a familial cardiac disease characterized by rapid ventricular tachycardia and sudden cardiac death. It is most frequently inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with incomplete and age-related penetrance and variable clinical expression. Th...

  10. A stem–loop structure in the 59 untranslated region of bean pod mottle virus RNA2 is specifically required for RNA2 accumulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) is a bipartite, positive-sense (+) RNA plant virus of the family Secoviridae. Its RNA1 encodes all proteins needed for genome replication and is capable of autonomous replication. By contrast, BPMV RNA2 must utilize RNA1-encoded proteins for replication. Here, we sought ...